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Sample records for abuse child abuse

  1. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  2. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  3. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 The Depressed Child #5 Child Abuse #10 Teen Suicide #28 Responding to Child Sexual Abuse #62 Talking to Your Kids about Sex #73 Self-Injury in Adolescents #00 Definition of a Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist ...

  4. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  5. Child Abuse in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  6. Child abuse - sexual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minor children to sexual activity. This means a child is forced or talked into sex or sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling)

  7. Child abuse in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeahialam, T C

    1984-01-01

    Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers. PMID:6232976

  8. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  9. [Child sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, Jörg M

    2007-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview on the development of professional discourse on sexual abuse over the last 20 years in the field of child protection. After the introduction, definitions from different professional perspectives (civil law, criminal law, psychotherapy, counseling, etc.) are given. Based on these definitions an epidemiological range of prevalence figures is described. In the literature, rates ranging from 6 to 25 % in girls and 2 to 8 % in boy as victims of sexual abuse can be observed. Psychiatric consequences of sexual abuse are described based on an overview of the literature. Diagnostic approaches to posttraumatic problems are discussed and distinguished from obsolete measures. Some neurobiological findings are presented. Finally the foundations of counseling, psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of behavioral of symptoms and PTSD are discussed on the bases of a literature review of controlled clinical trials. In conclusion, further developments in psychotherapy and research are discussed for the German practical child protection field. PMID:17177097

  10. Preventing Child Abuse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Abuse Children's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  11. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive resand Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  12. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment is important to minimize the long-term consequences of abuse. Qualified mental health professionals should conduct a comprehensive evaluation and provide treatment for children who have been abused. Through treatment, the abused child begins to regain a sense of self-confidence ...

  13. Fostering the Battered and Abused Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a 20-hour, eight-week course for experienced foster parents. Goals include understanding the causes of child abuse, understanding the consequences of child abuse, and understanding the interaction patterns which provoke child abuse. (Author/DB)

  14. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  15. Skeletal trauma in child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2013-11-01

    Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries. PMID:24168118

  16. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  17. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fractures is not child abuse. It is osteogenesis imperfecta , or OI. OI is a genetic disorder characterized ... several hundred fractures in a lifetime. What Is Osteogenesis Imperfecta? Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder. Most cases ...

  18. GIRL CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. VENUMADHAVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

  19. Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... g) (LexisNexis through 2011 Supp.) ‘Child abuse’ or ‘abuse’ occurs when: • An illegal drug is present in a child’s body as a direct and foreseeable consequence of the acts or omissions of the person ...

  20. Attitudes towards child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the relation between participants’ knowledge-seeking on the one hand, their experiences, attitudes and actual knowledge about abuse on the other hand. Three studies are presented based on the same dat...

  1. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  2. Attachment Theory and Child Abuse: Some Cautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Erna

    2002-01-01

    Presents a response to Bolen's article, "Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?" (this issue). Heralds the article as a welcome addition to the child abuse field and further explores the issues pertaining to attachment theory and child abuse. (GCP)

  3. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  4. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... directed at people just because of their race, religion, abilities, gender, or sexual orientation. Continue Recognizing Abuse ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ...

  5. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  6. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  7. Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intima Alrimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

  8. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... read Child Welfare Information Gateway’s factsheet Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect : https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/ ... and Neglect explains the immediate and long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect to child, family, school, and community ...

  9. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  10. A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  11. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  12. Legal Responsibility of Educators in Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondschein, Eric S.

    This chapter explores the legal responsibilities of educators concerning the problem of child abuse. The first section provides a legal definition of child abuse as behavior of a parent or guardian that (1) inflicts serious physical injury on a child by nonaccidental means; (2) creates a substantial risk of such injury; or (3) commits or allows a…

  13. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  14. Developmental Consequences of Child Abuse. Selected Papers Number 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, John

    This exploration of the dynamics and developmental consequences of child abuse begins with a definition of child abuse and a discussion of child sexual abuse. After a description of the incidence of child abuse, the consequences of abuse--including health and emotional problems, and neuro-developmental disabilities--are discussed. Further…

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Support Families Creating a Family-Centered Agency Culture Child Abuse & Neglect Overview Definitions of Child Abuse & Neglect ... Permanency Adoption Management & Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives ... Child Abuse Prevention Month National Foster Care Month Publications ...

  16. GIRL CHILD ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Venumadhava, G. S.; Prashant, H. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children) But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed eithe...

  17. [Psychological sequelae of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinius, J

    1986-06-01

    During the past decade personality development of abused children has been studied by several investigators. A comparative overview of the results allows to name a number of symptoms which appear to be characteristic. The symptomatology expresses an ongoing conflict between resistance and resignation by restlessness, aggressivity and withdrawal on the one hand, and by low self esteem, pseudo-adult behavior and perfectionism on the other. The psychological consequences are the result not only of parental personality and aggression but also of social conditions and of factors which are inherent to the child. Treatment needs to include all three pathogenetic areas. PMID:3748023

  18. Overturning the diagnosis of child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Three cases, one of bullous impetigo, one of a Mongolian spot, and one of constriction of the toe by a hair, were mistakenly diagnosed as cases of child abuse. The diagnosis of child abuse is not usually simple and requires a careful evaluation of the injuries and the family if cases are not to be either overlooked or overdiagnosed.

  19. Medical Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the research on medical sequelae of child sexual abuse; identifies unanswered questions; and suggests areas of research, including prospective studies of child sexual abuse, follow-up of victims, studies of nonclinic populations, studies of male victims, examination of additional variables (such as regional variation and age), diseases…

  20. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.)

  1. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope to be able to do an early diagnose, prevention, and right therapy to minimize the negative impacts that can happen. Raising competencies of health care providers and building more hospitals that can be an integrated crisis centre in child abuse is a must. The government has built some policies to prevent children from child abuse, that has to be socialized, implemented an evaluated. It is hoped that Health Department has to make a continued and integrated systems and make a standard procedures for all of health care providers to prevent and provide the right therapy for the victim of child abuse. Key words: Child Abuse, growth and development, policies

  2. The effects of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; CARR, ALAN

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of empirical evidence now shows that child sexual abuse has profound effects on the psychological adjustment of children (Kendall-Tackett, Williams & Finkelhor, 1993) and these effects in some instances continue on into adulthood (Beitchman, Zucker, Hood, Da Costa & Akman, 1991). A wide range of factors mediate the impact of abuse on adjustment (Spacarelli, 1994). In this chapter the impact of sexual abuse on children and adults will be addressed with refe...

  3. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  4. Brain MR imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

  5. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. The sexually abused battered child.

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, C J; Wynne, J M

    1990-01-01

    A total of 130 children were identified in whom both evidence of sexual abuse and non-accidental, non-genital physical injuries (bruises, fractures, scratches, burns and scalds, including failure to thrive) were found. There were 77 girls and 53 boys with mean ages 5.7 and 6.8 years respectively and the peak age between the second and seventh birthdays; this reflects previous reports indicating that physical and sexual abuse predominantly involves young children. Patterns of injury that sugge...

  7. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child

  8. Three models of child abuse consultations: A qualitative study of inpatient child abuse consultation notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A

    2015-05-01

    Child abuse pediatricians have multiple roles in caring for abused children, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and, when needed, expert legal opinion. The child physical abuse consultation differs from the traditional medical consultation in that it has medical, investigative and legal audiences, all of whom have different information needs. How child abuse pediatricians approach their cases and how they document their initial inpatient consultations that will be used by such a diverse audience is currently unexplored. We used content analysis to examine 37 child physical abuse consultation notes from a national sample of child abuse pediatricians in order to understand physicians' approaches to these consultations. Three commonly used models of child physical abuse consultation were identified in the data that we named the base model, the investigative model, and the family-dynamic model. While model types overlap, each is distinguished by key features including the approach used to gather information, the information recorded, and the language used in documentation. The base model most closely mirrors the traditional medical approach; the investigative model concentrates on triangulation of sources of information; and, the family-dynamic model concentrates on physician perceptions of family relationships. The three models of consultations for child physical abuse mirror the areas of child abuse pediatrics: diagnostic, forensic and therapeutic. These models are considered in relationship to best practice from other medical specialties with forensic components. PMID:25484319

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev

    2014-12-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents. PMID:25465678

  10. Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Assistant Professor Rama Pande; Prof. Shubhangi Gavhane

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually...

  11. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect. PMID:25084799

  12. Familial Correlates of Selected Types of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Walters, James

    1982-01-01

    Studied 489 cases of child abuse and neglect to determine specific patterns of family circumstance which tended to be present in families in which abandonment, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse had been substantiated. Findings indicated that different kinds of abuse are related to different antecedent variables. (Author)

  13. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  14. Evil, Child Abuse and the Caring Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caroline

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the concept of evil has been invoked in relation to child abuse. First, the scene is set by juxtaposing professional discourses which have eschewed the concept of evil and public opinion which is affronted by the evil of child abuse. Second, I will discuss the work of some therapists in the USA whose work with perpetrators and survivors has led them to frame the causes and consequences of child abuse in terms of moral evil. Third, I will draw upon case studies of Satanic abuse and spirit possession in the UK to illustrate that some social workers and religious communities have interpreted child abuse as an outcome of or as an antidote to metaphysical evil. Finally, there is a critical appraisal of the merits of referencing moral and metaphysical evil in the discourses of caring professionals, with a suggestion that a mythical-metaphorical conception of evil could be a more flexible and fruitful resource for therapeutic work. PMID:24908583

  15. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  16. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  17. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  18. Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

  19. Screening for child abuse at emergency departments: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Louwers, E. C. F. M.; Affourtit, M. J.; Moll, H. A.; Koning, H. J.; Korfage, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Child abuse is a serious problem worldwide and can be difficult to detect. Although children who experience the consequences of abuse will probably be treated at an emergency department, detection rates of child abuse at emergency departments remain low. OBJECTIVE: To identify effective interventions applied at emergency departments that significantly increase the detection rate of confirmed cases of child abuse. DESIGN: This review was carried out according to the Cochrane Hand...

  20. Medical Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse: Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, David L.

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on a previous article (EC 619 261) about medical consequences of child sexual abuse urges prospective studies using large populations to evaluate many variables, as well as selection of projects which are most likely to influence practice or policy and thus affect significant numbers of persons. (DB)

  1. Diagnosing Child Sex Abuse: A Research Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Catrina; Keenan, Mickey; Dillenburger, Karola

    2006-01-01

    Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing…

  2. Diagnosing Child Sex Abuse: A research challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Karola Dillenburger; Mickey Keenan; Katrina Duffy

    2006-01-01

    Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing effectively with the detrimental effects of CSA on the child or adult. The research challenge to find effective alternative procedures is outlined.

  3. Child abuse in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Simona; Grad, C; Baban, Adriana; Dumitra?cu, D

    2014-01-01

    Stress is considered a risk factor for the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). One of the main stress sources is represented by the negative life events and trauma suffered in childhood. Several papers have endorsed the hypothesis that youth submitted to stress are prone to develop IBS. We have undertaken a review of the literature, searching all Pubmed papers pertinent to child abuse and IBS. The data suggest that indeed, children submitted to physical, psychological and sexual abuse are at risk to develop IBS as adults. However, cultural diffferences exist. PMID:25509563

  4. Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistant Professor Rama Pande

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually stimulating acts including masturbation, prostitution, heterosexual or homosexual, forcible or other intercourse – vaginal, oral or anal. A legal definition of sexual abuse includes child molestation, incest and rape in the Indian context, child prostitution rape and child marriage are common forms of sexual abuse.

  5. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.)

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

  7. Tested Compatibility in Child Abusers and Target Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Gail S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the degree of compatibility between the personalities of 22 self-reported child abusers and the target child singled out for abuse in the family. Results showed abusing parents tended to be rigid while their children were more often coded as artistic. Results confirmed Holland's theory of personality. (JAC)

  8. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...future for all Americans. Every child deserves a nurturing family and a safe environment, free from fear, abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual, emotional, and physical abuse threaten too many children every day in communities...

  9. Verbal Abuse on Children: Does It Amount to Child Abuse under the Malaysian Law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Hasniza Che Noh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Children form an essential component of a society. The role of children has been acknowledged key to the survival, development as well as prosperity of that society. A child’s development stage is the most crucial and warrants serious attention from parents and teachers in order to assure their growth into mature adults, who are able to contribute to the society. One of the factors that may hamper their growth is child abuse. There are basically five main forms of child abuse known to take place in Malaysia namely physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect as well as abandonment. These forms of abuse have been given legal attention and recognition except emotional or psychological abuse. One common type of emotional abuse is verbal abuse, which is a form of abusive behavior involving the use of language. Alternatively known as reviling, it is a pattern of behavior that can seriously interfere with one’s positive emotional development and over time, it can lead to significant detriment to one’s self-esteem, emotional well-being and physical state. Although verbal abuse does not leave any outer mark or proof, a verbally abused victim usually suffers by having lower self-worth and low self-esteem. A child, who suffers verbal abuse may grow up to become a low self-esteem adult. Thus, verbal abuse may be considered as grave and must be given serious attention. Laws are the reflection of the attitude of a particular society. Since the function of law is mainly to maintain societal peace and order, it is through law that we can infer how society regards a particular issue, in this regard, verbal abuse on children. This paper aims to highlight firstly, on verbal abuse as another significant form of child abuse needing to be given serious consideration by the society and secondly, on the parameters of child abuse under the Malaysian Child Act 2001; and finally concludes with whether the provisions under the Malaysian Child Act 2001 are sufficient to protect children from verbal abuse.

  10. [The abused and neglected child in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonella, A; Zuppinger, K

    1994-12-27

    Pediatricians form part of children's and young people's most important extra-familial relations. They are thus especially well placed: first, to discover abuse of any kind, and second to put in motion the first years of measures of assistance for the children and their families. The first years of life are decisive for effective prevention of abuse and neglect, and for the development of a healthy personality. In this part of life, pediatricians are virtually the only "social outposts". Nevertheless, in Swiss pediatrics the concept of child protection is still in the initial stages. While we should warmly welcome the fact this problem was at last the main theme of an annual meeting, it must be remembered that this was only the first time. For a long time now no one has doubted that in our, thus far socially privileged country, a frighteningly large number of children and adolescents are victims of abuse. Since the publication of the report "Mauvais traitements des enfants en Suisse" (1992) a representative questionnaire to parents has shown that in this country and now, as before, over a third of parents use corporal punishment on their children. It has been calculated that e.g. 21,800 babies aged between 0 and 2.5 years are beaten, 4800 of them even with implements. There are no data on psychological and sexual maltreatment. Despite this shocking incidence of abuse, only a total of 72 cases (6% of all recorded cases) were reported over one year by pediatric practitioners in the "1989 prospective study". We cannot accept that this reflects a lack of social concern. Many other shortcomings appear to be involved: lack of briefing on the problems of child abuse during medical training, post-graduate and continuing studies, inadequate arrangements for interdisciplinary work, discouragement and early delegation to pseudo-experts, distrust of the efficacy of available aids (but sometimes overestimation of one's own possibilities) and last but not least, a still highly idealized image of the family which prompts one to reject the possibility of abuse. The Swiss Pediatric Society is urgently called upon to focus closer attention on this subject, and in so doing to take advantage of the increasingly widespread concept that child abuse must be regarded as resulting from a disturbance of the child's social network. Here the pediatrician can find an effective, decisive and also--above all--preventive role. PMID:7831561

  11. Pediatric radiological diagnostics in suspected child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostics are essential in the case of clinical suspicion of pediatric injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities when there is no case history or when ''battered child syndrome'' is assumed on the basis of inadequate trauma. In particular, the aim of this sophisticated diagnostic procedure is the detection of lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to initiate prompt medical treatment. If diagnostic imaging shows typical findings of child abuse, accurate documented evidence of the diagnostic results is required to prevent further endangerment of the child's welfare. (orig.)

  12. A Study of the Cycle of Abuse among Child Molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2001-01-01

    This study of 147 sex offenders on probation explores whether there is support for the cycle of abuse theory among child molesters. Results indicate that being abused as a child is related to being a child molester. It was also found that the MMPI-2 did not predict the status of the subjects in regard to being abused as a child and having a victim…

  13. Child sexual abuse: prevalence, effects and school based prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay?e Rezan Çeçen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a complex and serious phenomenon that causes short and long term debilitating effects on individuals and their quality of life and life satisfaction. Last three decades child sexual abuse (prevalence, effects and prevention methods has been very important multidisciplinary topic in academic field in North American developed countries but In our country, Turkey there are not sufficient studies related to prevalence, effects and prevention of child sexual abuse. In this study child sexual abuse reviewed considering prevalence, effects on child and prevention in the light of literature. The last part of article has been suggesting and stressing urgently intervention school-based prevention programs child sexual abuse to prevent child sexual abuse.

  14. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  15. Child sexual abuse research knowledge among child abuse professionals and laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisoli, Cátula; Herman, Steve; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) Assess child abuse professionals' and nonprofessionals' knowledge of scientific research findings that are relevant to forensic child sexual abuse (CSA) evaluations and (2) describe associations between child abuse professionals' levels of research knowledge and their education and experience. An 18-item multiple-choice test was administered to 188 child abuse professionals and 457 nonprofessionals (undergraduate college students) in Brazil and the United States. The nonprofessionals' average percent correct, M=44%, was not significantly different than what would be expected for random guessing (45%). The professionals' average percent correct, M=55%, was higher than that of nonprofessionals and random guessing (both ps<.001). The average percent correct score for the US-sample psychologists, M=76%, was higher than the average score of the other professionals, M=51%, p<.001. Professionals' educational level, as measured by the highest academic degree obtained, was positively associated with percent correct scores, Spearman's ?=.46, p<.001. Controlling for educational attainment, professional experience, as measured by the total number of CSA evaluations performed, was weakly associated with percent correct scores, partial r=.15, p=.04. Percent correct scores were low for both nonprofessionals and professionals. Most of the participants in this study were uninformed or misinformed about scientific research findings that are important for conducting optimal forensic CSA evaluations and for making accurate judgments about the validity of sexual abuse allegations. PMID:25192960

  16. Gender Differences in Social Reactions to Abuse Disclosures, Post-Abuse Coping, and PTSD of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, S.E.; Filipas, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the understudied issue of gender differences in disclosure, social reactions, post-abuse coping, and PTSD of adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). Method: Data were collected on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 733 college students completing a confidential survey about their demographic…

  17. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  18. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  19. Child Abuse in the Family: An Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaeizadeh, D.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of child abuse in the world is 47 per 1000. According to the Child Protective Service agency (CPS) more than 3 million children were abused in the USA in 1998. There was 1.7% increase in comparison with 1996. The prevalence of child abuse in the USA is 15 per 1000. A crosssectional study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, and influential factors on child abuse among families in Tehran. A sample of 420 students was selected from secondary school girls in Tehran i...

  20. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change. PMID:25381277

  1. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia: what's the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R; Nochajski, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and therapeutic issues than survivors of child sexual abuse who have had continuous memory of their abuse. This article first discusses those differences in terms of the moderating risk factors for developing dissociative amnesia (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender, etc.) and then mediating risk factors (e.g., social support, trait dissociativity, etc.). The differences between the two types of survivors are then explored in terms of treatment issues. PMID:23682770

  2. Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey) sample

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer Ayan; Faruk Kocac?k

    2009-01-01

    Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high) students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and h...

  3. [Organ donation after brain death due to child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Villar-Guerra, Pablo; Rey Galán, Corsino; Vivanco Allende, Ana; Medina Villanueva, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    More than 40 percent of deaths from child abuse occur among children younger than 5 years. The injury pattern in child abuse is block abuse head trauma which in the most severe cases produces brain death. Organ donation is uncommon in children younger than five years. We describe two cases of child abuse that caused brain death; subsequently they were subsidiary for organ donation. It is very important to establish a good coordination between health, social care and legal assistance teams to obtain organ donation. PMID:25622174

  4. Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezer Ayan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and high according to the socio-economical and cultural levels of the neighborhoods they were located in, and total fifteen schools were selected, three from each area, with characteristics suitable to represent the respective areas. Number of students included in the sample from these schools is 655. Study data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of items directed at determining the socio-demographic characteristics of the students, structures of families, quality of family relationships and presence or absence family violence against the child and relations and factors that might create the potential for violence.Findings: Proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their mothers was found as 54%, and proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their fathers was found as 46%. According to results of the regression analysis performed separately for mothers and fathers with the purpose of finding the variables with the greatest effect on being treated with violence of children by their parents and the level of effect of these variables, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their mothers were educational status of the mother, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the mother against the child, respectively.According to the results of the logistic regression analysis performed in relation with students’ experiences of violence from their fathers (Table 109, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their fathers were gender of the student, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the father against the child, respectively.

  5. Physical child abuse and causative factors in Edirne, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Erkan Melih; Yetim, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the frequency and causative factors of physical child abuse and any correlations with other domestic violence types. In a representative sample of 15-49-year-old married women living in Edirne chosen with stratified cluster sampling, 275 women were interviewed face-to-face in their residence or places of employment. The questionnaire used included any violent behavior of the women or their husbands toward their children as well as demographic features, habits, Marriage Relation Scales, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, history of partner abuse, and childhood violence exposition. The physical child abuse rate was 61.1% among the women and 20.7% among the husbands according to the women's declarations. Social support was not associated with child abuse rates. Child abuse rate among the women was increased 2.7 times in the presence of the partner's child abuse, 1.6 times with each additional child, 3.1 times in the presence of a history of physical childhood abuse, and 1.9 times in the presence of a history of partner abuse. Child abuse by the husbands was increased 2.9 times in the presence of physical childhood abuse history and 2.3 times in case of partner abuse. Child abuse is widely seen although morally unacceptable in contemporary society. Violent behaviors spread out horizontally among family members and vertically through generations, although at decreasing rates. Healthcare professionals should behave in a sensitive manner and take responsibility together with those from other related fields to prevent this condition, which can result in several social complications. PMID:21980839

  6. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeleddHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary co-morbid conditions.

  7. Hostile siblings in the abused child’s mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    This paper is about the presence of a destructive link in an abused child’s mind between on the one side painful feelings related to fear of rejection from unavailable and violent parental objects and on the other side burning jalousie and fear of hostile sibling figures. I will present some findings concerning the quality of inner sibling relations, as found in a systematic single case study focusing on an abused child’s experience of breaks in a 2-weekly child psychotherapy. Thus in the mind of this child, hostile siblings seemed to be lurking everywhere, posing a threat to the survival of the baby in her mind by intruding and spoiling every good relational experience with adults. The findings will be discussed in the perspective of two possible, probably mutually reinforcing causal explanations: Firstly, the hostile sibling figures may originate from the external reality of the child’s life e.g. in actual abuse experienced in infancy by aggressive older siblings acting out parental hostility and further stimulated by witnessing terrifying violence between parents, behaving like envious siblings. Secondly, the hostile conception of siblings may be rooted in internal reality, in an experience of siblings as representing violent inner parental objects not fully differentiated from hostile sibling objects, e.g. linked to a fantasy of an inattentive breast-mother feeding herself and a violent paternal part-object, the two of them in a fused state becoming merged as an undifferentiated crowd of terrifying sibling figures.

  8. Treating Child Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress and Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Zhitova, Aren C.; Capone, Margery E.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is a risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and subsequent Substance Use Disorder (SUD). The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about effective treatments for adolescent abuse-related PTSD, SUD, and the co-occurrence of these conditions. Method: The literature on empirical…

  9. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K R; Milner, J S

    1985-02-01

    A number of hypotheses were generated predicting the relationship between the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory and factors on the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) questionnaire. As expected, positive relationships were found between abuse and apprehension, tension, and anxiety, while a negative relationship was observed between abuse and stability. The 16PF factors of apprehension, tension, anxiety and stability, which had the strongest relationship with abuse, are factors descriptive of neuroticism. A regression and discriminant analysis, however, indicated these factors alone were not sufficient to accurately describe and predict abuse. PMID:3989656

  10. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  11. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  12. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  13. Differentiation of Self and Child Abuse Potential in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Platt, Lisa F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine the role of Bowen family systems theory in predicting physical child abuse potential. Relations between differentiation of self, perceptions of personal problem-solving skills, and child abuse potential were tested in a sample of 210 single young adults who were not yet parents. Greater differentiation of self that is, lower…

  14. Immediate and Long-Term Impacts of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…

  15. Child Abuse by Mothers' Boyfriends: Why the Overrepresentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Using data from interviews with single mothers and records of child abuse, mothers' boyfriends' overrepresentation in child abuse was traced to five conditions, including the single parent situation, their gender, the absence of genetic relationship to the children, perceived illegitimacy as caregivers and family members, and rivalry with the…

  16. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  17. Increasing medical burden of child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A.; Sunderland, R.

    1988-01-01

    During the decade January 1976 to December 1985, as a result of increased public awareness, the numbers of reported (but not proved) cases of abuse to children living in South Birmingham increased thirty-fold; the incidence of detected and proved cases of abuse increased fourfold. The increase was principally due to bruises, scalds, and neglect. The numbers of serious fractures and brain injuries did not increase. The first case of sexual abuse was reported in 1981 and this was followed by a ...

  18. Evaluating children with fractures for child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Levine, Michael A; Hennrikus, William L

    2014-02-01

    Fractures are common injuries caused by child abuse. Although the consequences of failing to diagnose an abusive injury in a child can be grave, incorrectly diagnosing child abuse in a child whose fractures have another etiology can be distressing for a family. The aim of this report is to review recent advances in the understanding of fracture specificity, the mechanism of fractures, and other medical diseases that predispose to fractures in infants and children. This clinical report will aid physicians in developing an evidence-based differential diagnosis and performing the appropriate evaluation when assessing a child with fractures. PMID:24470642

  19. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  20. Child sexual abuse--the interface with genitourinary medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, D. J.; Roberts, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose.

  1. About the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA): A Legislative History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Support Families Creating a Family-Centered Agency Culture Child Abuse & Neglect Overview Definitions of Child Abuse & Neglect ... publications: Major Federal Legislation Concerned With Child Protection, Child Welfare, and Adoption (Factsheets) How Federal Legislation Impacts Child Welfare Service ...

  2. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Lichenstein; Forrest T Closson

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal ...

  3. Treatment of child abuse: a review of the behavioral interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse....

  4. Elder Abuse FAQS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members. 32 Back to Top What are the Consequences of Elder Abuse? The consequences of elder abuse can be devastating. ... kids aren’t all right: The failure of child abuse statutes as a model for elder abuse statutes. ...

  5. Mandatory notification of child abuse: when to report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sara

    2005-09-01

    Case histories are based on actual medical negligence claims, however certain facts have been omitted or changed by the author to ensure the anonymity of the parties involved. In all Australian states and territories, except Western Australia, general practitioners are required by law to report cases of child abuse to the appropriate child protection service. This article outlines the GP's duty to report cases of child abuse, including the legislative requirements in each state and territory. PMID:16184212

  6. Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Sidhartha B. Sawant

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc.) with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse o...

  7. Verbal Abuse on Children: Does It Amount to Child Abuse under the Malaysian Law?

    OpenAIRE

    Che Hasniza Che Noh; Wan Izatul Asma Wan Talaat

    2012-01-01

    Children form an essential component of a society. The role of children has been acknowledged key to the survival, development as well as prosperity of that society. A child’s development stage is the most crucial and warrants serious attention from parents and teachers in order to assure their growth into mature adults, who are able to contribute to the society. One of the factors that may hamper their growth is child abuse. There are basically five main forms of child abuse known to take pl...

  8. Child sexual abuse: a review of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, M

    2015-03-01

    Research of child sexual abuse has considerably evolved and continues to evolve exponentially. Professionals in various fields are required to be updated in the latest guidelines in practice, as well as in research. The present paper summarizes the most recent scientific literature on child sexual abuse, mainly systematic reviews and meta-analyses, focusing on central issues, namely, the international prevalence of the phenomenon, its negative consequences, and the offender's characteristics; referring to the potential victim's profile. Finally, the paper summarizes the recent recommendations and implications for practice and research in child sexual abuse. PMID:25243505

  9. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  10. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

  11. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ...and by teaching our children to trust in themselves...Americans. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month...to break the cycle of violence, strengthen support...half a million American children suffer neglect or abuse...strong and well-informed family unit is the surest...

  12. Child sexual abuse, attachment style, and depression: the role of the characteristics of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. PMID:24958133

  13. Child Sexual Abuse: Fracturing Family Life

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Research has shown that childhood sexual abuse can have damaging long-term effects on family life and relationships. Some effects have been widely recognised such as feelings of betrayal and confusion when fathers abuse, or bitterness at mothers who cannot protect. A new qualitative research study with a group of women survivors in Edinburgh, recruited because of their contact with mental health services, has found wide-ranging and subtle effects on family life that endure over the lifecourse...

  14. Bullying May Take Bigger Toll Than Child Abuse, Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152232.html Bullying May Take Bigger Toll Than Child Abuse, Neglect ... efforts and resources on family maltreatment rather than bullying," study author Dieter Wolke, from the University of ...

  15. 78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...caregivers play an essential part in giving their children that stability. But we also know that keeping our children safe is something...prevent child abuse and provide for children's physical, emotional, and developmental needs. [[Page 20216

  16. Fatal Child Abuse: A Study of 13 Cases of Continuous Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Juhani Merikanto; Anne Leena Marika Kauppi; Kari Karkola; Tuija Vanamo

    2012-01-01

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the vict...

  17. Viewing the Abusive Parent and the Abused Child as Captor and Hostage: The Application of Hostage Theory to the Effects of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Christopher R.

    1994-01-01

    Many behavioral characteristics found in the terrorist/hostage literature appear to have a parallel in the behavior of the abuser, including personality characteristics, circumstances around the violence, beliefs held, and similar defensive behavior adopted by the hostage and the abused child. These parallels indicate the need for different…

  18. Síndrome del maltrato infantil / Child abuse syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys, Fernández Couse; Jesús, Perea Corral.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome del maltrato infantil (SMI) es un importante problema de salud de carácter universal, que resulta de una compleja interacción de los factores de riesgo del individuo, la familia y la sociedad. Su identificación es un verdadero reto para el médico, pues la historia clínica recogida es muc [...] has veces inexacta, engañosa, los hallazgos al examen físico son en muchas ocasiones inespecíficos y los médicos, la mayoría, no lo incluyen en su diagnóstico diferencial. Por todo lo señalado los médicos deben afrontar la disyuntiva de diferenciar entre lesiones intencionales y no intencionales (también llamado por algunos "accidentes") y tomar una decisión operativa en beneficio de la salud del niño. El objetivo de esta revisión consiste en actualizar los conocimientos del SMI, especialmente: su definición, clasificaciones, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas y el manejo integral. Abstract in english The child abuse syndrome (CAS) is an important world health problem resulting from a complex interaction of the risk factors of the individual, the family and the society. Its identification is a real challenge for physicians, since the medical history is many times inaccurate and deceptive, and the [...] physical examination is frequently unspecific and most of the physicians do not include it in their differential diagnosis. Therefore, physicians should make a difference between intentional and unintentional injuries (called "accidents" by some) and to make an operative decision that benefits the child's health. The objective of this review is to update the knowldege about CAS, specially, its definition, staging, physiopathology, clinical manifestations and comprehensive management.

  19. Síndrome del maltrato infantil Child abuse syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Fernández Couse

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome del maltrato infantil (SMI es un importante problema de salud de carácter universal, que resulta de una compleja interacción de los factores de riesgo del individuo, la familia y la sociedad. Su identificación es un verdadero reto para el médico, pues la historia clínica recogida es muchas veces inexacta, engañosa, los hallazgos al examen físico son en muchas ocasiones inespecíficos y los médicos, la mayoría, no lo incluyen en su diagnóstico diferencial. Por todo lo señalado los médicos deben afrontar la disyuntiva de diferenciar entre lesiones intencionales y no intencionales (también llamado por algunos "accidentes" y tomar una decisión operativa en beneficio de la salud del niño. El objetivo de esta revisión consiste en actualizar los conocimientos del SMI, especialmente: su definición, clasificaciones, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas y el manejo integral.The child abuse syndrome (CAS is an important world health problem resulting from a complex interaction of the risk factors of the individual, the family and the society. Its identification is a real challenge for physicians, since the medical history is many times inaccurate and deceptive, and the physical examination is frequently unspecific and most of the physicians do not include it in their differential diagnosis. Therefore, physicians should make a difference between intentional and unintentional injuries (called "accidents" by some and to make an operative decision that benefits the child's health. The objective of this review is to update the knowldege about CAS, specially, its definition, staging, physiopathology, clinical manifestations and comprehensive management.

  20. Relationship of Socioeconomic Status to the Etiology and Developmental Sequelae of Physical Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) to the etiology of physical child abuse and the consequences of abuse for child development was studied. There was an interaction of SES with abuse status. This suggests different relationships between SES and child rearing in abusive and nonabusive families. (BC)

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  2. Child Abuse in the Family: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shojaeizadeh

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of child abuse in the world is 47 per 1000. According to the Child Protective Service agency (CPS more than 3 million children were abused in the USA in 1998. There was 1.7% increase in comparison with 1996. The prevalence of child abuse in the USA is 15 per 1000. A crosssectional study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, and influential factors on child abuse among families in Tehran. A sample of 420 students was selected from secondary school girls in Tehran in 1999. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and the collected data were analysed through statistical tests such as X2 and other forms of descriptive tests. The findings of research showed that in terms of abnormal (unexpectedly bad behaviour, 28% of the sample were faced quarrelsome and bitted by their fathers. The mothers' reactions for similar behaviour were more or less the same: 34.9% quarrelsome and 7% bitting. Child abuse, physically and emotionally, has had significant relation with socioeconomic status of families as well as having interaction with mentally ill or addicted person(s among families. Mothers' employment, religious beliefs, and parents' educational attainments also demonstrated significant relations with child abuse. A statistically significant relationship has also been found between mothers' employment, addicted or mentally ill person among family members, and doubtful child sexual abuse.To prevent child abuse the following actions should be taken: Education of parents about children rights and how to treat their children. Establishment of centers to protect the children at risk. Education of young couples to take more reponsibility of having children.

  3. Physical child abuse: A comprehensive family based approach to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Physical abuse within the family may be conceptualized as the outcome of a complex process in which a child with particular characteristics which rendered him or her vulnerable to abuse, is injured by a parent involved in an ongoing problematic behaviour pattern, subserved by particular belief systems and constrained by historical, contextual and constitutional predisposing factors. When families are referred by statutory child protection agencies to therapy services for treatment...

  4. 28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2...reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required...

  5. Child pornography: a hidden dimension of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R L

    1984-01-01

    In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals? PMID:6542820

  6. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mahroos Fadheela; Al-Amer Eshraq

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Design and Setting: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care fac...

  7. Countertransference reactions to families where child abuse has occurred

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1989-01-01

    In this paper five countertransference reactions, which may be experienced by workers on child abuse management teams, are described. Karpman's Drama Triangle is used as a framework within which to define these reactions. The reactions are: (1) rescuing the child; (2) rescuing the parents; (3) rescuing the mother and child while persecuting the father, (4) rescuing the father; and (5) persecuting the family.

  8. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  9. Roll of the orthopedist in the child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is an old at the humanity. In agreement with The World Health Organization reports that child abuse is a problem of public health and about 40'000.000 young between 0-14 years old are victims. In Colombia the statistics report battered children in 36% of the homes. The injuries of the osseous system, muscles and soft tissue are often the most evident key therefore we must consider some important signs at the time of evaluating a boy who makes suspect us this suffering. The different studies have reported that the fractures are the second more frequent form of presentation of child abuse. We must worry about this information and opportune way in the early detection of the cases of infantile abuse

  10. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934

  11. Child Physical Abuse and concurrence of other types of Child Abuse : associations with health and risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Annerba?ck, Eva-maria; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, Carl Go?ran; Wingren, Gun; Gustafsson, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse and health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teen-agers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors. Methods: A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in two different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (N=7 262). The respo...

  12. Stricture of the duodenum and jejunum in an abused child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of abdominal injury secondary to child abuse in which the child had both a duodenal hematoma and contained perforations of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. These injuries were evaluated by both CT scan and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series. The child's nausea and vomiting persisted despite conservative treatment; after 3 weeks a repeat upper GI series demonstrated high-grade duodenal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and a calcified, fibrotic mesentery and strictures in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum were found. To our knowledge, his unusual complication of blunt abdominal trauma has not been described in association with child abuse. (orig.)

  13. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lichenstein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:437–439.

  14. Child Abuse and Deafness: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The professional literature contains research and anecdotal information on various maltreatments affecting children and youth with and without disabilities. Unfortunately, little information exists on abused children with hearing loss. Reasons relate to a lack of quantity and quality in research on this population; challenges in conducting…

  15. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  16. Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis - an uncommon manifestation of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis (FL) is an uncommon manifestation of child abuse (increasingly known as nonaccidental trauma), with only six prior reports in the literature. This article seeks to call attention to FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children and infants. We reviewed plain films, CT and MR images in seven new cases of FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children ages 6 months to 7 years, two of whom became paraplegic from their injuries. Findings varied from subtle listhesis of one vertebra on another to frank vertebral dislocation, most commonly at L1/2. Paravertebral calcification was present in all but one case. In two children, thoracolumbar FL was the only radiographic sign of abuse. Radiographic findings of FL of the thoracolumbar spine may be subtle and may be erroneously interpreted as due to a congenital or neoplastic cause. While other signs of child abuse should be sought, spinal injury may be the sole sign of abuse. Recognition of this entity is important to pursue the diagnosis of abuse. (orig.)

  17. Occurrence of Child and Adolescent Abuse in Caruaru-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the occurrence of child and adolescent abuse referred to Caruaru Tutelary Council between 2002 and 2004. Method: To this end, data on the complaints lodged in the period concerned was requested from the Tutelary Council. Results: From a total of 798 cases reported the most common was neglect (49.24% followed by psychological violence (28.94%. Physical and sexual abuse represented 17.6% and 4.66% of the total of the sample, respectively. As to sex, males represented 55.3% of the cases reported. Conclusion: According to literature, lesions are most frequent on the orofacial area. The awareness of such a piece of information makes a high demand for dental surgeons´ ethical and legal responsibility. Besides reporting suspect child abuse to authorities, there is now a call for creating protective mechanisms for the abused in addition to preventive educational campaigns with focus on the need for denouncing and avoiding all kinds of maltreatment.

  18. Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features ''PRO'' raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings ''CON'' suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.)

  19. Child abuse, rehabilitation and poverty: a quintet of problems

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Available empirical evidence shows that rehabilitation programmes for families at risk for child abuse do not prevent further abuse in the majority of cases. In this paper five problems that may account for this are discussed. These are the problems of denial, co-operation, conformity, role confusion and countertransference. It is argued that this quintet of problems is partially rooted in the way in which risk and rehabilitation have been socially constructed within the dom...

  20. Is the Diagnosis of Physical Abuse Changed when Child Protective Services Consults a Child Abuse Pediatrics Subspecialty Group as a Second Opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  2. A Perplexing Case of Child Abuse: Oral Injuries in Abuse and Physician Reporting Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Michelle; Klein, Eileen J; Sugar, Naomi

    2014-11-25

    The following case presents a pediatric patient with an oral foreign body secondary to intentional injury. This patient had presented several previous times for medical care, first with thigh bruises, then mouth bleeding, and finally with the unusual finding of a sharp foreign body embedded in the tongue. This case illustrates the importance of considering physical abuse in the differential of orofacial injuries. Frenulum tears, both in mobile and nonmobile children, are concerning for abuse and should trigger further evaluation. This case highlights the complexity of assessing for physical abuse when examining a patient. Bruising, as seen in this patient, is common in children, and the clinical team must determine if the pattern, location, and history are concerning for a nonaccidental injury. Physicians should strongly consider child abuse in the emergency department when patients present with concerning physical examination findings such as bruises or orofacial injures without corroborating history. Finally, this case reviews mandatory reporting requirements for physicians and other medical professionals and highlights the obligation to report suspected child abuse even when not working in the professional capacity at the time of recognition. PMID:25426684

  3. Medical Evaluation of Suspected Child Sexual Abuse: 2011 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joyce A.

    2011-01-01

    The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The…

  4. Guidelines for Identifying Child Abuse & Neglect in Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    In 1978 the Indian Child Welfare Act was passed which implemented new regulations regarding the removal of Indian children from their parents and their placement in residential and foster care or adoptive families or institutions. The 7-page information sheet provides guidelines in prevention of institutional child abuse and neglect of American…

  5. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  6. ABUSED AND ALONE:How to Meet the Challenge of Child Sexual Abuse in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Ryengen,Marius; Mørch,Grete Reinsberg

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to identify what special challenges the local communities in Cambodia meet concerning child sexual abuse and to find strategies to meet these challenges. Background: Since 1998 and the end of the civil war, IOM?s ?Childhood Mental Health & Counter Trafficking Project? has worked to prevent child mental health problems in the Rattanak/Mondul District of Cambodia. In the year of 2004 it was stated by the Program Director Dr. Eng Samnang that one of thei...

  7. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Merikanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12% were caused by child battering and 13 (7% by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent and often substance dependence (31%. None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.

  8. Community characteristics, conservative ideology, and child abuse rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Rebekah J; MacPhee, David

    2015-03-01

    Authoritarian ideology, including religious conservativism, endorses obedience to authority and physical punishment of children. Although this association has been studied at the level of the family, little research has been conducted on whether conservativism in the broader community context correlates with the mistreatment of children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this relation between conservativism and physical punishment of children extends to child abuse rates at the community level. Predictors included county-level religious and political conservativism and demographic variables. Political and religious conservativism covaried, and both were inversely related to child abuse rates. Population density was strongly related to rates of maltreatment and with demographic factors controlled, religious conservativism but not political conservativism continued to predict rates of child abuse. The results suggest that community factors related to social disorganization may be more important than religious or political affiliation in putting children at risk for maltreatment. PMID:25524270

  9. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376

  10. Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Prakash Balkrishna; Mulmule, Akshata Nandu

    2013-01-01

    We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and “protection of children from sexual offences act” 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences incl...

  11. The prevalence of different kinds of child abuse and the characteristics that differentiate abused from nonabused male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaeili, Niloofar; Barahmand, Usha; Abdi, Reza

    2013-03-01

    Child abuse has proved to be one of the most important social challenges. The present study attempts (a) to determine the prevalence of child abuse in an urban area in Iran and (b) to differentiate abused from non-abused adolescent boys using parental and child characteristics. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of different types of child abuse. The prevalence sample comprised 2,100 students selected through a multistage random sampling procedure. Data were collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Depression Inventory, II (BDI-II), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), modified Hazan & Shaver Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90-R). Descriptive statistics and discriminant function analysis were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 14.85% of the subjects were exposed to child abuse, with emotional abuse being most prevalent (52.09%). Also, it appeared that variables such as parental depression and anxiety and children's attachment styles, anxiety, and aggression can help discriminate abused boys from their non-abused counterparts. PMID:23071081

  12. Child abuse in 28 developing and transitional countries – results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Akmatov, Manas K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child abuse is a worldwide recognized public health and social problem. Using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) we aimed to a) compare different forms of child abuse across countries and regions, and b) examine factors associated with different forms of child abuse. Methods Information on child abuse was available in 28 developing and transitional countries from the third round of MICS conducted in 2005 and 2006 (n=124 916 childr...

  13. Culturally based interventions for substance use and child abuse among native Hawaiians.

    OpenAIRE

    Mokuau, Noreen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of child abuse among culturally diverse populations in Hawaii, substance use among culturally diverse students in Hawaii, and culturally based interventions for preventing child abuse and substance abuse in Native Hawaiian families. OBSERVATIONS: Native Hawaiians accounted for the largest number of cases of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii between 1996 and 1998. Alcohol and other drugs have increasingly been linked with child maltreatment. Native ...

  14. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  15. Inquiries into Fatal Child Abuse in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijvenhoven, T. D.; Kortleven, W-j

    2010-01-01

    In some Western societies, inquiries into fatal abuse of children known to agencies are nowadays a common phenomenon. They have been carried out in the UK for many years, but have recently also emerged in the Netherlands. The main aim of these inquiries is to improve child welfare and protection practice in order to reduce the chance of further child deaths. However, there is reason to critically consider the feasibility of this aim, as British research into child death investigations suggest...

  16. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  17. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  18. Information on Child Abuse: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy

    The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…

  19. Physical Child Abuse: What Are the External Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noremy M. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Children are an integral asset for future development of a nation. In lieu with this notion, countries pay much attention to their development and well being. In recent times, child abuse has been rampant. This issue is constantly making headlines in national newspapers in Malaysia. The alarming effect of this phenomenon is its inevitable implication on the family institution and the nation’s aspiration to create a better tomorrow. This current study is an attempt to discover the contributory factors of physical child abuse in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to identify the background and demography of abuser and to identify the external factors that cause a parent to abuse their child. This case study was conducted in Selangor amongst eight Malay respondents using an in-depth interview session. This study found that external factors as the major contributory factor to physical child abuse. The factors are financial constraints, family crisis, character and disobedience of the children or so called ‘deviant children’, surroundings of the home, conflict with neighbours or lack of social support, parent’s mental illness and and influence of alcohol. Hence these factors are articulated and interpreted by the researcher. Implications of this research, profession who work with children such as social worker, psycologist and counselor should look into the external factors that contribute to the physical child abuse in designing intervention, cure and effective strategies to overcome this problem. In future, protecting children needs collective effort from policy maker, authority body, non-government organization and member of society.

  20. Child Abuse Services at a Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Andrew C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    All child abuse-related patients (n=503) seen at 1 Cape Town (South Africa) hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. Abuse was confirmed in 389 cases (160 physical abuse and 229 sexual abuse). Most (81 percent) of the young children were seen by residents with minimal pediatric training. Lack of staff speaking Xhosa (spoken by 134 of the…

  1. Child abuse and neglect in Nigeria -- a situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebigbo, P O

    1993-01-01

    The Nigeria chapter of the African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect conducted a nationwide study to acquire an overview of the nature and extent of child abuse and neglect in Nigeria. The 3-part study assessed the density of children working on the streets and the attitudes of adults and children related to child abuse and neglect. Counts of working street youths under age 16 years and respondent attitudes were assessed in Kaduna/Zaria, Enugu/Onitsha, and Ibadan. The densities of street children and questionnaire responses from sampled adults suggest that child abuse and neglect are serious problems in Nigeria; cultural practices and traditional attitudes contribute to the problem; institutions tasked with addressing family and child welfare have failed to do so; hawking, begging, and abandonment place these children at risk; and some handicapped children roam the streets without care. School children were surveyed to provide information on their before- and after-school chores, their views on physical punishment by parents and teachers, and their nutritional standards. 94% received three meals/day; 52% typically spent 2-4 hours after school in domestic chores such as sweeping the house, washing dishes, and preparing evening meals; and many were either scolded, beaten, or assigned additional household duties as punishment for behaving contrary to the desires of adults. PMID:12318616

  2. Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended. (orig.)

  3. Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Sidhartha B. Sawant

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome, indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc. with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse of children is one of the most heinous crimes imaginable.

  4. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective services. PMID:25771266

  5. MIHAELA PU?CA?, Child Abuse. Forms, Motivation, Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE FLORIAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass-media frequently bring before the public cases in which parents abuse their own children. Each time the reactions of citizens are intense and unanimous:anger, revolt, requests for extreme punishment, the right to complain against aggressive behavior occurring in their vicinity. Modern research on family revealed a world loaded with tensions and conflicts in which abuse is often presented disguised as love for children and the wish to provide a good education. This article approaches the psychological aspects of the various forms of child abuse, as these are treated in the specialized literature, trying to offer answers to legitimate questions: are these isolated cases or are we dealing with a real phenomenon; how spread is this phenomenon; do people today love their children less than before; is there a social environment which favors such behavior; how can abuse situations which are spread over years be explained; which are the visible signs that a child is being abused by his/her parents; what are the consequences on the development of personality; are there statistics for a larger period of time to help knowing whether the phenomenon is increasing or decreasing?

  6. Mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa: Legislation explored

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M L, Hendricks.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Legislation concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa has been in effect since 2010, with the promulgation of amendment 41 of 2007 to the Children's Act of 2005. This article explores mandatory reporting legislation in an attempt to improve the reporting practices of hea [...] lthcare professionals in South Africa.

  7. The Schools See It First: Child Abuse/Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Lynn; Sorensen, Lauralee

    1980-01-01

    Explains that the school can not only recognize abuse and neglect before a child is battered or emotionally scarred, but it can also intervene. Outlines four prerequisites for the school's role as intermediary between the family and the community agencies and resources that can help the family. (IRT)

  8. Abuse and neglect in the surgically ill child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, C O; Odelola, M A; Odiachi, R O

    2001-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are a global phenomenon often symptomatic of underlying psychosocial family problems, which may represent a transferred aggression from one or both disturbed parents onto the child. Although the scope has been widely explored in Africa, little has been written on children presenting with surgical lesions. We report 31 children abused by their parents on accounts of frustrations engendered by the children's surgical conditions in Lagos. 26 (83.9%) of these children had major congenital defects while only 5 (16.1%) had acquired lesions. The commonest form of abuse was child abandonment, seen in 9 (29%) of cases. Neglect was recorded in 7 (23%) cases while 2 children were mutilated because of surgical lesions. Three patients were starved, 3 children with colostomy were evicted by landlords while 2 were locked up by parents out of shame. One child died of infanticide. Reasons for abuse included financial constraints, hopelessness and shame associated with grotesque lesions, broken homes and maternal pregnancy. Doctors and nurses engaged in the care of gross congenital anomalies and other major surgical lesions should anticipate this problem and evolve appropriate strategies to deal with it. The social worker should be involved early enough in the management. Provision of adequate social safety nets, affordable medical care and specific legal protection for children will curtail this ugly trend in our society. PMID:11768025

  9. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for Treatment. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, B. E.; Berliner, L.; Hanson, R. F.

    Helping child abuse victims receive the mental health treatment they need is an important component of victim advocacy with children, and benefits both the children and the criminal justice system. As part of this work, the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center at the Medical University of South Carolina and the Center for Sexual…

  10. [Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Child abuse by falsification of symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, B; Croner, S

    2001-05-01

    Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP) is a potentially lethal form of child abuse. Mortality rates around 10 percent have been reported. A knowledge of the characteristics of MSbP is needed in order to reveal the diagnosis and to handle the management correctly. Swedish experience is in accordance with international reports. PMID:11402984

  11. Child Physical Abuse : Characteristics, Prevalence, Health and Risk?taking

    OpenAIRE

    Annerba?ck, Eva-maria

    2011-01-01

    The home is supposed to provide support and safety for children but can also be the place where children suffer abuse and other adverse treatment by their parents. Violence against children in homes has been banned in Sweden for more than 30 years but it is still a considerable problem in the society and a threat to public health. The overall aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon Child Physical Abuse (CPA) in Sweden after the ban on corporal punishment. Th...

  12. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  13. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  14. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  15. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  16. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  17. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  18. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  19. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: The Case of Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Smith-Prince, Jaynina

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors influence the disclosure of child sexual abuse by survivors. While the influence of race and ethnicity on disclosure patterns is getting more attention, little has been written on abused children of Pacific Islanders, due in part to both lack of relevant data and a relatively small Pacific Islander population in the United States. Drawing on interviews with Pacific Islander women who were sexually abused in childhood and who delayed revealing their victimization, we explore the reasons for delayed disclosure. Findings suggest that cultural norms and family dynamics affect disclosure decisions. Concerns for the family and self-blame were the most common reasons for delay and lack of disclosure. We discuss implications of the findings and make policy recommendations. PMID:26061022

  20. MR imaging evaluation of subdural hematomas in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging is the most accurate modality for determining the presence, number, and aging of subdural hematomas. Based on seven patients studied with CT and MR imaging, MR imaging should be the gold standard in child abuse evaluations. Since the history of child abuse is often ambiguous, MR imaging can assist in dating when the injury occurred. MR imaging in two perpendicular planes is needed, with one plane having both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Chronic subdural hematomas on CT often have the same density as cerebrospinal fluid and may be misdiagnosed as atrophy or unrecognized. Therefore, the child may be returned into a dangerous situation and subjected to recurrent episodes of battering

  1. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  2. Hemophilia and child abuse as possible causes of epidural hematoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Fernando Campos Gomes; Porro Fabrizio Frutos; Suganuma Liliana; Fontes Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos; Andrade Almir Ferreira; Marino Jr. Raul

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Head trauma is an important consequence of child abuse. Specific pathophysiological mechanisms in child abuse are responsible for the ''whiplash shaken-baby syndrome'', which would favour the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhages. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a child who developed epidural hematoma following minor-intensity head trauma. Initial diagnosis of child abuse was made, but subsequent investigation led to the diagnosis of hemophilia A. CONCLUSION: Even though epi...

  3. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... read Child Welfare Information Gateway’s factsheet Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect : https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/ ... and Neglect explains the immediate and long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect to child, family, school, and community ...

  4. The notion and consequences of emotional abuse of a child in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojev Nadežda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the notion of emotional abuse of a child in the family as one of the most serious forms of family pathology. Emotional abuse is defined as parent’s or guardian’s acting or non acting, such as rejection insult, isolation, terror, verbal attack etc. that might cause serious and permanent disorders in child’s emotional development. Due to that, very complicated consequences of this serious form of abuse are particularly analyzed. In this paper, the author is standing up for the opinion that sexual and physical abuse are always in connection with the emotional, while emotional abuse could appear as a separate phenomenon.

  5. Imaging characteristics in legally founded cases of assaultive child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on this study performed to document the imaging findings associated with assaultive child abuse as confirmed by an independent criterion. At least one of the authors acted as a consultant in 105 alleged cases of child abuse owing to physical assault between 1987 and 1989. Seventy-six cases were founded by the Department of Human Services. 57/76 of founded cases had fractures. Most commonly only one fracture was noted (32 cases), but up to seven fractures were present in a patient. The tibia was the most commonly fractured bone (23 cases) followed in frequency by the femur (22), skull (15), and humerus (14). Multiple rib fractures were seen in 10 cases

  6. Physical Child Abuse: What Are the External Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Noremy M. A.; Zulkarnain A. H.; Kelvin F.; Adanan M. J.; Sarah W. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Children are an integral asset for future development of a nation. In lieu with this notion, countries pay much attention to their development and well being. In recent times, child abuse has been rampant. This issue is constantly making headlines in national newspapers in Malaysia. The alarming effect of this phenomenon is its inevitable implication on the family institution and the nation’s aspiration to create a better tomorrow. This current study is an attempt to discover the contributo...

  7. Child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula.

    OpenAIRE

    Fadheela T. Al-Mahroos

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To provide an overview of the problem and patterns of child abuse and neglect in the 7 countries of the Arab Peninsula, and to highlight some of the difficulties and shortcomings. METHODS This study was conducted by reviewing medical literature, published between January 1987 and May 2005. In addition, reports were obtained from regional meetings and professional organizations. Each study or report was reviewed, assessed, and summarized. RESULTS Three studies from Ku...

  8. Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Child Sexual Abuse Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, Latonya S.; Goodman, Gail S.; Pineda, Annarheen; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony; Saywitz, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Individual difference measures, including for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specifici...

  9. Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louwers Eveline CFM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members. The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs.

  10. The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Rosana Norman and colleagues conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes.

  11. Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 455(a) [sexual exploitation of a minor or child pornography], shall immediately report the observation to the nearest ... should know is under age 17, that constitutes child pornography. • A physician has cause to believe that a ...

  12. Know the Signs of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survivors can suffer long-term physical, emotional and psychological problems, said Dr. Mary Jones, a child advocacy ... of child development and age-appropriate expectations, parental resilience and concrete family supports, "we can reduce or ...

  13. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  14. Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

  15. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  16. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mahroos Fadheela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Design and Setting: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. Patients and Methods: The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. Results: The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years; 222 were males (50.5% and 218 were females (49.5%. There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5% were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. Conclusion: During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.

  17. [Perforation of the eardrum caused by child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindesgaard, Christian Banner; Møller, Troels Reinholdt

    2011-09-26

    Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a complex, multifaceted form of child abuse that presents a challenge to all health-care providers. Diagnosis is difficult in cases of MSBP, and it is imperative to recognise the clinical features of MSBP in both the child and the perpetrator. All members of the health-care team must stay objective in the interactions with families where MSBP is suspected and make referrals to the proper agencies. A case is presented to explain the medical and social complexities associated with nursing and diagnosing MSBP. This article also provides a brief review of the definition of MSBP. PMID:21958485

  18. Pediatric child abuse victim with posttraumatic inferior vena cava thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpasture, Meggan L; Zeller, Kristen A; Petty, John K

    2014-05-01

    Posttraumatic inferior vena cava thrombosis (IVCT) is very rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. While thromboembolism as a result of trauma is common in adult patients, it is very rare in young children and seldom involves the inferior vena cava. We report the youngest patient to date with IVCT and the only child reported whose findings are the result of child physical abuse. The diagnosis can be challenging both clinically and radiographically. Additionally, the risks of morbidity and even mortality associated with an IVCT if untreated are significant. PMID:24578163

  19. “How Did You Feel?”: Increasing Child Sexual Abuse Witnesses’ Production of Evaluative Information

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Scurich, Nicholas; Choi, Karen; Handmaker, Sally; Blank, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    In child sexual abuse cases, the victim’s testimony is essential, because the victim and the perpetrator tend to be the only eyewitnesses to the crime. A potentially important component of an abuse report is the child’s subjective reactions to the abuse. Attorneys may ask suggestive questions or avoid questioning children about their reactions, assuming that children, given their immaturity and reluctance, are incapable of articulation. We hypothesized that How questions referencing react...

  20. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Gigante Luciana P; Béria Jorge U; Palazzo Lilian S; Bassani Diego G; Cl, Figueiredo Andre?ia; Rgc, Aerts Denise; Cw, Raymann Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionna...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  2. Anal signs of child sexual abuse: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Christopher J; Wright, Charlotte M

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Methods: Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. Cases: all eligible cases from 1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. Controls: all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or ne...

  3. A proposal for a foster grandmother intervention program to prevent child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Neergaard, J A

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of child abuse and neglect is epidemic. Many abused children have sustained lifelong injuries. Often they become perpetrators of abuse, continuing the cycle into future generations. Studies have indicated that mothers who are likely to abuse their children can be identified by a predictive method during the prenatal and postpartum periods. Pilot studies have indicated that mothers who are identified by the method and who receive early intervention, consisting of home visits by r...

  4. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  5. Two Tragic Forms of Child Sexual Abuse: Are They Often Overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis

    2002-01-01

    The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child

  6. Child Sexual Abuse: Who Is to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Sylvia D.; Wagner, William G.

    1988-01-01

    The study utilized written descriptions of sexual activity between an adult and a child to examine the impact of victim sex, perpetrator sex, respondent sex, and victim response (i.e., encouraging, passive, resisting) on the attribution of responsibility to the child and the adult perpetrator. Undergraduates (N=360) rated the vignettes. (Author/DB)

  7. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu?ba AYAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

  9. Case of child abuse by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 2 May 1974, a father was convicted of castrating his 13-year-old son by exposing him to a 1-curie source of 137Cs to be used for oil gas well logging. The child was subjected to perhaps eight exposures or attempted exposures over a six-month period. A brief discussion of the medical descriptions of the radiation effects upon the skin and testes and the chromosomal system is included

  10. The Association of Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Child Externalizing Problems: The Role of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Smith, Daniel; Begle, Angela M.; Ayer, Lynsay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of abuse-specific maternal support in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in a sample of children with a history of sexual abuse. In total, 106 mother-child dyads were studied. The association between maternal depressive symptoms and child delinquency behaviors was found…

  11. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  12. "It's Going to Stop in This Generation": Women with a History of Child Abuse Resolving to Raise Their Children without Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sioux

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…

  13. Primary identification of an abused child in dental office: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the injuries of child abuse are many and varied, several types of injuries are common to abuse. Many of these injuries are within the scope of dentistry or easily observed by the dental professional in the course of routine dental treatment. The authors present a case of child abuse with multiple bruises. The child had been spanked in the previous night and the morning of the attendance by his mother. This case emphasized that all practitioners should be vigilant when patients present with abnormal injuries which may be the result of abuse and further investigation should be instigated.

  14. Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo

    Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate. If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family. In Southern Denmark approximately 40 children pr. year are examined in four different radiology departments. Until the autumn of 2012 different projections and imaging techniques were used for the skeletal surveys. This proposed difficulties, because all images are subject to second opinion statements. In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University Hospital. A follow-up meeting was arranged in Sept. 2013. The meeting focused on follow-up skeletal surveys in children < 2 years of age Results. Images are acquired at low noise levels. Speed class 100 against normally 200 - 400 is sufficient, demanding higher radiation dose compared to common pediatric examinations. For children < 2 years, images are acquired systematically and consequently. If a follow-up skeletal survey is needed, images of the spine, head and pelvis are not repeated. No cases of unnecessary supplement images or reexaminations have occurred since autumn 2012 indicating successful implementation of the guidelines

  15. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Manoochehr Mahram; Zahra Hoseinkhani; Saharnaz Nedjat; Ali Aflatouni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was s...

  16. Child sexual abuse : Disclosure, social support and subjective health in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Jonzon, Eva Mc

    2006-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a known risk factor for ill-health. It is assumed that the health consequences are worse if the abuse has been considered severe or if the child has been exposed to cumulative trauma, e.g. physical abuse or other stressful life events. However, symptom development seems to vary widely between individuals. According to developmental theories the dynamic interplay between environmental and individual conditions creates a course toward either healthy...

  17. Inhalant abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Baydala, L

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic bou...

  18. School factors as moderators of the relationship between physical child abuse and pathways of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-03-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ), which are hypothesized to change the course of antisocial behavior from childhood into the adult years. Results show an association between physical child abuse and early antisocial behavior. Early antisocial behavior predicts antisocial behavior in adolescence, and that, in turn, predicts antisocial behavior in adulthood. Child IQ moderated the relationship between child physical abuse and antisocial behavior in childhood. However, no other moderation effects were observed. Limitations and implications for future research and prevention are discussed. PMID:22929340

  19. Sexuality in traditional China: its relationship to child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, S J

    1992-01-01

    The sexual and marital history of China for 3000 year is reviewed, indicating a general open humanistic attitude about sex, with little perversion, sado-masochism, or denigration of sexuality. Foot fetishism (particularly foot binding) has been extensive in the past, but less so since World War I. Respect for women and their sexual rights and importance has been related to the low rate of child abuse. Currently, restrictions on sexual freedom and psychological injury to children is increasing in the urban areas (20% of the population) with resultant increase in infanticide particularly of little girls. PMID:1490397

  20. Irish child sexual abuse victims attending a specialist centre

    OpenAIRE

    O Riordan, Beth; Carr, Alan; Turner, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    We profiled a cohort of CSA cases referred for assessment to a specialist child sexual abuse (CSA) centre in a national paediatric hospital in Ireland. Historical and clinical data were drawn from records of 171 cases. The majority of cases were referred by social workers following purposeful disclosure of CSA. Three quarters of the cases were female with a mean age of 9 years. They were from a wide spectrum of socioeconomic groups and many had suffered a range of family adversities. In most ...

  1. Development and initial validation of the Institutional Child Abuse Processes and Coping Inventory among a sample of Irish adult survivors of institutional abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan-Howard, Roisín; Carr, Alan; Shevlin, Mark; Dooley, Barbara A.; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Tierney, Kevin; WhiteWhite, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To develop a psychometric instrument to evaluate psychological processes associated with institutional abuse and coping strategies used to deal with such abuse. Methods. As part of a comprehensive assessment protocol, an inventory containing theoretically derived multi-item rational scales which assessed institutional abuse-related psychological processes and coping strategies were administered to 247 Irish adult survivors of institutional child abuse. Exploratory and conf...

  2. Cultural Factors in Decision-Making about Child Physical Abuse: Identifying Reporter Characteristics Influencing Reporting Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Pemberton, Joy R.; Terao, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined cultural factors that may influence child physical abuse reporting. Relevant cultural factors such as the respondents' ethnic identity and corporal punishment acceptability were investigated as proximal variables of ethnicity that affect child physical abuse reporting tendencies. Method: Participants consisted of 378…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  4. The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Batya

    2000-01-01

    This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

  5. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child

  6. Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

  7. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  8. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether attachment theory as it is applied to child sexual abuse might be susceptible to biases that reflect the larger sociocultural context. Although this paper concludes that attachment theory can potentially add an important dimension to the conceptualization of child sexual abuse and its dynamics, it is also suggested that…

  10. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse...Provisions and Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse...Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of...

  11. Interpersonal difficulties mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of interpersonal functioning as a mediator in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms, after accounting for the influence of child physical abuse. The research questions build on the existing knowledge base by examining mechanisms of adult adjustment among child sexual abuse survivors. In the current study, 2,892 young adult women (18-29 years old; M = 19.06) reported on child sexual and physical abuse, 5 domains of interpersonal functioning, and depression symptoms. The results supported aggression, sensitivity, ambivalence, and lack of sociability as mediators in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms. These results suggest that interpersonal difficulties related to hostility, emotional reactivity, inability to collaborate, and isolation may be of particular interest when understanding depression in child sexual abuse survivors. The findings support interpersonal problems as a key mechanism of depression symptoms following child sexual abuse and is even demonstrated when examining long-term outcomes and controlling for child physical abuse. The hypotheses and findings are discussed in the context of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. PMID:25774421

  12. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  13. Child sexual abuse: A comprehensive family based approach to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Narrow definitions of CSA which focus on repeated penetrative abuse yield prevalence rates of 2% and 4% for males and females respectively. Most abusers are male. About two thirds of all victims develop psychological symptoms and for a fifth these problems remain into adulthood. Children who have been sexually abused show a range of conduct and emotional problems coupled with oversexualized behaviour. Traumatic sexualization, stigmatization, betrayal and powerlessness are four ...

  14. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation...in accordance with the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act of 1990, Public...tribal codes which protect Indian children and victims of domestic...

  15. Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguard children from abuse, neglect and violence such as incest which has been criminalized by the Penal Code and the Domestic Violence Act which protects the child against violence within family. This Act was introduced to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the care, protection and rehabilitation of children. With the Act beforehand, numbers of child abuse cases are still alarming. Therefore, this article is an attempt to give an overview of care and protection provided under the Child Act 2001 towards children who are being the victims of abuse. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the extent of the protection and care given under the Act to safeguard the children in the social justice system in Malaysia. At the end of the paper some areas are identified for further improvement and future amendment.

  16. Child abuse: validation of a questionnaire translated into Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Marengo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to validate the Portuguese translation of a questionnaire on maltreatment of children and adolescents, developed by Russell et al. and to test its psychometric properties for use in Brazil. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese using a standardized forward-backward linguistic translation method. Both face and content validity were tested in a small pilot study (n = 8. In the main study, a convenience sample of 80 graduate dentistry students with different specialties, from Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were invited to complete the final Brazilian version of the questionnaire. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the results obtained from the questionnaire for different specialties (pediatric dentistry, for example. The respondents completed the questionnaire again after 4 weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability. The comparison of test versus retest questionnaire answers showed good agreement (kappa > 0.53, intraclass correlation > 0.84 for most questions. In regard to discriminant validity, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the experience and interest domains, in which pediatric dentists showed more experience with and interest in child abuse compared with dentists of other specialties (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05. The Brazilian version of the questionnaire was valid and reliable for assessing knowledge regarding child abuse by Portuguese-speaking dentists.

  17. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  18. The Relationship of Child Abuse Indicators to the Assessment of Perceived Risk and to the Court's Decision to Separate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Lenard I.; Drew, Elisabeth C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper operationally defines a set of indicators for the decision to separate the child and family in child abuse cases. Application of the indicators to 152 cases of suspected child abuse in Australia found that severity of abuse, parenting, and the family social system were most predictive of a final separation outcome. (Author/DB)

  19. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  20. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Ç?rak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobal?, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252

  1. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: An Alarming Face of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlawat, Pratibha; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar; Singh, Priti; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is emerging as a serious form of child abuse. It is an intentional production of illness in another, usually children by mothers, to assume sick role by proxy. It is poorly understood and a controversial diagnosis. Treatment is very difficult. We present a case of 9-year-old boy brought to Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, a tertiary care hospital in northern India by his father and paternal uncle with complaints of hematemesis since July 2012. He underwent many invasive procedures until the diagnosis of MSBP was finally considered. The examination of the blood sample confirmed the diagnosis. The child was placed under custody of his mother. The case was reported to social services, which incorporated whole family in the management. PMID:25722520

  2. Autism, child abuse, and sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, C; Botash, A S; Blatt, S D; Weinberger, H L

    1997-04-01

    The current literature regarding the standard and nonstandard therapies for children with autism is reviewed. A long term, comprehensive, individualized, multidisciplinary approach remains the best treatment. Physicians caring for the victims of child abuse are frequently asked to render an opinion regarding soft-tissue bruising. A review of the literature suggests that estimation of the age of a bruise should not rely solely on color, but rather should be the result of careful history, a through physical examination, and possibly laboratory testing. The need for a standardized and systematic approach to sudden infant death syndrome is also reviewed. The psychological effects on the parents following sudden infant death is discussed and reveals maternal anxiety and depression and, to a lesser degree, paternal anxiety and depression following the loss of a child. Currently, sleep position continues to be a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome, although immunizations may not be. PMID:9204249

  3. Munchausen syndrome by proxy: an alarming face of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlawat, Pratibha; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar; Singh, Priti; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is emerging as a serious form of child abuse. It is an intentional production of illness in another, usually children by mothers, to assume sick role by proxy. It is poorly understood and a controversial diagnosis. Treatment is very difficult. We present a case of 9-year-old boy brought to Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, a tertiary care hospital in northern India by his father and paternal uncle with complaints of hematemesis since July 2012. He underwent many invasive procedures until the diagnosis of MSBP was finally considered. The examination of the blood sample confirmed the diagnosis. The child was placed under custody of his mother. The case was reported to social services, which incorporated whole family in the management. PMID:25722520

  4. Children's Rights Regarding Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1992-01-01

    Sees children's rights as important arena in struggle for human dignity. Asserts that flagrant violation of rights of the child occurs when he or she is abused by a parent or caretaker. Explains children's rights with regard to physical abuse, outlines various definitions of abuse, and discusses the incidence and consequences of child abuse.…

  5. Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a different kind of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Burg, M M; Hibbard, R A

    1995-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) continues to mystify health care professionals, law enforcement officials and the judicial system. Even though the first cases were described in 1977, it remains puzzling why a parent would want to induce fictitious symptoms and illnesses in a child. Many professionals do not consider MSBP as a diagnosis because the parent, usually the mother, is so convincing that she is a "good" mother, cares about and wants the best for her child. This article is offered to further educate physicians that MSBP exists, can present in the form of anything and should be considered as a diagnosis in cases that do not make medical sense. Case examples are provided, along with common and not so common presentations. MSBP is a form of severe child abuse that must be reported to Child Protection Service when a child is endangered. Physicians play a critical role in identifying these children and recommending the best course of action to the rest of the system. PMID:7594401

  6. Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini PR

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying areas and gaps for further research and program development. Material and Methods: Published articles in scientific journals during the years 2007-2012 with free access and online versions of English newspapers (2007-2012 in India were searched using the search engines such as ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google’. The key words used were ‘child abuse in (on, about India. First two researchers independently reviewed the content of articles/newspaper reports and decided the categories emerging from the articles and reports. Later on, the quantification of these categories was done by identifying the number of times it was reported in the reports. Results: The nature and extent of reporting child abuse in scientific journal is different from that of newspapers. In Journals, our search provided us with 9 articles, of which prevalence studies were predominant (4 followed by case reports (3 and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice studies (2. The studies were mostly conducted in the hospital setting. We obtained 38 reports from newspapers. Child abuse was found more among girls. Among type of abuse, sexual abuse was more common (84.2%. About 52.6% of the abusers were members known to the victim. The maximum cases were reported from West India especially in Goa, followed by South region. Most reports reported legal action on accused. Little was reported on what happened to a victim, indicators of abuse and settings of the abuse. The motives and consequences of the abuses were not mentioned explicitly. Conclusions: The articles were more focused on prevalence of child abuse in hospital settings. As per newspaper reports, female child abuse (sexual abuse by a known person to family was reported more. It was found more in West part of India. Recommendations: More research/reporting is required to study the extent of problem in different settings of India, settings of abuse, quality of life of victims, parental/community education on indicators of abuse and development of support program to victim.

  7. Child sexual abuse and adult religious life: challenges of theory and method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ketan; Piotrowski, Caroline; Woodgate, Roberta L; Letourneau, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The religious consequences of child sexual abuse in adulthood remain relatively unexamined in the research literature, especially where abusers are not clergy. Some studies suggest child sexual abuse survivors may rely on religion as a source of support, though the majority document a decrease in religiosity. Given the propensity for psychological challenges among adult survivors with diminished spiritual coping, we are calling for increased research attention to religion in the context of child sexual abuse. The objectives of this article were to review the literature on intersections between child sexual abuse (perpetrated by nonclergy) and religiosity in adults and set forth relevant research approaches for future investigation. Findings revealed a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and theoretically informed approach to research may be needed. PMID:25255927

  8. Financial Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financial Abuse Elder financial abuse spans a broad spectrum of conduct, including: Taking money or property Forging an older person's signature Getting an ... false pretence, or dishonest acts or statements for financial gain Telemarketing scams. Perpetrators call victims and use ...

  9. Sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child through cultural practices in Zimbabwe: a human rights perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzi, Roselyn

    2006-01-01

    "In Zimbabwe the sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child remains high. Recently the state has acknowledged the problem of sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child and has indicated the willingness to step up campaigns against it. This campaign, however, targets school children in primary and secondary schools. There has also been an increase of sexual abuse of children in schools by the teachers and other staff members. The family as an institution has facilitated child abuse a...

  10. Protocol to investigate child abuse in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavara, M; Ogren, C

    1983-01-01

    Hennepin County Community Services, a large urban agency in the midwestern United States, developed specific procedures for investigating complaints of abuse and neglect of children in foster care in 1980. During the period from May 1980 through November 1981, approximately 125 complaints of abuse and neglect in foster homes were investigated. This article discusses the Protocol, including the institutional abuse meeting, investigation by an independent third party, and statements of finding. Factors that appear to be significant in abusing foster parents are marital status, if the foster parents had children of their own, length of time licensed, and presence of previous complaints. Victims were slightly more likely to be male, aged 4-12. Many victims appeared to have adjusted well to the foster homes. Information is presented on how the abuse was reported. Recommendations include: investigations conducted by an objective third person, commitment of the administration, and enlistment of legal personnel and foster parents during implementation. Also included are prevention of abuse through comprehensive screening and then training of foster parents, social workers' close contact with foster parents and foster children, avoiding high risk placement, forbidding corporal punishment, and sensitizing social workers to abuse-neglect of children in foster care. PMID:6686474

  11. Child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania : possibilities and barriers for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kisanga, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite beinga crime in most countries, and with well-known physical and mental health consequences, the majority of sexual offences are not reported. Child sexual abuse is a maltreatment form characterized by contact or non-contact acts perpetrated by adults or older children toward younger children who have little power to resist. This thesis aims to understand the social context of child sexualabuse, and the...

  12. Characteristic Features of Severe Child Physical Abuse-A Multi-informant Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Annerba?ck, Eva-maria; Svedin, Carl Go?ran; Gustafsson, Per

    2010-01-01

    Minor child physical abuse has decreased in Sweden since 1979, when a law banning corporal punishment of children was passed, but more serious forms have not decreased. The aim of this study was to examine risk and background factors in cases of severe child abuse reported to the police. Files from different agencies (e.g., Social services, Adult and Child psychiatry and Pediatric clinic) for 20 children and 34 caretakers were studied. An accumulation of risk factors was found. It is conclude...

  13. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELSON, CARLA KMETT; Amstadter, Ananda; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (n=281). Over 60% of the sample reported a history of CSA and/or CPA. Results indicated significant differences in typography of substance abuse and dependence symptoms and rates of comorbid lifetime...

  14. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-10-10

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

  15. The Role of Cranial MRI in Identifying Patients Suffering from Child Abuse and Presenting with Unexplained Neurological Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Brigitte; Decarie, Jean-Claude; Fortin, Gilles

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting possible child abuse in 12 children with unexplained neurologic findings. MRI findings were diagnostic for physical abuse in eight cases. A diagnosis of child abuse was made in two more cases by a combination of MRI and survey findings. (Author/CR)

  16. The Use of Therapeutic Stories in Counseling Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuse

  17. Domestic Abuse and Child Contact: Positioning Children in the Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a three-year Irish research study, this paper focuses on the decision-making process in child contact, specifically the assessment and management of risk of continuing abuse to young people previously exposed to domestic abuse. A mixed methodological approach involved the completion of survey questionnaires by 219 mothers and the…

  18. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects of 101 Cases Seen in an Urban Malaysian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Kasmini; Kasim, Mohd. Sham

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of 101 cases of child sexual abuse in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) found overrepresentation of the Indian ethnic group and a mean age of children involved of 6 to 8 years. Associated psychosocial factors included the absence of a protective adult at home, unemployment, and history of perpetrator drug abuse. (DB)

  1. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  2. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: The Roles of Sadism and Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criville, Albert

    1990-01-01

    A hypothesis, based on concepts of narcissism and perversion, is presented of the mental functioning of the physically and sexually abusive parent. The concept also gives insight into the structuring of the personality of the child-victim, who undergoes the risk of himself becoming a physically and/or sexually abusive parent. (DB)

  3. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: real or detection bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; DuMont, Kimberly A

    2015-03-27

    The literature has been contradictory regarding whether parents who were abused as children have a greater tendency to abuse their own children. A prospective 30-year follow-up study interviewed individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched comparisons and a subset of their children. The study assessed maltreatment based on child protective service (CPS) agency records and reports by parents, nonparents, and offspring. The extent of the intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect depended in large part on the source of the information used. Individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect have higher rates of being reported to CPS for child maltreatment but do not self-report more physical and sexual abuse than matched comparisons. Offspring of parents with histories of childhood abuse and neglect are more likely to report sexual abuse and neglect and that CPS was concerned about them at some point in their lives. The strongest evidence for the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment indicates that offspring are at risk for childhood neglect and sexual abuse, but detection or surveillance bias may account for the greater likelihood of CPS reports. PMID:25814584

  4. Benzodiazepine administration induces exogenic psychosis: a case of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, A; Ammermann, C; Bahro, M; Schmidt, M H

    1995-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy with psychiatric symptoms was brought to the pediatric clinic by his father. The boy exhibited anxiety, sometimes exaggerating to panic reactions, rage, and disorientation. Because of the boy's behavior it was presumed he was having delusions. Careful physical examination revealed evidence of physical abuse. This article alerts readers to the possible combination of physical abuse and purposeful drug administration. PMID:7583739

  5. Peer abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a is intended to cause harm or distress, (b occurs repeatedly over time, and (c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4

  6. Integration of teen pregnancy and child abuse research: identifying mediator variables for pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-lausen, E; Rickel, A U

    1995-01-01

    A review of the literature on adolescent pregnancy and child abuse, both of which are showing alarming increases in the US, suggests a strong link between these two fields as well as potential for integrated research. Numerous studies have identified a significant incidence of childhood sexual abuse in teenage mothers who neglect or abuse their own children. The experience of child abuse has been associated with psychiatric sequelae such as somatization, anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive behavior, dissociation, and suicidality. Another study found that dissociation and depression were significant mediators between a child abuse history and negative life outcomes such as victimization and interpersonal difficulties. Also recorded has been a tendency for abuse survivors to use rapidly initiated sexual activity with multiple partners as a means of coping with feelings of depression, abandonment, and emptiness. A positive correlation has been noted between the severity of childhood abuse and the intensity of subsequent psychopathology. Also found has been considerable overlap between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores of pregnant/parenting teens and abuse victims. If further research continues to substantiate the association between these two social problems, treatment of childhood trauma in high-risk teens may emerge as an important pregnancy prevention strategy. PMID:12290975

  7. ELECTRICA: ELEctronic knowledge base for Clinical care, Teaching and Research In Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Amaka; Hume, Jessica; Bamsey, Ian; Jenkinson, Howard; Lings, Brian

    2011-11-01

    Child abuse is a highly significant public health issue with 4-16% of children being physically abused. The diagnosis is sensitive and challenging, with many radiologists dissatisfied with current levels of training and support. The literature shows a lack of prospective scientific research in this complex field. An ELEctronic knowledge base for Clinical care, Teaching and Research In Child Abuse (ELECTRICA) should solve many current problems. ELECTRICA will be populated with clinical information, radiographs and radiographic findings in children younger than 3 years of age presenting with injury (accidental or suspected abuse), to form a unique resource. This web-based tool will unify the investigative protocol in suspected abuse and support training and allow multicentre national and international collaborative research and provide robust evidence to support the legal process. PMID:21912969

  8. Preservice teachers' sources of information on mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Teachers in many countries are mandated by law, professional codes, or education authorities to report child abuse and neglect, including child sexual abuse. However, teachers may not receive adequate preparation for such sensitive interventions, as preservice teacher education degrees provide very few or no compulsory courses on child protection and crucially related, lifelong health and well-being issues. So, where do preservice teachers source their information regarding the mandatory reporting of such abuse? This research examines preservice teachers' professional university education for their sources of information about mandatory reporting and child sexual abuse. A sample cohort of 56 final 4th-year university bachelor of education (primary school) student teachers in Australia identified the sources they used regarding 10 important aspects of child protection. The results suggest that most did not learn about mandatory reporting or child sexual abuse, and others cited sparse and sporadic public media as their primary information source. These findings, building on previous evidence about inadequate or nonexistent preservice mandatory intervention courses in primary teacher education, may guide the design of appropriate training responses enhancing educational professionals' knowledge, competencies, skills, and efficacies as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse. PMID:25942284

  9. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

  10. Theatre-in-Education and Child Sexual Abuse: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezseran, Catherine; Katz, Barbara Myerson

    1985-01-01

    Describes the planning, implementing, and evaluating stages of "Choices," a theatre-in-education program on intrafamilial child sexual abuse produced by the Louisville Children's Theatre for third grade students in Jefferson County, Kentucky. (PD)

  11. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  12. Fourth National Incidende Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-4)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NIS–4 data were collected to provide updated estimates of the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States and measure changes in incidence from the...

  13. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  14. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. PMID:25484318

  15. Caring for adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Issues for family physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, M.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional medical education has not taught physicians about the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Family physicians often feel poorly equipped to appreciate the effect of such a childhood history on current health or to recognize and treat survivors. This article links the experience of the sexually abused child to long-term effects and outlines the role of family physicians in screening and caring for survivors.

  16. Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Diane Payne; Kimber Olson; Jared W. Parrish

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Alaska Native (AN) population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH) program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and enc...

  17. Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Economic Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967–1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003–2004 (N = 807). Results indicate that a...

  18. Child abuse inventory at emergency rooms: CHAIN-ER rationale and design

    OpenAIRE

    Es, Nieuwenhuis Edward; Gm, Moons Karel; Spm, Uiterwaal Cuno; Sittig Judith S; van de Putte Elise M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the injured children attending the emergency room, the consequences of both missed child abuse cases and wrong suspicions are substantial. Therefore, the accuracy of ongoing detection at emergency rooms by health care professionals is highly important. Internationally, seve...

  19. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Davies; Ben Mathews; John Read

    2014-01-01

    Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University), Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology) and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool). In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, ...

  20. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug depe...

  1. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  2. Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda; Engku Ahmad Zaki bin Engku Alwi

    2011-01-01

    All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguar...

  3. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Faldowski, Richard; Mayhew, Amy Marie

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized effectiveness trial of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST-CAN) for physically abused youth (mean age = 13.88 years, 55.8% female, 68.6% Black) and their families. Eighty-six families being followed by Child Protective Services due to physical abuse were randomly assigned to MST-CAN or Enhanced Outpatient Treatment (EOT), with both interventions delivered by therapists employed at a community mental health center...

  4. Burn injuries caused by a hair-dryer--an unusual case of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darok, M; Reischle, S

    2001-01-01

    About 1.4-26% burn injuries in children appear to be abusive in origin. A 2.5-year-old girl was referred to our institute because of suspected child abuse. Clinical examination and later interrogation of the mother revealed non-recent deep second degree burn injuries on both gluteal regions, caused by the partner of the mother by pressing a hand-held hair-dryer against the skin. The authors present the findings of this unusual method of child abuse. PMID:11056285

  5. Modeling risk for child abuse and harsh parenting in families with depressed and substance-abusing parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lawrence, Hannah R; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Henson, James M

    2015-05-01

    Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n=52) and dual couple (n=33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents' own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), the overreactivity subscale from the Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993), and the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Ondersma, Chaffin, Mullins, & LeBreton, 2005). Results of multigroup structural equation models revealed that a parent's own report of depressive symptoms predicted their risk for child maltreatment in both father SUD and dual SUD couples. Similarly, a parent's report of their own depressive symptoms predicted their overreactivity in disciplinary encounters both in father SUD and dual SUD couples. In all models, partners' depressive symptoms did not predict their partner's risk for child maltreatment or overreactivity. Findings underscore the importance of a parent's own level of depressive symptoms in their risk for child maltreatment and for engaging in overreactivity during disciplinary episodes. PMID:25724658

  6. Juror Perceptions of Child Eyewitness Testimony in a Sexual Abuse Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Jacquin, Kristine M.

    2007-01-01

    A mock child sexual abuse trial was used to study juror perceptions of child eyewitnesses. The child's age (5, 11, or 16) and level of involvement (victim or bystander) were varied across conditions in order to test their impact on juror perceptions and verdict. Results indicated a significant effect of level of involvement on the verdict;…

  7. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  8. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  9. Does Accessibility of Positive and Negative Schema Vary by Child Physical Abuse Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L.; Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Farc, Magdalena M.; Irwin, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child

  10. Red Flags of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the same services and protections. Physical abuse; neglect; emotional or psychological abuse; financial abuse and exploitation ; sexual abuse ; and abandonment are considered forms of elder abuse. In many ...

  11. Sexual Abuse Of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1982-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relation...

  12. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  13. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse. Final Report of the Joint Commission of the Chancellor and the Special Commissioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Office of the Special Commissioner of Investigation, NY.

    In recent years, sex abuse scandals have struck schools around the country. This report contends that the way to address sexual abuse is to face it head on and to develop a comprehensive program to attack every facet of the problem. It is the multi-faceted nature of child sexual abuse that dictates this comprehensive approach. It is recommended…

  14. Child physical abuse risk moderates spontaneously inferred traits from ambiguous child behaviors?

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Randy J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Hiraoka, Regina; Rutledge, Ericka; Jenkins, Jade

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether parents at high-risk for child physical abuse (CPA) differed from low-risk parents in their tendency to infer positive traits and negative traits from children’s behaviors. The final sample consisted of 58 (25 low CPA risk and 33 high CPA risk) parents. Parents completed a false-recognition task, which involved viewing behavior descriptions paired with child photographs. Half of the behavior descriptions vaguely/strongly implied a trait and half of the imp...

  15. Learning Lessons from the Past: Legal Issues Arising from Ireland's Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Kilkelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inquiries have played an important role in telling the stories of children abused and neglected in Ireland in situations of family abuse, clerical abuse and institutional abuse. The inquiries – associated with the name of the chairperson (Ryan or by their geographical remit (Dublin, Ferns, Cloyne, Kilkenny and Roscommon – serve to vindicate the rights of the children affected and to identify the failure of the authorities to protect children from harm. They also make numerous recommendations as to how children’s treatment can be improved. Although each inquiry had varying terms of reference, scope and status, together they address a wide range of issues of both specific and general significance to the issue of child protection. Focus is clearly placed on how child protection practice can be improved but many of the inquiries also comment on the legal framework and make recommendations for the reform of various aspects of child protection law and policy. This paper argues that the legal implications of these inquiries can be reduced to three overarching issues: the legislative provision for the mandatory reporting of child abuse; the need for robust and effective inspection mechanisms to ensure the protection of children, and the issue of constitutional law reform. The analysis shows that these measures are neither straightforward nor a panacea to the intractable problem of providing effective protection to children from abuse. However, taken with the other recommendations identified in the child abuse reports, they represent the beginning of a lasting legacy for the victims of abuse so tragically failed by their families, by the state and by society at large.

  16. Emotional Closeness with Perpetrators and Amnesia for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Tammy; Passmore, J. Lawrence; Yoder, C. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, a contentious debate regarding delayed memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has existed. In order to address this debate, 240 female participants completed questions about CSA, the Dissociative Experience Scale (Bernstein & Putnam, 1986), Perceived Emotional Closeness with Perpetrator Scale (Schultz, Passmore, & Yoder,…

  17. The Use of Transpersonal Empathy with Child Abuse Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilewski, Michael J.

    Adult survivors of childhood abuse are some of the more difficult and challenging patients in psychotherapy. This paper applies a transpersonal model of empathy to therapeutic work with these individuals. The transpersonal model of empathy extends traditional humanistic models which strive towards "advanced accurate empathy" to the level at which,…

  18. Public health strategies to minimize the global incidence of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an extremely complicated and a multi-faceted public health concern, significantly influenced by the victim's age, the settings in which the abuse occurs, and the relationship between the victim and perpetrator. The global estimates are just the tip of the iceberg as most of it takes place in the privacy of domestic life and often goes unreported and undetected. In fact, occurrence of child abuse can be best explained by exploring the complex interaction among multiple factors at different levels. In order to counter this menace there is a definite need to involve all the stakeholders and ensure mandatory reporting of child abuse with the help of a surveillance system. To conclude, comprehensive and integrated package of services is desired to minimize the incidence of child abuse and neglect, supplemented with community-based initiatives to facilitate early detection and prolonged follow-up of victims of the abuse. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 955-958

  19. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  20. Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the year leading up to the survey. The consequences of methamphetamine abuse are terrible for the individual––psychologically, medically, and ... whole communities, causing new waves of crime, unemployment, child neglect or abuse, and other social ills. A 2009 report from ...

  1. Impact of Child Sex Abuse on Adult Psychopathology: A Genetically and Epigenetically Informed Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Lei, Man Kit; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic influences and their transactions were examined in a sample of 155 women from the Iowa Adoptee sample (IAS) who had been removed from their biological parents shortly after birth, and assessed when participants were an average of 41.10 years old. We observed an interactive effect of child sex abuse (CSA) and biological parent psychopathology (i.e., genetic load) on substance abuse as well as a main effect of CSA on substance abuse in adulthood. We also o...

  2. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  3. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Mahram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Findings: Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5% boys and 488 (47.5% girls 679 (66.05% cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%, 360 (35% and 394 (38.3% respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence.Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended.

  4. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

  5. The development of hemorrhagic shock encephalopathy syndrome due to child abuse-a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Yalaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse/neglect is a very important problem in our country as it is in the world. It may be as physical, sexual, psychological abuse and child neglect. A previously healthy baby at the age of 2.5 months was brought to the emergency service with complaints of not breathing and cyanosis. Evaluation of the patient and the history obtained suggested a diagnosis of hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome. During the following period, problems of spasticity and vision impairment appeared. The family history of the patient revealed a case of child abuse/neglect and consultation with the social service resulted in a committee decision of transfer of the custody of the baby to the child protection department. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44: 143-5

  6. Child maltreatment, abuse and neglect in a Nigerian adolescent boy, the common but unheard menace: A case report form Southwest, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzodimma, Chinyere C.; Ogundeyi, Morufat M.; Dedeke, Florence I.; Olasunkanmi Owolabi

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse is a global problem. It includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that result in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, development or dignity. Child abuse and neglect are common in Nigeria, yet poorly reported. We herein report a case of child abuse and neglect in a 14-year-old boy, complicated by severe malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus infection and gross under achievement of ed...

  7. Prevalence of Child Abuse in 15-17 year old Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Sabzevari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a common phenomenon accompanies with unfavorable short and long term personal and social consequences. With changes in environment which child taken care, negative long term consequences could decreased. This study designed to determine the prevalence of all types of maltreatments in 15-17 year-old students in Kerman. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional- descriptive study, a sample of 360 students (184 boys/196 girls selected by cluster method from all boy and girls high school students of educational area one and two of Kerman and was evaluated. Maltreatment assessment instrument was a 48-questions standard self-report questionnaire which previously recorded. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests. Results: The average of child abuse among samples was 27.6%. The students have experienced physical, neglect and emotional abuse, 9.67%, 23.6% and 17.9% respectively in their history. Conclusion: Despite the lower frequency of child abuse types in comparison with other studies, it seems the early diagnosis and protective educational interventions could have critical roles in diminishing the prevalence and harmful consequences of child abuse.

  8. Attitude toward Child Abuse among Mothers Referring Health Centers of Tabriz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Asadollahi, Maliheh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohhammad; Hallaj, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Parental attitude is an important factor in prediction of child abuse. Awareness of people's attitudes is important in the prediction of their behavior and controlling it. This study was conducted to determine the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 261 mothers referred to the 13 health centers of Tabriz with children aged 2-12, they were selected by a multistage method and their attitudes were assessed using a questionnaire within 2 months. Higher score were representing more negative attitudes. Results: The results showed that the mean score of total attitude toward child abuse was significantly higher than the middle and was significantly associated with mothers' educational level, employment status, attendance status, number of children they have, and economic status. Conclusion: The results showed that although the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse were negative, because of the relationship between mothers' attitudes with their demographic characteristics, it is necessary to enhance mothers' quality of life, and their social and spiritual support to improve their attitudes and prevent the child abuse. PMID:25821761

  9. Evaluations of Child Sexual Abuse: Recognition of Overt and Latent Family Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, John M.; Murphy, Janet L.; Asnes, Andrea G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe a clinical approach to the recognition of overt and latent concerns of parents and children when children are evaluated for suspected sexual abuse by medical examiners. Method: Description of a clinical approach. Results: We describe 10 concerns-six of parents: (1) should we believe our child?; (2) worries about the child's…

  10. Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex offenders for…

  11. Corporal Punishment and Child Abuse: Some Observations and Relationships. Monograph Series No. 1:3/83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, John H.

    Various personal observations and experiences of a former director of the Office of Child Development and chief of the Children's Bureau are recounted in an informal discussion of punishment and child abuse. Several brief arguments focusing on the negative effects of punishment are offered, and contributions of the Children's Bureau to action…

  12. Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory reporting laws have been created in many jurisdictions as a way of identifying cases of severe child maltreatment on the basis that cases will otherwise remain hidden. These laws usually apply to all four maltreatment types. Other jurisdictions have narrower approaches supplemented by differential response systems, and others still have chosen not to enact mandatory reporting laws for any type of maltreatment. In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment—physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect—are often grouped together as if they are homogenous in nature, cause, and consequence. Yet, the heterogeneity of maltreatment types, and different reporting practices regarding them, must be acknowledged and explored when considering what legal and policy frameworks are best suited to identify and respond to cases. A related question which is often conjectured upon but seldom empirically explored, is whether reporting laws make a difference in case identification. This article first considers different types of child abuse and neglect, before exploring the nature and operation of mandatory reporting laws in different contexts. It then posits a differentiation thesis, arguing that different patterns of reporting between both reporter groups and maltreatment types must be acknowledged and analysed, and should inform discussions and assessments of optimal approaches in law, policy and practice. Finally, to contribute to the evidence base required to inform discussion, this article conducts an empirical cross-jurisdictional comparison of the reporting and identification of child sexual abuse in jurisdictions with and without mandatory reporting, and concludes that mandatory reporting laws appear to be associated with better case identification.

  13. Adult adjustment of survivors of institutional child abuse in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    CARR, ALAN; Dooley, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisín; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Method Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Personality Disorders, the Trauma Symptom Inventory, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Results The prevalence of psychological disorders among adult survivors o...

  14. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  15. El maltrato infantil: mecanismos subyacentes / Child abuse: underlying mechanisms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys S., Martínez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La exposición durante la infancia a estrés traumático, en la forma de abuso o negligencia, está asociada con una mayor vulnerabilidad, la cual resulta en el desarrollo de diversas psicopatologías, relación que ha sido confirmada una y otra vez en estudios epidemiológicos; sin embargo, aún se descono [...] cen los mecanismos neurales que subyacen dichas alteraciones y solo recientemente se han empezado a estudiar los cambios neurobiológicos subyacentes en padres y madres maltratadores. En esta revisión se resumen investigaciones en que se ha abordado esta temática y se presentan algunos de los modelos animales usados para su estudio. Abstract in english Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confirmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are [...] still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I review some of the studies using animal models of early adverse trauma and present some of the data on neural changes. Further studies of brain abnormalities in abusive parents are still needed.

  16. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  17. Child abuse: Effects on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achema G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a major problem that has been living with man and seen by many as one of his day to day activities. Aim: The study aimed to ascertain the practice and effects of child abuse on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra state, and also to identify the factors associated with child abuse among the children. Methods: The study is a descriptive survey design using self-administered interviewer questionnaire. Four villages were purposively sampled for the study; Oruokwe, Awobu, Urukpeleke, and Uruogbo. Systematic sampling technique was adopted in sampling subjects. Results: Findings showed that the most common associated factor with child abuse with parent/guardian is poverty (50.7% and low social economic status (34.5%. The practices of child abuse are majorly concerned with starving the children (44.2% and kicking/shaking the children (41.2%. The effects on the child abuse on the child and family could lead the abused children into early marriage (26.5% and unwanted pregnancy (22.5%. Conclusion: The study indicated that child abuse in Njikoka LGA is due to poverty/low socio-economic status. The practices of child abuse borders on starving the children, kicking/shaking them and that, the effects of child abuse could lead the children into early marriage and/or having unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, social awareness campaign on child abuse and effects should be adopted and effective child abuse laws should be enacted by the government and stiff penalties and sanctions should be melted out to the offenders.

  18. Interpreting Child Sexual Abuse: Empathy and Offense-Supportive Cognitions among Child Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Inge Sarah; Buck, Nicole Maria Leonarda; van Vugt, Eveline Stefanie; van Marle, Hjalmar Johan Carel

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children's behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by offenders' offense-supportive cognitions and levels of empathy. To examine the relationships between these three concepts, 47 contact offenders completed self-reports on offense-supportive cognitions and empathy. Vignettes were developed to assess the extent to which offenders attributed responsibility, benefit, and complicity to children in hypothetical child molestation incidents. This study showed that cognitions that justify sexual offending against children seem to diminish the threshold for sexual assault by assigning more cooperation and willingness of the victim in a child molestation incident. PMID:26061021

  19. Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilo, Rob A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands). Department of Pathology and Toxicology; Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Childrens' s Hospital/Academic, Medical Center Amsterdam (Netherlands). Department of Radiology; Robben, Simon G.F. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

  20. Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

  1. Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

    2014-01-01

    Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually escalates to violence. According to one theory, there may be a degree of transgenerational transmission of these communication patterns in children who have been victims of violence, thus propagating the conditions for violence, this time perpetrated by the victims themselves. Therefore there is a pressing need for prevention, perhaps through psychoeducation for parents or through early detection and treatment of traumatized children and adolescents, in the hope that the transgenerational vicious cycle of violence may be broken. PMID:25367662

  2. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex. PMID:22292995

  3. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  4. Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  6. "Speaking of Mothers..." How Does the Literature Portray Mothers Who Have a History of Child Sexual Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The tendency to cast mothers in a negative light has featured in much of the literature researching child sexual abuse. More recently however, this trend has become increasingly evident in any number of empirical discussions focusing on mothers who themselves have a history of child sexual abuse. This article presents a detailed thematic analysis…

  7. Understanding the Complexity of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature with Implications for Family Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sally V

    2006-01-01

    Working with families in which there have been incidences of child sexual abuse is one of the most challenging assignments for a family counselor. Beyond ethical and legal mandates for reporting such assaults, less is understood about the long-term effects on victims. After reviewing the literature on child sexual abuse and gender differences,…

  8. Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Payne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Alaska Native (AN population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design. PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today’s children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results. Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusions. The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children, supporting child victims in healing and to holding offenders accountable.

  9. Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in China: Regulation the Child Abuse in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse occurring outside the home in China is inflicted on school-age children and can result in serious physical and mental harm. China is a developing country with a population of over 1.2 billion, of whom over 300 million are children under the age of 16. Making a commitment to respect the rights of children has profound implications for the status of children in China. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter CRC requires that State Parties take all appropriate measures to protect child from abuse. China has ratified the CRC at domestic level and taken legislative, judicial and other measures to prevent children from abuse. Examination of the child abuse statutes and judicial practice of China reveals that China's domestic law has failed to provide adequate protection for children. Chinese traditional Confucian culture and deficiency of CRC both contribute to the soaring number of incidents of child abuse in schools. It is suggested that China review its legislation, establish the independent human rights commission, raise awareness of children's rights and improve cooperation with NGOs to ensure that it conforms fully with the requirements of the CRC.

  10. Value of minor trauma in the diagnosis of physical child abuse: ‘The law of common man’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidanapathirana M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition of Meadow (1989, child abuse is defined as treating a child in an unacceptable way in a given culture at a given time. Major criteria for diagnosis of physical child abuse include sever, multiple, and patterned injuries with different stages of healing. Sometimes, even a single, minor injury may be sufficient to diagnose physical child abuse based on how much it is unacceptable to that particular culture at a given time. When single minor trauma is found, the criteria that could be used to decide whether it is unacceptable to the culture at a given time include; severe pain, severe disfiguration, negligence and lack of care such as injuries to main members of the body,unacceptable punishments such as biting, burning, pinching or tying to an object and,severe mental trauma such as due to non-sexual genital injuries. Much information can be gathered from minor injuries and their consequences such as how much of care was rendered. A new criterion to diagnose physical child abuse is introduced using single minor injuries. However, there is no objective and defined way of deciding how much the trauma is unacceptable for the culture at a given time. Therefore, this should be decided by law of common man, that is, if the ill-treatment of the child is unacceptable to a common man in the society.

  11. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child

  12. Child abuse inventory at emergency rooms: CHAIN-ER rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwenhuis Edward ES

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the injured children attending the emergency room, the consequences of both missed child abuse cases and wrong suspicions are substantial. Therefore, the accuracy of ongoing detection at emergency rooms by health care professionals is highly important. Internationally, several diagnostic instruments or strategies for child abuse detection are used at emergency rooms, but their diagnostic value is still unknown. The aim of the study 'Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms' (CHAIN-ER is to assess if active structured inquiry by emergency room staff can accurately detect physical maltreatment in children presenting at emergency rooms with physical injury. Methods/design CHAIN-ER is a multi-centre, cross-sectional study with 6 months diagnostic follow-up. Five thousand children aged 0-7 presenting with injury at an emergency room will be included. The index test - the SPUTOVAMO-R questionnaire- is to be tested for its diagnostic value against the decision of an expert panel. All SPUTOVAMO-R positives and a 15% random sample of the SPUTOVAMO-R negatives will undergo the same systematic diagnostic work up, which consists of an adequate history being taken by a pediatrician, inquiry with other health care providers by structured questionnaires in order to obtain child abuse predictors, and by additional follow-up information. Eventually, an expert panel (reference test determines the true presence or absence of child abuse. Discussion CHAIN-ER will determine both positive and negative predictive value of a child abuse detection instrument used in the emergency room. We mention a benefit of the use of an expert panel and of the use of complete data. Conducting a diagnostic accuracy study on a child abuse detection instrument is also accompanied by scientific hurdles, such as the lack of an accepted reference standard and potential (non- response. Notwithstanding these scientific challenges, CHAIN-ER will provide accurate data on the predictive value of SPUTOVAMO-R.

  13. Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pr, Nalini; Thirunavukarasu MR; Ar, Dongre

    2014-01-01

    Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying ...

  14. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  15. Rural Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse in Rural Areas Substance abuse has long been perceived to be a problem of the inner ... are some options to reduce it? What is substance abuse and what are the signs of substance abuse? ...

  16. Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. PMID:24747007

  17. Diagnostic criteria for cutaneous injuries in child abuse: classification, findings, and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Physical abuse of children has many manifestations. Depending on the type of force involved, specific injury patterns are produced on the body of the child, the morphology and localization of which are forensically relevant in terms of diagnostic classification as child abuse. Typical patterned bruising includes, for example, tramline bruises resulting from blows with oblong, stick-like objects. In addition to rounded or one-sided horseshoe-shaped bite injuries, injuries of different ages, clustered injuries (e.g., three or more individual injuries in the same body region), and thermal injuries are typical results of abuse. Abusive scalds are usually characterized by a symmetrical impression and localization with sharp delineation of the scald wound edges, in contrast to accidental scalding injuries with radiating splash patterns ending in tapered points. The coloration of a hematoma can help indicate the time when the injury occurred. Lack of a coherent and comprehensible explanation for accidental injury constitutes grounds for suspecting abuse. Suspicions should be raised in cases of a delayed visit to a doctor, waiting for an unusually long period before summoning emergency medical help for serious injuries to a child, and when differing versions of a purported accident are provided. Documentation of the findings is highly relevant in later reviews of the diagnosis, for instance, when new relevant facts and investigative results come to light in subsequent criminal proceedings. PMID:25772121

  18. Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B

    1999-10-01

    Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future. PMID:10611766

  19. Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, P

    1995-01-01

    The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

  20. The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ...

  1. Child sexual abuse and subsequent relational and personal functioning: the role of parental support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the role of nonoffending parental support in the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and later romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and couple adjustment. Of 348 adults engaged in stable romantic relationship, 59 (17%) reported sexual abuse. In this subgroup, 14% (n=8) reported parental intervention after the abuse was disclosed (i.e., support), 15% (n=9) reported a lack of parental intervention after abuse disclosure (i.e., nonsupport), and 71% (n=42) reported that their nonabusive parent(s) was(were) unaware of their abuse. Results indicated that, compared to other groups, CSA survivors with nonsupportive parents reported higher levels of anxious attachment, psychological symptoms, and dyadic maladjustment. In contrast, CSA survivors with supportive parent(s) expressed psychological and couple adjustment equivalent to non-abused participants, and lower attachment avoidance, relative to all other groups. Path analysis revealed that insecure attachment completely mediated the relationship between perceived parental support after CSA and later psychosocial outcomes. An actor-partner interdependence model showed different patterns for men and women and highlighted the importance of considering relational dynamics in dyads of CSA survivors. Overall, the results suggest that perceived parental support serves as a protective factor among those exposed to CSA. PMID:24199753

  2. Child and adolescent abuse and neglect in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2014-10-01

    Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support. PMID:24661691

  3. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  4. Stemming the Tide of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role Schools Can Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Linda S.

    1992-01-01

    One reason all 50 states have passed laws requiring school personnel to report suspected child abuse is that the school may be the primary setting in which children interact on a regular basis with nonfamily members. Because teachers interact with children on a daily basis, they are particularly well positioned to spot unusual behaviors in…

  5. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  6. Rape, Statutory Rape, and Child Abuse: Legal Distinctions and Counselor Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Clifton W.; Rogers, Reagan E.

    2003-01-01

    This article explains the legal distinctions between rape, statutory rape, and child abuse and school counselors' obligations related to each. In addition, complicating issues such as cultural differences as well as the potential effect of mandated reporting on counselors' roles are addressed. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)

  7. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  8. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  10. Expected Consequences of Disclosure Revealed in Investigative Interviews with Suspected Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Brubacher, Sonja P.; Lamb, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored the expected consequences of disclosure discussed by 204 5- to 13-year-old suspected victims of child sexual abuse during the course of investigative interviews conducted using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol. Expected consequences were mentioned in nearly half of all interviews, with older children and those…

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Parent-Involved Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan

    2008-01-01

    Sexual abuse in children not only occurs with alarming frequency, it also potentially leads to deleterious consequences for victims. Previous narrative reviews have touted the benefits of including the nonoffending caregiver in child sexual treatment. Objective: A meta-analysis is conducted to determine the effects of parent-involved treatment in…

  12. The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

  13. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  14. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  15. School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Review of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Keith J.; Barron, Ian G.

    2009-01-01

    In this systematic and critical review of purely school based child sexual abuse prevention program efficacy studies, 22 studies meeting the inclusion criteria differed by target population, program implementation, and evaluation methodology. Measured outcomes for children included knowledge, skills, emotion, risk perception, touch discrimination,…

  16. Co-Occurrence of Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) in a cohort of Chinese parents drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. It also investigates the risk factors for CAN with a special emphasis on the role of IPV. A subsample of 2,363 parents was invited to complete…

  17. Teachers May Never Know: Using Emotional Intelligence to Prevent and Counter Child Neglect and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2007-01-01

    Caring adults may be unaware of how deeply healing their love for a child can be. A gentle smile, warming cuddle, or soothing lullaby can uplift a baby or toddler. Infants, who appear healthy on the outside, can suffer deeply within from "invisible wounds." "Young children are the most vulnerable to being abused or neglected. Statistically, the…

  18. Relationship to Perpetrator, Disclosure, Social Reactions, and PTSD Symptoms in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined victim relationship to the perpetrator, disclosure characteristics, social reactions, and PTSD in adult survivors' of child sexual abuse (CSA) identified in a convenience sample of 733 college students. Results indicated that relationship to the perpetrator was related to CSA characteristics and outcomes. More negative…

  19. Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Crafting a Positive Process for Health Professionals and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…

  20. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  1. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  2. Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Assessing Subjectivity and Bias in Professional Judgements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluators examining the same evidence often arrive at substantially different conclusions in forensic assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study attempts to identify and quantify subjective factors that contribute to such disagreements so that interventions can be devised to improve the reliability of case decisions. Methods:…

  3. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  4. Factors Associated with Nurses' Intention to Report Child Abuse: A National Survey of Taiwanese Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J.Y.; Levine, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:The objectives were to determine the experiences of Taiwanese nurses with a new child abuse reporting law and to assess attitudinal correlates of nurses' intention to report. Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to select registered nurses working in pediatric, psychiatric and emergency care units in Taiwan. A total of…

  5. Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated. (orig.)

  6. Progress Report on the Development of Child Abuse Prevention, Identification, and Treatment Systems in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Owen; Sargent, John; Chaffin, Mark; Friedrich, William N.; Cunningham, Nicholas; Cantor, Pamela; Coffey, Pamela Sumner; Villani, Susan; Beard, Philip R.; Clifft, Mary Ann; Greenspun, David

    2004-01-01

    Problem: After the Soviet Union dissolved in 1989, it became apparent that there was little recognition of the problems of child abuse and neglect, professionally, legally, or societally. There were no effective systems or laws in place to deal with these problems. Method: Beginning in 1995 the Children's Mental Health Alliance, in conjunction…

  7. See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J Collings

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value...

  8. Cycle of Sexual Abuse: Research Inconclusive about Whether Child Victims Become Adult Abusers. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Crime, Committee on the Judiciary. House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    Sexual abuse can have negative consequences for children during the time of abuse as well as later in life. An important research question concerns the cycle of sexual abuse, specifically the likelihood that individuals who were victims of sexual abuse as children will become sexual abusers of children in adulthood. At the request of Congress, the…

  9. Virtual patients: an effective educational intervention to improve paediatric basic specialist trainee education in the management of suspected child abuse?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEvoy, M M

    2011-09-01

    Child abuse is a particularly difficult subject to teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Most doctors are dissatisfied with their training in child abuse recognition and management. We developed an interactive video based Virtual Patient to provide formal training for paediatric Basic Specialist Trainees in the recognition of suspected child abuse. The Virtual Patient case revolves around the management of suspected physical abuse in a seven month old child, who initially presents to the Emergency Department with viral upper respiratory tract symptoms. This Virtual Patient was used to facilitate a case discussion with Basic Specialist Trainees. A questionnaire was developed to determine their perception of the value of the Virtual Patient as an educational tool. Twenty five Basic Specialist Trainees completed the questionnaire. Upon completion of the case, 23\\/25 (92%) participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to recognize cases of suspected child abuse and 24\\/25 (96%) of participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to report cases of suspected child abuse. Basic Specialist Trainees perceived the Virtual Patient to be a useful educational tool. Virtual Patients may have a role to play in enhancing postgraduate training in the recognition of suspected child abuse.

  10. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects. PMID:24983655

  11. How well do we prepare pediatric radiologists regarding child abuse? Results of a survey of recently trained fellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric radiologists serve an important role in the radiologic diagnosis, investigation, and in legal proceedings in cases of child abuse. The Society for Pediatric Radiology should evaluate and insure the adequacy of training of pediatric radiologists for this important role. The Society for Pediatric Radiology Committee on Child Abuse, 2002, conducted a 24-question survey to evaluate the scope and perceived adequacy of training received by pediatric radiology fellows regarding the radiologic diagnosis of child abuse and the associated legal process. Eighty-four surveys were mailed to radiologists who had completed a year in pediatric radiology fellowship training during the years 1999 and 2000. There were 33 surveys returned for an overall response of 39%. Respondents' perception of adequacy of training was best for the radiologic diagnosis of child abuse. The majority perceived they were not well trained in the investigative and legal processes regarding child abuse. The majority would welcome standardized training. Current pediatric radiology training programs do not sufficiently prepare pediatric radiologists for their role in the legal system regarding child abuse. A standardized program to train pediatric radiologists about the imaging diagnosis of child abuse and their role in the legal system is recommended. (orig.)

  12. A comparison of two programmes for victims of child sexual abuse: a treatment outcome study

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Margretta; CARR, ALAN; Fitzpatrick, Carol; et al,

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of individual therapy and combined individual and group therapy in the treatment of the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self Report form (YSR), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) were administered before treatment and 6 months later to a group of 20 young people who participated in individual therapy (IT) programme...

  13. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  14. Child Sexual Abuse in the United States: Perspectives on Assessment and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Jennifer M.; Carson, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a widespread problem the United States as it is in many areas of the world today. CSA can lead to a host of psychological and emotional difficulties and disorders that can cripple some children and youth for a lifetime. In this article the authors discuss the sexual abuse of minors in the United States. Risk factors involved in and potential causes of CSA are discussed. Signs and symptoms of CSA are summarized along with common consequences associated with sexual ...

  15. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child ... 37. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Identification of Sexual Abuse. https://www.childwelfare.gov/can/identifying/sex_abuse. ...

  16. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted. PMID:22287568

  17. Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if givediology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

  18. Covert video surveillance of parents suspected of child abuse: the British experience and alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    One million cases of child maltreatment and twelve hundred child deaths due to abuse and neglect occur per year. But since many cases of abuse and neglect remain either unreported or unsubstantiated due to insufficient evidence, the number of children who are abused, neglected, and killed at the hands of family caregivers is probably higher. One approach to combat child abuse in the U.K. has been the employment of hospital-based covert video surveillance (CVS) to monitor parents suspected of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP). The use of CVS, however, raises concerns about voluntary informed consent, research on human subjects, privacy, and the appropriateness of healthcare providers to conduct CVS. More broadly, the use of CVS raises concerns about the ethical life of healthcare institutions and their moral obligations to the families and communities they serve. The U.K. protocol for CVS is examined in light of these concerns. Three alternative CVS protocols and two procedures for selecting a protocol are then proposed for use in the U.S. The paper concludes that any CVS protocol selected for use by hospitals ought to be selected by means of open and democratic processes that permit community input and, subsequently, the possibility of a consensus on the moral status and scope of CVS. PMID:15637948

  19. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  20. Maltrato infantil: Experiencia de un abordaje interdisciplinario / Child abuse: An interdisciplinary management experience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Julio, Seldes; Valentina, Ziperovich; Alejandra, Viota; Fernanda, Leiva.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El maltrato infantil constituye una de las formas más frecuentes de violencia familiar. El presente estudio intenta mostrar la situación que, al respecto, existe en la ciudad de Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina y establecer algunas asociaciones propias de esa problemática. Población, ma [...] terial y métodos. Se presenta una serie de 128 casos de niños maltratados, de entre 0 y 19 años, entre noviembre de 1998 y noviembre de 2002 asistidos en Moiru, Centro de Prevención, Orientación, Asistencia y Capacitación en conductas sociales de riesgo, que funciona en Mercedes. Resultados. Se detectó 56% de maltrato físico; 30% de abuso sexual; 10% de negligencia; 3% de maltrato emocional y 1% de síndrome de Münchaussen con una distribución por sexos similares en el total de la casuística. Se señalan variables demográficas y ciertas asociaciones en casos de maltrato físico y abuso sexual. Se evidenció una asociación significativa entre madres víctimas de violencia doméstica y el maltrato físico que éstas proporcionan a sus hijos. Conclusiones. Fueron asistidos en nuestro servicio 128 niños y niñas maltratados Se considera que se trata de una casuística significativa, donde el maltrato físico y el abuso sexual se presentan como más relevantes. Abstract in english Introduction. Child abuse constitutes one of the most frequent forms of family violence. The following study tries to demonstrate the situation that arises in the city of Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina, and to establish some associations about that matter. Population, material and methods. A series [...] of 128 cases of abused children is presented, between 0 and 19 years old, attended from November 1998 to November 2002, in Moiru, Center of prevention, direction, attendance and qualification in social conducts of risk that works in Mercedes. Results. 56% of physical abuse; 30% of sexual abuse; 10% of neglect; 3% of emotional abuse and 1% of syndrome of Münchaussen was detected, with a similar distribution by sexes in the total population. Demographic variables and certain associations in cases of physical abuse and sexual abuse are indicated. A significant association between mothers victims of domestic violence and physical abuse towards their children was demonstrated. Conclusions. 128 young boys and girls were seen in our center. It is considered that, a significant population was treated where physical abuse and sexual abuse appears as most relevant.

  1. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on the Education of Boys in Residential Care between 1950 and 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Andrew; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Children's education may be adversely impacted by external factors during their childhood. For example, learning to learn, critical reflection, experiential learning and self-direction may be permanently impaired. Many children in out-of-home residential care during the last century suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect, including sexual abuse,…

  2. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  3. Prevalencia y Consecuencias del Abuso Sexual al Menor en Espana (Prevalence and Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse in Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Felix; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1,821 individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 (15 percent of males and 22 percent of females) and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse in the United States: Perspectives on Assessment and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Foster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse (CSA is a widespread problem the United States as it is in many areas of the world today. CSA can lead to a host of psychological and emotional difficulties and disorders that can cripple some children and youth for a lifetime. In this article the authors discuss the sexual abuse of minors in the United States. Risk factors involved in and potential causes of CSA are discussed. Signs and symptoms of CSA are summarized along with common consequences associated with sexual abuse. Characteristics of sexual perpetrators of children and adolescents are also examined. In addition, the authors discuss the problems children often have in disclosing the abuse, along with the individual, familial and societal challenges involved in reporting incidences of sexual abuse. Some assessment issues and tools associated with CSA are highlighted, and the importance of investigators and clinicians capturing children's narrative descriptions of their abuse, and various methods for doing so, are outlined. Finally, an overview of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT for children is presented, and common challenges for therapists in treating children who have experienced sexual abuse and their families are discussed. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  5. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esmaeili Douki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression.Results: The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%, 260 (46% and 180 (32%, respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90% participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67% cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02, as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03, and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001.Conclusion: Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential.

  6. Social support, collective efficacy, and child physical abuse: does parent gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Wolf, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ by gender, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (N = 3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multi-level Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however, the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention. PMID:25520320

  7. The influence of medical and behavioral evidence on conviction rates in cases of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tiffany E; Klettke, Bianca; Day, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse cases have one of the lowest conviction rates across all charges. While research has investigated the impact of attitudes and beliefs in judicial decision makers, little is known about the influence of medical evidence. The aim of this study was to examine how the presence or absence of evidence impacts on conviction. A sample of 113 child sexual abuse cases from Australia were coded for the types of evidence that were presented as well as other relevant descriptive data. The most significant predictor of verdict was the behavior of the child rather than the presence of medical evidence. This finding suggests that greater attention might be given to the collection and reporting of this evidence in future trials. PMID:24641628

  8. Comments on "How Child Protective Services Investigators Decide to Substantiate Mothers for Failure-to-Protect in Sexual Abuse Cases"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadoin, Amy L.; Carnes, Connie N.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary discusses the decisions of child protective service (CPS) investigators to substantiate mothers for failure-to-protect (FTP) in child sexual abuse cases. Four areas are identified in which the scientific literature remains inadequate to fully inform child maltreatment researchers, CPS practitioners and child welfare policymakers on…

  9. Childhood panhypopituitarism presenting as child abuse: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bradley J; Collins, Kim A

    2004-09-01

    Childhood panhypopituitarism may be acquired or congenital. Children with panhypopituitarism can present clinically with diabetes, growth failure, decreased bone density, and morbid obesity. In the forensic setting without the proper history, it can be misdiagnosed as child abuse or neglect. We report a case of a 3-year-old black girl who was admitted to the emergency room with apnea and subsequently died. While at the emergency department, it was discovered that the child had a fractured left hip and was severely growth retarded for age. The coroner wanted to rule out child abuse and/or neglect and requested an autopsy based on the physical findings identified by hospital staff. Significant findings at autopsy included small for age (15th percentile for age), hypoplastic brain/pituitary gland/adrenal gland/thyroid gland, abnormally formed skull with an occipital protuberance, a fractured left hip with decreased bone density, and central adiposity. Subsequent to the autopsy, it was discovered that at 6 weeks of age the child suffered from group B streptococci meningitis that resulted in panhypopituitarism. The panhypopituitarism then resulted in seizure activity, diabetes insipidus, and growth retardation. The authors hope this case report and review of the literature will assist investigators, pathologists, and clinicians in making a distinction between neglect or inflicted injury of child abuse and panhypopituitarism that can present with similar signs and symptoms. PMID:15322473

  10. Confirmation of childhood abuse in child and adolescent cases of multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, P M

    1994-08-01

    The diagnostic validity of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and its association to trauma have been questioned because corroboration of child abuse in studies of patients with MPD is scant. The purpose of this study was to determine on a retrospective basis whether external corroboration of child abuse could be found in a group of patients with MPD and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. A group of child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients and outpatients was chosen because of the extensive number of collateral records collected on them in a tertiary care setting. This group was also chosen because of the intense interest paid by child protective services and courts to child abuse during the past 15 years. This retrospective chart review confirmed child abuse in eight of nine patients with MPD and in all 12 cases of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. This study provides further evidence of the association of severe dissociative disorders with trauma, particularly child abuse. Future studies should be prospective and blinded to avoid the possibility of investigator bias, and should include a control group for comparison of base rate of child abuse. PMID:8040657

  11. Coping with Child Sexual Abuse among College Students and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Role of Continuity of Abuse and Relationship with the Perpetrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton-Cortes, David; Canton, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the use of coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores in young adults, as well as the role of avoidance and approach coping strategies in those PTSD scores in CSA victims. The role of coping strategies was studied by considering…

  12. Child abuse: Effects on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Achema G; Emmanuel A; Odinigwe N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Child abuse is a major problem that has been living with man and seen by many as one of his day to day activities. Aim: The study aimed to ascertain the practice and effects of child abuse on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra state, and also to identify the factors associated with child abuse among the children. Methods: The study is a descriptive survey design using self-administered interviewer questionnaire. Four ...

  13. The Effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on Emotional Schemas of Female Victims of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Daneshmandi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings proposed that Emotional Schema Therapy can be regarded as an effective intervention in order to modify some dimensions of emotional schemas in women with child abuse and neglect history.

  14. Child abuse and neglect by parents with disabilities: A tale of two families

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Brandon F.; Norman, K. Renee; Searle, Mariana S.; Daniels, Monica; Lubeck, Roger C.

    1995-01-01

    Two families, in which the children had been placed in foster care due to abuse and neglect by parents who had disabilities, were studied. In the first case, the mother was instructed in skills that our assessment suggested were important for her child's survival. The mother readily acquired and applied these skills, a fact reflected both in changes in her behavior and in changes in the child's well-being. In the second case, the parent's incremental resumption of child custody was made conti...

  15. Co-occurrence between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential: the impact of cumulative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Gordis, Elana B

    2003-06-01

    Evidence suggests that marital aggression and parent-to-child aggression sometimes occur within the same family, but little is known about why certain families are vulnerable to multiple forms of family aggression. According to family systems theory, negative affect in one family relationship can spread to other family relationships. According to family stress theory, aversive circumstances increase families' vulnerability to disruption and conflict. Based on these theories, the present study tests the hypothesis that cumulative family stresses potentiate the association between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential. In a series of additive interactional models, husband-to-wife aggression was linked to husbands' and wives' child abuse potential in a context of both high financial stress and high parenting stress but was not linked in a context of low stress. Wife-to-husband aggression was linked to wives', but not husbands', child abuse potential in a context of high stress. These results highlight the potential role of contextual factors in the pervasiveness of aggressive exchanges across multiple family subsystems. PMID:12968657

  16. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who...

  17. Hemophilia and child abuse as possible causes of epidural hematoma: case report Hemofilia e abuso infantil como possíveis causas de hematoma extradural: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto; Fabrizio Frutos Porro; Liliana Suganuma; Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos Fontes; Almir Ferreira De Andrade; Raul Marino Jr.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Head trauma is an important consequence of child abuse. Specific pathophysiological mechanisms in child abuse are responsible for the ''whiplash shaken-baby syndrome'', which would favour the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhages. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a child who developed epidural hematoma following minor-intensity head trauma. Initial diagnosis of child abuse was made, but subsequent investigation led to the diagnosis of hemophilia A. CONCLUSION: Even though epi...

  18. See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steven J, Collings.

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the poten [...] tial to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

  19. See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Collings

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing a prescription drug with friends — is actually breaking the law. Continue Which Drugs Are Abused? The ... most common result of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse medications can become addicted just ...

  1. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  2. Preventing child abuse: psychosocial description of clients of brief intervention programs in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gómez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study describe characteristics and risk factors for child abuse and neglect,in 591 children and adolescents, their parents and families served by eight brief intervention programs (PIB “Viviendo en Familia”, funded by the Chilean National Service of Children (SENAME and implemented by Protectora de la Infancia (a non-profit organization in Chile. The results revealed the existence of problems of moderate complexity, on the environment,parental competencies, family interactions, family safety and child well-being. About three of each four caregivers show signs of high risk for the abuse or neglect of children, especially in their mental health, a topic that must be considered by the staff to develop a plan of coordinated work with the local network of health services.

  3. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and their relationship with child abuse: predictor and consequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornellà Canals, J; Juárez López, J R

    2014-12-01

    The current literature increasingly associates the presence of symptoms of ADHD in both physical and psychological and sexual child abuse. This implies the need for greater accuracy in the differential diagnosis, as until a few years ago, post-traumatic stress disorder was considered the reference symptoms for this type of case. Thus, it is necessary to define and conceptualize an increasingly broad and detailed world of sequels and consequences, where ADHD may be related to the psychological damage suffered by child abuse. Furthermore, the particular vulnerability of children with ADHD can, in turn, become a factor of risk that needs to be considered by the professionals who care for this type of patient. PMID:25201341

  4. Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP): an extreme form of child abuse with a special forensic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Christine; Risse, Manfred; Schütz, Harald; Weigand, Nikola; Weiler, Günter

    2003-11-26

    Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a special form of child abuse in which an adult repeatedly produces symptoms of illness in a person under his/her care. In most cases the perpetrators are mothers who repeatedly and in different ways produce or feign symptoms of illness in their children in order to obtain medical treatment for them. MSBP is thus a special form of child abuse that is also of importance in the field of forensic medicine and a particular challenge to the medicolegal expert. We report two cases of poisoning with different substances (clozapine and clonidine) detected by toxicological investigations at our Department of Legal Medicine. The relevance of the problem for the medicolegal expert and the importance of an interdisciplinary co-operation are pointed out. PMID:14609650

  5. Medical evaluation for child physical abuse: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Physical abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter physically abused children in their practice. This continuing education offering will help PNPs develop the skills necessary to recognize an injury that raises the concern for abuse based on characteristics of the injury such as appearance, location, or severity and characteristics of the history given for the injury. The link between corporal punishment and physical abuse will be discussed. Cutaneous findings of abuse, oral injuries, skeletal injuries, abdominal trauma, and abusive head trauma will also be discussed. PMID:22525996

  6. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2014-10-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7 % of the sample, and 67 % was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8 % of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  7. Child Abuse And Adults’ Failures Found In Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Elgreen

    2013-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul “Child Abuse and Adults’ Failures Found in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye” membahas tentang tindak-tindak kekerasan pada anak yang dialami oleh seorang remaja berkulit hitam bernama Pecola Breedlove sebagai tokoh utama serta kegagalan-kegagalan orang dewasa di sekitarnya seperti Cholly Breedlove, Pauline Breedlove, dan the Soaphead Church alias Elihue Micah Whitcomb di dalam mendidik dan melindungi sang anak. Tindak-tindak kekerasan yang dialami ole...

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Adulthood Interpersonal Outcomes: Examining Pathways for Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Lamoureux, Brittain E.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Jackson, Anita P.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined a dual pathway, longitudinal mediational model in which child sexual abuse (CSA) influences adulthood interpersonal functioning and sexual risk through its impact on resiliency resources and psychological distress. Women were recruited from two obstetrics and gynecological clinics serving primarily low-income, inner-city women (N = 693) and interviewed at pretest (Time 1) and 6-month follow-up (Time 2). The proposed mediators were resiliency resources (i.e., self-esteem and self-e...

  9. Adults with a history of child sexual abuse: evaluation of a pilot therapy service.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D.; Pearce, L; Pringle, M.; Caplan, R.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate a pilot service offering therapy specifically to adults with a history of child sexual abuse. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey. SETTING--Specialised therapy unit, Breakfree, which offers care, therapy, and support. SUBJECTS--116 clients presenting to the service who were offered therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Scores from three psychological questionnaires--the social activities and distress scale, the general health questionnaire, and the delusions, symptoms, and states in...

  10. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Habetha Susanne; Bleich Sabrina; Weidenhammer Jörg; Fegert Jörg M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the indiv...

  11. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Savita Malhotra (M.D.; Ph.D; F.A.M.S); Dr. Parthasarathy Biswas (M.D.)

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/ psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in establishing validity of alleged CSA. The shortcomings of the various behavioral/psychological assessment procedures and the issues of general cons...

  12. Mood as a mediator of the link between child sexual abuse and psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marwaha, S.; Bebbington, P

    2014-01-01

    The significance of affective changes in psychosis is increasingly acknowledged, as is the role of early traumatic events. In a previous paper, using data from the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (APMS2007), strong associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychosis were demonstrated, with some evidence of mediation by affect. In the current paper, we subjected the same dataset to formal tests of mediation. For CSA involving sexual intercourse, 38.5 % of the link was m...

  13. Hyponatremia caused by excessive intake of water as a form of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Min A.; Kim, Eun Young

    2013-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder that requires careful management. Water intoxication with hyponatremia is rare condition that originated from overhydration. Water intoxication, also known as dilutional hyponatremia, develops only because the intake of water exceeds the kidney's ability to eliminate water. Causes of this water intoxication include psychiatric disorder, forced water intake as a form of child abuse and iatrogenic infusion of excessive hypotonic fluid. We exp...

  14. Twins abused by their father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

  15. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  16. A Partnership-Directed School-Based Intervention for Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: Beyond Mandatory Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuzzo, John W.; Stevenson, Howard C.; Weiss, Andrea D.; Hampton, Virginia R.; Noone, Megan J.

    1997-01-01

    Professionals in schools are a major source of child maltreatment reports nationally. Review of literature indicates these professionals contribute only a small amount of school-based research data to the understanding of consequences of child physical abuse and neglect or maltreatment of child victims. Presents strategic multisystems approach for…

  17. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug administration. There were no cases in which a urine drug screen alone altered the outcome of a case. In summary, hair toxicology testing proved clinically useful in the evaluation of a child for suspected abuse; in contrast, urine drug testing showed low clinical yield. PMID:26048499

  18. Sexual abuse and incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

  19. The impact of child abuse on dissociative symptoms:a study of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique; Bedard, Laura E; Pate, Kerensa

    2007-01-01

    One-hundred and ninety-two incarcerated women who were participating in a trauma and abuse psychoeducation program were evaluated for childhood abuse, maltreatment and current dissociative symptoms. The link between childhood abuse and adult criminal behavior has been well studied but the mental health status of adult female inmates and the possible implications for their treatment and behavior is the next step. The participants reported high levels of childhood abuse, 68% reported molestation, 72% rape, 26% emotional abuse, 51% physical abuse. Almost half of the participants reported a clinically significant level of dissociative symptoms. The dissociative group was found to have higher rates of sexual, emotional and physical abuse. They were younger and had shorter sentences. A logistic regression model was developed with only physical abuse being a predictor of clinically significant dissociative symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of how the high level of dissociative symptoms may impact future delinquency and corrections staff and possible future research. PMID:18032342

  20. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful debate about mandatory reporting. 

  1. The Roles of Peritraumatic Dissociation, Child Physical Abuse, and Child Sexual Abuse in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Adult Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…

  2. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigante Luciana P

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5] was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]. Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3] and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7] ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

  3. Concepções da professora acerca do abuso sexual infantil Teachers' conceptions about sexual child abuse

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    Rachel de Faria Brino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A escola mostra-se como lugar ideal para detecção e intervenção em casos de abuso sexual infantil, uma vez que o principal agressor geralmente encontra-se na família. Considerando que a escola deve ter como objetivo garantir a qualidade de vida de sua clientela, bem como promover a cidadania, para delinear um programa que possa capacitar tais profissionais em casos de abuso sexual, parece necessário, em primeiro lugar, conhecer o universo de informações que eles detêm sobre o tema, sobre a legislação a respeito e sobre os direitos da criança. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar as informações de 20 educadoras de escolas municipais de educação infantil sobre o abuso sexual de crianças em uma cidade de médio porte. As informações obtidas foram analisadas e divididas em sete categorias. Os resultados indicam que a maioria das educadoras possuía informações insuficientes acerca do tema e afirmava adotar procedimentos inadequados diante dos casos de crianças que sofreram abusos sexuais.The school proves to be an ideal place for detection and intervention in child sexual abuse cases, since the main aggressor is found generally within the family. Considering that one of the school's objectives should be to guarantee the quality of life of its pupils, as well as to promote citizenship, in order to develop a program to train teachers on what to do in cases of sexual abuse, it seems necessary first to survey the universe of information teachers have about the subject, the existing legislation, and the children's rights. This study aimed to characterize the information that twenty educators in municipal schools for early child education in a medium size city had about child sexual abuse. The data obtained were analyzed and divided into seven categories. The results indicate that the majority of educators had insufficient information on the subject, affirming as well that they took inadequate measures when faced with cases of children who suffered sexual abuse.

  4. Concepções da professora acerca do abuso sexual infantil / Teachers' conceptions about sexual child abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rachel de Faria, Brino; Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Williams.

    Full Text Available A escola mostra-se como lugar ideal para detecção e intervenção em casos de abuso sexual infantil, uma vez que o principal agressor geralmente encontra-se na família. Considerando que a escola deve ter como objetivo garantir a qualidade de vida de sua clientela, bem como promover a cidadania, para d [...] elinear um programa que possa capacitar tais profissionais em casos de abuso sexual, parece necessário, em primeiro lugar, conhecer o universo de informações que eles detêm sobre o tema, sobre a legislação a respeito e sobre os direitos da criança. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar as informações de 20 educadoras de escolas municipais de educação infantil sobre o abuso sexual de crianças em uma cidade de médio porte. As informações obtidas foram analisadas e divididas em sete categorias. Os resultados indicam que a maioria das educadoras possuía informações insuficientes acerca do tema e afirmava adotar procedimentos inadequados diante dos casos de crianças que sofreram abusos sexuais. Abstract in english The school proves to be an ideal place for detection and intervention in child sexual abuse cases, since the main aggressor is found generally within the family. Considering that one of the school's objectives should be to guarantee the quality of life of its pupils, as well as to promote citizenshi [...] p, in order to develop a program to train teachers on what to do in cases of sexual abuse, it seems necessary first to survey the universe of information teachers have about the subject, the existing legislation, and the children's rights. This study aimed to characterize the information that twenty educators in municipal schools for early child education in a medium size city had about child sexual abuse. The data obtained were analyzed and divided into seven categories. The results indicate that the majority of educators had insufficient information on the subject, affirming as well that they took inadequate measures when faced with cases of children who suffered sexual abuse.

  5. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Chi...

  6. Child Abuse in Young, HIV-Positive Women: Linkages to Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Clum, Gretchen A.; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore the lives of young women living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these young women had complex abuse histories, often experien...

  7. Methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation. PMID:17990840

  8. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Savita Malhotra (M.D.; Ph.D; F.A.M.S

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/ psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in establishing validity of alleged CSA. The shortcomings of the various behavioral/psychological assessment procedures and the issues of general consensus on behavioral assessment in CSA have been reviewed. The role of behavioral/psychological assessment in child protection issues is also discussed.

  9. Child Peer Sexual Abuse: Preliminary Data on Outcomes and Disclosure Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Debbie M.; Gilbert, Brenda O.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compared experiences of children sexually abused by peers to those of children abused by adolescents/adults. Variables examined included perceived negativity of the abuse, self-reported outcomes, overall psychological functioning, and disclosure. Method: An archival data set containing retrospective reports of childhood…

  10. Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson

    2007-01-01

    This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

  11. The Relationships of Dissociation and Affective Family Environment with the Intergenerational Cycle of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, D.S.; Contreras, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The purpose was to test a model that may explain how physically abused children become physically abusive parents. It was predicted that when the family's affective environment is uncohesive, unexpressive, and conflictual, a history of abuse experiences would be associated with elevated dissociation. It was hypothesized that…

  12. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discussing this problem openly and stressing the devastating consequences of inhalant abuse, you can help prevent a tragedy. If you suspect your child or someone you know is an inhalant abuser, ...

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8255). 67 Kaplan, S. L. (1996). Physical abuse of children and adolescents. In S. J. Kaplan (Ed.). Family violence: A clinical and legal guide (pp. 1-35), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press, Inc 78 ... DiClemente, R. (1993). The effects of child abuse and race on risk-taking in male ...

  14. To tell or not to tell? factors influencing young people's informal disclosures of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to understand the factors influencing informal disclosure of child sexual abuse experiences, taking account of dynamics operating prior to, during, and following disclosure. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 young people who experienced child sexual abuse and 14 parents. Grounded theory methodology informed the study. The key factors identified as influencing the disclosure process included being believed, being asked, shame/self-blame, concern for self and others, and peer influence. Many young people both wanted to tell and did not want to tell. Fear of not being believed; being asked questions about their well-being; feeling ashamed of what happened and blaming themselves for the abuse, for not telling, and for the consequences of disclosure; concern for how both disclosure and nondisclosure would impact on themselves and others; and being supported by and yet pressurized by peers to tell an adult, all illustrate the complex intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics reflecting the conflict inherent in the disclosure process. These findings build on previous studies that emphasize the dialogic and interpersonal dynamics in the disclosure process. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal influencing factors need to be taken account of in designing interventions aimed at helping children tell. The importance of asking young people about their psychological well-being and the role of peer relationships are highlighted as key to how we can help young people tell. PMID:24288188

  15. El maltrato infantil: un problema mundial Child abuse: A worldwide problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINDA SANTANA-TAVIRA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Al abordar el maltrato infantil se presentan diversos problemas: desconocimiento de la verdadera proporción de dicha problemática; raíces culturales e históricas profundas; diversidad de opiniones en cuanto a su definición y clasificación; dificultades en la investigación y, finalmente, una diversidad de consideraciones sobre sus repercusiones y su manejo terapéutico. En el presente artículo se estudia el maltrato infantil desde sus antecedentes históricos, así como sus clasificaciones, sus definiciones y su epidemiología. Asimismo, se revisan las repercusiones y se plantean las alternativas de tratamiento que en la bibliografía existente se han manejado como fundamentales para enfrentar este fenómeno cada vez más alarmante. Queda subrayada la necesidad de unificar criterios en cuanto a la definición y clasificación de información científica en torno a datos demográficos que, finalmente, hablarán de la realidad del problema, de los avances relacionados con sus causas, su diagnóstico, sus medidas preventivas y su tratamiento. Es fundamental utilizar medidas tendientes a prevenir el maltrato, pues una gran parte de los problemas en el niño se ven reflejados en la vida adulta. Se comparan las distintas clasificaciones en torno al tema, así como las características tanto del agredido como del agresor en los distintos tipos de maltrato.Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present study approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused.

  16. Environmental influences on incidents of alleged child abuse and neglect in New York State psychiatric facilities: toward an etiology of institutional child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, E R; Brown, S W

    1986-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the etiology of institutional child maltreatment, 232 allegations of child abuse and neglect in New York State Office of Mental Health operated facilities were investigated with the hypothesis that environmental stresses placed on professional child care workers can precipitate incidents of child maltreatment in institutional settings in the same way that stress and anxiety experienced by a parent can contribute to incidents of abuse in the home. The study focused on administrative policy decisions, patient census and admissions, seasonal influences, staffing levels and identifiable one-time disruptions in daily routines as potential contributors to institutional abuse. A multivariate regression analysis revealed a significant four-variable model for predicting the number of reports of abuse and neglect per month, R2 = .585, F(4,21) = 7.41, p less than .01. Potential preventive measures based on this model were suggested. PMID:3708422

  17. Study on Child Abuse in Children and Adolescents in the Province of Buenos Aires:

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    Cuenya, Lucas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to provide a current description of the child and teenager maltreatment phenomenon in the Buenos Aires Province. The sample was composed by 5341 cases of children and teenagers from 0 to 20 years old, whose were treated in 2010 for having been victims of maltreatment. Physical maltreatment was the most frequent one. The girls presented major proportion of sexual abuse, whereas boys registered major proportions of negligence, physical maltreatment and desertion situation. An increase of the sexual abuse frequency in teenagers from 12 years was observed. As a whole, the information demonstrates that sex and age of victims are differentially associated with different types of maltreatment, and these are pertinent variables to have into account by future investigations, and prevention and protection organisms.

  18. Mood as a mediator of the link between child sexual abuse and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, S; Bebbington, P

    2015-04-01

    The significance of affective changes in psychosis is increasingly acknowledged, as is the role of early traumatic events. In a previous paper, using data from the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (APMS2007), strong associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychosis were demonstrated, with some evidence of mediation by affect. In the current paper, we subjected the same dataset to formal tests of mediation. For CSA involving sexual intercourse, 38.5% of the link was mediated, 30.0% by depression and 8.5% by anxiety. For all forms of contact abuse, 38.2% was mediated, 29.1% by depression and 9.1% by anxiety. PMID:25308056

  19. The influence of child sexual abuse on the self from adult narrative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer, Anne; Seddon, Diane; Robinson, Catherine A; Gwilym, Hefin

    2015-01-01

    The impact of child sexual abuse on the adult self is not yet clearly understood. We explored adult perspectives through the use of narrative interviews (N = 30). Three key themes or views of self were identified in all narratives to varying degrees: the worthless self, the self as unknown, and the potential/developing self. Ambivalence and tension were present in all narratives. Individuals were challenged to integrate the sexual abuse experience in a constructive way and develop a more coherent perception of the self. The narrative method highlighted the dynamic nature of peoples' experiences at the same time recognizing that the narratives themselves are in progress. Reactions to disclosure, social support, and interpersonal connections are crucial at every turn. PMID:25747417

  20. Abused Kids Not Destined to Be Abusive Parents, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead researcher Cathy Spatz Widom, a professor of psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, in ... child abuse may use more social services in general. "Each time you're in contact with social ...

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8–16 years and who were reported to Child Protective Services for alleged sexual abuse. Sex differences were examined using t tests, logistic regression, and ...

  2. Corporeal punishment and child abuse : a pastoral perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Samuel Jacob

    2014-01-01

    For many decades, violence that is perpetuated by parents and loved ones against children in the name of physical child discipline or corporal punishment, has been a major concern for various governments and church leaders among most nations of the world. This does not only take into account hitting or beating a child with a stick, belt, slapping, or choking, but also spanking; especially when it is aggressive or excessive (Bradshaw 2009; Straus 1994; Kanyandago in Waruta & Kin...

  3. The Nature, Extent and Causes of Abuse of Children with Disabilities in Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumba, Almon; Abosi, Okey C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the exact number of children with disabilities in Botswana is unknown. A study on child abuse sought to determine: the forms of child abuse perpetrated on children with disabilities; the extent of child abuse; and the causes of child abuse of children with disabilities. A questionnaire on child abuse was adapted and used to…

  4. False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegat...

  5. ‘.XXX’ Sponsored Top-Level Domain – Is it a solution to curb child abuse due to Internet Pornography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranath Gupta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of having a zone for adult entertainment over Internet was previously not accepted by ICANN (Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers until the recent approval of ‘xxx’ domain for adult entertainment. Among other reasons the main reason to launch a specific domain for adult entertainment was to combat the child abuse cases due to internet pornography or child pornography in particular. This analysis is a submission of the effectiveness of ‘xxx’ domain. The effectiveness of ‘xxx’ will not depend on what ‘child abuse’ is but on the general practice of the children as to how and from where they access the Internet.

  6. Münchausen's syndrome by proxy as a form of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, B C; Kahan, B B

    1990-10-01

    Munchausen's syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is an emotional disorder in which the parent, almost always the mother, induces or fabricates illness in her child in order to gain medical attention. Although numerous case studies exist in pediatric and medical literature, most nurses are unaware of the warning signs of this disorder. Psychiatric consultation liaison nurses are in an ideal position to identify and intervene in MSBP situations and can also support the pediatric nursing staff through feelings of denial, shock, and guilt as they recognize the syndrome and its danger to the child. PMID:2260890

  7. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the addicted individual and to those around ...

  8. A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are randomly selected. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among the sample people, which is categorized in four groups of physical, sexual, emotional and neglect child abuse. The results are analyzed using different tests including Pearson correlation test, Chi-Square, etc. to test different hypotheses. The results of our survey indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between different family characteristics including age, occupation, family size, educational background, and drug-addiction and child abuse. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between home status and child abuse risk.

  9. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  10. Situational Prevention of Child Abuse in the New Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    WORTLEY, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Situational prevention shifts attention from the psychological characteristics of the individual performing behaviour to the facilitating role played by the immediate environment in which the behaviour occurs. Applied to the problem of Internet child pornography, the situational approach emphasises the role of opportunity in driving consumption. It is argued that under the right environmental conditions the potential to view children as sexual objects is more widespread than sexual deviance m...

  11. The nurse in sexual abuse child suspicion attention: a phenomenology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Introduction: This study brings reflexions and contributions about nurse attendance in child sexual abuse suspicion, in view the gravity and seriousness of this issue in society and the possibilities of actions to be undertaken by nurse face the child and his family, considering health promotion, protection and prevention. Objective was to analyze nurse actions in child sexual abuse suspicion context Methodology: qualitative research based on sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz, which emphasizes social relations and define the action as human conduct with a purpose, namely, has an intent, the In – Order- To motives of the action, that were captured by phenomenological interview. The questions that guided the interview were: When you attend a child with sexual abuse suspicion, what do you do? ; What you have in mind with nurse actions triggered in this type of attendance? Why? Results: The analysis of speech allowed the apprehension of four categories: interact with other professionals for child care; establish a dialogue and an open allowing, a care with a prospect from the other, to attend the children and fulfilling the routines of the unit.  Conclusions: From interviews comprehension and interpretation the understanding was that nurse’s actions can propel nurses in child health area research and offering possible interferences in family and child assistance and in yours healthy growing and development. Relevance to clinical practice: the study contributes to a better  attendance and identification of child sexual abuse suspicion by the nurse and a wide vision in violence cases assistance.

     

    Keywords: Nursing. Child. Sexual abuse. Phenomenology.

  12. Child abuse: review of the literature Maus-tratos infantis. Revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-accidental injuries in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Fractures are the second most common clinical manifestation of child abuse. The fracture of the femur is associated in more than 60% of child abuse in children younger than 3 years. The objective was to review the literature on child abuse in the major databases and report a rare case of bilateral subtrochanteric femur fractures associated with unilaterall humeral fracture in a 28-day newborn. The orthopedic surgeon is often the first physician to evaluate these children, so a high degree of suspicion, and a physical examination and a detailed clinical history is mandatory when evaluating a newborn with musculoskeletal injuries.Lesões não acidentais em crianças são uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade nesta população. Fraturas são a segunda causa mais comum de manifestação clínica de maus tratos. A fratura do fêmur está associada em mais de 60% dos casos a maus tratos em crianças menores de 3 anos. O objetivo do trabalho foi fazer uma revisão da literatura nas principais bases de dados a respeito dos maus-tratos infantis e relatar um caso raro de fratura subtrocantérica bilateral de fêmur associada com fratura umeral unilateral em um recém-nascido de 28 dias. O ortopedista muitas vezes é o primeiro médico a avaliar essas crianças; portanto, um alto grau de suspeição, além de um exame físico minucioso e uma história clínica detalhada, é mandatório ao se avaliar um recém-nascido com lesões musculoesqueléticas.

  13. A entrevista de crianças com suspeita de abuso sexual / Interviewing alleged victims of child sexual abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Roberto, Benia.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo revisar a literatura científica referente às melhores práticas na entrevista de investigação do abuso sexual infantil. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura sobre as particularidades da memória e das habil [...] idades de comunicação da criança em situação de entrevista investigativa, bem como as diferentes técnicas que permitem aprimorar a qualidade dos relatos infantis e maximizar a quantidade de informações obtidas. Foram pesquisadas as seguintes bases de dados: MedLine, PsychInfo e SciELO, no período de 1995 a 2012, utilizando-se as palavras-chave "sexual abuse", "children", "interview", "investigative" e "forensic". Foram encontradas 196 referências, das quais 34 foram selecionadas para inclusão neste artigo. Foi encontrado grande número de evidências demonstrando a necessidade de procedimentos cuidadosos para avaliar as suspeitas de abuso sexual. Técnicas específicas são descritas, assim como são discutidas as dificuldades frequentemente encontradas pelos entrevistadores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review to describe the best practice guidelines to evaluate sexual abuse interviews. A narrative literature review was carried out to establish the children's memory and communicative skills during an inve [...] stigative interview, as well as the interview techniques that improve the quality of children's reports and maximize the amount of information elicited. We used the following electronic on-line databases: MedLine, PsychInfo and SciELO, referring to the period 1995-2012. The keywords searched for in the databases were "sexual abuse", "children", "interview", "investigative", "forensic". A total of 196 references were identified and 34 were selected for this paper. We found a large amount of evidence that recommends careful procedures when evaluating child sexual abuse. We describe the specific techniques and discuss the most common difficulties interviewers face during interviews.

  14. Mental health of mothers and their premature infants for the prevention of child abuse and maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Kaneko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Birth of preterm infants is a stressful event for their parents, particularly for mothers. The mothers of preterm infants often feel hard to relate their infants because they have separated since their first days after delivery. Long term separation and less attractive, less responsive appearance of preterm infants also make it difficult to build mother-child relationships. In addition, the mothers of preterm infants are likely to have mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders. The mothers’ psychiatric illnesses affect the psychosocial development of preterm infants and are often regarded as a risk factor for child abuse and maltreatment in later life. Child abuse and maltreatment are also prevalent among preterm infants than the full term infants. Intervention from the early period of preterm birth is an important issue for both preterm infants and their mothers. Medical and co-medical professionals should pay attention to developmental outcome of preterm as well as psychosocial conditions of their mothers for the improvement of their mental health.

  15. Assessment of pain and suffering in child abuse and homicide victims: Suggestions for social work practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René, Albertyn; Nico, Nortjé.

    Full Text Available Child abuse and homicide are on the increase worldwide. Often the burden falls upon social workers to argue the case of victims without being able to quantify the pain the children have suffered. A case study approach was used in which a High Court case was utilised as base to describe the proposed [...] methodology to assess the level of pain, post-mortem, a victim could have gone through. The application was a four-step methodology constructed by using paediatric pain assessment. This study found that there is a need for the development of post-mortem pain scales to aid social workers.

  16. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    OpenAIRE

    ColleenJoyStieler-Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitising game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has im...

  17. MR imaging of the central nervous system in victims of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six victims of child abuse with intracranial injury were examined by high-field MR (1.5-T). In comparison with CT, MR proved to be much more sensitive and accurate in the demonstration and anatomic localization of subacute and chronic hematomas and hemorrhagic contusions. Ischemic white matter changes in the young infant were more easily appreciated on serial CT examinations than on MR studies because of the variable signal intensity found in the myelinating white matter. Contusions represent a large component of the injuries seen in the whiplash infant. Because of its rapidity, CT remains the initial procedure for overall evaluation of injury and for exclusion of operable hematomas

  18. Nature and severity of physical harm caused by child abuse and neglect: results from the Canadian Incidence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocmé, Nico; MacMillan, Harriet; Fallon, Barbara; Marco, Richard De

    2003-01-01

    Background Despite growing public concern about child maltreatment, the scope and severity of this significant public health issue remains poorly understood. This article examines the nature and severity of the physical harm associated with reports of child maltreatment documented in the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). Methods The CIS collected information directly from child welfare investigators about cases of reported child abuse or neglect. A multistage sampling design was used to track child-maltreatment investigations conducted at selected sites from October to December 1998. The analyses were based on the sample of 3780 cases in which child maltreatment was substantiated. Results Some type of physical harm was documented in 18% of substantiated cases; most of these involved bruises, cuts and scrapes. In 4% of substantiated cases, harm was severe enough to require medical attention, and in less than 1% of substantiated cases, medical attention was sought for broken bones or head trauma. Harm was noted most often in cases of physical abuse compared to other forms of maltreatment. Interpretation Rates of physical harm were lower than expected. Current emphasis on mandatory reporting, abuse investigations and risk assessment may need to be tempered for cases in which physical harm is not the central concern. PMID:14581308

  19. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. PMID:24145397

  20. Predictors of child pornography offenses and child sexual abuse in a community sample of pedophiles and hebephiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Seto, Michael C; Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Beier, Klaus M

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about factors that distinguish men who act upon their self-identified sexual interest in prepubescent or pubescent children from those who do not. Even less is known about pedophiles or hebephiles who are not involved with the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 155 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia (or paraphilia not otherwise specified for those who were sexually attracted to pubescent children). Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on sociodemographic variables and measures of dynamic risk factors. The first set was based on recent activity and compared men who had committed child pornography only or child sexual abuse offenses in the past six months with men who remained offense-free during the same period. The second set was based on lifetime offense history (excluding the most recent six months) and compared child pornography offenders with child sexual abuse offenders and men who had committed both kinds of offenses. Overall, there were more similarities than differences between groups. PMID:20935341

  1. Emotional and Psychological Abuse: Problems of Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Kieran P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the tendency to regard the terms "emotional abuse" and "psychological abuse" as interchangeable. Existing commonly used definitions are reviewed, and new definitions are provided. Differences between mental and emotional consequences of child abuse are delineated and the implications of these differences for terminology usage…

  2. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  3. Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

  4. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised ... syrup is sometimes diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines ...

  5. Does age of onset of risk behaviors mediate the relationship between child abuse and neglect and outcomes in middle adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors-sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior-mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female; 66.2% White, 32.6% Black). Adult outcomes included employment status, welfare receipt, internalizing symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms, substance use problems, and criminal arrests. The results indicated gender differences in these relationships. For females, age of onset of sexual intercourse mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and both internalizing symptoms and substance use problems in middle adulthood. For males, age at first criminal arrest mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and extensive involvement in the justice system in middle adulthood. Age of onset of alcohol use and drug use did not mediate the relationship between child abuse/neglect and middle adult outcomes. This study expands current knowledge by identifying associations between early initiation of risk behavior in one domain and later, continuing problems in different domains. Thus, early initiation of specific risk behaviors may have more wide-ranging negative consequences than are typically considered during intervention or treatment and strategies may need to target multiple domains of functioning. PMID:25104419

  6. Modos de visibilidad pública del abuso sexual infantil / Modes of Public Visibility of Child Sexual Abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María, Ledesma; Laura, Rozados; Juliana, Cattaneo; Claudia, Rosa; María Eugenia, De Zan; Mariano, Dagatti.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación sociosemiótica que interrogó la temática del abuso sexual infantil desde un aspecto poco explorado: la fuerte presencia mediática. Se tomó como eje central el grado de visibilidad pública entendido en términos de iconicidad e imagen ya [...] que se consideró, a modo de hipótesis preliminar, que en los modos de velar/ocultar/espectacularizar a las víctimas y a los victimarios es donde puede rastrearse la supervivencia del tabú que adscribe a las víctimas del abuso al terreno de lo prohibido y vergonzante. Entre otras consideraciones, se observó que la notoriedad mediática del tema instaura una equivalencia recurrente entre el cuidado-exhibición de la identidad de las víctimas del abuso sexual infantil y el cuidado-exhibición de los protagonistas de la violencia juvenil. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a research study in the field of Social Semiotics that questioned the topic of child sexual abuse from a scarcely explored aspect: strong media presence. The focus was placed on the degree of public visibility understood in terms of iconicity and image since it was [...] assumed, as a preliminary hypothesis, that it is in the ways of veiling/hiding/spectacularizing the victims and their perpetrators where we can trace the survival of the taboo that situates the victims of abuse in the field of the forbidden and shameful. Among other considerations, it was observed that media relevance of the issue establishes recurrent equivalence between care/exhibition of the identity of the victims of child sexual abuse and care/exhibition of protagonists of youth violence.

  7. A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani; Shahram Basity; Faezeh Taghipour; AllahyarArabmomeni; HajarJannesari

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are r...

  8. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  9. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ...

  10. School-based child sexual abuse prevention programs: moving toward resiliency-informed evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian G; Miller, David J; Kelly, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Although recent years have seen an increase in the range of child sexual abuse prevention programs delivered in schools, there have been relatively few efficacy studies. Those conducted have focused primarily on intrinsic child factors and have often lacked an explicit theoretical framework. We offer resiliency theory as a useful and apposite theoretical framework for program evaluation. Resiliency theory suggests that a wider range of factors should be considered, including intrinsic (personal characteristics) and extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such factors may increase risk or, alternatively, protect children from the negative effects of adversity. We argue that a resiliency perspective to efficacy studies should recognize a long-term view on children's capacity to cope and can employ both standardized and contextual resiliency-informed measures. PMID:25635899

  11. Facilitators and barriers to the successful implementation of a protocol to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderich, Hester M; Dechesne, Mark; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2014-11-01

    To determine the critical facilitating and impeding factors underlying successful implementation of a method to detect child abuse based on parental rather than child characteristics known as the Hague Protocol. The original implementation region of the protocol (The Hague) was compared to a new implementation region (Friesland), using analysis of referrals, focus group interviews (n=6) at the Emergency departments (ED) and at the Reporting Centers for Child abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) as well as questionnaires (n=76) at the EDs. Implementation of the Hague Protocol substantially increased the number of referrals to the RCCAN in both regions. In Friesland, the new implementation region, the number of referrals increased from 2 out of 92,464 patients (three per 100,000) to 108 out of 167,037 patients (62 per 100,000). However in Friesland, child abuse was confirmed in a substantially lower percentage of cases relative to the initial implementation region (62% vs. 91%, respectively). Follow-up analyses suggest that this lower positive predictive value may be due to the lack of training for RCCAN professionals concerning the Hague Protocol. The focus group interviews and questionnaires point to time limitations as the main impediment for implementation, whereas an implementation coach has been mentioned as the most important facilitating factor for success. The Hague Protocol can be used to detect child abuse beyond the initial implementation region. However, training is essential in order to assure a consistent evaluation by the RCCAN. PMID:25192959

  12. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bano Rubeena; Agarwal V.K; Kalakoti Piyush; Ahmed Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The proce...

  13. SENSIBILIDAD MATERNA Y MALTRATO INFANTIL / MATERNAL RESPONSIVENESS AND CHILD ABUSE / SENSIBILIDADE MATERNA E ABUSO INFANTIL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ARIEL, VITE SIERRA; FLORENTE, LÓPEZ RODRÍGUEZ; AGUSTÍN, NEGRETE CORTÉS.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O interesse deste estudo foi avaliar a construção de sensibilidade materna em um grupo de díades mãe-criança com história de abuso físico na infância frente a um grupo de mães não abusadoras. Os participantes foram 30 díades mãe-bebê: 15 com história de abuso físico e 15 sem histórico de abuso físic [...] o, que foram pareadas com relação à idade e ao sexo das crianças. As duplas foram observadas pelo Sistema de Captura de Dados Ocupacionais (SICD) em situação acadêmica (Vite, Garcia y Rose, 2006). Os resultados indicam que o comportamento das crianças abusadas foi mais aversivo do que as crianças controle, mas foram semelhantes nos comportamentos pró-sociais. Respeito ao comportamento materno, observou-se que as mães abusadoras mostram um comportamento aversivo e instrucional maior do que o comportamento das mães controle, ainda que suas frequências nos comportamentos neutral e pró-social foram semelhantes. Os dois grupos de mães aprovam em proporções baixas o comportamento pró-social de seus filhos. As mães abusadoras são menos sensíveis ao comportamento de seus filhos do que as mães não abusadoras. Estes resultados são uma tentativa de mostrar uma nova perspectiva sobre os intercâmbios sociais que levam as crianças e suas mães a episódios coercivos que terminam em abuso físico. Abstract in spanish El interés del presente estudio fue evaluar el constructo de sensibilidad materna en un grupo de diadas madre-hijo con historia de maltrato físico infantil en relación con un grupo de madres no maltratadoras. Participaron 30 diadas madre-hijo, 15 con historia de maltrato físico y 15 sin historia de [...] maltrato físico, las cuales fueron apareadas con relación a la edad y el sexo de los niños. Todas las diadas fueron observadas a través del Sistema de Captura de Datos Observacionales SICDO (Vite, García y Rosas, 2006), en una condición académica. Los resultados indican que los niños maltratados mostraron mayor comportamiento aversivo que sus contrapartes controles, pero fueron similares en la conducta prosocial. En relación con el comportamiento materno, se observó que las madres maltratadoras presentan mayor comportamiento aversivo e instruccional que las madres control, pero manifestaron frecuencias similares en los comportamientos prosocial y neutral. Así mismo, ambos grupos de madres aprueban de manera similar y en bajas proporciones la conducta prosocial de sus hijos. Por otra parte, las madres maltratadoras son menos sensibles al comportamiento de sus hijos que las madres no maltratadoras. Estos hallazgos representan un intento exploratorio de proporcionar una nueva perspectiva en el proceso de los intercambios sociales a través del cual los niños y sus madres se involucran en episodios coercitivos que llevan al maltrato físico infantil. Abstract in english The interest of this study was to assess the construct of maternal responsiveness in a group of mother-infant dyads with a history of child physical abuse as compared to a group of nonabusive mothers. The sample included 30 mother-infant dyads, 15 with history of physical abuse and 15 without histor [...] y of physical abuse, which were paired in relation to age and sex of children. All dyads were observed through the Data Capture System Observational SOI-I (Vite, Garcia y Rosas, 2006), in an academic condition. The results indicate that abused children were more aversive than their controls, but similar in pro-social behavior. In relation to maternal behavior, the abusive mothers displayed more aversive and instructional behavior than control mothers, but showed similar frequencies in neutral and pro-social behavior. . Also, both groups of mothers approve in a similar manner and in a low rate their children's pro-social behavior. On the other hand, the abusive mothers were less responsive to the behavior of their children than non abusive mothers. These findings represent an exploratory attempt to provide a new perspective on the process of social exchanges through which children a

  14. Clusters of abusive parenting: a latent class analysis of families referred to Child Protective Services in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ana Luísa; Moleiro, Carla; Dias, José G

    2014-12-01

    From the perspective of ecological models, it is suggested that a thorough behavior analysis of parental mistreatment and neglect is undertaken from a general approach to a more comprehensive and multi-dimensional perspective. Hence, the main goal of the present study was to determine if meaningful groups or clusters of abusive parenting in Portugal could be identified based on the characterization of the children and adolescents, their parents and context variables. An instrument was developed to assess variables of the children or adolescents, the family and the social context, all of which have been shown to be important in the literature. Child and Youth Protection Commissions from the whole of Portugal participated in the study, a total of 504 cases. Latent class analysis was applied in order to identify distinct parenting abusing behavior. The results showed four distinct clusters of families which are clearly defined in light of the types of risk and associated variables. The four groups are probabilistic and propose the composition of clusters with socio-demographic variables related to the types of risk. The significant interrelationships of different profiling characteristics are directly related to parenting abusing behavior. The results of this study confirmed our hypothesis of heterogeneous abusive parenting in Portugal. The findings yield useful policy-oriented results. Meaningfully organizing abusive parenting may be an important step not only in understanding the origins of abuse and neglect, but also in integrating this information into intervention models with children, young people and their families. PMID:25466423

  15. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  16. Exploring the Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse with Alleged Victims and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Lanes, Omer; Lamb, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine how children disclosed sexual abuse by alleged perpetrators who were not family members. Methodology: Thirty alleged victims of sexual abuse and their parents were interviewed. The children were interviewed using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol by six experienced youth…

  17. The Contribution of Children's Advocacy Centers to Felony Prosecutions of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron; Rubin, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe trends of felony sexual abuse prosecutions between 1992 and 2002 for two districts of a large urban city that differed primarily in their use of children's advocacy centers (CACs) for sexual abuse evaluations in children. Methods: Aggregate data for two districts of a large urban city were provided from 1992 to 2002 from the…

  18. History of Child Abuse and Severity of Adult Depression: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Daniel; McGinn, Lata K.

    2006-01-01

    The link between childhood abuse, adult depression, and anxiety has been well studied, but few studies have empirically explored the mechanism of that link. Using a clinical sample of women, this study examined the relationship between retrospectively measured childhood abuse and neglect and current adult symptoms of anxiety and depression, via…

  19. Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  20. Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  1. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure. PMID:25812798

  2. Child Physical Abuse and the Related PTSD in Taiwan: The Role of Chinese Cultural Background and Victims' Subjective Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Su, Yi-Jen; Wu, Ho-Mao; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate child physical abuse (CPA) while taking into account the more rigorous definitions of CPA in the Chinese societies. The prevalence of CPA and CPA-related PTSD were estimated, together with the examination of peri-traumatic subjective reactions and their impacts on PTSD. Methods: In a Taiwanese sample of…

  3. Is Child Sexual Abuse Declining? Evidence from a Population-Based Survey of Men and Women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Michael P.; Purdie, David M.; Cook, Michelle D.; Boyle, Frances M.; Najman, Jake M.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined age-cohort differences of self-reported child sexual abuse (CSA) experiences of 1,784 Australian adults. CSA was reported significantly less by younger males than older males. Among females who had intercourse before 16, older women were more likely to say they were an unwilling partner on the first occasion. (Contains…

  4. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  5. Proceedings of a Workshop Sponsored by the Texas Migrant Council on Child Abuse and Neglect in the Mexican American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Lawrence J.; Eller, Robin L.

    The unique needs of migrant farmworkers concerning prevention of child abuse and neglect both at home and at work are presented as the focus of a group of nine workshops. Complex problems facing migrants and their families are discussed in depth in sessions covering services, for pre-school and school aged children, special children, emergency…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  7. Barriers Preventing the Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Comparison of School Social Workers in Public and Private Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgus, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Timely and accurate reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect is essential to protect victimized children; however, there are barriers to such reporting. The importance of barriers may be based on organizational theories that suggest structure has an impact on behavior independent of individual factors and on identity theory which suggests…

  8. Dissociation is associated with emotional maltreatment in a sample of traumatized women with a history of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Lisa; Bebermeier, Anke; Möllering, Andrea; Neuner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Theories of dissociation emphasize that symptoms of dissociation are correlated with traumatic events. Although the association of dissociative symptoms and retrospective reports of child abuse with a focus on mainly sexual and physical abuse has been well documented, investigation of the contribution of emotional or psychological types of maltreatment to the prediction of dissociation has been neglected to a great extent. The aim of this study was to determine the differential impact of different types of maltreatment on dissociative symptoms in a sample of 203 female residential patients treated for posttraumatic stress disorder linked to child maltreatment. Moreover, it was examined whether the link between dissociation and child maltreatment is direct or indirect. Subjects completed questionnaires on child maltreatment, posttraumatic stress, and dissociative symptoms. Although all types of maltreatment were related to dissociative symptoms, emotional abuse was the strongest and most direct predictor of dissociation in multivariate hierarchical analyses with the influence of other trauma types being confounded by emotional abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional types of maltreatment for the genesis of dissociative symptoms in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25365464

  9. What Influences Believing Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures? The Roles of Depicted Memory Persistence, Participant Gender, Trauma History, and Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarni Cromer, Lisa; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    2007-01-01

    This vignette study investigated factors that influence believing child sexual abuse disclosures. College student participants (N = 318) in a university human subject pool completed measures about their own trauma history and responded to questions about sexist attitudes. Participants then read vignettes in which an adult disclosed a history of…

  10. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  11. Serial-Episodic Brief Treatment for Borderline Spectrum Families: Employing the Matrix of Projections in a Child Abuse Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The author addresses the fact that many families with a borderline structure receive treatment throughout the life cycle. Serial episodic brief treatment is recommended, utilizing projective identification as an organizing principle to promote incremental change during each treatment episode. The author selects a child abuse case to review, that…

  12. / The origin of maltreatment: An exploratory study on the intergenerational transmission of child abuse typologies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel V., Oliveira; João, Maroco; Lucía G., Pais.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se informa fue determinar si, en casos de transmisión inter-generacional de maltrato, se verificaba transmisión de tipologías de abuso y establecer el contexto del abuso. Se desarrolló un estudio exploratorio con 10 agresores de niños, quienes habían sido víctimas de abus [...] o. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron una entrevista semi-estructurada y un cuestionario socio-demográfico. Se realizó un análisis del contenido para estudiar los datos textuales, el test de Fisher para determinar la posible dependencia entre los tipos de abuso sufridos y practicados y análisis del componente principal para explorar asociaciones entre categorías. Se verificó la transmisión del abuso físico en siete casos, en dos casos de abuso psicológico y en dos de negligencia. No se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre las tipologías de abuso sufrido y practicado. Las categorías Entorno Familiar (218 unidades de registro -u.r- unidad de codificación básica) y Relaciones Intrafamiliares (151u.r.) presentaron el mayor número de u.r., y las categorías Abuso Sexual (1u.r.) y Agresor como Figura de Identificación Reconocida (4u.r.), el más bajo. El contexto del abuso se explica mejor mediante un modelo bidimensional: Maltrato e Interacciones Sociales y Contexto del Abuso, Sentimientos y Percepciones. Se encontraron fuertes asociaciones entre Abuso Psicológico y Físico, Relaciones Interpersonales, Inclinación al Abuso y Hábitos Tóxicos, y entre ser la única víctima de agresiones, viendo al otro como figura de identificación y sentimientos negativos hacia el agresor. La transmisión de las tipologías de abuso no fue significativa, pero se encontraron asociaciones entre aspectos contextuales y son discutidos junto con sus limitaciones e implicaciones. Abstract in english The way child maltreatment has been seen and dealt with has changed over time. Nowadays, it is a phenomenon of great importance and social recognition, being the target of many studies, and having led to the creation and implementation of several protection measures. The intergenerational transmissi [...] on of maltreatment is one of the main causes for current child abuse and neglect. In this way, our objective was to assess whether a transmission of abuse typologies occurred, in the cases where an intergenerational transmission of maltreatment is observed. Thus, we developed an exploratory study using a convenience sample of 10 child aggressors, who had been victims of abuse during their own childhood, from the district. All participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar socio-economic background. The participants gave their informed consent to participate in this study. For data collection we used a semi-structured interview, developed specifically for this study, and a socio-demographic questionnaire that enabled a characterization of the sample. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data produced was then analyzed using as used content analysis, to study the textual data collected with the interviews, and principal components analysis. Fisher’s test was used to determine the association between suffered and inflicted types of abuse (p

  13. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habetha Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound and Canada (upper bound, whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings.

  14. Beyond gender: proximity to interpersonal trauma in examining differences in believing child abuse disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine E; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) often delay disclosing or do not disclose the abuse for fear of not being believed. Studies document that women believe CSA disclosures more often than do men. Little research has examined theoretical underpinnings for gender differences in believing. However, 1 theory suggests that women may be more empathetic to disclosures because interpersonal trauma (IPT) is proximal to their lives. The present study aimed to extend understanding of how proximity to IPT may shape views of others' experiences of IPT. This study examined whether proximity to IPT (i.e., knowing a close other who had experienced IPT) rather than personal experience would better account for the robust gender differences typically found in believing disclosures. College students (N = 279) completed self-report measures about their personal trauma history and responded to questions regarding knowledge of close others' trauma histories. Participants read a vignette of an adult female disclosing CSA and rated the disclosure for believability. Results indicate that exposure to IPT increased believing, whereas gender did not. These results suggest that one's proximity to IPT may be an alternative explanation for influence on believing CSA rather than gender alone. PMID:25517856

  15. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  16. Childhood abuse : pregnancy and childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasse, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

  17. Childhood abuse :pregnancy and childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasse, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

  18. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Skogmo Idar; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg; Rosvold Elin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 chil...

  19. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Esmaeili Douki; Mohammad Reza Esmaeili; Nazanin Vaezzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour5; Hamideh Azimi; Robabeh Sabbaghi; Mousa Esmaeil; Zohreh Shahhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child age...

  20. Risk factors of parents abused as children: a mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of victimization (NAP families). The mediational properties of risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of maltreatment were then explored. METHODS: Infor...