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1

Child abuse - sexual  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse is the deliberate exposure of minor children to sexual activity. This means a child is forced ... Society was reluctant to deal with child sexual abuse a few ... is difficult to determine how often child sexual abuse occurs, ...

2

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

2010-01-01

3

Child Abuse in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2011-01-01

4

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... that the abuse is not your fault . Sometimes abusers manipulate those they're abusing by telling them ... is being abused, no matter how much the abuser tries to blame others. Abusers may manipulate somebody ...

5

Child abuse in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers.

Okeahialam TC

1984-01-01

6

Comparing different types of child abuse and spouse abuse offenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined differences in offenders' background characteristics, personal and interpersonal problems, and family climate between three types of child abuse offenders (neglecters, physical abusers, and psychological abusers) and two forms of spouse abuse offenders (physical abusers and psychological abusers) in two large samples (child abuse n = 2,910; spouse abuse; n = 7,035) of cases officially identified over a 8-year period (1988-1995) by the U.S. Air Force Family Advocacy Program. Comparisons addressed demographic factors, personal and interpersonal problems, and aspects of family climate. Among child abusers, results supported the conclusion that types of child abuse varied with offender demographics and family climate factors. For spouse abusers, however, types of abuse were not as distinctly different in terms of the comparison variables. In general, therefore, for child abuse--but not for spouse abuse--findings challenge the view of abuse as a unitary phenomenon.

Pittman JF; Lee CY

2004-04-01

7

Child abuse - physical  

Science.gov (United States)

... and social class. It is impossible to tell abusers from non-abusers by looking at their appearance or background. ... adult caregivers. The authorities will determine whether the abuser gets psychiatric help, such as parenting training and ...

8

Child sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

2001-01-01

9

What to Know about Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... who are teenagers or are drug or alcohol abusers. Although it is certainly true that child abuse ... and the closer the child’s relationship with the abuser, the more serious the emotional damage will be. ...

10

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

2002-04-01

11

Increased child abuse in twins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Premature birth, neonatal complications, isolation, financial pressures, exhaustion and increased family size increase the risk for child abuse. All these factors may be associated with the birth of twins. Of 310 abused/neglected children under the age of 4 in an abuse and at-risk for abuse/neglect registry, 16 were twins which is a significant increase over the rate of 6.2 predicted by the twin birth rate of 2% (p less than .001). Descriptive data from a chart review are presented.

Nelson HB; Martin CA

1985-01-01

12

Behavioural consequences of child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. MAIN MESSAGE: A child's behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children-physically, emotionally, and psychologically-and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. CONCLUSION: Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children.

Al Odhayani A; Watson WJ; Watson L

2013-08-01

13

GIRL CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children) But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

G.S. VENUMADHAVA; PRASHANT H.Y

2013-01-01

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Child abuse in panic disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

2008-01-01

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Attitudes towards child sexual abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the r...

Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

16

Prevention of child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efforts to prevent child sexual abuse have taken a distinctly different path from efforts to prevent the physical abuse of children. Currently, child sexual abuse prevention is virtually synonymous with group-based instruction for children on personal safety, and it appears that most schools and many after-school programs provide some form of group-based sexual abuse prevention education. Many evaluations have assessed the impact of these efforts. Seventeen studies employing random assignment to treatment and control groups are summarized in Table 1 on page 206, and 21 additional studies using quasi-experimental designs are briefly reviewed in the article text. Most studies conclude that children do learn from the experience, although such learning is neither universal nor comprehensive. Most evaluations measure the child's knowledge but are unable to assess whether a gain in knowledge will lead to a sustained beneficial change in the child's behavior. In an effort to focus on behavior change, child safety programs increasingly utilize role playing and participant modeling. A major benefit of personal safety education programs may be an increased rate of disclosures by children of past or present abuse. A major area of concern may be the potential for safety education programs to engender fear and anxiety in children Research on negative impacts is limited, and results have been mixed. The author concludes that prevention programs overall have beneficial impacts, which are strongest for children 7 to 12 years old. Characteristics of promising programs are summarized. The article concludes with suggestions for expanding prevention efforts to include public and parent education, life skills training for young adults, support groups for vulnerable children and adults, and intervention for identified victims and perpetrators.

Daro DA

1994-01-01

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Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports  

Science.gov (United States)

|When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

Hartill, Mike

2013-01-01

18

Child abuse: clinical findings and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To provide an overview of the role of the nurse practitioner (NP) in identifying, reporting, and managing child abuse in primary care. DATA SOURCES: Selected research, national guidelines, and the author's experience. CONCLUSIONS: Child abuse is a complex phenomenon characterized by maladaptive behaviors between children and their parents. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The role of the NP includes identification of families at risk, recognition of clinical findings of abuse, diagnosis of abuse, education for families identified at risk, and management of children diagnosed with abuse. The ultimate goal is the safe return of the child to a loving family.

Chaney SE

2000-11-01

19

Cranial imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

2002-01-01

20

Cranial imaging in child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

2002-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

Surgeon General's Letter on Child Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Every year about a million children are physically maltreated and abused. Over 110,000 of these children are sexual abused. The physical and mental health consequences to these children are simply overwhelming. Federal and state laws make child abuse, inc...

C. E. Koop

1988-01-01

22

A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000): 76-80

Murat TOPBAS

2004-01-01

23

Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child?s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

Subramanian E; Subhagya B; Muthu M; Sivakumar N

2005-01-01

24

Towards understanding child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey

2010-01-01

25

Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

... period Inhalant abuse: Is your child at risk? Sex education: Talking to your school-age child about sex ... Halloween: Tips for treats if you have diabetes Sex education: Talking to your school-age child about sex ...

26

Two new otolaryngologic findings in child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We reviewed cases of early childhood hoarseness caused by vocal nodules and functional hearing loss as being possible manifestations of child abuse. This is a retrospective review set in two urban referral centers. The patients consisted of four children with vocal nodules and known histories of abuse, and four children with functional hearing loss and histories suggestive of abuse. Vocal nodules or functional hearing loss may be indicators of an abusive situation. Child abuse should be considered in the differential diagnosis of these problems.

Drake AF; Makielski K; McDonald-Bell C; Atcheson B

1995-12-01

27

Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

2006-01-01

28

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and child and adolescent psychiatry. Facts for Families© information sheets are developed, owned and distributed by AACAP. Hard copies of Facts sheets may be reproduced for personal or educational use without written permission, but cannot ...

29

Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child's physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

Subramanian EM; Subhagya B; Muthu MS; Sivakumar N

2005-06-01

30

Substantiation of Child Abuse and Neglect Reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Examined sexual abuse, physical abuse, and child neglect reports in New York state in 1985 to identify case factors that predict the substantiation of reports following an investigation by child protective services. Reports from professionals were substantiated at a significantly higher rate than reports from nonprofessionals because of…

Eckenrode, John; And Others

1988-01-01

31

Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

|This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

Alexander, Randell A.

2011-01-01

32

Stockholm syndrome and child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome could be identified in the responses of adult survivors of child sexual abuse, which appeared to impact on their ability to criminally report offenders. An emotional bond, which has enabled the sexual abuse of children, has served to protect the offender long after the abuse has ceased. The implications of Stockholm Syndrome could offer valuable insights to those working in the field of child sexual abuse.

Jülich S

2005-01-01

33

Understanding the effects of child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child abuse is one of the difficult social phenomena with which the technologist directly deals as a part of his professional responsibilities. To be able to respond to all of the child's needs, radiologic technologists need to understand not only the physical effects, but also the psychological effects of the child. Understanding also helps the technologist deal with his own feelings when interacting with either the abused child or the child's parents. The Draw-A-Person test (DAP) was utilized in this study to illustrate visually the effect of abuse on the child's self-image. The subsequent personality characteristics of these children include low self-esteem, withdrawal, extreme forms of impulse control, and self-destructive behavior. Using the DAP, the abused child's self-portrait frequently showed body distortion, lack of detailing and poor sexual identification. In addition, the personality pattern of abusing parents was found to have many of the same characteristics as the personalities of abused children, because many times abusing parents were themselves abused as children.

Warner SL

1977-07-01

34

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.)

2007-01-01

35

Child abuse inflicted by small children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In cases of child abuse, usually, the parents are initial suspects. A common explanation of the parents is that the injuries were caused by a sibling. Child-on-child violence is reported to be very rare in children less than 5 years of age, and thorough investigation by the police, child protective services, and medicolegal examinations are needed to proof or disproof the parents' statement. We report two cases of physical abuse of infants by small children.

Friedrich K; Becker K; Rothschild MA; Banaschak S

2013-05-01

36

Child abuse moderates cortisol's relationship to memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Early life stress restructures the nervous system. In rodents, the level of maternal care causes lifelong differences in central glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity and memory. Furthermore, human adults with a history of child abuse have decreased hippocampal GC receptor gene expression and lower cortisol responses to stress. As GCs modulate memory, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functions altered by atypical care may influence memory. Methods : Participants were women (N=55) reporting no-to-minimal abuse (no maltreatment group) on the Child Trauma Questionnaire and those reporting clinically significant sexual or physical abuse (abuse group). Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), as depression is more prevalent in child abuse survivors and is known to impact cortisol levels. Participants then completed the Emotional Picture Memory Task. During encoding, participants viewed pictures composed of negative or neutral emotionally valenced objects and backgrounds. In a surprise retrieval test, participants indicated if objects and backgrounds presented separately were the same, similar, or new to those viewed earlier. Saliva samples were collected to measure basal (unstressed) cortisol levels. Analyses focused on “gist” memory, and the percentage of responses when an object viewed previously was classified as similar or the same. Higher cortisol has been tied to better gist memory. Results : Abuse history moderated cortisol's effect on gist memory, ?=???0.557, SE?=?0.212, p<0.01. When controlling BDI, cortisol negatively correlated with memory in the abuse group and positively correlated with memory in the no abuse group. Conclusions : These findings are particularly compelling as the abuse group result contrasts with previous human memory and rodent research. However, basal vs. stress-induced cortisol may differentially affect memory. Furthermore, child abuse is likely a more profound early stressor compared to maternal neglect in rodents. In conclusion, early experience shapes how GCs affect cognitive functioning. This study is an essential step toward determining physiological and long-term effects of child abuse.

Allison E. Gaffey; Amy K. Nuttall; Michelle M. Wirth; Kristin Valentino; Jessica D. Payne

2012-01-01

37

Brain MR imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims.

1988-12-02

38

Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child  

Science.gov (United States)

Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

Hartill, Mike

2005-01-01

39

Health professionals' responses to disclosure of child sexual abuse history: female child sexual abuse survivors' experiences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals.

McGregor K; Jülich S; Glover M; Gautam J

2010-05-01

40

Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Darkness to Light (DTL) is a national non-profit organization concentrating on the promotion of the prevention of child sexual abuse directed toward adult audiences. One of DTL's primary interventions utilizes mass media techniques. This project comprised...

A. A. Rheingold

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The radiographic approach to child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Osseous injuries are a major facet of child abuse and in most patients radiographic imaging plays a major role in diagnosis. While some injuries are typically produced as a result of excessive and inappropriate force other injuries are nonspecific in terms of their causation, but become suspicious when the history provided by the caretakers is inconsistent with the type of injury produced. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: I detail the radiographic imaging of the more characteristic of the highly specific injuries, discuss the major issues that relate to some moderate- or low-specificity injuries, and describe several diseases that mimic abuse. METHODS: A review of the current and recent literature focused on the radiographic imaging of child abuse was performed by searching the National Library of Medicine database at pubmed.gov. Keywords used included: radiology, fracture, child abuse, and/or nonaccidental trauma. RESULTS: Injuries that are highly specific for the diagnosis of abuse include metaphyseal corner fractures, posteromedial rib fractures, and sternal, scapular, and spinous process fractures. Lesions of moderate specificity include, among other injuries, multiple fractures of various ages and epiphyseal separations. Long-bone fractures and clavicular fractures, while common, are of low specificity. In addition to the appropriate accurate diagnosis of these injuries, several diseases and syndromes may mimic abuse due to the similarity in the radiographic picture. CONCLUSIONS: Stratification of fractures sustained in child abuse according to specificity and an understanding of the several diseases that mimic abuse are helpful in the accurate diagnosis of child abuse. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Dwek JR

2011-03-01

42

[Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered - either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset - are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance - both at a physical and psychic level - and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.

Di Giacomo E; Alamia A; Cicolari F; Cimolai V; Clerici M

2013-07-01

43

[Child abuse - a district hospital's reality!].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In Portugal child abuse is a reality, although its true incidence is still unknown. POPULATION AND METHODS: Retrospective study by consulting child abuse processes of children hospitalized in Paediatric Nursery and Neonatal Special Care Unit of Centro Hospitalar de Setúbal, E.P.E between January 1, 2006 and June 30, 2008. The following variables were studied: sex, age, year of hospitalization, length of stay, type of abuse, aggressor, drug abuse in family; mother's age, entities involved in the process and the applied measures to promote and/or protect. RESULTS: Sample of 65 children, with discrete predominance of male (35/65) and mostly < 1 month (n = 39). The largest number of hospitalizations was in 2007 (n = 34) and in 77% of the cases the length of stay was less than one month. It was practiced more than one type of abuse in 30,8% of the cases, negligence being the most practiced, in 80% of cases, followed by physical abuse, in 20%. The aggressor belongs almost always to nuclear family (59/65), being the mother in 41,5% of cases. There was at least 27,7% cases of children with parental drug abuse and 13, 8% with adolescent mothers. The support near the parents was the measure of promotion and protection applied in 43% of children and two children were adopted. In 80% of the cases, there was intervention of the Comissão de Protecção de Crianças e Jovens and six cases were solved just by the social services of the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The precocious detection of risk factors such as pregnancy in the adolescence and drug abuse, among others, as well as the follow-up and signalling of dangerous situations are professional obligations of health institutions and must be stimulated. In spite of efforts in updating the social support and the legal framing of these situations, the prevalence of child abuse remains high.

Nunes P; Raminhos I

2010-05-01

44

Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

|Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

2005-01-01

45

Child Sexual Abuse Case Handling in Tennessee.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the handling of child sexual abuse cases by public agencies in Tennessee. The report is based on a questionnaire survey of staff responsible for child protective services (CPS) in each county. Survey goals were to determine the natur...

C. L. Johnson

1979-01-01

46

The epidemiology of child abuse: findings from the Second National Incidence and Prevalence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiology of child abuse was investigated with data from the Second National Incidence and Prevalence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect. A statistical comparison of incidence rates suggested that age, family income, and ethnicity were risk factors for both sexual abuse and physical abuse, but county metrostatus was not. Gender was a risk factor for sexual abuse but not for physical abuse. A logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity, county metrostatus, and a gender-by-income interaction distinguished sexual abuse from physical abuse. PMID:8238691

Cappelleri, J C; Eckenrode, J; Powers, J L

1993-11-01

47

Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5): 389-394

Zehtiye Fusun Yasar; Gulumser Gultekin Akduman

2007-01-01

48

Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000): 389-394

Zehtiye Fusun Yasar; Gulumser Gultekin Akduman

2007-01-01

49

Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. PMID:17453187

Nguyen, Pamela H; Burrowes, Delilah M; Ali, Saad; Bowman, Robin M; Shaibani, Ali

2007-04-24

50

Menkes syndrome presenting as possible child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Menkes syndrome, also known as kinky-hair disease, is a rare X-linked recessive, lethal, neurodegenerative disorder of impaired copper transport. The disorder typically is characterized by fine, hypopigmented, wiry hair; doughy skin; bone and connective-tissue disturbances; vascular abnormalities that can result in spontaneous hemorrhaging; and progressive neurologic deterioration. These early findings often are easily confused with child abuse. We report a case of a 6-month-old boy with Menkes syndrome whose symptoms originally were thought to be from child abuse.

Cronin H; Fussell JN; Pride H; Bellino P

2012-10-01

51

Menkes syndrome presenting as possible child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Menkes syndrome, also known as kinky-hair disease, is a rare X-linked recessive, lethal, neurodegenerative disorder of impaired copper transport. The disorder typically is characterized by fine, hypopigmented, wiry hair; doughy skin; bone and connective-tissue disturbances; vascular abnormalities that can result in spontaneous hemorrhaging; and progressive neurologic deterioration. These early findings often are easily confused with child abuse. We report a case of a 6-month-old boy with Menkes syndrome whose symptoms originally were thought to be from child abuse. PMID:23259200

Cronin, Hyland; Fussell, Jacqueline Nicole; Pride, Howard; Bellino, Paul

2012-10-01

52

[Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered - either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset - are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance - both at a physical and psychic level - and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention. PMID:24056826

Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

53

Influence of Child Abuse on Adult Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Genetic inheritance and developmental life stress both contribute to major depressive disorder in adults. Child abuse and trauma alter the endogenous stress response, principally corticotropin-releasing hormone and its downstream effectors, suggesting that a gene × environment interaction at this locus may be important in depression. Objective To examine whether the effects of child abuse on adult depressive symptoms are moderated by genetic polymorphisms within the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRHR1) gene. Design Association study examining gene × environment interactions between genetic polymorphisms at the CRHR1 locus and measures of child abuse on adult depressive symptoms. Setting General medical clinics of a large, public, urban hospital and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Participants The primary participant population was 97.4% African American, of low socioeconomic status, and with high rates of lifetime trauma (n=422). A supportive independent sample (n=199) was distinct both ethnically (87.7% Caucasian) and socioeconomically (less impoverished). Main Outcome Measures Beck Depression Inventory scores and history of major depressive disorder by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Results Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms spanning 57 kilobases of the CRHR1 gene were examined. We found significant gene × environment interactions with multiple individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eg, rs110402, P=.008) as well as with a common haplotype spanning intron 1 (P <.001). Specific CRHR1 polymorphisms appeared to moderate the effect of child abuse on the risk for adult depressive symptoms. These protective effects were supported with similar findings in a second independent sample (n=199). Conclusions These data support the corticotropin-releasing hormone hypothesis of depression and suggest that a gene × environment interaction is important for the expression of depressive symptoms in adults with CRHR1 risk or protective alleles who have a history of child abuse.

Bradley, Rebekah G.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Epstein, Michael P.; Tang, Yilang; Nair, Hemu P.; Liu, Wei; Gillespie, Charles F.; Berg, Tiina; Evces, Mark; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N.; Heim, Christine M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Schwartz, Ann; Cubells, Joseph F.; Ressler, Kerry J.

2008-01-01

54

Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually stimulating acts including masturbation, prostitution, heterosexual or homosexual, forcible or other intercourse – vaginal, oral or anal. A legal definition of sexual abuse includes child molestation, incest and rape in the Indian context, child prostitution rape and child marriage are common forms of sexual abuse.

Assistant Professor Rama Pande; Prof. Shubhangi Gavhane

2012-01-01

55

[Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. PMID:19727643

Rohrer, T

2009-10-01

56

Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their famili...

Al-Mahroos Fadheela; Al-Amer Eshraq

57

[The abused and neglected child in Switzerland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pediatricians form part of children's and young people's most important extra-familial relations. They are thus especially well placed: first, to discover abuse of any kind, and second to put in motion the first years of measures of assistance for the children and their families. The first years of life are decisive for effective prevention of abuse and neglect, and for the development of a healthy personality. In this part of life, pediatricians are virtually the only "social outposts". Nevertheless, in Swiss pediatrics the concept of child protection is still in the initial stages. While we should warmly welcome the fact this problem was at last the main theme of an annual meeting, it must be remembered that this was only the first time. For a long time now no one has doubted that in our, thus far socially privileged country, a frighteningly large number of children and adolescents are victims of abuse. Since the publication of the report "Mauvais traitements des enfants en Suisse" (1992) a representative questionnaire to parents has shown that in this country and now, as before, over a third of parents use corporal punishment on their children. It has been calculated that e.g. 21,800 babies aged between 0 and 2.5 years are beaten, 4800 of them even with implements. There are no data on psychological and sexual maltreatment. Despite this shocking incidence of abuse, only a total of 72 cases (6% of all recorded cases) were reported over one year by pediatric practitioners in the "1989 prospective study". We cannot accept that this reflects a lack of social concern. Many other shortcomings appear to be involved: lack of briefing on the problems of child abuse during medical training, post-graduate and continuing studies, inadequate arrangements for interdisciplinary work, discouragement and early delegation to pseudo-experts, distrust of the efficacy of available aids (but sometimes overestimation of one's own possibilities) and last but not least, a still highly idealized image of the family which prompts one to reject the possibility of abuse. The Swiss Pediatric Society is urgently called upon to focus closer attention on this subject, and in so doing to take advantage of the increasingly widespread concept that child abuse must be regarded as resulting from a disturbance of the child's social network. Here the pediatrician can find an effective, decisive and also--above all--preventive role.

Tonella A; Zuppinger K

1994-12-01

58

Child abuse: multiple foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidents of foreign body ingestion in infants and children are usually viewed as accidents, but these events may be a form of child abuse. We are reporting a case of child abuse who presented with multiple foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Physicians are required to report abuse when they have reason to believe or to suspect that it occurred. The purpose of reporting is not punishment of the perpetrator - it is the protection of the child. It is certainly in the best interest of the child, because child abuse is a recurrent and usually escalating problem that exposes the child to substantial risk.

Wadhera R; Kalra V; Gulati SP; Ghai A

2013-02-01

59

Child sexual abuse--the interface with genitourinary medicine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a rev...

Rogers, D J; Roberts, R E

60

Child sexual abuse: prevalence, effects and school based prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a complex and serious phenomenon that causes short and long term debilitating effects on individuals and their quality of life and life satisfaction. Last three decades child sexual abuse (prevalence, effects and prevention methods) has been very important multidisciplinary topic in academic field in North American developed countries but In our country, Turkey there are not sufficient studies related to prevalence, effects and prevention of child sexual abuse. In this study child sexual abuse reviewed considering prevalence, effects on child and prevention in the light of literature. The last part of article has been suggesting and stressing urgently intervention school-based prevention programs child sexual abuse to prevent child sexual abuse.

Ay?e Rezan Çeçen

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were c...

Anne Leena Marika Kauppi; Tuija Vanamo; Kari Karkola; Juhani Merikanto

62

Child sexual abuse: offenders, disclosure, and school-based initiatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children are being sexually abused at an alarming rate. Prevalence estimates suggest that one out of four girls and one out of ten boys experience sexual abuse. This paper examines the devastating impact of child sexual abuse and explores the contributions of school-based interventions to remedy the problem.

Fieldman JP; Crespi TD

2002-01-01

63

Substance abuse and child abuse. Impact of addiction on the child.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At least 1 in 10 children in the United States is born into a chemically dependent family. Parental addiction has long-lasting detrimental effects on the health and safety of children. We must mobilize to free children from the double jeopardy of substance abuse and child abuse, and interrupt the multigenerational pattern of both problems. The short-term costs may be high, but the long-term costs will be much higher if we do not act. Simultaneous efforts are needed to prevent and treat both addiction and its too frequent consequence, child maltreatment.

Bays J

1990-08-01

64

Working sensitively with child sexual abuse survivors: what female child sexual abuse survivors want from health professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult survivors of child sexual abuse are high users of health and mental health services. Health professionals are well placed to improve health outcomes for them by delivering positive interventions post-abuse. The current study explored female child sexual abuse survivors' opinions on how health professionals could work better with child sexual abuse survivors. Sixty-one women, from 22-65 years old, who had been sexually abused before the age of 16 years, completed postal questionnaires in late 2004. A model was developed to guide the development of knowledge, skills, and practices for working more sensitively with child sexual abuse survivors. The model consisted of six chronological training steps: (1) knowledge on effects of child sexual abuse; (2) establishing the relationship with child sexual abuse survivors; (3) asking about child sexual abuse; (4) responding to disclosure; (5) sensitive provision of medical examinations; and (6) follow-up post examination. A systematic approach to training is proposed to assist with improving delivery of services sensitive to child sexual abuse survivor needs.

McGregor K; Glover M; Gautam J; Jülich S

2010-12-01

65

Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A Guide for Foster and Adoptive Parents  

Science.gov (United States)

... Abused: A Guide for Foster and Adoptive Parents Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A ... D. Suggested Citation: Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). Parenting a child who has been sexually abused: A ...

66

Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania. PMID:23829829

Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

2013-01-01

67

Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.

Kisanga F; Nyström L; Hogan N; Emmelin M

2013-01-01

68

Risk factors in child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the incidence of child sexual abuse allegations referred to a forensic examination centre; to identify possible risk factors predisposing children to sexual abuse by measuring their prevalence among the complainant population. METHODOLOGY: The records of children involved in sexual abuse allegations presenting over a 12 month period were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data such as nature of case, sex, ethnicity, number of previous allegations, assailant relationship, month of presentation, and age were compiled. Potential risk factors such as alcohol or drug use, being 'looked after', physical disability, learning disability, previous consensual sexual intercourse, past psychiatric history, and history of psychiatric support were compiled. Descriptive statistics were calculated. RESULTS: 138 cases were recorded, of which the majority were acute. Epidemiological data demonstrated a higher incidence in females and most complainants were of White British origin. Most of the cases were of first allegations and the assailant relationship was most frequently an acquaintance. The incidence was highest in January. The modal age was 15 years and age distribution was positively skewed. Of the potential risk factors studied, alcohol and drug use was the most prevalent. Prevalence increased with age for the majority of factors studied. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and drug use may be an area in which preventative strategies would be beneficial. Ethnic minorities may hold a large amount of unreported cases.

Davies EA; Jones AC

2013-04-01

69

Neuroimaging of child abuse: a critical review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, gray and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum (CC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during response inhibition, working memory, and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioral and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary co-morbid conditions.

Hart H; Rubia K

2012-01-01

70

Neuroimaging of child abuse: a critical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, gray and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum (CC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during response inhibition, working memory, and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioral and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary co-morbid conditions. PMID:22457645

Hart, Heledd; Rubia, Katya

2012-03-19

71

Liabilities of a physician confronted with child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several research questions raises when physicians are confronted with a possible case of child abuse. First, there is a problem of professional secrecy. In most European countries, physicians have the right to speak when confronted with a state of emergency. In other countries, physicians have a duty to speak and alert the police when the life or physical integrity of a person is at stake. A second topic to be discussed involves the possible liability of physicians who do not report child abuse. By not reporting a case of possible child abuse, the physician is respecting the family life of the parents, even though the child might continue to suffer damages. Third and essentially, I analyse the possible liability of physicians who do inform the prosecutor ofa suspected child abuse. Specific criteria are elaborated to establish negligence when physicians report child abuse to the prosecutor. PMID:23984493

Vansweevelt, Thierry

2013-06-01

72

Liabilities of a physician confronted with child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several research questions raises when physicians are confronted with a possible case of child abuse. First, there is a problem of professional secrecy. In most European countries, physicians have the right to speak when confronted with a state of emergency. In other countries, physicians have a duty to speak and alert the police when the life or physical integrity of a person is at stake. A second topic to be discussed involves the possible liability of physicians who do not report child abuse. By not reporting a case of possible child abuse, the physician is respecting the family life of the parents, even though the child might continue to suffer damages. Third and essentially, I analyse the possible liability of physicians who do inform the prosecutor ofa suspected child abuse. Specific criteria are elaborated to establish negligence when physicians report child abuse to the prosecutor.

Vansweevelt T

2013-06-01

73

The challenge of ritualistic child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Survivors of ritual abuse have endured physical and psychosexual trauma typically compounded by mind-altering drugs. Some abused children have never known a trustworthy adult to protect them from harm. Children often cope with the anxiety and terror of abuse through psychological defenses such as denial, self-hypnosis, and dissociation, but more extreme responses such as self-mutilation or multiple personalities may occur. Reports of ritual abuse of children are so shocking and bizarre that professionals initially respond with confusion and disbelief (Cozolino, 1989). Nurses need to assess clues and detect symbols of abuse in drawings or flashbacks, to build trust, and to monitor their attitudes and countertransference. Nurses are in a critical position to detect and begin healing wounds of ritual abuse.

Valente SM

1992-04-01

74

Convergent and discriminant validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A number of hypotheses were generated predicting the relationship between the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory and factors on the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) questionnaire. As expected, positive relationships were found between abuse and apprehension, tension, and anxiety, while a negative relationship was observed between abuse and stability. The 16PF factors of apprehension, tension, anxiety and stability, which had the strongest relationship with abuse, are factors descriptive of neuroticism. A regression and discriminant analysis, however, indicated these factors alone were not sufficient to accurately describe and predict abuse.

Robertson KR; Milner JS

1985-02-01

75

Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections.

Closson FT; Lichenstein R

2013-09-01

76

Responsibilities and risks when radiologists evaluate patients for child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to discuss the a radiologist's responsibilities as a mandated reporter of child abuse and the risks in failing to do so. CONCLUSION: All states have established rules that require licensed physicians to report any reasonable suspicion of child abuse. Failure to do so may result in serious consequences for both the physician and the patient.

Brown JL

2013-05-01

77

The Impact of Learning About Child Abuse Trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many counselors attend graduate courses and seminars on the treatment of child abuse and neglect. Educators and trainers need to focus on the feelings and reactions elicited from exposure to the content of these courses. This article provides information on the impact of learning about the trauma of child abuse. (Author)

Jones, Karyn Dayle

2002-01-01

78

Coordinating Community Concern for Child Abuse and Neglect. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The final report of a 3-year child abuse project (PFL-Panel for Family Living) cites progress in goal areas and includes papers presented at regional and local seminars. Provided are reports on the following topics: child abuse in non-white communities in Pierce County (Washington); PFL client characteristics and service provision; a parent…

Narr, Christine

79

Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

2010-01-01

80

Duodenal injuries in the very young: child abuse?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Duodenal injuries in children are uncommon but have been specifically linked with child abuse in case reports. Owing to the rarity of the diagnosis, few studies to date have looked at the association between duodenal injuries and mechanism in younger child. We hypothesize that duodenal injuries in the very young are significantly associated with child abuse. METHODS: This investigation is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with duodenal injuries at one of six Level I pediatric trauma centers. All institutions had institutional review board approval. The trauma registries were used to identify children aged 0 year to 5 years from 1991 to 2011. Multiple variables were collected and included age, mechanism of injury, type of duodenal injury, additional injuries, mortality, and results of abuse investigation if available. Relationships were analyzed using Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: We identified 32 patients with duodenal injuries with a mean age of 3 years. Duodenal injuries included duodenal hematomas (44%) and perforations/transections (56%). Of all duodenal injuries, 53% resulted in operation, 53% had additional injuries, and 12.5% resulted in death. Of the 32 children presenting with duodenal injuries, 20 were child abuse patients (62.5%). All duodenal injuries in children younger than 2 years were caused by child abuse (6 of 6, p = 0.06) and more than half of the duodenal injuries in children older than 2 years were caused by child abuse (14 of 26). Child abuse-related duodenal injuries were associated with delayed presentation (p = 0.004). There was a significant increase in child abuse-related duodenal injuries during the time frame of the study (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Duodenal injuries are extremely rare in the pediatric population. This multi-institutional investigation found that child abuse consistently associated with duodenal injuries in children younger than 2 years. The evidence supports a child abuse investigation on children younger than 2 years with duodenal injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III.

Sowrey L; Lawson KA; Garcia-Filion P; Notrica D; Tuggle D; Eubanks JW 3rd; Maxson RT; Recicar J; Megison SM; Garcia NM

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Longitudinal outcomes for victims of child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood abuse and neglect (child maltreatment) represent a common and significant public health burden. The consequences of maltreatment can be seen immediately, in the short term and in the long term. Determination of the exact prevalence of childhood maltreatment is difficult, as many cases go unreported; however in reported cases there is an estimated $124 billion annual burden on the US health-care system. The evaluation of potential maltreatment is difficult as many of the initial symptoms are subtle and can be explained with alternative illnesses or injuries. Potential immediate and short-term effects include brain injury, shaken baby syndrome and behavioral regression. The potential long-term sequelae of child maltreatment are explored in detail here and include increased risks of the development of mental health disorders, substance use disorders and chronic physical complaints during development and adulthood. Lastly, the review provides an overview of current treatment approaches for victims of childhood maltreatment.

Buckingham ET; Daniolos P

2013-02-01

82

Longitudinal outcomes for victims of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood abuse and neglect (child maltreatment) represent a common and significant public health burden. The consequences of maltreatment can be seen immediately, in the short term and in the long term. Determination of the exact prevalence of childhood maltreatment is difficult, as many cases go unreported; however in reported cases there is an estimated $124 billion annual burden on the US health-care system. The evaluation of potential maltreatment is difficult as many of the initial symptoms are subtle and can be explained with alternative illnesses or injuries. Potential immediate and short-term effects include brain injury, shaken baby syndrome and behavioral regression. The potential long-term sequelae of child maltreatment are explored in detail here and include increased risks of the development of mental health disorders, substance use disorders and chronic physical complaints during development and adulthood. Lastly, the review provides an overview of current treatment approaches for victims of childhood maltreatment. PMID:23307564

Buckingham, E Taylor; Daniolos, Peter

2013-02-01

83

Still an unknown topic: child abuse and "shaken baby syndrome".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a severe form of physical child abuse, and can even cause death. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether or not the primary healthcare workers had received any education regarding child abuse and neglect, whether they could diagnose the cases, whether they had sufficient knowledge about SBS as a part of child abuse, and whether they were in need of education on the topic. METHODS: Health workers in the primary healthcare centers in the province of Kayseri were enrolled. A questionnaire was applied. RESULTS: In this study, 35.0% of the study group were physicians. 43.7% of the study group stated that they had not recieved any education regarding child abuse and neglect, and 52.1% stated that they believed that physical abuse was the most prominent form of abuse in society. While 64.1% of the participants stated that they had heard about SBS, 10.4% of these stated that they had heard about it, but did not have adequate knowledge on the topic. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of knowledge and a need for education regarding child abuse and neglect among the personnel working in primary healthcare, especially on the subject of SBS. Undergraduate and postgraduate education regarding child abuse and SBS will help to increase the number of people well-informed and sensitive to this important issue.

Balc? E; Gün I; Mutlu ?arl? ?; Akp?nar F; Ya?mur F; Öztürk A; Günay O

2011-09-01

84

Therapy implications of child abuse in multi-risk families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to critique Australian child maltreatment policy, outline abuse trends and provide data on family risk factors. METHOD: We identified policy gaps and reviewed family profiles within selective child maltreatment databases. Data sources included international and Australian literature, Queensland Department of Child Safety reports and a research clinical database. RESULTS: Data reviewed suggest that a pattern of co-occurring complex multiple system family problems characterize substantiated abuse cases. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of multiple family problems suggests the need for a new treatment paradigm. Multisystemic Therapy for child physical abuse and neglect is an evidence-based intervention that matches the therapeutic needs of such families.

Bor W; Stallman H; Collerson E; Boyle C; Swenson CC; McDermott B; Lee E

2013-08-01

85

[Why are children abused? A bibliographical review of the explanations for child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes the factors related to child abuse that have been published in three of the main Brazilian pediatrics journals. The literature was assessed by content analysis. Fourteen studies were analyzed. The main explanatory factors were: (a) reproduction of violence; (b) family and psychological disorders and alcohol abuse; and (c) the structural or macro-social order. The authors conclude that prevention or intervention policies can be more successful if a theoretical/practical understanding is achieved, and that it is necessary to integrate each unique case with the knowledge based on care for thousands of families involved in child abuse both in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:12048596

Gomes, Romeu; Deslades, Suely Ferreira; Veiga, Márcia Motta; Bhering, Carlos; Santos, Jacqueline F C

86

[Why are children abused? A bibliographical review of the explanations for child abuse].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article analyzes the factors related to child abuse that have been published in three of the main Brazilian pediatrics journals. The literature was assessed by content analysis. Fourteen studies were analyzed. The main explanatory factors were: (a) reproduction of violence; (b) family and psychological disorders and alcohol abuse; and (c) the structural or macro-social order. The authors conclude that prevention or intervention policies can be more successful if a theoretical/practical understanding is achieved, and that it is necessary to integrate each unique case with the knowledge based on care for thousands of families involved in child abuse both in Brazil and worldwide.

Gomes R; Deslades SF; Veiga MM; Bhering C; Santos JF

2002-05-01

87

Sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child sexual abuse is a common pediatric problem that concerns all pediatric health care providers. Management of child sexual abuse is multifaceted and multidisciplinary. Specialized health providers can provide consultation, but this availability does not minimize the role of the referring physician who often has ongoing contact with the family. Physicians are mandated to report cases of suspected or confirmed sexual abuse. In the majority of cases, a child’s statement about sexual abuse is the strongest evidence that abuse has occurred. Physical examination is normal in the majority of sexual abuse victims. Accurate, evidence-based interpretation of physical and laboratory findings is essential. Normal examinations, normal variants, and findings indicative of sexual contact must be differentiated. Forensic evidence collection and prophylactic treatments may be indicated when patients present within 72 hours of an abusive episode, and patients should be triaged accordingly. Potentially negative psychosocial outcomes should be addressed for patients and their families on initial evaluation and follow-up.

Fortin K; Jenny C

2012-01-01

88

[Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204

Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

2013-02-01

89

[Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents.

Fegert JM; Hoffmann U; Spröber N; Liebhardt H

2013-02-01

90

The child sexual abuser: perceptions of college students and professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

College students and members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) were compared as to their beliefs and attitudes concerning perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Analyses of a 44-item inventory (assessing beliefs about an abuser's demographics and attitudes concerning an abuser's cognitions and behaviors) indicated that the groups differed on perceived demographic descriptors (e.g., students believed perpetrators to be older when they first begin offending, more educated, and more likely to be gay than the professionals) and behaviors (e.g., students believed that the perpetrator was more likely to use force to gain the child's compliance). In addition, 2 subscales (Cognitive Distortions and Perceived Social Functioning) were identified. Compared to professionals, students were less likely to believe perpetrators use cognitive distortions and were more likely to believe perpetrators function at a lower interpersonal level. Results are discussed in terms of the efforts to educate the public about the characteristics of child sexual abusers.

Fuselier DA; Durham RL; Wurtele SK

2002-07-01

91

The child sexual abuser: perceptions of college students and professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

College students and members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) were compared as to their beliefs and attitudes concerning perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Analyses of a 44-item inventory (assessing beliefs about an abuser's demographics and attitudes concerning an abuser's cognitions and behaviors) indicated that the groups differed on perceived demographic descriptors (e.g., students believed perpetrators to be older when they first begin offending, more educated, and more likely to be gay than the professionals) and behaviors (e.g., students believed that the perpetrator was more likely to use force to gain the child's compliance). In addition, 2 subscales (Cognitive Distortions and Perceived Social Functioning) were identified. Compared to professionals, students were less likely to believe perpetrators use cognitive distortions and were more likely to believe perpetrators function at a lower interpersonal level. Results are discussed in terms of the efforts to educate the public about the characteristics of child sexual abusers. PMID:12087687

Fuselier, Daniel A; Durham, Robert L; Wurtele, Sandy K

2002-07-01

92

SOSIALISASI NILAI-NILAI ANAK SEBAGAI UPAYA PREVENTIF CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstrakAngka  child abuse  (kekerasan terhadap anak) kian hari kian meningkat.Meskipun telah ada perangkat hukum yang mengatur perlindungan anak, seperti UU Nomor23 tahun 2002, nampaknya kesadaran masyarakat terhadap pentingnya perlindungan anakmasih kurang. Psikologi sebagai bidang ilmu yang diharapkan kontribusinya terhadappermasalahan sosial berupaya menangani permasalahan  child abuse  ini. Salah satupendekatan dalam psikologi komunitas berorientasi preventif, dengan level pertama berupaprevensi primer. Tulisan ini bermaksud menjelaskan pentingnya pengembangan nilai-nilaianak sebagai bentuk prevensi primer terhadap permasalahan child abuse . Nilai-nilai anaktampaknya mulai mengalami pergeseran. Orangtua yang menyadari pentingnya kehadirananak dalam keluarga diharapkan mampu memberikan perlindungan kepada anak, dan bukansebaliknya justru menjadikan anak sebagai obyek kekerasan.

Nurul Hidayah

2012-01-01

93

Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

1998-03-01

94

Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

Offiah, Amaka [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-05-15

95

Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.

2012-01-01

96

Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.

Glowacz F; Born M

2013-02-01

97

[Risk factors of child abuse and neglect in childhood].  

Science.gov (United States)

Among factors identified as being statistically associated with child abuse, we can broadly distinguish those related to characteristics of the child itself and those related to family characteristics, bearing in mind that parents are the perpetrators of child abuse in the vast majority of cases. Observed among children are: young age (abuse begins very early in life); male sex, as concerns shaken baby syndrome and lethal violence; the presence of mental disability and/or behavioural disorders; and particularly frequently, prematurity, especially if it requires neonatal hospitalisation. In fact, any circumstance that makes early attachment between the newborn and its parents difficult or impossible, such as prematurity or postpartum depression, constitutes a situation of risk for subsequent child abuse. Among parents, psycho-affective factors take precedence over socio-economic factors, which play no role. Child abuse is found in all social classes, as is the transgenerational transmission of violence, with those parents having suffered from abuse as children being more at risk than others of becoming abusive themselves. PMID:21698899

Tursz, Anne

2011-05-01

98

[Risk factors of child abuse and neglect in childhood].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among factors identified as being statistically associated with child abuse, we can broadly distinguish those related to characteristics of the child itself and those related to family characteristics, bearing in mind that parents are the perpetrators of child abuse in the vast majority of cases. Observed among children are: young age (abuse begins very early in life); male sex, as concerns shaken baby syndrome and lethal violence; the presence of mental disability and/or behavioural disorders; and particularly frequently, prematurity, especially if it requires neonatal hospitalisation. In fact, any circumstance that makes early attachment between the newborn and its parents difficult or impossible, such as prematurity or postpartum depression, constitutes a situation of risk for subsequent child abuse. Among parents, psycho-affective factors take precedence over socio-economic factors, which play no role. Child abuse is found in all social classes, as is the transgenerational transmission of violence, with those parents having suffered from abuse as children being more at risk than others of becoming abusive themselves.

Tursz A

2011-05-01

99

Síndrome del maltrato infantil Child abuse syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El síndrome del maltrato infantil (SMI) es un importante problema de salud de carácter universal, que resulta de una compleja interacción de los factores de riesgo del individuo, la familia y la sociedad. Su identificación es un verdadero reto para el médico, pues la historia clínica recogida es muchas veces inexacta, engañosa, los hallazgos al examen físico son en muchas ocasiones inespecíficos y los médicos, la mayoría, no lo incluyen en su diagnóstico diferencial. Por todo lo señalado los médicos deben afrontar la disyuntiva de diferenciar entre lesiones intencionales y no intencionales (también llamado por algunos "accidentes") y tomar una decisión operativa en beneficio de la salud del niño. El objetivo de esta revisión consiste en actualizar los conocimientos del SMI, especialmente: su definición, clasificaciones, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas y el manejo integral.The child abuse syndrome (CAS) is an important world health problem resulting from a complex interaction of the risk factors of the individual, the family and the society. Its identification is a real challenge for physicians, since the medical history is many times inaccurate and deceptive, and the physical examination is frequently unspecific and most of the physicians do not include it in their differential diagnosis. Therefore, physicians should make a difference between intentional and unintentional injuries (called "accidents" by some) and to make an operative decision that benefits the child's health. The objective of this review is to update the knowldege about CAS, specially, its definition, staging, physiopathology, clinical manifestations and comprehensive management.

Gladys Fernández Couse; Jesús Perea Corral

2004-01-01

100

Child Abuse in the Family: An Analytical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of child abuse in the world is 47 per 1000. According to the Child Protective Service agency (CPS) more than 3 million children were abused in the USA in 1998. There was 1.7% increase in comparison with 1996. The prevalence of child abuse in the USA is 15 per 1000. A crosssectional study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, and influential factors on child abuse among families in Tehran. A sample of 420 students was selected from secondary school girls in Tehran in 1999. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and the collected data were analysed through statistical tests such as X2 and other forms of descriptive tests. The findings of research showed that in terms of abnormal (unexpectedly bad) behaviour, 28% of the sample were faced quarrelsome and bitted by their fathers. The mothers' reactions for similar behaviour were more or less the same: 34.9% quarrelsome and 7% bitting. Child abuse, physically and emotionally, has had significant relation with socioeconomic status of families as well as having interaction with mentally ill or addicted person(s) among families. Mothers' employment, religious beliefs, and parents' educational attainments also demonstrated significant relations with child abuse. A statistically significant relationship has also been found between mothers' employment, addicted or mentally ill person among family members, and doubtful child sexual abuse.To prevent child abuse the following actions should be taken: Education of parents about children rights and how to treat their children. Establishment of centers to protect the children at risk. Education of young couples to take more reponsibility of having children.

D Shojaeizadeh

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Child pornography: a hidden dimension of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals? PMID:6542820

Pierce, R L

1984-01-01

102

Child pornography: a hidden dimension of child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals?

Pierce RL

1984-01-01

103

Is Dental Neglect a Child Abuse? A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect (maltreatment) is a widespread problem that permeates all ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic segments of our society. All health professionals are legally mandated to report suspected cases of child maltreatment to the proper authorities, consistent with the laws of the jurisdiction in which they practice. But dentists, as a group, have been fairly inactive participants in recognizing and reporting child maltreatment when compared to other health professionals. Dental health professionals continue to under-report child abuse, despite growing awareness of their potential role in detecting this crime. This article presents an overview of dental neglect that may alert dental professionals to possible maltreatment of child patients.

Pushpalatha C.; Praveen S tammannavar; Anand Nimbal; Shrenik Jain

2013-01-01

104

Are researchers bound by child abuse reporting laws?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To discuss issues concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in research settings. METHOD: An overview of existing Federal and State statutes regarding mandatory reporting of child abuse is presented. A critical review of the literature addresses the following issues: (1) whether researchers have a moral duty to place the health and safety of children above concerns about confidentiality and the benefits of obtaining new knowledge; (2) whether the Certificate of Confidentiality preempts reporting requirements; (3) whether researchers who are not health professionals (such as child developmentalists, psychobiologists, neuroscientists) should be required to report; and (4) whether researchers should be required to expand their protocols to include more in-depth investigation of potential abuse. RESULTS: Existing child abuse reporting laws do not specifically designate researchers as among the category of individuals mandated to report suspected child abuse. Currently, Human Subject Protection Committees and Federal funding agencies are tending to interpret reporting laws as applying to researchers, including requiring that research subjects are informed of this responsibility in consenting procedures. It is unclear whether the Certificate of Confidentiality preempts child abuse reporting laws. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend that legislatures specifically designate researchers as mandated reporters to ensure more uniform reporting practices in research settings. For both investigators and Human Subject Protection Committees, inclusion of researchers among the categories of those mandated to report would also help address issues of immunity from civil and criminal liability for "good faith" reports that turn out to be false and injurious.

Steinberg AM; Pynoos RS; Goenjian AK; Sossanabadi H; Sherr L

1999-08-01

105

Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: A National Resource Directory and Handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse violates the trust, safety and age-appropriate development that should be a natural part of each childs life. Even worse, this especially offensive crime is most commonly committed by adults known to the child, in fact, often by those v...

2005-01-01

106

Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934

Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

2012-03-14

107

Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.

Neutze J; Grundmann D; Scherner G; Beier KM

2012-05-01

108

Statewide survey of physician attitudes to controversies about child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess physician attitudes and practices in controversial areas of child abuse and neglect, anonymous questionnaires were mailed to pediatricians, family practitioners, and emergency medicine physicians in Pima County (Tucson) and Arizona (statewide). The effects of respondent characteristics on responses to each item were analyzed. Three hundred and ninety-three questionnaires (49.3%) were returned. Responses differed according to gender, age, specialty, and practice or training status. Females estimated a higher percentage of adult women had been sexually abused as children (26.6 vs. 21.6, p < .01) and a lower incidence of false accusations, when sexual abuse was alleged in custody disputes (48.1 vs. 56.1, p < .005) than did males. Older physicians were more likely to refer cases of sexual abuse to a specialist, were more concerned about false reports of child abuse, and gave higher estimates of the percentage of adolescent child sexual abuse offenders who could be rehabilitated (54.4 vs. 43.4, p < .05). Pediatricians expected a lower percentage of sexual abuse exams to be positive than did family practitioners (32.6 vs. 40.7, p < .05). Pediatricians were less likely to agree to involvement of Child Protective Services (CPS) in failure to thrive cases or to criminal prosecution of maternal drug use in pregnancy than either family practitioners or emergency physicians. Respondents were uncertain that reporting to CPS would lead to an improvement in the child's welfare. Exposition and explanation of physician attitudes may benefit medical education about child abuse.

Marshall WN; Locke C Jr

1997-02-01

109

Stricture of the duodenum and jejunum in an abused child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of abdominal injury secondary to child abuse in which the child had both a duodenal hematoma and contained perforations of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. These injuries were evaluated by both CT scan and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series. The child's nausea and vomiting persisted despite conservative treatment; after 3 weeks a repeat upper GI series demonstrated high-grade duodenal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and a calcified, fibrotic mesentery and strictures in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum were found. To our knowledge, his unusual complication of blunt abdominal trauma has not been described in association with child abuse. (orig.).

1997-01-01

110

Preliminary validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show that, with the 200.5 cutoff point, which is the average score of the whole Turkish sample, Abuse Scale correctly classified 83% of the participants in the abuse group and 78.8% of the participants in the control group, which gives 21.2% false-positive result. MMPI-PD to all group and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis is found to be significant for both groups. These results show us high reliability and validity of the abuse scale for Turkey.

Kutsal E; Pasli F; Isikli S; Sahin F; Yilmaz G; Beyazova U

2011-09-01

111

Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5):437–439.

Forrest T Closson; Richard Lichenstein

2013-01-01

112

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis - an uncommon manifestation of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis (FL) is an uncommon manifestation of child abuse (increasingly known as nonaccidental trauma), with only six prior reports in the literature. This article seeks to call attention to FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children and infants. We reviewed plain films, CT and MR images in seven new cases of FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children ages 6 months to 7 years, two of whom became paraplegic from their injuries. Findings varied from subtle listhesis of one vertebra on another to frank vertebral dislocation, most commonly at L1/2. Paravertebral calcification was present in all but one case. In two children, thoracolumbar FL was the only radiographic sign of abuse. Radiographic findings of FL of the thoracolumbar spine may be subtle and may be erroneously interpreted as due to a congenital or neoplastic cause. While other signs of child abuse should be sought, spinal injury may be the sole sign of abuse. Recognition of this entity is important to pursue the diagnosis of abuse. (orig.)

Levin, Terry L.; Blitman, Netta M. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, 111 E. 210th Street, Bronx, New York, NY 10467-2490 (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [Department of Radiology, Babies Hospital, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York (United States); Cassell, Ian [Department of Radiology, Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

2003-05-01

113

Occurrence of Child and Adolescent Abuse in Caruaru-PE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Verify the occurrence of child and adolescent abuse referred to Caruaru Tutelary Council between 2002 and 2004. Method: To this end, data on the complaints lodged in the period concerned was requested from the Tutelary Council. Results: From a total of 798 cases reported the most common was neglect (49.24%) followed by psychological violence (28.94%). Physical and sexual abuse represented 17.6% and 4.66% of the total of the sample, respectively. As to sex, males represented 55.3% of the cases reported. Conclusion: According to literature, lesions are most frequent on the orofacial area. The awareness of such a piece of information makes a high demand for dental surgeons´ ethical and legal responsibility. Besides reporting suspect child abuse to authorities, there is now a call for creating protective mechanisms for the abused in addition to preventive educational campaigns with focus on the need for denouncing and avoiding all kinds of maltreatment.

Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA; Valdenice Aparecida de MENEZES; Blancard TORRES FILHO; João Ricardo ARAÚJO; Paula Fernanda Rodrigues SILVA

2006-01-01

114

School intervention programs: an approach to preventing child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child abuse and neglect are often a child's first introduction to the violent society in which he lives. Combatting violence, including child abuse, requires a multifaceted approach to reinforce the value of a human life and the commitment to a nonviolent lifestyle. Combining a home, school, and community approach strengthens a community's ability to improve skills of parents, teachers, youth, and citizens. EPIC program is such an approach that can be tailored to meet local needs. It is available in 50 New Jersey communities with replication assistance provided by NJ-NCPCA.

Copeland SJ

1995-02-01

115

Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

2010-01-01

116

ABUSED AND ALONE:How to Meet the Challenge of Child Sexual Abuse in Cambodia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The objective was to identify what special challenges the local communities in Cambodia meet concerning child sexual abuse and to find strategies to meet these challenges. Background: Since 1998 and the end of the civil war, IOM?s ?Childhood Mental Health & Counter Trafficking P...

Ryengen,Marius; Mørch,Grete Reinsberg

117

Statewide survey of physician attitudes to controversies about child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess physician attitudes and practices in controversial areas of child abuse and neglect, anonymous questionnaires were mailed to pediatricians, family practitioners, and emergency medicine physicians in Pima County (Tucson) and Arizona (statewide). The effects of respondent characteristics on responses to each item were analyzed. Three hundred and ninety-three questionnaires (49.3%) were returned. Responses differed according to gender, age, specialty, and practice or training status. Females estimated a higher percentage of adult women had been sexually abused as children (26.6 vs. 21.6, p child sexual abuse offenders who could be rehabilitated (54.4 vs. 43.4, p < .05). Pediatricians expected a lower percentage of sexual abuse exams to be positive than did family practitioners (32.6 vs. 40.7, p < .05). Pediatricians were less likely to agree to involvement of Child Protective Services (CPS) in failure to thrive cases or to criminal prosecution of maternal drug use in pregnancy than either family practitioners or emergency physicians. Respondents were uncertain that reporting to CPS would lead to an improvement in the child's welfare. Exposition and explanation of physician attitudes may benefit medical education about child abuse. PMID:9056096

Marshall, W N; Locke, C

1997-02-01

118

Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.

Anne Leena Marika Kauppi; Tuija Vanamo; Kari Karkola; Juhani Merikanto

2012-01-01

119

Child Sexual Abuse Offender: A Review of Current Research and Implications for Personnel Security.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the request of the Navy Board which is sometimes required to adjudicate cases of people requiring security clearances who have histories of committing child sexual abuse, a literature review was conducted on child sexual abuse offenders. This review, b...

S. Wood

1988-01-01

120

Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse in the United States Air Force.  

Science.gov (United States)

An exploratory study to determine how child sexual abuse was defined at installation Air Force Family Advocacy Programs, characteristics of reported child sexual abuse cases, and differences in cases labeled suspected and established. All 121 Air Force Fa...

A. P. Tarpley

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?  

Science.gov (United States)

We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and “protection of children from sexual offences act” 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences including incorporating school awareness programs in targeted girls’ group.

Behere, Prakash Balkrishna; Mulmule, Akshata Nandu

2013-01-01

122

Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and "protection of children from sexual offences act" 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences including incorporating school awareness programs in targeted girls' group.

Behere PB; Mulmule AN

2013-04-01

123

Multiple personality disorder as perpetrator of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

An eighteen-month-old Alaskan girl suffered transient coma with multiple superficial contusions when injured by her multiple personality disturbed caretaker. The relative disinterest in multiple personality disorder as a psychiatric diagnosis among American trained practitioners is reflected in the great difficulty encountered by child protection workers while seeking psychotherapy for this disturbed family. The public health nurse, pediatrician, and social workers of the child protection team were unsuccessful in attempting to secure psychiatric therapy for this child batterer. Multiple factors, other than psychiatric community disinterest in multiple personality disorders, influenced these unsuccessful attempts. Legal process delays, strongly punitive community attitudes, tired and nearly "burned out" child protection workers, and conflicting psychological and psychiatric consultant opinions are described. A brief review of multiple personality disorder traits is given with emphasis on the common childhood exposure to abuse and violence among reported multiple personality subjects. Despite the obvious hope by the eighteen-month-old child's parents for effective help to reconstitute her family, the multiple factors described show institutional neglect and abuse which has made such recovery impossible to date. A plea is made to all persons involved with child abuse and neglect to more accurately diagnose and treat multiple personality disorders in abusive parents. PMID:6684972

Brown, G W

1983-01-01

124

Multiple personality disorder as perpetrator of child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An eighteen-month-old Alaskan girl suffered transient coma with multiple superficial contusions when injured by her multiple personality disturbed caretaker. The relative disinterest in multiple personality disorder as a psychiatric diagnosis among American trained practitioners is reflected in the great difficulty encountered by child protection workers while seeking psychotherapy for this disturbed family. The public health nurse, pediatrician, and social workers of the child protection team were unsuccessful in attempting to secure psychiatric therapy for this child batterer. Multiple factors, other than psychiatric community disinterest in multiple personality disorders, influenced these unsuccessful attempts. Legal process delays, strongly punitive community attitudes, tired and nearly "burned out" child protection workers, and conflicting psychological and psychiatric consultant opinions are described. A brief review of multiple personality disorder traits is given with emphasis on the common childhood exposure to abuse and violence among reported multiple personality subjects. Despite the obvious hope by the eighteen-month-old child's parents for effective help to reconstitute her family, the multiple factors described show institutional neglect and abuse which has made such recovery impossible to date. A plea is made to all persons involved with child abuse and neglect to more accurately diagnose and treat multiple personality disorders in abusive parents.

Brown GW

1983-01-01

125

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the use of {sup 18}F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

Drubach, Laura A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Sapp, Mark.V. [School of Osteopathic Medicine, Child Abuse Research Education and Services (CARES) Institute University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey (United States); Laffin, Stephen [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-07-15

126

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

2008-01-01

127

Child abuse training: a community-based interdisciplinary program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the area of child abuse, a scarce resource is trained personnel. This paper describes a training program focusing on the need for individuals representing diverse disciplines to work together. Subjects discussed are the rationale and the organization process for a multidisciplinary, community-based training program; the formulation of the educational experience and the curriculum; evaluation measures; and the implementation of the program in a typical site. Various activities related to child abuse have been initiated in communities where training has occurred. Plans are to provide more intensive training in the treatment area for those professionals trained so far.

Elmer E; Bennett HG; Harway N; Meyerson ET; Sankey CG; Weithorn LA

1978-01-01

128

The impact of child, family, and child protective services factors on reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports of child sexual abuse recurrence by type of reporter. Survival analysis was conducted using the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System data set of 2002-2004. Child disability, being a prior victim, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, family financial problems, and receiving family supportive services increased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse by mandated reporters. Being Hispanic, having a disability, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, financial problems, and receiving family preservation services statistically decreased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.

Sinanan AN

2011-11-01

129

Child Abuse and Neglect: Prevalence, Programs, and Prevention with the Hearing Impaired.  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review attempted to (1) examine whether hearing impaired children are at high risk for child abuse and neglect, (2) identify components of effective child abuse and neglect prevention programs and (3) identify currently existing programs for the prevention of child abuse and neglect with hearing impaired children. The review found…

Schirmer, Barbara R.

130

Information on Child Abuse: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…

Dodge, Timothy

131

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated f...

Bassani Diego G; Palazzo Lilian S; Béria Jorge U; Gigante Luciana P; Figueiredo Andréia CL; Aerts Denise RGC; Raymann Beatriz CW

132

The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse: a continuation of Finkelhor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18 (5), 409417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widesprea...

Pereda Beltran, Noemí; Guilera Ferré, Georgina; Forns, Maria, 1946-; Gómez Benito, Juana

133

Child abuse followed by fatal systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child abuse has become an increasingly serious diagnostic challenge for physicians. The clinical manifestations include malnutrition and sometimes infection. In fact, stress in children has been reported to increase corticosteroid levels. As a consequence, the thymus begins an involution process, producing a severe impairment in cellular and humoral immunity. Here, we report the case of a 7-year-old child who suffered a prolonged history of abuse and died from a systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An initial local chronic infection propagated to the pelvic lymph nodes in an immunologically weak body and evolved into abscesses/phlegmons of the pelvic tissue, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and finally, death. Abused children have to be considered as potentially immunologically impaired patients; therefore, it is very important to screen them for opportunistic infections. Moreover, a history of unusual or recurring infections may indicate abuse, especially neglect or malnutrition. In these cases, further investigations should be conducted to determine if a protective service case should be opened. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary cooperation to ensure the early identification and prevention of child abuse.

Senati M; Polacco M; Grassi VM; Carbone A; De-Giorgio F

2013-01-01

134

Physical Child Abuse: What Are the External Factors?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children are an integral asset for future development of a nation. In lieu with this notion, countries pay much attention to their development and well being. In recent times, child abuse has been rampant. This issue is constantly making headlines in national newspapers in Malaysia. The alarming effect of this phenomenon is its inevitable implication on the family institution and the nation’s aspiration to create a better tomorrow. This current study is an attempt to discover the contributory factors of physical child abuse in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to identify the background and demography of abuser and to identify the external factors that cause a parent to abuse their child. This case study was conducted in Selangor amongst eight Malay respondents using an in-depth interview session. This study found that external factors as the major contributory factor to physical child abuse. The factors are financial constraints, family crisis, character and disobedience of the children or so called ‘deviant children’, surroundings of the home, conflict with neighbours or lack of social support, parent’s mental illness and and influence of alcohol. Hence these factors are articulated and interpreted by the researcher. Implications of this research, profession who work with children such as social worker, psycologist and counselor should look into the external factors that contribute to the physical child abuse in designing intervention, cure and effective strategies to overcome this problem. In future, protecting children needs collective effort from policy maker, authority body, non-government organization and member of society.

Noremy M. A.; Zulkarnain A. H.; Kelvin F.; Adanan M. J.; Sarah W. M. H.

2012-01-01

135

Definitions, Scope, and Effects of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... a CPS referral, generally cases in which the abuser is a caretaker or in which a caretaker ... from sexual abuse. Thus, cases involving an extrafamilial abuser and a protective parent are not included. Third, ...

136

Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended.

Merten, D.F.; Osborne, D.R.S.; Radkowski, M.A.; Leonidas, J.C.

1984-07-01

137

Jury selection in child sex abuse trials: a case analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include authoritarianism, dogmatism, need for cognition, pretrial knowledge, and race/socioeconomic status. Case-specific variables include sexual attitudes, homonegativity, juror abuse history, and beliefs about children. The paper also provides a factual background of a representative case, incorporates relevant case law, identifies sources for voir dire and juror questionnaire items, and discusses lessons from the primary author's first experience as a trial consultant for the defense. PMID:19306206

Cramer, Robert J; Adams, Desiree D; Brodsky, Stanley L

138

Jury selection in child sex abuse trials: a case analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include authoritarianism, dogmatism, need for cognition, pretrial knowledge, and race/socioeconomic status. Case-specific variables include sexual attitudes, homonegativity, juror abuse history, and beliefs about children. The paper also provides a factual background of a representative case, incorporates relevant case law, identifies sources for voir dire and juror questionnaire items, and discusses lessons from the primary author's first experience as a trial consultant for the defense.

Cramer RJ; Adams DD; Brodsky SL

2009-03-01

139

Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc.) with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse of children is one of the most heinous crimes imaginable.

Prof. Sidhartha B. Sawant

2012-01-01

140

Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior, placing their infants at increased risk for poor parenting, abuse and neglect. Early home-based intervention in high-risk families may be beneficial to infant development.

Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Pediatric radiological diagnostic procedures in cases of suspected child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostic procedures are essential in cases of clinically diagnosed injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen or extremities of a child, especially if there is no case history or if the reporting of an inadequate trauma suggests battered child syndrome. In particular, these diagnostic procedures should aim at detecting lesions of the central nervous system (CNS), so that the treatment can be immediately initiated. If the diagnostic imaging reveals findings typically associated with child abuse, accurate documentation constituting evidence, which will stand up in court, is required to prevent any further endangerment of the child’s welfare.

C. Erfurt; G. Hahn; D. Roesner; U. Schmidt

2010-01-01

142

MIHAELA PU?CA?, Child Abuse. Forms, Motivation, Consequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mass-media frequently bring before the public cases in which parents abuse their own children. Each time the reactions of citizens are intense and unanimous:anger, revolt, requests for extreme punishment, the right to complain against aggressive behavior occurring in their vicinity. Modern research on family revealed a world loaded with tensions and conflicts in which abuse is often presented disguised as love for children and the wish to provide a good education. This article approaches the psychological aspects of the various forms of child abuse, as these are treated in the specialized literature, trying to offer answers to legitimate questions: are these isolated cases or are we dealing with a real phenomenon; how spread is this phenomenon; do people today love their children less than before; is there a social environment which favors such behavior; how can abuse situations which are spread over years be explained; which are the visible signs that a child is being abused by his/her parents; what are the consequences on the development of personality; are there statistics for a larger period of time to help knowing whether the phenomenon is increasing or decreasing?

GHEORGHE FLORIAN

2008-01-01

143

The Cognitive Consequences of Child Abuse in Young Girls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  AbstractObjectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of child abuse on cognitive dimensions of personality including intelligence, accuracy and memory.Method: Subjects consisted of 100 female high school students in the city of Isfahan in the academic year of 2003-2004, who were selected using random multi-stage sampling method. Based on the scores ob-tained through the Child Abuse Scale, the subjects were divided into two groups: abused or normal. Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Wechsler Memory Scale, and Bonardel Accuracy Test were used for gathering data. Data were then analyzed using MANOVA and correlation coeffi- cient. Results: Mean accuracy, IQ, and memory scores of the abused and normal groups were 63.66 versus 70.44, 107.12 versus 108.89, and 86.82 versus 86.16 respectively. Conclusion: Abuse causes a decrease in the memory mean score of female adolescents, but has no considerable effect on their accuracy and IQ.  

Azam Naghavi; Maryam Fatehizadeh; Mohammad Reza Abedi

2006-01-01

144

Methamphetamine Abuse and Manufacture: The Child Welfare Response  

Science.gov (United States)

Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…

Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy

2004-01-01

145

[Anogenital warts and suspicion of child sexual abuse].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article deals with anogenital warts (AGW) injuries caused by human papiloma virus (HPV) in children. Diagnosis, epidemiology, modes of transmission, differential diagnosis, relationship between AGW and cancer are descript. Also, it remarks the presence of AGW as indicator of child sexual abuse. Finally, it includes suggestions for the management of patients and their families by the paediatrician.

Mouesca JP; Indart de Arza MJ; Stabilito L

2012-10-01

146

[Anogenital warts and suspicion of child sexual abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article deals with anogenital warts (AGW) injuries caused by human papiloma virus (HPV) in children. Diagnosis, epidemiology, modes of transmission, differential diagnosis, relationship between AGW and cancer are descript. Also, it remarks the presence of AGW as indicator of child sexual abuse. Finally, it includes suggestions for the management of patients and their families by the paediatrician. PMID:23070187

Mouesca, Juan Pablo; Indart de Arza, Miguel Javier; Stabilito, Luis

2012-10-01

147

Prevalence of child sexual abuse in Switzerland: a systematic review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is considered to be a significant health risk, there is no systematic overview of studies that have investigated the prevalence of CSA in Switzerland. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of studies on the prevalence of CSA in Switzerland. METHOD...

Schönbucher, V; Maier, T; Held, L; Mohler-Kuo, M; Schnyder, U; Landolt, M A

148

Preschool child sex abuse: the aftermath of the Presidio case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case study is presented of girls who were among the preschool victims of sexual abuse linked to occult rituals that occurred at the Presidio Army Base Child Development Center. Components of the trauma, together with its effects on the victims and their families, are investigated, and implications for the mental health profession are discussed.

Ehrensaft D

1992-04-01

149

[Neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse: a systematic review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The results of several studies suggest that there is a critical timeframe during development in which experiences of maltreatment and sexual abuse may lead to permanent or long-lasting neurobiological changes that particularly affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. The aim of the present study was to provide an updated review on the main neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse. METHODS: We selected articles published between January 1999 and January 2010 in English or Spanish that focused on the neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse available through Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. We also examined the references in published articles on the consequences of sexual victimization in childhood. RESULTS: In this review we included 34 studies on neurobiological consequences, indicating different kinds of effects, namely: neuroendocrine, structural, functional and neuropsychological consequences, which affect a large number of victims. CONCLUSIONS: The existing body of work on the neurobiological consequences of maltreatment shows the need to consider maltreatment and child sexual abuse as health problems that affect different areas of victims' lives, which would in turn favor the development of intervention and treatment programs that take these multiple effects into account.

Pereda N; Gallardo-Pujol D

2011-05-01

150

Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church  

Science.gov (United States)

|The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

2007-01-01

151

Posttraumatic Growth Among Men With Histories of Child Sexual Abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite an increased risk of long-term mental health problems, many survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) experience positive changes in areas such as appreciation for life, personal strength, and interpersonal relationships. Drawing on life course theory, this study examined factors related to posttraumatic growth among a sample of men with CSA histories (N = 487). Using multiple linear regression (i.e., ordinary least squares), we found that men who had a better understanding of the sexual abuse experience, who ascribed to less traditional masculine norms, and who experienced a turning point reported greater growth. To promote growth, practitioners can help survivors understand the meaning and impact of the abuse on their lives and deconstruct rigid gender norms. More research on growth is needed with male survivors, especially on the nature of turning points in the recovery process.

Easton SD; Coohey C; Rhodes AM; Moorthy MV

2013-09-01

152

Suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse: examining abuse severity, mental health, and masculine norms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). METHODS: We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (? = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. RESULTS: The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. CONCLUSION: To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning.

Easton SD; Renner LM; O'Leary P

2013-06-01

153

[Neurobiology of child abuse: the 'cycle of violence'].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: A high level of stress at an early age, like that produced in the case of child abuse, can have crucial consequences for the development of the human brain. AIMS: This study aims to review and go over the main points of the results obtained by different clinical research works carried out on the structural and functional consequences of child abuse on the central nervous system. At the same it also seeks to integrate and relate them with those described in the case of violent adults. DEVELOPMENT: Firstly, we establish the relationship between post-natal development of the brain and child abuse. Then, the most important changes in the brain, both in structural and functional terms, are reviewed and the main modulating variables are highlighted. Lastly, the neurobiological changes are related with the so-called 'cycle of violence'. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the individual differences and the diverse environmental, social and genetic factors that exert an influence on the consequences of abuse, there are neurobiological changes that affect their development both in the short and the long term. Some of the more significant structural changes are those affecting the hippocampus, the amygdala, the cerebellar structures, the corpus callosum and the cerebral cortex. Functional changes include cognitive sequelae, high levels of psychosocial stress, behavioural disorders and social problems, which are associated with a range of psycho-pathologies. These disorders are modulated by a series of different variables, such as the kind of abuse and the child's sex, and may be related to the changes observed in aggressive adults, which could contribute to perpetuate human violence.

Mesa-Gresa P; Moya-Albiol L

2011-04-01

154

Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

Hobbs, Christopher J. [St James' s University Hospital, Department of Community Paediatrics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bilo, Robert A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, The Hague (Netherlands)

2009-05-15

155

Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

2009-01-01

156

Child sexual abuse prevention: what offenders tell us.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ninety-one child sex offenders were interviewed about the methods they used to target children, the age range of their victims, how they selected children and maintained them as victims, and what suggestions they had for preventing child sexual abuse. Offenders were selected from treatment programs, probation, special hospitals, and prisons. They were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results indicate that offenders gained access to children through caretaking, such as babysitting; targeted children by using bribes, gifts and games; used force, anger, threats, and bribes to ensure their continuing compliance; and systematically desensitized children through touch, talk about sex, and persuasion. Nearly half the offenders had no bad feelings about sexually abusing children. The implications for prevention programs are discussed.

Elliott M; Browne K; Kilcoyne J

1995-05-01

157

Child abuse: perception and management of the Brazilian endodontists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, dentists have a legal, moral, and ethical obligation to notify competent authorities of suspected cases of maltreatment. Studies conducted in several countries reported the difficulties of dentists in the diagnosis, documentation, and reporting of suspected abuse cases to authorities. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the perception, diagnosis and attitudes of Brazilian endodontists towards child abuse. Material and methods: Data were collected from 56 questionnaires, considering a total of 248 sent by mail (response rate = 23%) to the endodontists (female = 73%). Results: Forty-one percent (n = 23) of the professionals answered that they were able to identify cases of abuse, while 59% (n = 33) answered that they were unable. Considering their graduation years, 93% (n = 52) stated that they had received little information on this issue, and only 5% (n = 3) attended seminars on this subject during the year before the questionnaire’s application. Although 61% (n = 34) of the professionals affirmed that suspicious cases must be reported, only 30% (n = 17) knew to whom. Eighteen percent (n = 10) of the endodontists reported they had already treated suspicious cases, although only 3.5% (n = 2) reported the case to the authorities. The most cited signs of abuse were: body bruises (48%; n = 27), change in behavior (48%; n = 27) and burn marks (12.5%; n = 7). Lesions presented in the face, mouth, and teeth were reported by 27% (n = 15) of the professionals. There were no statistically differences regarding the number of notifications in relation to either the number of years since graduation or the workplace. Conclusion: It was concluded that it is necessary to improve endodontists’ formation concerning to child abuse identification, in order to modify their behavior, therefore, increasing the number of suspicious cases’ notifications.

Estela Maris Losso; Glaucia Marengo; Maria Carolina El Sarraf; Flares Baratto Filho

2012-01-01

158

Child Abuse: Knowledge and Attitudes Among Pedodontics in Uberlandia e Araguari, Minas Gerais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify from pediatric dentistry educational experiences and knowledge concerning child abuse/neglect, numbers of suspected cases of child abuse and knowledge of local child protection. Method: A survey with 26 pedodontics in Araguari and Uberlandia (Minas Gerais, Brazil) was done and they were sent a postal questionnaire, 17 responded, giving a 65.4 percent response rate. The survey requested demographic details, responses to possible physical abuse or neglect, and details of suspected child abuse reporting behavior. Results: In their working lives 52.9 percent said that they had seen a suspicious child physical abuse case; however, only 14.3 percent had reported a suspicious case to the authorities. Twenty-nine percent of dentists did not know their legal responsibility concerning reporting child abuse; and 61 percent did know where to report child abuse. Conclusion: Due to lack of training, most practitioners were unsure what to do in the event of a suspicion of child abuse. There is need for continuing education of dentistry practitioners regarding symptoms and signs of physical abuse and the role of dental team in the multidisciplinary management of child abuse. Dental curricula should be revisited to ensure that students are adequately prepared for this professional task.

Janaína Fernandes SANTOS; Karina Silva NUNES; Alessandro Leite CAVALCANTI; Edméia Costa e SILVA

2006-01-01

159

Hemophilia and child abuse as possible causes of epidural hematoma: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Head trauma is an important consequence of child abuse. Specific pathophysiological mechanisms in child abuse are responsible for the ''whiplash shaken-baby syndrome'', which would favour the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhages. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a child who developed epidural hematoma following minor-intensity head trauma. Initial diagnosis of child abuse was made, but subsequent investigation led to the diagnosis of hemophilia A. CONCLUSION: Even though epidural hematoma is not closely associated with child abuse, this aethiology must always be considered when the reported trauma mechanism is out of proportion to the magnitude of the encountered lesions.

Pinto Fernando Campos Gomes; Porro Fabrizio Frutos; Suganuma Liliana; Fontes Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos; Andrade Almir Ferreira de; Marino Jr Raul

2003-01-01

160

Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED) through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members). The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs.

Louwers Eveline CFM; Korfage Ida J; Affourtit Marjo J; De Koning Harry J; Moll Henriëtte A

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rosana Norman and colleagues conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes.

Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

162

Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of reviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders.

Maniglio R

2013-04-01

163

Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of reviews.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders. PMID:23262751

Maniglio, Roberto

2012-12-20

164

Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence  

Science.gov (United States)

|Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse

Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

2009-01-01

165

Child abuse rating system for archival information in severe mental illness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Assessing and addressing child abuse histories are one of the grand challenges in psychiatric rehabilitation. Archival information, e.g., comprehensive psychosocial evaluations, objective testing, court documents, and medical chart information can provide useful and objective historical accounts. It is essential to develop a reliable and valid child abuse rating system for archival information. PURPOSE AND METHODS: This study aimed to examine the reliability and predictive validity of a highly structured and specific child abuse rating system used to code archival information for 150 psychiatric inpatients with severe mental illness (SMI). RESULTS: The child abuse rating system produced reliable ratings across raters and subtypes of child abuse were highly inter-related. More than half (56.5%) of the sample with SMI was identified to have one or more types of child abuse history; specifically, child sexual abuse (CSA, 36%), child physical abuse (CPA, 27.3%), emotional maltreatment (EM, 36%), failure to provide (FTP, 10.7%), and lack of supervision (LOS, 32%). Female participants (50%) with SMI had higher rates of CSA than male participants (20.8%). Subtypes of child abuse history were related to poorer premorbid functioning, but the relationships varied across different types of child abuse. In addition, CSA and EM were related to greater suspiciousness/hostility. CONCLUSION: The child abuse rating system for archival data fills an important gap in existing methodology and, in conjunction with a self-report measure, is expected to improve the assessment and understanding of the prevalence of child abuse among adults with SMI. Potential limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Choi KH; Reddy LF; Spaulding W

2012-08-01

166

Marijuana Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Plan Print Home » Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana Abuse Marijuana Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Explores the latest research on marijuana, including the scope of marijuana use in the ...

167

Child physical and sexual abuse in a community sample of young adults: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual, family, and individual factors using a community-based sample in Ontario. METHODS: The Ontario Child Health Study is a province-wide health survey of children aged 4 through 16 years. Conducted in 1983, a second wave was undertaken in 1987 and a third in 2000-2001. The third wave (N=1,928) included questions about exposure to physical and sexual abuse in childhood. RESULTS: Males reported significantly more child physical abuse (33.7%), but not severe physical abuse (21.5%), than females (28.2% and 18.3%, respectively). Females reported significantly more child sexual abuse (22.1%) than males (8.3%). Growing up in an urban area, young maternal age at the time of the first child's birth, and living in poverty, predicted child physical abuse (and the severe category), and sexual abuse. Childhood psychiatric disorder was associated with child physical abuse (and the severe category), while parental adversity was associated with child sexual abuse and severe physical abuse. Siblings of those who experienced either physical abuse or sexual abuse in childhood were at increased risk for the same abuse exposure; the risk was highest for physical abuse. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight important similarities and differences in risk factors for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Such information is useful in considering approaches to prevention and early detection of child maltreatment. Clinicians who identify physical abuse or sexual abuse in children should be alert to the need to assess whether siblings have experienced similar exposures. This has important implications for assessment of other children in the home at the time of identification with the overall goal of reducing further occurrence of abuse.

MacMillan HL; Tanaka M; Duku E; Vaillancourt T; Boyle MH

2013-01-01

168

Knowledge, educational experiences and attitudes towards child abuse amongst Jordanian dentists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Signs of physical abuse often present in the oro-facial region and dentists are in a strategic position to recognise and report suspected cases. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, educational experiences and attitudes of Jordanian dentists towards child abuse and to assess their educational needs. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Jordanian dentists (n=400) was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The response rate was 64%. Thirty-four per cent (n=88) of the respondents reported having formal training in recognising and reporting child abuse, and 42% (n=106) had post-qualification/continuing education training on the topic. Half of the dentists (127/256) suspected a case of child abuse in the past 5 years, but only 12% (31/256) reported their suspicions. The main reasons for not reporting suspicions of abuse were fear from anger of parents (43%), uncertainty about diagnosis (41%) and uncertainty about referral procedures (41%). Those dentists who had formal training in dental school (P=0.0001) and post-qualification courses in child abuse (P=0.006) were significantly more likely to report suspicions. CONCLUSIONS: A significant gap existed between recognising signs of physical child abuse and responding effectively. Improvements in child abuse education and continuing education courses are advised to provide dentists in Jordan with adequate knowledge of indicators of physical child abuse and to inform them on the protocol to follow when suspicions arise.

Sonbol HN; Abu-Ghazaleh S; Rajab LD; Baqain ZH; Saman R; Al-Bitar ZB

2012-02-01

169

Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

170

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-01-01

171

Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members.

Kwok SY; Chai W; He X

2013-07-01

172

Primary identification of an abused child in dental office: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the injuries of child abuse are many and varied, several types of injuries are common to abuse. Many of these injuries are within the scope of dentistry or easily observed by the dental professional in the course of routine dental treatment. The authors present a case of child abuse with multiple bruises. The child had been spanked in the previous night and the morning of the attendance by his mother. This case emphasized that all practitioners should be vigilant when patients present with abnormal injuries which may be the result of abuse and further investigation should be instigated.

Santos J; Cavalcanti A; Nunes K; Silva E

2007-01-01

173

School factors as moderators of the relationship between physical child abuse and pathways of antisocial behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ), which are hypothesized to change the course of antisocial behavior from childhood into the adult years. Results show an association between physical child abuse and early antisocial behavior. Early antisocial behavior predicts antisocial behavior in adolescence, and that, in turn, predicts antisocial behavior in adulthood. Child IQ moderated the relationship between child physical abuse and antisocial behavior in childhood. However, no other moderation effects were observed. Limitations and implications for future research and prevention are discussed.

Klika JB; Herrenkohl TI; Lee JO

2013-03-01

174

Childhood experiences of perpetrators of child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study explored the childhood experiences of perpetrators of child sexual abuse. DESIGN AND METHODS: A blend of narrative inquiry and phenomenology was employed. Interviews were conducted with 23 community-dwelling perpetrators (21 males, 2 females). The education of participants ranged from GED to PhD. FINDINGS: There were four types of narratives: There Was No Love; Love Left; Love Was Conflated With Sex; and a Pretty Good Childhood. Chronic sorrow for a painful childhood was evident in most participants. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Cognitive-behavioral treatment may not be optimal for all perpetrators because it is not designed to facilitate recovery from early trauma and loss.

Thomas SP; Phillips K; Carlson K; Shieh E; Kirkwood E; Cabage L; Worley J

2013-07-01

175

Child abuse and deprivation: soul murder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soul murder involves the deliberate traumatization or deprivation by an authority (parent) of his charge (child). The victim is robbed of his identity and of the ability to maintain authentic feelings. Soul murder remains effective if the capacity to think and to know has been sufficiently interfered with--by way of brainwashing. Questions are raised about pathogenesis. Some suggestions are made about treatment of those whose pathogenic fantasy life has been so influenced by traumatic reality. The need to identify with and to maintain the illusion of a good parent enforces the difficult resistance of denial (brainwashing becomes self-enforced). Paradoxically, in order to survive and adjust, some of these people so traumatized as children develop unusual strengths and gifts.

Shengold LL

1979-01-01

176

28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2 Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive...

2009-07-01

177

A phenomenological exploration of reflections on lived space by child sexual abusers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.).

Garrett LH

2010-12-01

178

Child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania : possibilities and barriers for prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Child sexual abuse is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite beinga crime in most countries, and with well-known physical and mental health consequences, the majority of sexual offences are not reported. Child sexual abuse is a maltreatment form characterized by contact...

Kisanga, Felix

179

Potential mediators between child abuse and both violence and victimization in juvenile offenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population.

Day DM; Hart TA; Wanklyn SG; McCay E; Macpherson A; Burnier N

2013-02-01

180

Prevention of child sexual abuse: analysis and discussion of the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevention of child sexual abuse is complicated, challenging, and highly necessary as sexual abuse of children and youth represents an extensive problem across the world. This article reviews the existing preventive interventions targeting children, parents, and professionals. An alternative way of organizing the child sexual abuse prevention research literature is offered and applied with emphasis on three areas: (a) child sexual abuse prevention interventions, (b) meta-analyses of child sexual abuse prevention interventions, and (c) general theoretical models about prevention and the child. Based on an analysis of these areas, it was found that there was a lack of connection between theoretical models and concrete preventive interventions. An overview of current challenges and future possibilities in this area is provided. PMID:23924180

Zeuthen, Katrine; Hagelskjær, Marie

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Prevention of child sexual abuse: analysis and discussion of the field.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prevention of child sexual abuse is complicated, challenging, and highly necessary as sexual abuse of children and youth represents an extensive problem across the world. This article reviews the existing preventive interventions targeting children, parents, and professionals. An alternative way of organizing the child sexual abuse prevention research literature is offered and applied with emphasis on three areas: (a) child sexual abuse prevention interventions, (b) meta-analyses of child sexual abuse prevention interventions, and (c) general theoretical models about prevention and the child. Based on an analysis of these areas, it was found that there was a lack of connection between theoretical models and concrete preventive interventions. An overview of current challenges and future possibilities in this area is provided.

Zeuthen K; Hagelskjær M

2013-01-01

182

Recommendations on recognition and response to child abuse and neglect in the Indian setting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

JUSTIFICATION: Pediatricians are usually the first point of contact of children with the health system. Studies worldwide have shown that there is insufficient knowledge about child abuse recognition and management among health workers. Presently no uniform guidelines exist in India for pediatricians regarding the appropriate response to child abuse. PROCESS: As part of the Child Rights and Protection Programme (CRPP) under IAP VISION 2007 of Indian Academy of Pediatrics, a Training of Trainers Workshop on Child Rights and Protection was held in Mumbai in January 2007. It was attended by participants from all over the country. The workshop recommended developing country-specific teaching and training material. A Task force of IAP CRPP was formed and it developed a module for Training of Trainers Workshops for Pediatricians. A National Consultative Meet was held in October, 2007 at New Delhi, where the program was discussed and ratified. OBJECTIVES: To train pediatricians to: recognize and respond to child abuse; engage in a multidisciplinary networking mode to deal with child abuse; and, document, record and report instances of child abuse. RECOMMENDATIONS: Guidelines for recognition and management of child abuse are presented. All pediatricians should assess suspected harm with the same thoroughness and attention as they would do with a life threatening condition. Poor management after disclosure can increase psychological damage. Pediatrician should believe, support, reassure, treat and ensure rehabilitation of victims of child abuse, keeping the best interest of the child as the primary goal.

Aggarwal K; Dalwai S; Galagali P; Mishra D; Prasad C; Thadhani A

2010-06-01

183

Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguard children from abuse, neglect and violence such as incest which has been criminalized by the Penal Code and the Domestic Violence Act which protects the child against violence within family. This Act was introduced to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the care, protection and rehabilitation of children. With the Act beforehand, numbers of child abuse cases are still alarming. Therefore, this article is an attempt to give an overview of care and protection provided under the Child Act 2001 towards children who are being the victims of abuse. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the extent of the protection and care given under the Act to safeguard the children in the social justice system in Malaysia. At the end of the paper some areas are identified for further improvement and future amendment.

Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda; Engku Ahmad Zaki bin Engku Alwi

2011-01-01

184

Evaluation of orofacial lesions relating child abuse, Esfahan, Iran: A quantitative approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Family violence, including child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence, is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to provide data on prevalence and factors of Orofacial lesions relating child abuse in Iran to lend evidence to support preventing child abuse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The overall approach was a case-note review of children having child abuse note, recording by personnel of social services. Research ethical approval was sought from the Central social service organization. This study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran (2011). RESULT: The mean age of children, when abuse had been occurred was 8 years (SD = 1.68), and there were approximately an equal number of boys and girls. Children had a high physical experience (66.1%).Of these children, at least 60% sustained trauma to the face and mouth. Emotional abuse was 77.1%, neglect was 64.1%, and lower experience of sexual abuse which was 4.1%. There was a strong relationship between gender and abuser which shows girls have been affected by stepfathers (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Preliminary data suggest that there are strong evidence regarding the incidence of child abuse relating orofacial lesions which dentists should be aware of them. Future trials may draw on these useful baseline data to help their study design.

Nilchian F; Sadri L; Jabbarifar SE; Saeidi A; Arbab L

2012-11-01

185

Child abuse and dentistry: a study of knowledge and attitudes among Nigerian dentists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is recognized globally as a major public health issue and in recent years, Nigerian communities have become increasingly aware of this problem. Numerous studies have revealed that the head and oro-facial region are common sites of trauma from child abuse. For this reason, dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report suspected cases. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Nigerian dentists towards child abuse. A descriptive survey was conducted among 175 dentists in Nigeria. Results revealed that physical abuse, neglect and emotional abuse was recognized by 61.7%, 53.1% and 33.1% of the respondents respectively as forms of abuse. A greater proportion of the females (42.3%) in contrast to the males (26.9%) identified emotional abuse (p<0.05). Psychosocial, medical and oro-dental signs were associated with child abuse by 68.0%, 60% and 15.4% of the respondents respectively. More than a third (39.4%) of the dentists claimed to have suspected child abuse in one or more of their young patients however, only 6.9% had actually reported. The possible effects on the child, uncertainty about the diagnosis and fear of litigation were factors which 92%, 81.1% and 64.6% of the dentists respectively claimed could influence their decision to reporting child abuse. This study has demonstrated that some knowledge gaps exist among dentists in recognizing and reporting this problem. There is a need for further information and training at all levels of the dental profession in the recognition and reporting of child abuse. PMID:18939395

Bankole, O O; Denloye, O O; Adeyemi, A T

2008-06-01

186

[Possibilities for addressing child abuse in systematized nursing consultations].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child abuse has been increasing, and addressing this phenomenon is within the responsibilities of health services. The International Classification of Nursing Practice in Public Health (Classificação Internacional das Práticas de Enfermagem em Saúde Coletiva - CIPESC®) is a tool that systematizes care and identifies child abuse during nursing consultations. The present study aimed to identify the limitations and potential of CIPESC® in nursing consultations with children that were victims of domestic violence. The present qualitative descriptive case study examined 15 web-based reports on violence completed by primary care nurses from the Curitiba City Council (Secretaria Municipal de Curitiba) in the state of Paraná. Although CIPESC® has shown potential, the diagnoses and interventions presented in the classifications were not fully utilized by the respondents. The reports showed worrisome limits regarding the recognition of needs and vulnerabilities involving the phenomenon of violence. In conclusion, it is necessary to contribute to the nomenclature the attributes concerning freedom and autonomy, which are essential for addressing violence, in addition to methods for evidence-based interventions.

Apostólico MR; Hino P; Egry EY

2013-04-01

187

Child abuse: validation of a questionnaire translated into Brazilian Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study sought to validate the Portuguese translation of a questionnaire on maltreatment of children and adolescents, developed by Russell et al. and to test its psychometric properties for use in Brazil. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese using a standardized forward-backward linguistic translation method. Both face and content validity were tested in a small pilot study (n = 8). In the main study, a convenience sample of 80 graduate dentistry students with different specialties, from Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were invited to complete the final Brazilian version of the questionnaire. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the results obtained from the questionnaire for different specialties (pediatric dentistry, for example). The respondents completed the questionnaire again after 4 weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability. The comparison of test versus retest questionnaire answers showed good agreement (kappa > 0.53, intraclass correlation > 0.84) for most questions. In regard to discriminant validity, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the experience and interest domains, in which pediatric dentists showed more experience with and interest in child abuse compared with dentists of other specialties (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05). The Brazilian version of the questionnaire was valid and reliable for assessing knowledge regarding child abuse by Portuguese-speaking dentists.

Glaucia Marengo; Ana Paula Borges de Paola; Fernanda Morais Ferreira; Eduardo Pizzatto; Gisele Maria Correr; Estela Maris Losso

2013-01-01

188

The ecological model and the study of child abuse in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physical abuse and exploitative child labor are two common forms of child abuse in Nigeria. Exploitative child labor exists in both the formal and informal sectors where children work as hairdressers, beggars' assistants, hawkers, and as factory and agricultural workers under conditions characterized by long hours, hazardous environment, and meager remuneration. Research on the incidence of physical abuse in Nigeria is less systematic, and few empirical studies are available. Physical abuse is primarily the result of corporal punishment which has become excessive. Poverty and the existence of a dependent capitalist economy are often proffered as the primary causes of child abuse. While both explanations have some validity, their unidimensional nature limits their explanatory capacity. These explanations also lead to the belief that very little can be done to improve the quality of children's lives until the social order is restructured. The ecological model proposes that child abuse can best be understood if it is analyzed multidimensionally with emphasis on the individual, family, social environment, and cultural milieau, as well as the dynamic interaction between these levels. This model appears appropriate for the study of child abuse in Nigeria, and its application is advocated as a vehicle for improving the quality of child abuse research.

Wilson-Oyelaran EB

1989-01-01

189

The ecological model and the study of child abuse in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical abuse and exploitative child labor are two common forms of child abuse in Nigeria. Exploitative child labor exists in both the formal and informal sectors where children work as hairdressers, beggars' assistants, hawkers, and as factory and agricultural workers under conditions characterized by long hours, hazardous environment, and meager remuneration. Research on the incidence of physical abuse in Nigeria is less systematic, and few empirical studies are available. Physical abuse is primarily the result of corporal punishment which has become excessive. Poverty and the existence of a dependent capitalist economy are often proffered as the primary causes of child abuse. While both explanations have some validity, their unidimensional nature limits their explanatory capacity. These explanations also lead to the belief that very little can be done to improve the quality of children's lives until the social order is restructured. The ecological model proposes that child abuse can best be understood if it is analyzed multidimensionally with emphasis on the individual, family, social environment, and cultural milieau, as well as the dynamic interaction between these levels. This model appears appropriate for the study of child abuse in Nigeria, and its application is advocated as a vehicle for improving the quality of child abuse research. PMID:2776046

Wilson-Oyelaran, E B

1989-01-01

190

Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts) The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S) Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%), mostly because of bad training (26%). Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female) 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%), mostly because of bad training (33.3%) Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

G Kholasezadeh; N Bashardoost; N Ahmadi; G Dastjerdi

2010-01-01

191

Sexual identity group differences in child abuse and neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood abuse and neglect are pervasive problems among girls and young women that have numerous health consequences. Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and neglect, but little is known about which sexual minority women are at greatest risk for these early adverse experiences. Using data from a pooled sample of women in a national probability study and in a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study's methodology (pooled n = 953), we investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women from five sexual identity groups. As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse and neglect than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. We found considerable variability across the sexual minority subgroups, including severity of abuse, highlighting the need for research that distinguishes among these groups. To the extent that differences reported by women in the sample reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity group differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications.

Alvy LM; Hughes TL; Kristjanson AF; Wilsnack SC

2013-07-01

192

Inhalant Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Connect with NIDA : Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ... Strategic Plan Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ...

193

[Incidence of child neglect and child abuse in the region of Copenhagen  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of physical violence, neglect and sexual abuse against children as reported to the local authorities, in the county of Copenhagen during the year 1993. A questionnaire was mailed to the local authorities in the 18 districts in the county and to 18 schools and 18 general practitioners (GP's). They were asked whether, and how many new, verified and suspected cases of physical, emotional and sexual abuse had come to their attention in 1993. A total of 300 cases of child abuse were identified in the area with a total population of 675.000 i.e. a total incidence of 2.7 cases per 1000 children aged 0-17 years (2.7%), with 0.7% for physical violence, 0.5% for sexual abuse and 1.5% for emotional neglect. Some 180 cases were considered verified and 120 cases were suspected. A considerable variation between the different districts was noted, i.e. the local incidence varied from 0-5.4%. A statistically significant inverse correlation between the average local tax-income and the incidence of child abuse and neglect was found. There were several examples of schools having knowledge of more cases than the local authorities. Very few cases came to be attention of the GP.

Riis L; Bodelsen H; Knudsen FU

1998-09-01

194

[Incidence of child neglect and child abuse in the region of Copenhagen].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of physical violence, neglect and sexual abuse against children as reported to the local authorities, in the county of Copenhagen during the year 1993. A questionnaire was mailed to the local authorities in the 18 districts in the county and to 18 schools and 18 general practitioners (GP's). They were asked whether, and how many new, verified and suspected cases of physical, emotional and sexual abuse had come to their attention in 1993. A total of 300 cases of child abuse were identified in the area with a total population of 675.000 i.e. a total incidence of 2.7 cases per 1000 children aged 0-17 years (2.7%), with 0.7% for physical violence, 0.5% for sexual abuse and 1.5% for emotional neglect. Some 180 cases were considered verified and 120 cases were suspected. A considerable variation between the different districts was noted, i.e. the local incidence varied from 0-5.4%. A statistically significant inverse correlation between the average local tax-income and the incidence of child abuse and neglect was found. There were several examples of schools having knowledge of more cases than the local authorities. Very few cases came to be attention of the GP. PMID:9748862

Riis, L; Bodelsen, H; Knudsen, F U

1998-09-01

195

Paternal alcohol abuse: relationship between child adjustment, parental characteristics, and family functioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines possible risk factors associated with child adjustment in a sample of children with alcohol abusing fathers in Norway (N = 37). Factors included are socio-economic status, severity of the fathers' alcohol abuse, parental psychological problems, and family functioning. Children of alcohol abusing fathers were found to have more adjustment problems assessed by CBCL compared to a general population sample. The findings further suggest that child adjustment in families with paternal alcohol abuse is the result of an accumulation of risk factors rather than the effects of the paternal alcohol abuse alone. Both general environmental risk factors (psychological problems in the fathers, family climate, family health and conflicts) and environmental factors related to the parental alcohol abuse (severity of the alcohol abuse, the child's level of exposure to the alcohol abuse, changes in routines and rituals due to drinking) were related to child adjustment. The results indicate the need to obtain both parents' assessments of child adjustment, as the fathers' assessment was associated with different risk factors compared to the mothers'.

Haugland BS

2003-01-01

196

How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers' child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. METHODS: Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. RESULTS: Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed.

Schols MW; de Ruiter C; Ory FG

2013-09-01

197

The relationship between knowledge and child and caregiver distress during the medical examination for child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

When child sexual abuse is suspected, a child sexual abuse-related medical examination is recommended to ensure the child's well-being. While the extant research has sought to identify factors influencing child distress during this examination, only recently have studies began examining variables that may be directly associated with the child or with the medical setting. Knowledge of the child sexual abuse-related medical examination is one medical-related variable that has been implicated in child and caregiver distress during the examination. The current study contributes to the existing literature by investigating associations among examination knowledge in relation to caregiver and child anxiety at the time of a child sexual abuse-related medical examination, taking into account ethnicity, past child abuse, injury to child as result of abuse, and caregiver response to disclosure. Sixty-eight children and their nonoffending caregiver were assessed. Results indicated that understanding of the examination and caregiver response to disclosure were significantly associated with caregiver and child anxiety. PMID:23837655

Rheingold, Alyssa A; Davidson, Tatiana M; Resnick, Heidi; Self-Brown, Shannon; Danielson, Carla Kmett

2013-01-01

198

Autobiographical memory specificity in child sexual abuse victims.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the autobiographical memory interview. Individual difference measures, including those for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and CSA. Even with depression statistically controlled, reduced memory specificity in CSA victims relative to controls was observed among adolescents but not among adults. A higher number of posttraumatic stress disorder criteria met predicted more specific childhood memories in participants who reported CSA as their most traumatic life event. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of childhood trauma and autobiographical memory functioning and underscore the importance of considering the role of age and degree of traumatization within the study of autobiographical memory.

Ogle CM; Block SD; Harris LS; Goodman GS; Pineda A; Timmer S; Urquiza A; Saywitz KJ

2013-05-01

199

Autobiographical memory specificity in child sexual abuse victims.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the autobiographical memory interview. Individual difference measures, including those for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and CSA. Even with depression statistically controlled, reduced memory specificity in CSA victims relative to controls was observed among adolescents but not among adults. A higher number of posttraumatic stress disorder criteria met predicted more specific childhood memories in participants who reported CSA as their most traumatic life event. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of childhood trauma and autobiographical memory functioning and underscore the importance of considering the role of age and degree of traumatization within the study of autobiographical memory. PMID:23627947

Ogle, Christin M; Block, Stephanie D; Harris, Latonya S; Goodman, Gail S; Pineda, Annarheen; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony; Saywitz, Karen J

2013-05-01

200

Prevalence and correlates of child sexual abuse: a national study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study examines the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric disorders of adults with history of child sexual abuse (CSA). METHODS: Data were derived from a large national sample of the US population. More than 34000 adults 18 years and older residing in households were interviewed face-to-face in a survey conducted during the 2004-2005 period. Diagnoses were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, version. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between CSA and psychiatric disorders, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and other Axis I psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence of CSA was 10.14% (24.8% in men and 75.2% in women). Child physical abuse, maltreatment, and neglect were more prevalent among individuals with CSA than among those without it. Adults with CSA history had significantly higher rates of any Axis I disorder and suicide attempts. The frequency, type, and number of CSA were significantly correlated with psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The high correlation rates of CSA with psychopathology and increased risk for suicide attempts in adulthood suggest the need for a systematic assessment of psychiatric disorders and suicide risk in these individuals. The risk factors for CSA emphasize the need for health care initiatives geared toward increasing recognition and development of treatment approaches for the emotional sequelae CSA as well as early preventive approaches.

Pérez-Fuentes G; Olfson M; Villegas L; Morcillo C; Wang S; Blanco C

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Caregiver Substance Abuse and Children's Exposure to Violence in a Nationally Representative Child Welfare Sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children's exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find statistically significant relationships between child report of direct victimization in the home by mild or severe violence and caregiver alcohol or drug abuse.

Seay KD; Kohl P

2013-01-01

202

The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of child sexual abuse perpetrated by women against minors, mainly against teenagers.

SORIN M. R?DULESCU

2010-01-01

203

Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

2009-01-01

204

Approach to Treatment of the Child Sexual Abuser in the Military.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse, and particularly, incest, is a recurring incident in the military. There is much concern for the victims of incestuous acts, how they will adjust, and what follow-up will be necessary. There seems to be a trend towards putting the abus...

F. W. Montondon

1987-01-01

205

Physical child abuse: perception, diagnosis, and management by Southern Brazilian pediatric dentists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the perception, diagnosis, and attitudes of child abuse among Brazilian pediatric dentists. METHODS: Data, collected through a survey sent to 212 pediatric dentists in Curitiba, Brazil, included perceived knowledge about signs of child abuse, whether they had seen and reported it, and knowledge of their obligation to report, how, and to whom. RESULTS: The response rate was ~33%. The youngest group was significantly more likely to report cases than the group with more than 18 years since graduation. Fifty-five percent of the professionals thought they are able to identify child abuse, 36% thought they were unable, and 9% did not know. Although 73% knew that reporting incidents of abuse is compulsory, only 48% responded that they would report cases of abuse to the relevant authorities. Although 36% of the pediatric dentists reported to have seen suspected cases of abuse, only approximately 12% reported such cases to authorities. Signs of abuse most frequently mentioned were hematoma throughout the body (61%) and behavioral changes (53%). Lesions on the face, mouth, and teeth were cited by only 17% of the professionals. CONCLUSION: More information is needed in undergraduate dental schools and among pediatric dentists to recognize and report child abuse.

El Sarraf MC; Marego G; Correr GM; Pizzatto E; Losso EM

2012-07-01

206

Histological demonstration of haemosiderin deposits in lungs and liver from victims of chronic physical child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the context of chronic physical child abuse, two entities have been described based on macroscopical and radiological criteria: the battered baby syndrome and the shaken baby syndrome. However, in some autopsy cases, clinico-radiological information may not be available. In these cases, histological examinations are necessary to look for sequelae of repeated haemorrhages, particularly in organs likely to have suffered traumatisms such as the lungs, or in organs belonging to the mononucleated macrophage resorption system, such as the liver and the spleen. We examined a series of 15 young children who died from proven chronic child abuse and compared them with 15 sex and age-matched control subjects who died from natural causes with no history of child abuse. Using Perl's stain for iron, we identified haemosiderin deposits in pulmonary, hepatic and splenic samples and the deposits were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Haemosiderin deposits were significantly (P < 0.001) more abundant in the lungs and liver of the chronic abuse victims than in those of the control subjects. However, they were not significantly more abundant in the spleens of child abuse victims than in controls. We conclude that haemosiderin deposits in lungs and liver could be proposed as a marker for chronic physical child abuse. This study stresses the importance of systematic histological examination to look for pulmonary and hepatic haemosiderin deposits in cases in which chronic child abuse is suspected.

Dorandeu A; Perie G; Jouan H; Leroy B; Gray F; Durigon M

1999-01-01

207

Epidemiologic evaluation of child abuse and neglect in school-aged children of qazvin province, iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. METHODS: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. FINDINGS: Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5%) boys and 488 (47.5%) girls 679 (66.05%) cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%), 360 (35%) and 394 (38.3%) respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence. CONCLUSION: Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended.

Mahram M; Hosseinkhani Z; Nedjat S; Aflatouni A

2013-04-01

208

Child abuse and neglect, MAOA, and mental health outcomes: a prospective examination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies have examined the interaction of MAOA genotype with childhood maltreatment in relation to depressive symptomatology and alcohol abuse with conflicting findings. Both high- and low-activity allele combinations have been shown to be protective for maltreated children with direction of findings varying by study methodology and participants' sex. METHODS: Participants in a prospective cohort design study involving court-substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group were followed up into adulthood and interviewed (N = 802). Eighty-two percent consented to provide blood, 631 gave permission for DNA extraction and analyses, and 575 were included in the final sample. This sample included male, female, white, and nonwhite (primarily black) participants. Symptoms of dysthymia, major depression, and alcohol abuse were assessed using the National Institutes of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule-III-R. RESULTS: Significant three-way interactions, MAOA genotype by abuse by sex, predicted dysthymic symptoms. Low-activity MAOA genotype buffered against symptoms of dysthymia in physically abused and multiply-maltreated women. Significant three-way interactions, MAOA genotype by sexual abuse by race, predicted all outcomes. Low-activity MAOA genotype buffered against symptoms of dysthymia, major depressive disorder, and alcohol abuse for sexually abused white participants. The high-activity genotype was protective in the nonwhite sexually abused group. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study provides evidence that MAOA interacts with child maltreatment to predict mental health outcomes. Reasons for sex differences and race findings are discussed.

Nikulina V; Widom CS; Brzustowicz LM

2012-02-01

209

Implementation of Nuclear Medicine Methods for Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglec  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect are detrimental to a child’s health, physical and psychosocial development and result from inappropriate behavior or inattention on the part of those responsible for the child’s care and protection. Child abuse/neglect is a serious public problem encompassing medical, ethical and legal aspects. Imaging methods play an important role in investigating and documenting child abuse and neglect. Radiological imaging methods have particular priority. X-rays of the whole skeletal system are obtained for evaluation of the bone structure. Computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography (US) are used for the detection of cranial and internal organ damage. Due to the rapid developments in technology, diagnostic methods using nuclear medicine have also been initiated for use in identifying abuse and neglect. Detection of abuse and neglect carries ethical, judicial and moral liabilities as well as a responsibility for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Implementation of diagnostic methods of nuclear medicine in determining child abuse and neglect might contribute significantly in resolving court cases by providing objective evidence in medicolegal cases for realization of fair trials and in facilitating substantial conclusions. It is hoped that nuclear medicine methods will be helpful in terms of providing objective evidence for the experts. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 30-5)

Eser Kaya

2010-01-01

210

Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adults and youths with bipolar disorder: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To estimate the prevalence and social and demographic correlates of child sexual abuse among people with bipolar disorder, the findings of all the pertinent studies were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed. Five databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Twenty studies, meeting minimum quality standards and including 3407 adults and youths with bipolar disorder across 10 countries and 3 continents, were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 24% (23% without outliers); however, such prevalence rate might be underestimated, because many studies restricted definitions to the most severe forms of abuse. Child sexual abuse was a common experience for both males and females, while it was more frequent for adults than for youths. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with bipolar disorder reported higher rates of child sexual abuse; compared to populations with other mental disorders, participants with bipolar disorder reported similar or lower rates of such abuse. Individuals with bipolar disorder are at risk of having a history of child sexual abuse, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared to people with other psychiatric disorders.

Maniglio R

2013-06-01

211

Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adults and youths with bipolar disorder: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

To estimate the prevalence and social and demographic correlates of child sexual abuse among people with bipolar disorder, the findings of all the pertinent studies were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed. Five databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Twenty studies, meeting minimum quality standards and including 3407 adults and youths with bipolar disorder across 10 countries and 3 continents, were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 24% (23% without outliers); however, such prevalence rate might be underestimated, because many studies restricted definitions to the most severe forms of abuse. Child sexual abuse was a common experience for both males and females, while it was more frequent for adults than for youths. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with bipolar disorder reported higher rates of child sexual abuse; compared to populations with other mental disorders, participants with bipolar disorder reported similar or lower rates of such abuse. Individuals with bipolar disorder are at risk of having a history of child sexual abuse, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared to people with other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23563080

Maniglio, Roberto

2013-03-15

212

Peer abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a) is intended to cause harm or distress, (b) occurs repeatedly over time, and (c) occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4)

Müjgan

2011-01-01

213

Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

2012-11-27

214

Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed.

Edelson MG

2013-10-01

215

Child sexual abuse: the perception of mothers concerning their daughters' sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Domestic violence affects all members in a family and children are considered the main victims. This qualitative study aimed to grasp the perception of mothers whose daughters were sexually abused. Data were collected between February and March 2007 in a governmental facility in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil through semi-structured interviews with ten mothers of sexually abused children. Data were submitted to the Collective Subject Discourse Technique from which three themes emerged: Guilt is rooted in the motherhood myth, unhealable pain and despair as a consequence of a feeling of powerlessness. Results evidenced that mothers experience a range of feelings in which pain, revulsion and powerlessness are highlighted. Society should be engaged in the subject and interested in understanding violence, its magnitude and the whole affected chain, otherwise, only good intentions will remain, lost in the void from the lack of action.

Carvalho QC; Galvão MT; Cardoso MV

2009-07-01

216

Exploring the Relations among the Nature of the Abuse, Perceived Parental Support, and Child's Self-Concept and Trauma Symptoms among Sexually Abused Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined two resiliency factors: self-concept and perceived parental support, in conjunction with abuse factors that impact psychological functioning. Data were collected on 61 sexually abused children prior to treatment. Findings indicate that a child's self-concept was associated with all the trauma symptoms except sexual concerns and…

Reyes, Carla J.

2008-01-01

217

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in 'battered child syndrome' and brain injuries in 'shaken baby syndrome'. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [German] In der Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung ist die Bildgebung ein wesentlicher Faktor. Trotz scheinbar leerer Anamnese gelingt es, typische Verletzungsmuster als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen, sowohl im Bereich des Skeletts, der Weichteile, des Abdomens ('battered child syndrome', heute: 'non accidental injury', NAI) als auch im ZNS ('shaken baby syndrome'). Den klinischen Symptomen entsprechend, wird im Verdachtsfall ein adaequates diagnostisches Verfahren eingesetzt, das erwartete charakteristische Befunde nachweist, den Mechanismus der Verletzung aufzeigt und das Alter der Laesionen annaehernd festlegt. Radiologische Skelettbefunde werden hinsichtlich ihrer Spezifitaet fuer eine Misshandlung bewertet. Alle Resultate der Bildgebung sind zusammen mit Anamnese und klinischen Befunden zu deuten. Bei schwerer Misshandlung ohne aeussere Verletzungszeichen ist das rechtzeitige Erfassen einer ZNS-Verletzung prognostisch bedeutsam. Initial wird bei diesem Verdacht die CT eingesetzt, um Blutung und Oedem darzustellen, im Verlauf werden mittels MRT Blutungsreste sowie residuelle parenchymatoese Laesionen erfasst. Alle Befunde sind auf ihre Differenzialdiagnosen hin zu pruefen, bevor der Misshandlungsverdacht geaeussert wird. (orig.)

Stoever, B. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, CC6, Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

2007-11-15

218

Juror Perceptions of Child Eyewitness Testimony in a Sexual Abuse Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

A mock child sexual abuse trial was used to study juror perceptions of child eyewitnesses. The child's age (5, 11, or 16) and level of involvement (victim or bystander) were varied across conditions in order to test their impact on juror perceptions and verdict. Results indicated a significant effect of level of involvement on the verdict;…

Holcomb, Matthew J.; Jacquin, Kristine M.

2007-01-01

219

Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

|We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2009-01-01

220

The dynamics of child abuse in the family as a subject of psychological research  

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Full Text Available The article raises important questions of studying the temporal dynamics of child abuse, considering up-to-date literature. The severity of the problems discussed is proved by statistical data showing the prevalence of child abuse in Russian families. We highlight the ambiguity of relevant terminology, lack of certain features, boundaries and algorithms of psychological work with victims. The dynamic aspects of the problem of abuse are considered in light of the practical needs of adequate psychological prevention, timely and accurate identification of this phenomenon by psychologists. The author puts forward the problem of “starting point” of quantitative and qualitative transformations of child abuse syndrome in the family history, identifying possible problems and prospects for solving these problems. Particular attention is given to the time and the premises of origin acts attributed to manifestations of ill-treatment, in context of a specific family

Z.V. Lukovtseva

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse.

Schaefer GA; Mundt IA; Feelgood S; Hupp E; Neutze J; Ahlers CJ; Goecker D; Beier KM

2010-05-01

222

Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

2010-05-13

223

Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30?min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N?=?9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N?=?18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N?=?14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history.

Bublitz MH; Stroud LR

2013-11-01

224

Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

Lalor K; McElvaney R

2010-10-01

225

Child abuse as an inhibiting factor for family planning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of using children as an economic asset to the family thus, in one way increasing the prevalence of child abuse in Egypt and also hindering the family planning program. Two focus-group interviews were conducted in urban & rural areas for 10 women with the same age range and socioeconomic background. All were non-users of any contraception. Subsequently an interview was conducted for all women who attended the Ob. & Gyn. Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital in the period from June to August 1991, their ages ranged from 30-35 years and they never used contraception. Another group of women with the same characteristics were interviewed from a rural area at Fayoum Governorate. A questionnaire was filled for each interviewed woman. The total women interviewed in urban area is 340 while in the rural area they were 400 women. Sixty percent of urban women and 80% of rural women are illiterate, 70% of the urban & 100% of rural women are housewives. Their years of marriage ranged between 10-20 years and all of them have more than five children. A percentage of 73.5% of urban women and 85% of rural women stated that children are used as an economic asset to their families, they work in urban areas as assistants in motor repairs, hair-dressers, beggars, bakeries, shops, restaurants and factories while in rural areas they work as agricultural workers.

Fahim HI; Faris R

1992-01-01

226

Child abuse as an inhibiting factor for family planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of using children as an economic asset to the family thus, in one way increasing the prevalence of child abuse in Egypt and also hindering the family planning program. Two focus-group interviews were conducted in urban & rural areas for 10 women with the same age range and socioeconomic background. All were non-users of any contraception. Subsequently an interview was conducted for all women who attended the Ob. & Gyn. Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital in the period from June to August 1991, their ages ranged from 30-35 years and they never used contraception. Another group of women with the same characteristics were interviewed from a rural area at Fayoum Governorate. A questionnaire was filled for each interviewed woman. The total women interviewed in urban area is 340 while in the rural area they were 400 women. Sixty percent of urban women and 80% of rural women are illiterate, 70% of the urban & 100% of rural women are housewives. Their years of marriage ranged between 10-20 years and all of them have more than five children. A percentage of 73.5% of urban women and 85% of rural women stated that children are used as an economic asset to their families, they work in urban areas as assistants in motor repairs, hair-dressers, beggars, bakeries, shops, restaurants and factories while in rural areas they work as agricultural workers. PMID:1295939

Fahim, H I; Faris, R

1992-01-01

227

Spouse Abuse  

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The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational back...

Dixon, Louise

228

Management of physical child abuse in South Africa: literature review and children's hospital data analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which to base their management of physical child abuse, at both governmental and hospital management level. The main aim of the second part is to outline the extent of the problem as seen at the Red Cross Memorial Children's Hospital (RCH) in Cape Town. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was searched for articles specifically about the management of physical child abuse. Hospital data were analysed in two phases: one addressed various types of assault in order to assess the number of patients admitted to the trauma unit of RCH between 1991 and 2009, and the other to identify all children with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) presenting to the trauma unit at RCH from January 2008 until December 2010. RESULTS: Information on physical abuse of children in Africa in the English scientific literature remains disappointing with only two articles focusing on its management. RCH data for the period 1991?2009 recorded a total number of 6415 children hospitalised with injuries following assault, who accounted for 4.2% of all trauma admissions. Types of abuse included assault with a blunt or sharp instrument, rape/sexual assault and human bite wounds. Over the last 2 decades, there has been a minor decline in the number of cases of severe abuse requiring admission; admissions for other injuries have remained stable. More detailed analysis of hospital data for 2008?2010, found that boys were far more commonly assaulted than girls (70.5% vs 29.5%). Physical abuse appeared to be the most common cause of abuse; 89.9% of all boys and 60.5% of all girls presented after physical abuse. CONCLUSION: In order to eradicate child abuse, awareness of it has to be promoted in the community at large. Because the types of child abuse vary between countries, each requires its own research in order to develop a policy tailored to their particular requirements. In summary, an increased focus on the prevention of violence against children is urgently needed in order to curb the increasing trend of assaults on children. As the causes and risk factors for violence against children vary, multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral cooperation and collaboration will be required. It is hoped that this report will help raise awareness among health-care practitioners of NAI and its complexities.

Janssen TL; van Dijk M; Malki IA; van As AB

2013-09-01

229

Learning Lessons from the Past: Legal Issues Arising from Ireland's Child Abuse Reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inquiries have played an important role in telling the stories of children abused and neglected in Ireland in situations of family abuse, clerical abuse and institutional abuse. The inquiries – associated with the name of the chairperson (Ryan) or by their geographical remit (Dublin, Ferns, Cloyne, Kilkenny and Roscommon) – serve to vindicate the rights of the children affected and to identify the failure of the authorities to protect children from harm. They also make numerous recommendations as to how children’s treatment can be improved. Although each inquiry had varying terms of reference, scope and status, together they address a wide range of issues of both specific and general significance to the issue of child protection. Focus is clearly placed on how child protection practice can be improved but many of the inquiries also comment on the legal framework and make recommendations for the reform of various aspects of child protection law and policy. This paper argues that the legal implications of these inquiries can be reduced to three overarching issues: the legislative provision for the mandatory reporting of child abuse; the need for robust and effective inspection mechanisms to ensure the protection of children, and the issue of constitutional law reform. The analysis shows that these measures are neither straightforward nor a panacea to the intractable problem of providing effective protection to children from abuse. However, taken with the other recommendations identified in the child abuse reports, they represent the beginning of a lasting legacy for the victims of abuse so tragically failed by their families, by the state and by society at large.

Ursula Kilkelly

2012-01-01

230

The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maniglio R. The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2013: 00: 000-000. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Objectives:? The aim of this review was to elucidate the impact of child sexual abuse on all clinical phenomena that occur after the onset of bipolar disorder, including associated clinical features that are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Methods:? Five databases were searched and supplemented with a hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Study quality was assessed using a validated quality assessment tool. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers to reduce bias, minimize errors, and enhance the reliability of findings. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: ? Eighteen studies that included a total of 2996 adults and youths with bipolar disorder and met the minimum quality criteria necessary to ensure objectivity and not invalidate results were analyzed. Across studies, child sexual abuse was strongly (and perhaps directly) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; whereas it was less strongly (and perhaps indirectly) related to suicide attempts, alcohol and/or drug abuse or dependence, psychotic symptoms, and an early age of illness onset. In regard to the association between child sexual abuse and other clinical variables concerning the course of bipolar disorder, evidence was scant or conflicting. Conclusions:? Child sexual abuse is associated (either directly or indirectly) with some clinical phenomena that represent a more severe form of bipolar disorder. Although such a traumatic experience may directly affect the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, the effects of early sexual abuse on later suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and psychotic symptoms may operate through the mediating influences of certain psychopathological or neurobiological variables. PMID:23346867

Maniglio, Roberto

2013-01-24

231

The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maniglio R. The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2013: 00: 000-000. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Objectives:? The aim of this review was to elucidate the impact of child sexual abuse on all clinical phenomena that occur after the onset of bipolar disorder, including associated clinical features that are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Methods:? Five databases were searched and supplemented with a hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Study quality was assessed using a validated quality assessment tool. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers to reduce bias, minimize errors, and enhance the reliability of findings. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: ? Eighteen studies that included a total of 2996 adults and youths with bipolar disorder and met the minimum quality criteria necessary to ensure objectivity and not invalidate results were analyzed. Across studies, child sexual abuse was strongly (and perhaps directly) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; whereas it was less strongly (and perhaps indirectly) related to suicide attempts, alcohol and/or drug abuse or dependence, psychotic symptoms, and an early age of illness onset. In regard to the association between child sexual abuse and other clinical variables concerning the course of bipolar disorder, evidence was scant or conflicting. Conclusions:? Child sexual abuse is associated (either directly or indirectly) with some clinical phenomena that represent a more severe form of bipolar disorder. Although such a traumatic experience may directly affect the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, the effects of early sexual abuse on later suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and psychotic symptoms may operate through the mediating influences of certain psychopathological or neurobiological variables.

Maniglio R

2013-01-01

232

78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

...the United States of America A Proclamation America is a country where all of us should be able to pursue our own measure of happiness and live free from fear. But for the millions of children who have experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that...

2013-04-04

233

Abuse of alcohol, drugs and tobacco during pregnancy--consequences for the child.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is an increasing awareness that alcohol and drug abuse and smoking are not only harmful for the consumer but will also, when taken by a pregnant woman, adversely affect her unborn child. The consequence of the abuse will result from a combination of specific toxic effects of abusing substances and a nonspecific effect from the often very unstable environment of an alcohol- or drug-dependent mother. Poor prenatal care is a common finding in alcohol and drug abuse leading to a high incidence of complications during pregnancy and delivery including premature labor and small-for-gestational-age babies. An increased perinatal mortality has been reported following all types of abuse including tobacco use, probably as a consequence of poor prenatal care as well as of a toxic effect on the fetus. Withdrawal symptoms after birth are most prominent in opiate addiction. The already intrauterinely damaged child will if it stays with its parents often continue to be exposed to several abverse environmental factors. However, symptoms such as mental retardation following alcohol abuse and hyperactivity and emotional disturbances following drug exposure during intrauterine life have also been found in children who have been taken from the parents and placed in foster homes immediately after birth. This means that children of abusing parents both in their custody and in foster home will have to be regarded as risk children that should be subjected to careful medical and psychological follow-up.

Eriksson M; Larsson G; Zetterström R

1979-01-01

234

Pediatrician knowledge, perception, and experience on child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and professional experience of pediatricians in Saudi Arabia regarding child abuse and neglect. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study during a one day pediatric conference held on King King Abdulaziz University Hospital , a tertiary care teaching hospital in western Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study targeted 198 attendees who were invited from different healthcare sectors in the country. RESULTS: The overall knowledge of participants about some important aspects of child abuse and negligence was adequate, ranging between 82% and 91%. However, their knowledge about reporting cases of child abuse and neglect was quite deficient, ranging between 66% and 79%. As for professional experience about child abuse and negligence it showed considerable variation between participants ranging between 43% and 82%, in which pediatricians who received their medical education in Saudi Arabia scored statistically significantly higher, while pediatricians who received their medical education in Western countries scored higher in all other aspects of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, the knowledge and clinical experience on the subject of child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia is enough to adopt a comprehensive strategy for the prevention and interventions of child maltreatment at all levels. Pediatricians are expected to play a key role by leading and facilitating this process.

Habib HS

2012-05-01

235

Misconceptions about childhood sexual abuse and child witnesses: Implications for psychological experts in the courtroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent changes to the law in New Zealand have led to a marked increase in experts being called to give evidence in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Here we outline some of the common misconceptions that are held by expert witnesses in these cases and we review research on patterns of abuse disclosure and retraction, symptoms of abuse, external influences on children's reports, and experts' ability to distinguish true from false reports. We also consider what experts can say about memory that has relevance for these cases. We conclude that many long-held notions of child sexual abuse and children's testimony that make their way into our courtrooms are not supported by empirical research, raising questions about who is-and who is not-qualified to act as an expert witness. PMID:23506380

Zajac, Rachel; Garry, Maryanne; London, Kamala; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Hayne, Harlene

2013-03-18

236

Misconceptions about childhood sexual abuse and child witnesses: Implications for psychological experts in the courtroom.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent changes to the law in New Zealand have led to a marked increase in experts being called to give evidence in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Here we outline some of the common misconceptions that are held by expert witnesses in these cases and we review research on patterns of abuse disclosure and retraction, symptoms of abuse, external influences on children's reports, and experts' ability to distinguish true from false reports. We also consider what experts can say about memory that has relevance for these cases. We conclude that many long-held notions of child sexual abuse and children's testimony that make their way into our courtrooms are not supported by empirical research, raising questions about who is-and who is not-qualified to act as an expert witness.

Zajac R; Garry M; London K; Goodyear-Smith F; Hayne H

2013-03-01

237

Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

2011-12-15

238

Direct and Indirect Measures of Sexual Maturity Preferences Differentiate Subtypes of Child Sexual Abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

Schmidt, Alexander; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

2013-03-22

239

The development of hemorrhagic shock encephalopathy syndrome due to child abuse-a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse/neglect is a very important problem in our country as it is in the world. It may be as physical, sexual, psychological abuse and child neglect. A previously healthy baby at the age of 2.5 months was brought to the emergency service with complaints of not breathing and cyanosis. Evaluation of the patient and the history obtained suggested a diagnosis of hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome. During the following period, problems of spasticity and vision impairment appeared. The family history of the patient revealed a case of child abuse/neglect and consultation with the social service resulted in a committee decision of transfer of the custody of the baby to the child protection department. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44: 143-5)

Zahide Yalaki; M. Ay?in Ta?ar; Ülkü T?ra?; ?nci Ar?kan; ?lknur Bostanc?; Y?ld?z Dallar

2009-01-01

240

DRUG ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse is one of the major problems facing the worldtoday. Care providers and clinicians are faced with ever changing patterns of drug abuse and hence need to stayabreast of the latest developments. Research in this area in Pakistan is direly needed. Aims: This study wasundertaken with an idea of collecting basic data to assess the extent and variety of drug abuse in patients presentingto the researchers, and to assess the changes during a five-year interval. Design of study: Non-interventionalcomparative study. Setting: Department of Psychiatry, District Headquarters Hospital, Faisalabad Period: From1996to 2001. Materials & Methods: The sample consisted of patients admitted for treatment in the years 1996 & 2001.Statistical analysis was carried out using the software package SSPS utilizing tests such as the chi square andstudent’s t-test. Results: In this department, drug abuse is more frequently reported among urban, literate, marriedmales during young adulthood. Tobacco and cannabis are most frequently reported. Sex, curiosity and peer pressureare the main motivations involved in starting drug abuse. Besides these stable findings, some changes have occurredduring five years; polydrug abuse has become more frequent and the socioeconomic status of this patient group isdeteriorating. Conclusions: The problem of drug abuse is still rampant, if not increasing with time. The patterns of drugabuse are becoming more complicated, posing new challenges for health care planners and providers. More researchneeds to be undertaken in this area.

IMTIAZ AHMAD DOGAR

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

A suggested framework for forensic consultation in cases of child abuse and neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child abuse and neglect is a central issue in several kinds of legal proceedings in which forensic psychiatry consultants may be involved. Thorough and responsive consultation in these cases calls for the consultant to be aware of a broad range of issues, some of which may not be explicitly raised in referral questions. These issues include: (1) determining the history of abuse or neglect; (2) assessing the resulting harm to the child; (3) assessing a parent's current capacity to provide for a child; and (4) predicting future risk and treatment response for children and parents. Each of these questions calls for different clinical assessment approaches and clinical expertise.

Barnum R

1997-01-01

242

Increased serum creatine phosphokinase in a child with bruising due to physical abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bruising is a frequent and often sentinel injury in children who are victims of physical abuse. Children who are evaluated in an emergency department for bruising, which may be due to abuse, present a challenge to physicians; the injuries themselves are medically minor and their severity can only be described qualitatively with photographs. Nonetheless, bruising in an infant or bruising in unusual locations in young children can indicate violence and risk. These children also present a challenge to the Child Protective Services system because the injuries generally resolve quickly without medical treatment and do not result in long-term sequelae. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is released from injured muscle and results in increased serum CPK concentrations. We report on a case of isolated bruising due to child physical abuse in which serum CPK concentrations were markedly increased, demonstrating clinically unsuspected rhabdomyolysis. The increased serum CPK concentrations provided important quantitative information about the seriousness of the bruising. A subsequent chart review of children evaluated by our hospital's child protection team for isolated bruising during a 6-year period demonstrated that there were other children with bruising due to abuse who also had increased serum CPK concentrations. This information suggests that increased serum CPK in children with bruising due to abuse may be more common than previously thought and that this information may have the potential to be used to provide quantitative, objective information about the seriousness of the bruising. We recommend that physicians consider measuring serum CPK in children with bruising due to physical abuse. PMID:23222104

Sussman, Stephanie; Squires, Janet; Stitt, Rodger; Zuckerbraun, Noel; Berger, Rachel P

2012-12-01

243

Increased serum creatine phosphokinase in a child with bruising due to physical abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bruising is a frequent and often sentinel injury in children who are victims of physical abuse. Children who are evaluated in an emergency department for bruising, which may be due to abuse, present a challenge to physicians; the injuries themselves are medically minor and their severity can only be described qualitatively with photographs. Nonetheless, bruising in an infant or bruising in unusual locations in young children can indicate violence and risk. These children also present a challenge to the Child Protective Services system because the injuries generally resolve quickly without medical treatment and do not result in long-term sequelae. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is released from injured muscle and results in increased serum CPK concentrations. We report on a case of isolated bruising due to child physical abuse in which serum CPK concentrations were markedly increased, demonstrating clinically unsuspected rhabdomyolysis. The increased serum CPK concentrations provided important quantitative information about the seriousness of the bruising. A subsequent chart review of children evaluated by our hospital's child protection team for isolated bruising during a 6-year period demonstrated that there were other children with bruising due to abuse who also had increased serum CPK concentrations. This information suggests that increased serum CPK in children with bruising due to abuse may be more common than previously thought and that this information may have the potential to be used to provide quantitative, objective information about the seriousness of the bruising. We recommend that physicians consider measuring serum CPK in children with bruising due to physical abuse.

Sussman S; Squires J; Stitt R; Zuckerbraun N; Berger RP

2012-12-01

244

Variables and risk factors associated with child abuse in daycare settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This article was developed to identify the variables associated with abuse of children in daycare centers and homes, and to specify risk factors to guide professionals and parents. METHOD: The literature regarding child abuse (physical [PA], sexual [SA], and ritual [RA]) was reviewed, with emphasis on identification of variables associated with victims, perpetrators, and settings. Three factors increased the complexity of the review: (1) differences in definition and categorization complicated study comparison; (2) emotional tone affected some reviewers' definitions, methodology, and conclusions; and (3) some aspects of child abuse in daycare homes and centers have not been well researched. RESULTS: PA most frequently occurred in the form of over discipline, was a response to prior conflict with the child, and may have been inadvertently supported by parental permission for corporal punishment. Although SA occurred less frequently in centers than in homes, effects on the victim seemed worse in centers. SA often included PA. A Satanic overtone was frequently associated with RA, and RA coupled with SA was most devastating. Unfortunately, effects were not temporary. Males predominated the perpetrator profile. Multiple perpetrator abuse was worse (e.g., severity of intrusion). Failure of center staff to report suspicion of abuse by fellow staff or parents was cited as a worry by several researchers. CONCLUSIONS: Although research regarding abuse in daycare settings is sparse, one cannot wait for more or better research in order to identify risk factors. Based on literature reviewed, the authors provide risk factors for faculty, caregivers, parents, children, and professionals.

Schumacher RB; Carlson RS

1999-09-01

245

Changes in reports and incidence of child abuse following natural disasters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to investigate if there is a higher incidence of child abuse following major natural disasters. METHODOLOGY: Child abuse reports and substantiations were analyzed, by county, for 1 year before and after Hurricane Hugo, the Loma Prieta Earthquake. and Hurricane Andrew. Counties were included if damage was widespread, the county was part of a presidential disaster declaration, and if there was a stable data collection system in place. RESULTS: Based on analyses of numbers, rates, and proportions, child abuse reports were disproportionately higher in the quarter and half year following two of the three disaster events (Hurricane Hugo and Loma Prieta Earthquake). CONCLUSIONS: Most, but not all, of the evidence presented indicates that child abuse escalates after major disasters. Conceptual and methodological issues need to be resolved to more conclusively answer the question about whether or not child abuse increases in the wake of natural disasters. Replications of this research are needed based on more recent disaster events.

Curtis T; Miller BC; Berry EH

2000-09-01

246

Comprehensive training in suspected child abuse and neglect for dental students: a hybrid curriculum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child abuse and neglect are tragic realities of American society. However, most U.S. dental schools do not provide students with adequate training to deal with the problem. This article proposes expanding the predoctoral dental curriculum with a problem-based learning model that can effectively stimulate critical thinking skills to assist graduates in screening and reporting suspected child abuse and neglect throughout their careers. The unique multicultural environment of dental school offers students an unprecedented opportunity to develop awareness about child abuse and domestic violence, while increased vigilance can potentially save innocent young lives. Educating students about proper protocol when they suspect child abuse or neglect is imperative, particularly for dental schools involving students in community sealant and other preventive programs in public schools. By expanding their curriculum to include recognition and intervention, dental schools can help break the cycle of violence and transform attitudes towards taking decisive action. Clinical curricula that have moved to private practice preceptor models are well suited to screen for child abuse. The goal is to motivate dental schools to deal with this critical issue, develop reporting protocols and procedures for appropriate response, and provide their students with consummate training.

Ivanoff CS; Hottel TL

2013-06-01

247

"Cauliflower ear" in a teenager: a possible sign of child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"Cauliflower ear" is a perichondritis of the auricular pavilion, usually caused by infection or repeated trauma. In children, this entity is considered infrequent. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl living in a child care institution with "cauliflower ear" that was interpreted as a possible sign of child abuse.

Cuesta L; Betlloch I; Bañuls J; Toledo F

2012-03-01

248

The School Counselors' Ideas on Features, Determinant and Intervention on Child Negligence and Abuse Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…

Usakli, Hakan

2012-01-01

249

Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent) of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7) or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3). Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

Hjerkinn Bjørg; Lindbæk Morten; Rosvold Elin

2007-01-01

250

Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. RESULTS: Four (4.5 percent) of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7) or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3). CONCLUSION: A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

Hjerkinn B; Lindbaek M; Rosvold EO

2007-01-01

251

El maltrato infantil: mecanismos subyacentes/ Child abuse: underlying mechanisms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La exposición durante la infancia a estrés traumático, en la forma de abuso o negligencia, está asociada con una mayor vulnerabilidad, la cual resulta en el desarrollo de diversas psicopatologías, relación que ha sido confirmada una y otra vez en estudios epidemiológicos; sin embargo, aún se desconocen los mecanismos neurales que subyacen dichas alteraciones y solo recientemente se han empezado a estudiar los cambios neurobiológicos subyacentes en padres y madres (more) maltratadores. En esta revisión se resumen investigaciones en que se ha abordado esta temática y se presentan algunos de los modelos animales usados para su estudio. Abstract in english Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confirmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents (more) . In this article, I review some of the studies using animal models of early adverse trauma and present some of the data on neural changes. Further studies of brain abnormalities in abusive parents are still needed.

Martínez, Gladys S.

2008-12-01

252

Abusive Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

... means any form of violence such as hitting, punching, pulling hair, and kicking. Abuse can occur in ... including slapping, pushing, grabbing, shaking, smacking, kicking, and punching tries to control different aspects of your life, ...

253

Drug abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

1991-01-01

254

The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2) were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

Mohammad Narimani; Mansour Mahmoodi-Aghdam; Abbas Abolghasemi

2012-01-01

255

Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

Bilo, Rob A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands). Department of Pathology and Toxicology; Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Childrens' s Hospital/Academic, Medical Center Amsterdam (Netherlands). Department of Radiology; Robben, Simon G.F. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

2010-07-01

256

Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

2010-01-01

257

Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex. PMID:22292995

Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

2012-02-01

258

Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

Timmer SG; Thompson D; Culver MA; Urquiza AJ; Altenhofen S

2012-02-01

259

Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

Science.gov (United States)

|Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

2011-01-01

260

Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Alaska Native (AN) population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH) program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. DESIGN: PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today's children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. RESULTS: Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. CONCLUSION: The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children, supporting child victims in healing and to holding offenders accountable.

Payne D; Olson K; Parrish JW

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The Alaska Native (AN) population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH) program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design. PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today’s children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results. Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusions. The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children, supporting child victims in healing and to holding offenders accountable.

Diane Payne; Kimber Olson; Jared W. Parrish

2013-01-01

262

The nurse in sexual abuse child suspicion attention: a phenomenology approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: This study brings reflexions and contributions about nurse attendance in child sexual abuse suspicion, in view the gravity and seriousness of this issue in society and the possibilities of actions to be undertaken by nurse face the child and his family, considering health promotion, protection and prevention. Objective was to analyze nurse actions in child sexual abuse suspicion context Methodology: qualitative research based on sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz, which emphasizes social relations and define the action as human conduct with a purpose, namely, has an intent, the In – Order- To motives of the action, that were captured by phenomenological interview. The questions that guided the interview were: When you attend a child with sexual abuse suspicion, what do you do? ; What you have in mind with nurse actions triggered in this type of attendance? Why? Results: The analysis of speech allowed the apprehension of four categories: interact with other professionals for child care; establish a dialogue and an open allowing, a care with a prospect from the other, to attend the children and fulfilling the routines of the unit.  Conclusions: From interviews comprehension and interpretation the understanding was that nurse’s actions can propel nurses in child health area research and offering possible interferences in family and child assistance and in yours healthy growing and development. Relevance to clinical practice: the study contributes to a better  attendance and identification of child sexual abuse suspicion by the nurse and a wide vision in violence cases assistance.   Keywords: Nursing. Child. Sexual abuse. Phenomenology.

Lia Leão Ciuffo; Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará Rodrigues; Janice Machado da Cunha

2009-01-01

263

Child abuse inventory at emergency rooms: CHAIN-ER rationale and design.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the injured children attending the emergency room, the consequences of both missed child abuse cases and wrong suspicions are substantial. Therefore, the accuracy of ongoing detection at emergency rooms by health care professionals is highly important. Internationally, several diagnostic instruments or strategies for child abuse detection are used at emergency rooms, but their diagnostic value is still unknown. The aim of the study 'Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms' (CHAIN-ER) is to assess if active structured inquiry by emergency room staff can accurately detect physical maltreatment in children presenting at emergency rooms with physical injury. METHODS/DESIGN: CHAIN-ER is a multi-centre, cross-sectional study with 6 months diagnostic follow-up. Five thousand children aged 0-7 presenting with injury at an emergency room will be included. The index test - the SPUTOVAMO-R questionnaire- is to be tested for its diagnostic value against the decision of an expert panel. All SPUTOVAMO-R positives and a 15% random sample of the SPUTOVAMO-R negatives will undergo the same systematic diagnostic work up, which consists of an adequate history being taken by a pediatrician, inquiry with other health care providers by structured questionnaires in order to obtain child abuse predictors, and by additional follow-up information. Eventually, an expert panel (reference test) determines the true presence or absence of child abuse. DISCUSSION: CHAIN-ER will determine both positive and negative predictive value of a child abuse detection instrument used in the emergency room. We mention a benefit of the use of an expert panel and of the use of complete data. Conducting a diagnostic accuracy study on a child abuse detection instrument is also accompanied by scientific hurdles, such as the lack of an accepted reference standard and potential (non-) response. Notwithstanding these scientific challenges, CHAIN-ER will provide accurate data on the predictive value of SPUTOVAMO-R.

Sittig JS; Uiterwaal CS; Moons KG; Nieuwenhuis EE; van de Putte EM

2011-01-01

264

Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

2002-01-01

265

A review of substance abuse monitoring in a social services context: a primer for child protection workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As drug abuse in our society escalates, child protection workers face mounting challenges in accurately assessing parental substance abuse in the interest of effective child protection. The impartial evaluation of substance use and abuse is fundamental, requiring objective and sensitive methods. A variety of biological specimens, some applicable to short-term and some to long-term monitoring, have been successful when applied to a child protection and drug abuse monitoring of caregivers. This article explores the complementary features of drug testing in urine, hair, and meconium, among other alternative matrices and discusses the practicality, basic science, and applicability of each to substance abuse monitoring in the context of child protection.Keywords: Drug testing, hair, meconium, prenatal, toxicology, urine screen, infant, child, drug.

Moller M; Gareri J; Koren G

2010-01-01

266

A case report for differential diagnosis: Integrative medicine vs child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors present the case of a ten-year-old Chinese boy who was taken to a hospital due to the presence of suspicious bruises on his body. The child was examined in the National Institute of Legal Medicine by forensic doctors and a forensic psychologist. Clinical characteristics of the case are summarized stressing that a better understanding of some kinds of integrative medicine (IM) may help to differentiate injuries resulting from those practices. This is the only and unique case diagnosed by the medico-legal services in Portugal. In fact a great range of IM practice has the potential to create confusion in the diagnosis of physical child abuse. This study focuses on the differential diagnosis of one specific kind of frequent skin injury usually seen in situations of both child abuse and IM (in this case TuiNa) - bruises. As the number of people who practice Traditional Chinese Medicine and other forms of IM increases in the Western world, the child protection community would benefit from familiarizing itselves with these practices to prevent social and/or legal conflicts that may arise from mistaken diagnoses of abuse. The objective of this case report is to emphasize the relevance of comprehensive and interdisciplinary evaluation of child abuse cases taking into account the specifics of each case, to achieve a proper diagnosis.

Ribeiro CS; Rodrigues F; Ribeiro C; Magalhães T

2010-11-01

267

The battered child: a study of the role of services in 25 cases of child abuse in The Netherlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the help of a questionnaire and the study of 25 cases of child abuse from 1973 to 1976, the course of assistance given by various services and social workers involved was followed and the extent of the coordination between them was assessed. The starting point was the fact that when child abuse has reached the crisis stage many different bodies give immediate assistance to both the child and his parents. Later on, however, as help continues, it is not clear which of the persons or bodies concerned is really in charge of the case. The following conclusions were drawn: Abused children came from multiproblem families who often already have had contact with care or welfare services though no steps had been taken to intervene before ill-treatment was verified. Many parents confessed to ill-treatment of their child and desired help. Abused children were subjected to longer than usual hospital stays due to lack of reception facilities outside the hospital. Most ill-treated children abused enough to be hospitalized, were placed away from home although half of the parents did not agree with that decision. Of those later returned to their parents, over half had to be removed later for renewed ill-treatment and neglect. The need for one body to coordinate and be responsible for execution of plans for treatment was stressed.

Wolters WH; Dekker-Roelofs MA

1983-01-01

268

Sexual abuse images in cyberspace: expanding the ecology of the child.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cyberspace has added a new dimension to the ecology of children made the subjects of sexual abuse images distributed online. These images cannot be permanently removed and can continue to circulate in cyberspace forever. A review of the current literature suggests that helping professionals are not consistently aware of or do not probe possibilities of online sexual victimization in the investigation, assessment, and treatment of child sexual abuse. Nor is this issue adequately addressed in their education and training. There are gaps in the literature regarding how to identify and provide treatment for these children. New assessment and treatment targets are needed to enhance existing practice approaches. A contemporary ecological model that incorporates an explicit consideration of the cybersystem is provided as a starting point for practitioners to be aware of the possibility that images of child sexual abuse were recorded and distributed online.

Martin J; Alaggia R

2013-01-01

269

Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? METHODS: A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. RESULTS: Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CONCLUSIONS: CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused.

Kristman-Valente AN; Brown EC; Herrenkohl TI

2013-10-01

270

Child abuse and neglect in Turkey: professional, governmental and nongovernmental achievements in improving the national child protection system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1995, significant efforts were made in Turkey to improve protection of children from abuse and neglect. The government took steps to amend relevant laws. Several state departments recognized the need for professional in-service training of relevant governmental agency staff. University hospitals established numerous hospital-based multidisciplinary child protection centres. The government established an Interministerial Higher Council, which has been overseeing the foundation of 13 child advocacy centres for a multidisciplinary and interagency response to child sexual abuse. In addition to undertaking research, non-governmental organizations contributed to this process by instituting professional and public education. These ground-breaking developments in the last decade give promise of even further improvement in the national child protection system from investigative, child protective and rehabilitative perspectives.

Akco S; Dagli T; Inanici MA; Kaynak H; Oral R; Sahin F; Sofuoglu Z; Ulukol B

2013-09-01

271

Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30?min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N?=?9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N?=?18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N?=?14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history. PMID:23863127

Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

2013-08-13

272

[Sexual child abuse: correlation between medical certificates' conclusions and judiciary sanctions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sexual child abuse, comprises of indecency attitudes and physical misbehaviours, directed towards children are dominated by rape. The objective of our study was to assess in sexual child abuse the relation between the conclusion of medical certificates and court decision. It is a retrospective study carried out from 1994 to 1998 on the clerk's office correctional repertories in Dakar regional court. An overall number of 79 cases of child abuse were collected in 5 years period. Children under 18 years old of of both sex, were concerned. Data found were correlated with a review of requisition cases received by the of gynaecology and obstetrics clinic of Aristide Dantec Hospital. This facilitates the establishement of the relationship between the offences and the pronounced sanctions, as well as the initial medical certificate and these sanctions. The sanctions were severe whenever rape had been retained. Some cases were disqualified in indecent assault and were judged as such. The judge decision, which follow the medical certificate conclusions in 11 cases out of 14 shows the importance and reliability of this medical document. All files reviewed at the medical and legal level were incomplete. The difficulty of the materiality of the rape and the psychological consequences in the long run and especially HIV infection should invite to a multidisciplinary, specialized and organized management of sexual child abuse. This study has shown the importance of a correct and complete drafting of the medical certificate, to enable the establishment by the judge the materiality of the facts.

Soumah MM; Bah H; Mbaye I; Fall MC; Yetognon C; Sow ML

2005-01-01

273

Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated.

Smith, F.W.; Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.; Green, M.D.

1980-01-01

274

Child Abuse and Neglect: A Resource Demonstration Program for Region IX. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Demonstration Resource Center was developed and funded for 3 years in Region IX of the United States (excluding Arizona) to establish a regional network for coordination and service delivery in child abuse and neglect. This final report states the purpose and lists the objectives of the center project, providing a brief overview of general…

Swinger, Hershel K.

275

Child and Partner Abuse: Self-Reported Prevalence and Attitudes in the North of Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

|Objectives: To determine the self-reported prevalence of child and partner physical and emotional abuse in the north of Portugal and to investigate attitudes about these forms of family violence. Methods: Data were collected by questionnaire from a representative sample of parents in two-parent families with children under the age of 18 years. A…

Machado, Carla; Goncalves, Miguel; Matos, Marlene; Dias, Ana Rita

2007-01-01

276

An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

2010-01-01

277

Does Psychotherapy Recover or Invent Child Sexual Abuse Memories? A Case History  

Science.gov (United States)

|This case describes bodily experiences that appeared to cue child sexual abuse memories during psychotherapy by a woman who was amnesic for her childhood and suffered from chronic dissociative states. Though corroboration was unavailable, she became increasingly confident about her returning memories. Special efforts were made to avoid making…

Milchman, Madelyn Simring

2008-01-01

278

Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child

Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

2012-01-01

279

Relationship between Child Abuse History, Trauma, and Dissociation in Russian College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The research was conducted to determine the relationship between violent trauma, child abuse history, and dissociative symptoms in a Russian population. Method: Three hundred and one undergraduate students from Moscow State Linguistics University participated in the study and completed the Dissociation Continuum Scale, the Violence…

Dalenberg, Constance J.; Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya

2004-01-01

280

Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

Science.gov (United States)

|The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Studies conducted internationally confirm that child sexual abuse is a much more widespread problem than previously thought, with even the lowest prevalence rates including a large number of victims that need to be taken into account. Objective: To carry out a meta-analysis of the preval...

Pereda Beltran, Noemí; Guilera Ferré, Georgina; Forns, Maria, 1946-; Gómez Benito, Juana

282

Caring for adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Issues for family physicians.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional medical education has not taught physicians about the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Family physicians often feel poorly equipped to appreciate the effect of such a childhood history on current health or to recognize and treat survivors. This article links the experience of the...

Bala, M.

283

Adults with a history of child sexual abuse: evaluation of a pilot therapy service.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate a pilot service offering therapy specifically to adults with a history of child sexual abuse. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey. SETTING--Specialised therapy unit, Breakfree, which offers care, therapy, and support. SUBJECTS--116 clients presenting to the service who were offered t...

Smith, D.; Pearce, L.; Pringle, M.; Caplan, R.

284

Women survivors of child sexual abuse. How can health professionals promote healing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To explore how health professionals can practise in ways sensitive to adult women survivors of child sexual abuse. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured in-depth interviews. SETTING: Small and midsize cities in Ontario and Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven women survivors of childhood...

Schachter, Candice L.; Radomsky, Nellie A.; Stalker, Carol A.; Teram, Eli

285

Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 sch...

Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

286

Battling the Passions: The Birth of a Conceptual Understanding of Suspicion for Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Legal obligations for reporting child abuse and neglect have positioned suspicion as a trigger for nursing responses. Suspicion dwells between emotion and thought, and is fraught with uncertainty. Given the importance of suspicion to initiating child protection, suspicion requires critical examination. Spinoza’s ideas of the imagination, and his distinctive inclusion of emotions in understanding human knowledge, provide a framework to explore the human experience of suspicion. These theoretical dimensions of suspicion are illustrated using a recent newspaper article of a missing child in Sydney, Australia. This process reveals the ontological vulnerability of the human mind to construct knowledge that is heavily influenced by our emotionality, our close social connections and our social values. Attending to these vulnerabilities generates new possibilities for understanding and using human suspicions of child abuse and neglect more effectively and creatively in nursing practice.

Rochelle Einboden; Trudy Rudge; Colleen Varcoe

2011-01-01

287

Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed.

Chuang E; Wells R; Bellettiere J; Cross TP

2013-07-01

288

Virtual patients: an effective educational intervention to improve paediatric basic specialist trainee education in the management of suspected child abuse?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child abuse is a particularly difficult subject to teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Most doctors are dissatisfied with their training in child abuse recognition and management. We developed an interactive video based Virtual Patient to provide formal training for paediatric Basic Specialist Trainees in the recognition of suspected child abuse. The Virtual Patient case revolves around the management of suspected physical abuse in a seven month old child, who initially presents to the Emergency Department with viral upper respiratory tract symptoms. This Virtual Patient was used to facilitate a case discussion with Basic Specialist Trainees. A questionnaire was developed to determine their perception of the value of the Virtual Patient as an educational tool. Twenty five Basic Specialist Trainees completed the questionnaire. Upon completion of the case, 23/25 (92%) participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to recognize cases of suspected child abuse and 24/25 (96%) of participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to report cases of suspected child abuse. Basic Specialist Trainees perceived the Virtual Patient to be a useful educational tool. Virtual Patients may have a role to play in enhancing postgraduate training in the recognition of suspected child abuse.

McEvoy MM; Butler B; MacCarrick G; Nicholson AJ

2011-09-01

289

Evidence for distinct biological perturbations in PTSD with severe child abuse: implications for PTSD biomarkers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rationale/statement of the problem : Evidence for distinct biological perturbations in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with severe child abuse versus no child abuse: consequences for robust biomarkers for PTSD. The identification of biomarkers for PTSD has been difficult, likely due to inter-individual differences in genetic risk factors and environmental exposures. The aim of the current study was to interrogate the influences of the environment on gene expression profiles by characterizing biological differences in PTSD after severe child abuse versus PTSD after adult trauma. Methods : A total of 396 trauma-exposed individuals were included in this study. The PTSD symptomatic scale (PSS), clinician-administered PTSD scales (CAPS), childhood trauma questionnaire, and trauma events inventory were used to assess current clinical PTSD and childhood and adult trauma severity. Whole blood gene expression and DNA methylation was measured on Illumina Human-HT12v3 and Human Methylation 450k arrays. Analysis was performed by using R software. Results : Of 741 transcripts significantly associated with current PTSD severity, only 2% was associated with PTSD in both, individuals exposed to child abuse and adult trauma (N=32) and individuals exposed to adult trauma only (N=29), after accounting for adult trauma severity. Expression differences were also reflected in DNA methylation differences between the groups. Functional annotations revealed distinct biological pathways enriched among the expression profiles associated with PTSD in these two groups. Conclusion : These data suggest that PTSD occurring after severe child abuse is biologically distinct from PTSD after adult trauma, therefore, accounting for different environmental variables is crucial for identification of biomarkers for PTSD.

Divya Mehta

2012-01-01

290

Influence of child abuse on adult depression: moderation by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Genetic inheritance and developmental life stress both contribute to major depressive disorder in adults. Child abuse and trauma alter the endogenous stress response, principally corticotropin-releasing hormone and its downstream effectors, suggesting that a gene x environment interaction at this locus may be important in depression. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the effects of child abuse on adult depressive symptoms are moderated by genetic polymorphisms within the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRHR1) gene. DESIGN: Association study examining gene x environment interactions between genetic polymorphisms at the CRHR1 locus and measures of child abuse on adult depressive symptoms. SETTING: General medical clinics of a large, public, urban hospital and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. PARTICIPANTS: The primary participant population was 97.4% African American, of low socioeconomic status, and with high rates of lifetime trauma (n = 422). A supportive independent sample (n = 199) was distinct both ethnically (87.7% Caucasian) and socioeconomically (less impoverished). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Beck Depression Inventory scores and history of major depressive disorder by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. RESULTS: Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms spanning 57 kilobases of the CRHR1 gene were examined. We found significant gene x environment interactions with multiple individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eg, rs110402, P = .008) as well as with a common haplotype spanning intron 1 (P < .001). Specific CRHR1 polymorphisms appeared to moderate the effect of child abuse on the risk for adult depressive symptoms. These protective effects were supported with similar findings in a second independent sample (n = 199). CONCLUSIONS: These data support the corticotropin-releasing hormone hypothesis of depression and suggest that a gene x environment interaction is important for the expression of depressive symptoms in adults with CRHR1 risk or protective alleles who have a history of child abuse.

Bradley RG; Binder EB; Epstein MP; Tang Y; Nair HP; Liu W; Gillespie CF; Berg T; Evces M; Newport DJ; Stowe ZN; Heim CM; Nemeroff CB; Schwartz A; Cubells JF; Ressler KJ

2008-02-01

291

Fatal child maltreatment: Characteristics of deaths from physical abuse versus neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined victim, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics associated with fatal child maltreatment (FCM) in 685 cases identified by child welfare services in the state of Oklahoma over a 21-year period. Analyses also examined differences in child, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics of deaths from abuse versus neglect. Case information was drawn from child welfare investigation records for all FCM cases identified by the state Department of Human Services. Fatal neglect accounted for the majority (51%) of deaths. Children were primarily younger than age 5, and parents were most frequently the alleged perpetrators. Moreover, most victims had not been the subject of a child welfare report prior to their death. A greater number of children in the home and previous family involvement with child welfare increased children's likelihood of dying from neglect, rather than physical abuse. In addition, alleged perpetrators of neglect were more likely to be female and biologically related to the victim. These results indicate that there are unique family risk factors for death from neglect (versus physical abuse) that may be important to consider when selecting or developing prevention efforts.

Damashek A; Nelson MM; Bonner BL

2013-06-01

292

The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. Methods and Findings A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR)?=?1.54; 95% CI 1.16–2.04], emotional abuse [OR?=?3.06; 95% CI 2.43–3.85], and neglect [OR?=?2.11; 95% CI 1.61–2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR?=?1.92; 95% CI 1.67–2.20], emotional abuse [OR?=?1.41; 95% CI 1.11–1.79], and neglect [OR?=?1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR?=?3.40; 95% CI 2.17–5.32], emotional abuse [OR?=?3.37; 95% CI 2.44–4.67], and neglect [OR?=?1.95; 95% CI 1.13–3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR?=?1.78; 95% CI 1.50–2.10], emotional abuse [OR?=?1.75; 95% CI 1.49–2.04], and neglect [OR?=?1.57; 95% CI 1.39–1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. Conclusions This overview of the evidence suggests a causal relationship between non-sexual child maltreatment and a range of mental disorders, drug use, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted infections, and risky sexual behaviour. All forms of child maltreatment should be considered important risks to health with a sizeable impact on major contributors to the burden of disease in all parts of the world. The awareness of the serious long-term consequences of child maltreatment should encourage better identification of those at risk and the development of effective interventions to protect children from violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

2012-01-01

293

Maltrato infantil: Experiencia de un abordaje interdisciplinario/ Child abuse: An interdisciplinary management experience  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. El maltrato infantil constituye una de las formas más frecuentes de violencia familiar. El presente estudio intenta mostrar la situación que, al respecto, existe en la ciudad de Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina y establecer algunas asociaciones propias de esa problemática. Población, material y métodos. Se presenta una serie de 128 casos de niños maltratados, de entre 0 y 19 años, entre noviembre de 1998 y noviembre de 2002 asistidos en Moiru, Centro (more) de Prevención, Orientación, Asistencia y Capacitación en conductas sociales de riesgo, que funciona en Mercedes. Resultados. Se detectó 56% de maltrato físico; 30% de abuso sexual; 10% de negligencia; 3% de maltrato emocional y 1% de síndrome de Münchaussen con una distribución por sexos similares en el total de la casuística. Se señalan variables demográficas y ciertas asociaciones en casos de maltrato físico y abuso sexual. Se evidenció una asociación significativa entre madres víctimas de violencia doméstica y el maltrato físico que éstas proporcionan a sus hijos. Conclusiones. Fueron asistidos en nuestro servicio 128 niños y niñas maltratados Se considera que se trata de una casuística significativa, donde el maltrato físico y el abuso sexual se presentan como más relevantes. Abstract in english Introduction. Child abuse constitutes one of the most frequent forms of family violence. The following study tries to demonstrate the situation that arises in the city of Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina, and to establish some associations about that matter. Population, material and methods. A series of 128 cases of abused children is presented, between 0 and 19 years old, attended from November 1998 to November 2002, in Moiru, Center of prevention, direction, attendance a (more) nd qualification in social conducts of risk that works in Mercedes. Results. 56% of physical abuse; 30% of sexual abuse; 10% of neglect; 3% of emotional abuse and 1% of syndrome of Münchaussen was detected, with a similar distribution by sexes in the total population. Demographic variables and certain associations in cases of physical abuse and sexual abuse are indicated. A significant association between mothers victims of domestic violence and physical abuse towards their children was demonstrated. Conclusions. 128 young boys and girls were seen in our center. It is considered that, a significant population was treated where physical abuse and sexual abuse appears as most relevant.

Seldes, José Julio; Ziperovich, Valentina; Viota, Alejandra; Leiva, Fernanda

2008-12-01

294

[Update in Current Care guidelines. Evaluation of a suspected child sexual abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

According to Finnish Child Welfare Law, the authorities are obligated to report suspicions of child sexual abuse immediately to the police and to social services to ensure the well being of the child. The investigating police may request assistance for forensic interviews and medical assessments from specialized units. The child's disclosure is often the most important part of the evaluation. The timing of medical examination is crucial to obtain biological trace of evidence and to document evidence of acute injury or infection. The need for crisis support must be evaluated. PMID:23847915

Piha, Jorma; Aronen, Eeva; Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Komulainen, Jorma; Korkman, Julia; Raipela, Jouni; Tuominen, Mia

2013-01-01

295

[Update in Current Care guidelines. Evaluation of a suspected child sexual abuse].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to Finnish Child Welfare Law, the authorities are obligated to report suspicions of child sexual abuse immediately to the police and to social services to ensure the well being of the child. The investigating police may request assistance for forensic interviews and medical assessments from specialized units. The child's disclosure is often the most important part of the evaluation. The timing of medical examination is crucial to obtain biological trace of evidence and to document evidence of acute injury or infection. The need for crisis support must be evaluated.

Piha J; Aronen E; Joki-Erkkilä M; Komulainen J; Korkman J; Raipela J; Tuominen M

2013-01-01

296

The differential effects of child abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder on schizotypal personality disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Previous findings suggest a relation between trauma exposure and risk for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). However, the reasons for this relationship are not well understood. Some research suggests that exposure to trauma, particularly early trauma and child abuse, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may play a role. METHODS: We examined subjects (n = 541) recruited from the primary care clinics of an urban public hospital as part of an National Institute of Mental Health-funded study of trauma-related risk and resilience. We evaluated childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Early Trauma Inventory and SPD with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality. We assessed for lifetime PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. RESULTS: We found that of the 3 forms of abuse analyzed (emotional, physical, and sexual), only emotional abuse significantly predicted SPD (P < .001, R = 0.28) when all 3 abuse types were simultaneously entered into a regression model. Lifetime PTSD symptoms also significantly predicted SPD (P < .001, R = 0.26). Posttraumatic stress disorder was specifically predictive of 4 of the 8 SPD symptoms (P ? .001): excessive social anxiety, a lack of close friends or confidants, unusual perceptual experiences, and eccentric behavior or appearance. Using a Sobel test, we also found a partial mediation effect of PTSD on the relation between emotional abuse and SPD (z = 3.45, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to the important influence of emotional abuse on SPD and suggest that PTSD symptoms may provide a link between damaging childhood experiences and SPD symptoms in traumatized adults.

Powers AD; Thomas KM; Ressler KJ; Bradley B

2011-07-01

297

Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

2008-01-01

298

Detection of intrafamilial child abuse: children at intake at a children's observation home in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cross-cultural studies have brought awareness that child abuse is a global problem. This study sought to assess whether the abuse of children by caregivers/parents is a phenomenon that is prevalent in Indian society, where social workers and other human service professionals traditionally have not been sensitive to its occurrence. Interviews with 515 children brought to a Children's Observation Home in Bombary resulted in self-reports of physical violence from approximately 50% of the sample, and of these, over two-thirds reported the use of abusive violence. In addition, over 60% of the children who had run away from home cited violence by parents as the primary reason for their leaving, suggesting that this may be one of the variables adding to the numbers of street children in India. Feelings about perpetrators and implications of findings are discussed.

Segal UA; Ashtekar A

1994-11-01

299

The Scottish dental practitioner's role in managing child abuse and neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In 2005 Cairns et al. published a paper ( 2005; 15: 310-318) examining the role of the general dental practitioner (GDP) in child protection (CP) in Scotland. This involved a questionnaire sent out to Scottish GDPs in 2003. Subsequently in 2006 all UK dental practices were sent Child protection and the dental team, a manual detailing roles and responsibilities with regard to CP. During this time the profile of CP within dentistry increased. There has been no published research since 2006 investigating whether the gap between the proportion of GDPs who suspect child abuse/neglect in their patients and those who refer cases has changed. AIM: The aim of this research was to investigate whether this gap has changed between 2003 and 2010.Method A postal questionnaire based on that used by Cairns et al. was sent to 50% of GDPs in Scotland in March 2010. RESULTS: The response rate was 52% (53% male). Some 29% and 55% of respondents had received undergraduate or postgraduate training in child protection respectively. Over two thirds (37%) had suspected child abuse/neglect in one or more of their paediatric patients but only 11% had referred a case. The most common factor affecting the decision to refer was 'lack of certainty of the diagnosis' (74%). Some 77% thought that abused/neglected children had an increased caries increment and 73% of dentists were willing to get involved in detecting neglect. CONCLUSION: Dentists in Scotland appear to be suspecting and referring more cases of child abuse/neglect than previously. The vast majority are willing to get involved in detecting neglect.

Harris CM; Welbury R; Cairns AM

2013-05-01

300

Misdiagnosis of Child Abuse Related to Delay in Diagnosing a Paediatric Brain Tumour  

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Full Text Available Conflicting opinion regarding the relative weight that should be allocated to the investigation of organic causes of child illness, compared to the pursuit of suspicions of child abuse, has generated considerable public debate. The discourse of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness is at the centre of contention. In particular, concern has arisen that children’s medical needs are being neglected when their conditions are misdiagnosed as child abuse. This paper documents a case study in which the use of Child Protection procedures was linked to the belief that the child’s illness had “no organic cause.” The case study is contextualised in a review of literature relevant to the diagnostic process. The deployment of the Child Protection perspective resulted in significant delay in the diagnosis of the child’s brain tumour. The child was ultimately found to be suffering from an optic chasm mass lesion involving the hypothalamus and the medial temporal regions, resulting in Diencephalic Syndrome. The evidence in this case is that erring on the side of suspecting Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness, was not “erring on the side of the child.” Several lessons need to be learned from the case. The importance of ensuring that the Child Protection perspective does not displace adequate assessment of alternative explanations for the child’s condition is emphasised, as is the need for good communication in medical relationships. Strategies involving empathy, mediation, negotiation and conflict resolution may provide a more appropriate and therapeutic alternative to the use of Child Protection procedures in cases where the diagnosis is contentious. The need to re-write relevant policy, protocols and guidance is imperative.

Lynne Wrennall

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia: journey of recognition to implementation of national prevention strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19. METHODS: A retroprospective collection of data on all children evaluated by the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) team in King Abdulaziz Medical City for the National Guard from 2000 to 2008. The cases were further divided into 3 subgroups corresponding to the years 2000-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 parallel to the stages of development of the national child protection system. RESULTS: During the study period, there were a total of 188 referrals to the SCAN team. Of these 133 (70.7%) were further investigated as CAN cases. The total number of referred cases increased 10-fold from 6.4 cases per year in the first period to 61.5 cases per year in the third period. The mean age was 5 years, evenly represented by males and females. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse in the first (2000-2004) period at 61% and second (2005-2006) period at 76%, which changed to neglect (41.6%) as the most common form of maltreatment in the third (2007-2008) period. Parents were the perpetrators in 48.9% of cases throughout the 3 periods. Overall fatality rates were 4.4%, 14.3%, and 7.9% in the first, second, and third periods respectively. CONCLUSION: Recognition of CAN is expanding in Saudi Arabia. This is due to the successful adoption of a system of intervention consisting of child protection centers in the medical facilities, in conjunction with mandatory reporting and data collection strategies. In addition, the changes in public attitudes towards a better understanding of CAN enhanced further recognition and reporting of neglect and milder forms of abuse. We believe that the number of reported CAN cases in Saudi Arabia will continue to rise, hence adequate multi-sectoral services for the abuse victims require further development and improvements throughout the country.

Al Eissa M; Almuneef M

2010-01-01

302

Women survivors of child sexual abuse. How can health professionals promote healing?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore how health professionals can practise in ways sensitive to adult women survivors of child sexual abuse. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured in-depth interviews. SETTING: Small and midsize cities in Ontario and Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. METHODS: Respondents were asked about their experiences with physical therapists and other health professionals and asked how practice could be sensitive to their needs as survivors. A grounded-theory approach was used. After independent analyses, researchers achieved consensus on the main themes. Findings were checked with participants, other survivors, and mental health professionals. MAIN FINDINGS: A crucial theme was the need to feel safe when consulting any health professional. Participants described specific ways for clinicians to facilitate the feeling of safety. Disclosure of abuse history was another key theme; analysis revealed no one "right way" to inquire about it. CONCLUSION: Women survivors of child sexual abuse want safe, accepting environments and sensitive, informed health professionals with whom to work in partnership on all their health concerns.

Schachter CL; Radomsky NA; Stalker CA; Teram E

2004-01-01

303

Fatal Child Abuse in Japan: Does a trend exist toward tougher sentencing?  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been pointed out in Japan that criminal punishment in domestic homicide cases, especially in fatal child abuse cases, tends to be more lenient than in public homicide cases that occur outside the home. In recent news accounts of fatal child abuse cases, however, the media has reported that court-imposed sentences have tended to be stricter every year.METHODS: Using the online databases of three major Japanese newspapers, we collected articles about fatal child abuse cases that had been published from January 2008 to December 2009. We analyzed these articles to determine, whether a tendency towards tougher penalties, as was put forward by the media, actually exists at present time in the criminal system in Japan. RESULTS: We found 24 cases, out of which 20 involved only one offender and 4 involved two offenders. These 28 offenders comprised nine biological fathers, 11 biological mothers, and eight other male relatives of the child victims. We found that the sentences handed down by the court clearly tended to be more lenient for female offenders. A new system of criminal jurisprudence, the so-called saiban-in system wherein citizens serve as “lay judges” in criminal trials involving serious crimes, was implemented in Japan at the start of 2009. Each, district court has gradually adopted this new system after a preparation period of approximately five years starting in 2004. CONCLUSIONS: Many figures in the Japanese media predicted that the gap between social expectations and court sentences for sanction against domestic homicide cases would be filled with the present transitional period of the Japanese criminal system. However, the present study found no significant difference in the laws regarding sentencing in fatal child abuse cases before and after the preparation period of the saiban-in system.

Saori Nambu; Ayako Nasu; Shigeru Nishimura; Akiyoshi Nishimura; Satoshi Fujiwara

2011-01-01

304

Clinical routines and management of suspected child abuse or neglect in public dental service in Sweden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mandatory reporting to the social services is required by dental professionals when suspicion of child abuse or neglect occurs. The objective of this study was to analyze the recommendations previously made by the Ombudsman for Children in Sweden. The aim was to study the association between having guidelines and the inclination to report to the social services and also the association between management of multiple missed appointmens and reports to the social service. A web-based questionnaire was sent to the clinical department heads (CDH) of all PDS in Sweden, distributed and authorized by The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden. The response frequency was 95% and all county councils of Sweden were represented. The results showed regional differences regarding management of suspected child abuse, neglect and dental neglect. Clinical department heads that had reported to the social services more often had guidelines on child abuse and neglect (p < 0.000). Management of repeated missed appointments varied between clinics. Those who never had made a report to the social services more often stated that the reason for missed appointments was parental negligence (p = 0.004) and less often thought it was an actual maltreatment (p = 0.003), and they more often rescheduled when a child repeatedly missed an appointment (p = 0.013). Sixty-four percent of the clinical department heads requested additional support in this matter. In conclusion, public dental service clinics in Sweden are significantly more likely to report to the social services if guidelines regarding child abuse and neglect are available.

Kvist T; Malmberg F; Boovist AK; Larheden H; Dahllöf G

2012-01-01

305

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Steven J Collings

2009-01-01

306

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Collings, Steven J

2009-01-01

307

Child physical abuse risk moderates spontaneously inferred traits from ambiguous child behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined whether parents at high-risk for child physical abuse (CPA) differed from low-risk parents in their tendency to infer positive traits and negative traits from children's behaviors. The final sample consisted of 58 (25 low CPA risk and 33 high CPA risk) parents. Parents completed a false-recognition task, which involved viewing behavior descriptions paired with child photographs. Half of the behavior descriptions vaguely/strongly implied a trait and half of the implied traits were positive/negative. The contributions of automatic processes and controlled processes to task performance were examined using process dissociation procedures. Low CPA risk parents were significantly less likely to indicate negative traits were present in behavioral descriptions of children when negative traits were vaguely (compared to strongly) implied. In contrast, high CPA risk parents were equally likely to indicate negative traits were present regardless of whether the traits were vaguely or strongly implied. For low (but not high) CPA risk parents, automatic processes contributed significantly less to task performance when negative traits were vaguely implied compared to when the same traits were strongly implied. Given that parenting involves negotiating a seemingly endless series of ambiguous behaviors as children grow and develop, the capacity to refrain from automatically attributing negative traits to children when they exhibit vaguely negative behaviors may serve an important function in reducing risk of aggressive parenting behavior.

McCarthy RJ; Crouch JL; Skowronski JJ; Milner JS; Hiraoka R; Rutledge E; Jenkins J

2013-06-01

308

Prescription Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

309

Preventing child abuse: psychosocial description of clients of brief intervention programs in Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study describe characteristics and risk factors for child abuse and neglect,in 591 children and adolescents, their parents and families served by eight brief intervention programs (PIB) “Viviendo en Familia”, funded by the Chilean National Service of Children (SENAME) and implemented by Protectora de la Infancia (a non-profit organization) in Chile. The results revealed the existence of problems of moderate complexity, on the environment,parental competencies, family interactions, family safety and child well-being. About three of each four caregivers show signs of high risk for the abuse or neglect of children, especially in their mental health, a topic that must be considered by the staff to develop a plan of coordinated work with the local network of health services.

Esteban Gómez; Bernardita Cifuentes; María Inés Ross

2010-01-01

310

[Clinical forensic examination findings and legal outcome in cases of suspected physical child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical forensic examinations performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School between 1999 and 2008 in cases of suspected physical abuse of children were analyzed retrospectively with special emphasis on the legal consequences. Altogether, 192 children (85 girls, 107 boys) with a median age of 4.4 years were examined. In 47 cases (24.5 %), the clinical forensic examination findings were interpreted as accidental injuries, birth traumas or unspecific findings. 29 victims (20.0 %) had suffered a shaken baby syndrome. Only part of the presented cases ended with conviction, which was more likely if the victims were aged between 7 and 11 years. Prison terms of 2 years and more were imposed only if the child suffered potentially or acute life-threatening injuries or if additional anogenital lesions were diagnosed indicating sexual child abuse. PMID:22039692

Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Meyer, Yvonne; Schroeder, Günter; Günther, Detlef; Debertin, Anette Solveig

311

[Clinical forensic examination findings and legal outcome in cases of suspected physical child abuse].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical forensic examinations performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School between 1999 and 2008 in cases of suspected physical abuse of children were analyzed retrospectively with special emphasis on the legal consequences. Altogether, 192 children (85 girls, 107 boys) with a median age of 4.4 years were examined. In 47 cases (24.5 %), the clinical forensic examination findings were interpreted as accidental injuries, birth traumas or unspecific findings. 29 victims (20.0 %) had suffered a shaken baby syndrome. Only part of the presented cases ended with conviction, which was more likely if the victims were aged between 7 and 11 years. Prison terms of 2 years and more were imposed only if the child suffered potentially or acute life-threatening injuries or if additional anogenital lesions were diagnosed indicating sexual child abuse.

Bode-Jänisch S; Meyer Y; Schroeder G; Günther D; Debertin AS

2011-09-01

312

Social service professionals' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in child sexual abuse cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less education would attribute more blame to the nonoffending caregivers. The findings revealed that respondent gender was the only significant predictor of blame attribution toward nonoffending caregivers, with level of education approaching significance as a predictor. There was no relationship between attribution of blame and years in job. The findings have important contributions for informing the practice of social service professionals who work with families of child sexual abuse.

Wolfteich PM; Cline ML

2013-01-01

313

EL MALTRATO INFANTIL EN LA PRÁCTICA DOCENTE: ESTUDIO DE UN CASO CHILD ABUSE IN THE TEACHING PRACTICE: CASE STUDY  

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Full Text Available Child abuse is a topic of particular interest in the national and international context because the citizens of different countries know about the impact this phenomenon within the society and future generations and organizations like the ICBF (Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar), (in Colombia), UNESCO and the ONU (in around the world) have drawn attention to the fact that institutions such as families and schools have become partners in practice of child abuse. This article presents the results about a research that focused on classroom practice and teacher to describe whether through speech, actions and interactions (teacherstudent) had evidence of child abuse. This suggested a qualitative research, whose design was a single case study. The subject of study was a preschool teacher at a school of social stratum medium Burjassot town in the province of Valencia - Spain. Among the results of the study are the following: the discourse and interaction are within the categories of teaching practice show a particular degree of child abuse. Child abuse in the classroom is not a practice intended by the teacher, but rather factors such as number of students, teaching little accompaniment (class observation) and the aid of a practitioner or consultant, among others, mean that child abuse may be evident in the teaching practice.

JAVIER SUÁREZ GONZÁLEZ; AURA MÁRQUEZ BOLAÑO

2009-01-01

314

Revisiting the issue of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory's internal consistency in adolescent samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Although the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory is generally considered to be a reliable screening tool for assessing child physical abuse risk, there is concern that it may lack internal consistency when completed by adolescents (Blinn-Pike and Mingus, J Adolesc 2000;23:107-11). This concern has been reflected in subsequent reviews summarizing the CAP's psychometric properties (Walker and Davies, J Fam Violence 2010;25:215-27), and calls for data on the reliability of the CAP Inventory as completed by adolescents have been issued (Blinn-Pike, J Adolesc Health 2002;30:148). The purpose of this study was to provide additional data examining the internal consistency of the CAP Inventory as completed by adolescents in a variety of contexts. METHOD: This study included five samples comprising 3,281 adolescent and adult respondents who completed the CAP Inventory. Two samples included at-risk mothers who were enrolled in home-visiting services and were participating in program evaluations. Three samples included college students the majority of whom were nonparents participating in the research to explore the risk of physical abuse among children. RESULTS: The analyses showed high internal consistency estimates for the CAP Inventory abuse scale as completed by adolescent mothers (Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient range = .90-.96). Moreover, regardless of the sampling technique, parental status, or demographic characteristics, our analyses revealed overall good to excellent internal consistency estimates for the CAP Inventory abuse scale as completed by adolescent respondents. Indeed, the internal consistency estimates obtained from adolescent respondents were similar to the estimates obtained for adult respondents in each of these same samples. CONCLUSION: Our results provide strong support for a claim of good to excellent internal consistency of the CAP Inventory with adolescent samples.

Wells BM; Crouch JL; Schubert R; Irwin LM; Risser HJ; Skowronski JJ

2011-04-01

315

Reduced anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal volumes in child abuse-related complex PTSD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with smaller hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes. We investigated whether child abuse-related complex PTSD--a severe form of PTSD with affect dysregulation and high comorbidity--showed similar brain volume reductions. METHOD: We used voxel-based morphometry to measure gray matter concentrations in referred outpatients with child abuse-related complex PTSD (n = 31) compared to matched healthy nontraumatized controls (n = 28). Complex PTSD was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the Structured Clinical Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress. All respondents were scanned on a 1.5-T magnetic resonance system at the VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between September 2005 and February 2006. RESULTS: As was hypothesized, patients with child abuse-related complex PTSD showed reductions in gray matter concentration in right hippocampus (P(SVC corrected) = .04) and right dorsal ACC (P(SVC corrected) = .02) compared to controls. In addition, a reduction in gray matter concentration in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was found. Severity of child abuse and PTSD-hyperarousal correlated negatively with ACC volume. Impulsivity correlated negatively with hippocampus volume, and anger, with hippocampus and OFC volume. Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder--compared to comorbid cluster C personality disorder--accounted for more extensive reductions in the ACC and OFC volume. CONCLUSIONS: In complex PTSD, not only the hippocampus and the ACC but also the OFC seem to be affected, even in the absence of comorbid borderline personality disorder. These results suggest that neural correlates of complex PTSD are more severe than those of classic PTSD.

Thomaes K; Dorrepaal E; Draijer N; de Ruiter MB; van Balkom AJ; Smit JH; Veltman DJ

2010-12-01

316

Twins abused by their father  

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Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50)

Celal; Fatma; Resmiye; Cengiz; Derya; Yutaka

2011-01-01

317

Substance Abuse Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

... This Guide Home > Topics & States > Topics > Substance Abuse Substance Abuse Frequently Asked Questions What is substance abuse? What ... Methamphetamine Production Prevention Act of 2008? What is substance abuse? Substance abuse is the use of a mood ...

318

The current prevalence of child sexual abuse worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Systematic reviews on prevalence estimates of child sexual abuse (CSA) worldwide included studies with adult participants referring on a period of abuse of about 50 years. Therefore we aimed to describe the current prevalence of CSA, taking into account geographical region, type of abuse, level of country development and research methods. METHODS: We included studies published between 2002 and 2009 that reported CSA in children below 18 years. We performed a random effects meta-analysis and analyzed moderator variables by meta-regression. RESULTS: Fifty-five studies from 24 countries were included. According to four predefined types of sexual abuse, prevalence estimates ranged from 8 to 31 % for girls and 3 to 17 % for boys. Nine girls and 3 boys out of 100 are victims of forced intercourse. Heterogeneity between primary studies was high in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results based on most recent data confirm results from previous reviews with adults. Surveys in children offer most recent estimates of CSA. Reducing heterogeneity between studies might be possible by standardized measures to make data more meaningful in international comparisons.

Barth J; Bermetz L; Heim E; Trelle S; Tonia T

2013-06-01

319

Revealing the existence of child abuse in the context of marital breakdown and custody and access disputes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Child abuse in the context of legal and de facto marital breakdown has received little attention internationally. Many believe it does not exist in this context and regard it as just a "gambit in the divorce wars." Recently, however, family courts in a number of countries have become concerned over the management of child abuse allegations in custody and access cases, known more commonly now as residence and contact cases. This article presents a unique research study, which investigated how the Family Court of Australia dealt with such cases. The study, covering all forms of child abuse, sought to discover who were the families bringing these problems to family courts, what precisely the abuse was and how the courts dealt with it. METHOD: The study reviewed court records of some 200 families where child abuse allegations had been made in custody and access disputes in jurisdictions in two states, observed court proceedings and interviewed court and related services' staff. RESULTS: The findings showed that these cases had become a core component of the court's workload without any public or professional awareness of this change, that the abuse was real, that it was severe and serious, and that the courts and child protection services did not provide appropriate services to the families. CONCLUSION: A new specialized intervention system was developed based on the research and it is now being trialed and evaluated. The new intervention system contains features derived from the research findings that may be suitable internationally for implementation.

Brown T; Frederico M; Hewitt L; Sheehan R

2000-06-01

320

An evaluation of 'confirmatory' medical opinion given to English courts in 14 cases of alleged child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen cases of alleged child sexual abuse, where the medical opinion rated a high degree of concordance with the history or suspicion of abuse given to the doctor, were reviewed to evaluate the objectivity and reliability of the medical evidence. It was common practice for physicians conducting the medical examination to form conclusions that the child had been sexually abused on the basis of the examiner's willingness to accept statements by the child, the adolescent, the caregiver or the investigator without determining if this information was accurate and obtained through the use of appropriate interviewing techniques. In the prepubertal children, evaluation of the examination findings revealed anatomical descriptions that were normal or non-specific, rather than supportive of abuse. In the teenagers, inadequate consideration was made of the behavioural and physical differences that occur with adolescence. The physical findings were not interpreted using research derived knowledge concerning the variations of "normal" and the particular conditions that may be mistaken as abuse. The medical reports of these examinations suggest to this author a possibility of the significance and relevance of physical findings being unduly and unwittingly over-emphasised, despite the cases all having occurred post the Cleveland Inquiry [Butler Sloss E. Report into the Child Abuse Enquiry in Cleveland, 1987. London, HMSO] and some as recently as 2005. This may reflect emotional involvement in the case and the doctor taking on a role of advocacy for the child. It is sometimes difficult for physicians to step out of the medical role where they do have the responsibility to diagnose and into a role where their information is only a piece of the puzzle and it is the work of the court to determine if sexual abuse has occurred. The role confusion between medicine and forensics must be sorted out in order for physicians to provide an objective assessment. The main conclusion of this paper is that it identifies significant training needs among doctors undertaking child examinations for suspected sexual abuse. PMID:17961875

Pillai, Mary

2007-03-28

 
 
 
 
321

An evaluation of 'confirmatory' medical opinion given to English courts in 14 cases of alleged child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fourteen cases of alleged child sexual abuse, where the medical opinion rated a high degree of concordance with the history or suspicion of abuse given to the doctor, were reviewed to evaluate the objectivity and reliability of the medical evidence. It was common practice for physicians conducting the medical examination to form conclusions that the child had been sexually abused on the basis of the examiner's willingness to accept statements by the child, the adolescent, the caregiver or the investigator without determining if this information was accurate and obtained through the use of appropriate interviewing techniques. In the prepubertal children, evaluation of the examination findings revealed anatomical descriptions that were normal or non-specific, rather than supportive of abuse. In the teenagers, inadequate consideration was made of the behavioural and physical differences that occur with adolescence. The physical findings were not interpreted using research derived knowledge concerning the variations of "normal" and the particular conditions that may be mistaken as abuse. The medical reports of these examinations suggest to this author a possibility of the significance and relevance of physical findings being unduly and unwittingly over-emphasised, despite the cases all having occurred post the Cleveland Inquiry [Butler Sloss E. Report into the Child Abuse Enquiry in Cleveland, 1987. London, HMSO] and some as recently as 2005. This may reflect emotional involvement in the case and the doctor taking on a role of advocacy for the child. It is sometimes difficult for physicians to step out of the medical role where they do have the responsibility to diagnose and into a role where their information is only a piece of the puzzle and it is the work of the court to determine if sexual abuse has occurred. The role confusion between medicine and forensics must be sorted out in order for physicians to provide an objective assessment. The main conclusion of this paper is that it identifies significant training needs among doctors undertaking child examinations for suspected sexual abuse.

Pillai M

2007-11-01

322

Sexual abuse and incest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64)

Figen ?ahin; Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

2012-01-01

323

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

Bassani Diego G; Palazzo Lilian S; Béria Jorge U; Gigante Luciana P; Figueiredo Andréia CL; Aerts Denise RGC; Raymann Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

324

Concepções da professora acerca do abuso sexual infantil/ Teachers' conceptions about sexual child abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A escola mostra-se como lugar ideal para detecção e intervenção em casos de abuso sexual infantil, uma vez que o principal agressor geralmente encontra-se na família. Considerando que a escola deve ter como objetivo garantir a qualidade de vida de sua clientela, bem como promover a cidadania, para delinear um programa que possa capacitar tais profissionais em casos de abuso sexual, parece necessário, em primeiro lugar, conhecer o universo de informações que eles d (more) etêm sobre o tema, sobre a legislação a respeito e sobre os direitos da criança. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar as informações de 20 educadoras de escolas municipais de educação infantil sobre o abuso sexual de crianças em uma cidade de médio porte. As informações obtidas foram analisadas e divididas em sete categorias. Os resultados indicam que a maioria das educadoras possuía informações insuficientes acerca do tema e afirmava adotar procedimentos inadequados diante dos casos de crianças que sofreram abusos sexuais. Abstract in english The school proves to be an ideal place for detection and intervention in child sexual abuse cases, since the main aggressor is found generally within the family. Considering that one of the school's objectives should be to guarantee the quality of life of its pupils, as well as to promote citizenship, in order to develop a program to train teachers on what to do in cases of sexual abuse, it seems necessary first to survey the universe of information teachers have about th (more) e subject, the existing legislation, and the children's rights. This study aimed to characterize the information that twenty educators in municipal schools for early child education in a medium size city had about child sexual abuse. The data obtained were analyzed and divided into seven categories. The results indicate that the majority of educators had insufficient information on the subject, affirming as well that they took inadequate measures when faced with cases of children who suffered sexual abuse.

Brino, Rachel de Faria; Williams, Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

2003-01-01

325

Concepções da professora acerca do abuso sexual infantil Teachers' conceptions about sexual child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A escola mostra-se como lugar ideal para detecção e intervenção em casos de abuso sexual infantil, uma vez que o principal agressor geralmente encontra-se na família. Considerando que a escola deve ter como objetivo garantir a qualidade de vida de sua clientela, bem como promover a cidadania, para delinear um programa que possa capacitar tais profissionais em casos de abuso sexual, parece necessário, em primeiro lugar, conhecer o universo de informações que eles detêm sobre o tema, sobre a legislação a respeito e sobre os direitos da criança. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar as informações de 20 educadoras de escolas municipais de educação infantil sobre o abuso sexual de crianças em uma cidade de médio porte. As informações obtidas foram analisadas e divididas em sete categorias. Os resultados indicam que a maioria das educadoras possuía informações insuficientes acerca do tema e afirmava adotar procedimentos inadequados diante dos casos de crianças que sofreram abusos sexuais.The school proves to be an ideal place for detection and intervention in child sexual abuse cases, since the main aggressor is found generally within the family. Considering that one of the school's objectives should be to guarantee the quality of life of its pupils, as well as to promote citizenship, in order to develop a program to train teachers on what to do in cases of sexual abuse, it seems necessary first to survey the universe of information teachers have about the subject, the existing legislation, and the children's rights. This study aimed to characterize the information that twenty educators in municipal schools for early child education in a medium size city had about child sexual abuse. The data obtained were analyzed and divided into seven categories. The results indicate that the majority of educators had insufficient information on the subject, affirming as well that they took inadequate measures when faced with cases of children who suffered sexual abuse.

Rachel de Faria Brino; Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Williams

2003-01-01

326

Practitioner review: The victims and juvenile perpetrators of child sexual abuse--assessment and intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger children or sexually abusive adolescents. A developmental approach to assessment and treatment intervention is essential in all these cases. METHOD: This review examines research on the characteristics of child victims and perpetrators of CSA. It describes evidence-based approaches to assessment and treatment of both groups of children. A selective review of MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, and other databases was undertaken. Recommendations are made for clinical practice and future research. FINDINGS: The characteristics of CSA victims are well known and those of juvenile perpetrators of sexual abuse are becoming recognized. Assessment approaches for both groups of children should be delivered within a safeguarding context where risk to victims is minimized. Risk assessment instruments should be used only as adjuncts to a full clinical assessment. Given high levels of psychiatric comorbidity, assessment, treatment, and other interventions should be undertaken by mental health trained staff. CONCLUSIONS: Victims and perpetrators of CSA present challenges and opportunities for professional intervention. Their complex presentations mean that their needs should be met by highly trained staff. However, their youth and developmental immaturity also give an opportunity to nip problem symptoms and behaviors in the bud. The key is in the earliest possible intervention with both groups. Future research should focus on long-term adult outcomes for both child victims and children who perpetrate CSA. Adult outcomes of treated children could identify problems and/or strengths in parenting the next generation and also the persistence and/or desistence of sexualized or abusive behavior.

Vizard E

2013-05-01

327

Reliability of professional judgments in forensic child sexual abuse evaluations: unsettled or unsettling science?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009 ) argument that forensic decisions based on psychosocial evidence are fundamentally unreliable and that this conclusion represents settled science. The article also discusses the potentially adverse consequences of Herman's proposed reforms to forensic practice on child protection and prosecution efforts.

Everson MD; Sandoval JM; Berson N; Crowson M; Robinson H

2012-01-01

328

Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/ psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in establishing validity of alleged CSA. The shortcomings of the various behavioral/psychological assessment procedures and the issues of general consensus on behavioral assessment in CSA have been reviewed. The role of behavioral/psychological assessment in child protection issues is also discussed.

Prof. Savita Malhotra (M.D.; Ph.D; F.A.M.S); Dr. Parthasarathy Biswas (M.D.)

2006-01-01

329

Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

Fontes, Lisa Aronson

2007-01-01

330

The Relationships of Dissociation and Affective Family Environment with the Intergenerational Cycle of Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective:: The purpose was to test a model that may explain how physically abused children become physically abusive parents. It was predicted that when the family's affective environment is uncohesive, unexpressive, and conflictual, a history of abuse experiences would be associated with elevated dissociation. It was hypothesized that…

Narang, D.S.; Contreras, J.M.

2005-01-01

331

Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents  

Science.gov (United States)

... Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Ages & Stages Listen Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Article Body Drugs, ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

332

Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

Leung, R.S. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Nwachuckwu, C. [Department of Paediatrics, Whipps Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Pervaiz, A. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, C.; Landes, C. [Department of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Childrens NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Offiah, A.C. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: OffiaA@gosh.nhs.uk

2009-07-15

333

El Maltrato Infantil desde la bioética: El sistema de salud y su labor asistencial ante el maltrato infantil, ¿qué hacer?/ Child Abuse from bioethics perspective: the health system and its work in child abuse. What to do?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La reflexión bioética de este artículo está orientada al Maltrato Infantil (MI) en general, abarcando lo que es común a todas las formas y no en particular al maltrato severo y al abuso sexual. Por ser lo más frecuente, nos orientamos al maltrato que se produce en el medio intrafamiliar. En la primera parte de este artículo se hará un análisis de hechos, revisando la información epidemiológica y de relevancia clínica en el MI. En la segunda parte, se hace un a (more) nálisis valórico sobre las dificultades de definir el MI y sobre los fundamentos para tratarlo como un problema de salud. En la tercera parte, se discute desde una perspectiva ética, los dilemas que surgen en la atención de los niños maltratados y sus familias. Finalmente se presenta una propuesta, una visión que tiene el comité de maltrato para organizar la labor asistencial de salud Abstract in english The bioethics thoughts of this article are guided to Child Abuse in general, not only to severe abuse and sexual abuse; it is directed to the most frequent form of abuse that occurs inside the family. In the first part of this article, an analysis of facts is performed, checking over epidemiologic and clinical relevant information of child abuse. In the second part, the analysis is based on values, difficulties in defining child abuse and the reasons why it should be mana (more) ged as a health problem. In the last part, the discussion is maintained from an ethics perspective, regarding the problems in the attention of abused children and their families. The committee of child abuse presents a proposal for organization of health work in this subject

SOCIEDAD CHILENA DE PEDIATRÍA

2007-10-01

334

El Maltrato Infantil desde la bioética: El sistema de salud y su labor asistencial ante el maltrato infantil, ¿qué hacer? Child Abuse from bioethics perspective: the health system and its work in child abuse. What to do?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La reflexión bioética de este artículo está orientada al Maltrato Infantil (MI) en general, abarcando lo que es común a todas las formas y no en particular al maltrato severo y al abuso sexual. Por ser lo más frecuente, nos orientamos al maltrato que se produce en el medio intrafamiliar. En la primera parte de este artículo se hará un análisis de hechos, revisando la información epidemiológica y de relevancia clínica en el MI. En la segunda parte, se hace un análisis valórico sobre las dificultades de definir el MI y sobre los fundamentos para tratarlo como un problema de salud. En la tercera parte, se discute desde una perspectiva ética, los dilemas que surgen en la atención de los niños maltratados y sus familias. Finalmente se presenta una propuesta, una visión que tiene el comité de maltrato para organizar la labor asistencial de saludThe bioethics thoughts of this article are guided to Child Abuse in general, not only to severe abuse and sexual abuse; it is directed to the most frequent form of abuse that occurs inside the family. In the first part of this article, an analysis of facts is performed, checking over epidemiologic and clinical relevant information of child abuse. In the second part, the analysis is based on values, difficulties in defining child abuse and the reasons why it should be managed as a health problem. In the last part, the discussion is maintained from an ethics perspective, regarding the problems in the attention of abused children and their families. The committee of child abuse presents a proposal for organization of health work in this subject

2007-01-01

335

Pediatric radiological diagnostic procedures in cases of suspected child abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostic procedures are essential in cases of clinically diagnosed injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen or extremities of a child, especially if there is no case history or if the reporting of an inadequate trauma suggests battered child syndrome. In particul...

C. Erfurt; G. Hahn; D. Roesner; U. Schmidt

336

El maltrato infantil: un problema mundial/ Child abuse: A worldwide problem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Al abordar el maltrato infantil se presentan diversos problemas: desconocimiento de la verdadera proporción de dicha problemática; raíces culturales e históricas profundas; diversidad de opiniones en cuanto a su definición y clasificación; dificultades en la investigación y, finalmente, una diversidad de consideraciones sobre sus repercusiones y su manejo terapéutico. En el presente artículo se estudia el maltrato infantil desde sus antecedentes históricos, así (more) como sus clasificaciones, sus definiciones y su epidemiología. Asimismo, se revisan las repercusiones y se plantean las alternativas de tratamiento que en la bibliografía existente se han manejado como fundamentales para enfrentar este fenómeno cada vez más alarmante. Queda subrayada la necesidad de unificar criterios en cuanto a la definición y clasificación de información científica en torno a datos demográficos que, finalmente, hablarán de la realidad del problema, de los avances relacionados con sus causas, su diagnóstico, sus medidas preventivas y su tratamiento. Es fundamental utilizar medidas tendientes a prevenir el maltrato, pues una gran parte de los problemas en el niño se ven reflejados en la vida adulta. Se comparan las distintas clasificaciones en torno al tema, así como las características tanto del agredido como del agresor en los distintos tipos de maltrato. Abstract in english Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present study approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives (more) considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused.

SANTANA-TAVIRA, ROSALINDA; SÁNCHEZ-AHEDO, ROBERTO; HERRERA-BASTO, EMILIO

1998-01-01

337

El maltrato infantil: un problema mundial Child abuse: A worldwide problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al abordar el maltrato infantil se presentan diversos problemas: desconocimiento de la verdadera proporción de dicha problemática; raíces culturales e históricas profundas; diversidad de opiniones en cuanto a su definición y clasificación; dificultades en la investigación y, finalmente, una diversidad de consideraciones sobre sus repercusiones y su manejo terapéutico. En el presente artículo se estudia el maltrato infantil desde sus antecedentes históricos, así como sus clasificaciones, sus definiciones y su epidemiología. Asimismo, se revisan las repercusiones y se plantean las alternativas de tratamiento que en la bibliografía existente se han manejado como fundamentales para enfrentar este fenómeno cada vez más alarmante. Queda subrayada la necesidad de unificar criterios en cuanto a la definición y clasificación de información científica en torno a datos demográficos que, finalmente, hablarán de la realidad del problema, de los avances relacionados con sus causas, su diagnóstico, sus medidas preventivas y su tratamiento. Es fundamental utilizar medidas tendientes a prevenir el maltrato, pues una gran parte de los problemas en el niño se ven reflejados en la vida adulta. Se comparan las distintas clasificaciones en torno al tema, así como las características tanto del agredido como del agresor en los distintos tipos de maltrato.Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present study approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused.

ROSALINDA SANTANA-TAVIRA; ROBERTO SÁNCHEZ-AHEDO; EMILIO HERRERA-BASTO

1998-01-01

338

Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Daigneault, Isabelle; Hébert, Martine

2013-07-18

339

Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place.

Collin-Vézina D; Daigneault I; Hébert M

2013-01-01

340

State dependent gene-environment interaction: serotonin transporter gene-child abuse interaction associated with suicide attempt history among depressed psychiatric inpatients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and child abuse history have been associated with an increased suicide risk for general population, but such association is not clear among psychiatric depressed inpatients. METHODS: A chart review identified 422 depressed inpatients genotyped for 5HTTLPR. Child abuse and suicide attempt history were recorded. The relationship between 5HTTLPR, child abuse, and suicide attempts were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant relationship between 5HTTLPR and history of suicide attempt (the long/long versus the short carriers, 47.9% versus 31.8%, p=0.0015). There was also a significant main effect from child abuse history (abused versus not abused, 45.1% versus 28.6%, p=0.0001). The likelihood ratio test showed a significant result for the l/l genotype group with child abuse history (odds ratio 4.11, ?2 = 23.5, p<0.0001). No significant result was obtained from other groups. LIMITATIONS: This is a retrospective study based on chart review. Replication with more standardized research setting for measurements of child abuse history and suicide attempt history is needed. The rs25531 variant among a long allele (long-A and long-G) of 5HTTLPR was not genotyped. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the direct effect from 5HTTLPR and child abuse history, an interaction between the 5HTTLPR gene and child abuse history influenced psychiatric profiles of depressed inpatients. Contrary to the widely recognized "reactivity" associated with the short allele, our patients with the l/l genotype and child abuse history showed significantly severer psychiatric pathology than short carriers with child abuse history.

Shinozaki G; Romanowicz M; Passov V; Rundell J; Mrazek D; Kung S

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Sex, lies, and statistics: inferences from the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Victims of child sexual abuse often recant their complaints or do not report incidents, making prosecution of offenders difficult. The child with sexual abuse accommodation syndrome (CSAAS) has been used to explain this phenomenon by identifying common behavioral responses. Unlike PTSD but like rape trauma syndrome, CSAAS is not an official diagnostic term and should not be used as evidence of a defendant's guilt or to imply probative value in prosecutions. Courts have grappled with the ideal use of CSAAS in the evaluation of child witness testimony. Expert testimony should be helpful to the jurors without prejudicing them. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled recently that statistical evidence about CSAAS implying the probability that a child is truthful runs the risk of confusing jury members and biasing them against the defendant. We review the parameters of expert testimony and its admissibility in this area, concluding that statistics about CSAAS should not be used to draw inferences about the victim's credibility or the defendant's guilt. PMID:24051595

Weiss, Kenneth J; Alexander, Julia Curcio

2013-01-01

342

Sex, lies, and statistics: inferences from the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Victims of child sexual abuse often recant their complaints or do not report incidents, making prosecution of offenders difficult. The child with sexual abuse accommodation syndrome (CSAAS) has been used to explain this phenomenon by identifying common behavioral responses. Unlike PTSD but like rape trauma syndrome, CSAAS is not an official diagnostic term and should not be used as evidence of a defendant's guilt or to imply probative value in prosecutions. Courts have grappled with the ideal use of CSAAS in the evaluation of child witness testimony. Expert testimony should be helpful to the jurors without prejudicing them. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled recently that statistical evidence about CSAAS implying the probability that a child is truthful runs the risk of confusing jury members and biasing them against the defendant. We review the parameters of expert testimony and its admissibility in this area, concluding that statistics about CSAAS should not be used to draw inferences about the victim's credibility or the defendant's guilt.

Weiss KJ; Alexander JC

2013-01-01

343

Folk remedies and child abuse: a review with emphasis on caida de mollera and its relationship to shaken baby syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: There were two objectives: first, to make the reader familiar with folk remedies that might be confused with child abuse; second, to challenge the idea existing in the literature that treatment for the Hispanic folk illness caida de mollera can cause the injuries seen in the shaken baby syndrome. METHOD: Literature review and analysis with case application were used. RESULTS: A wide variety of folk remedies with potential for confusion with child abuse were found to exist, and were described. Treatment for caida de mollera was found to consist of a number of gentle, nonviolent maneuvers quite different from the violent shaking believed to cause shaken baby syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Familiarity with folk remedies will help differentiate them from child abuse. The child protection community would benefit from realizing that treatment for caida de mollera is an improbable cause of shaken baby syndrome injuries.

Hansen KK

1998-02-01

344

Systematic reviews of bruising in relation to child abuse-what have we learnt: an overview of review updates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dogma has long prevailed regarding the ageing of bruises, and whether certain patterns of bruising are suggestive or diagnostic of child abuse. OBJECTIVES: We conducted the first Systematic Reviews addressing these two issues, to determine the scientific basis for current clinical practice. There have been seven updates since 2004. METHODS: An all language literature search was performed across 13 databases, 1951-2004, using >60 key words, supplemented by 'snowballing' techniques. Quality standards included a novel confirmation of abuse scale. Updates used expanded key words, and a higher standard for confirmation of abuse. RESULTS: Of 1495 potential studies, only three met the inclusion criteria for ageing of bruises in 2004, confirming that it is inaccurate to do so with the naked eye. This was roundly rejected when first reported, generating a wave of new studies attempting to determine a scientifically valid method to age bruises, none of which are applicable in children yet. Regarding patterns of bruising that may be suggestive or diagnostic of abuse, we included 23 of 167 studies reviewed in 2004, although only 2 were comparative studies. Included studies noted that unintentional bruises occur predominantly on the front of the body, over bony prominences and their presence is directly correlated to the child's level of independent mobility. Bruising patterns in abused children, differed in location (most common site being face, neck, ear, head, trunk, buttocks, arms), and tended to be larger. Updates have included a further 14 studies, including bruising in disabled children, defining distinguishing patterns in severely injured abused and non-abused children, and importance of petechiae. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic Reviews of bruising challenged accepted wisdom regarding ageing of bruises, which had no scientific basis; stimulated higher quality research on patterns of bruises distinguishing abusive and non-abusive bruising patterns, and highlighted the benefits of regular updates of these reviews.

Maguire S; Mann M

2013-03-01

345

A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are randomly selected. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among the sample people, which is categorized in four groups of physical, sexual, emotional and neglect child abuse. The results are analyzed using different tests including Pearson correlation test, Chi-Square, etc. to test different hypotheses. The results of our survey indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between different family characteristics including age, occupation, family size, educational background, and drug-addiction and child abuse. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between home status and child abuse risk.

Mohammad Reza Iravani; Shahram Basity; Faezeh Taghipour; AllahyarArabmomeni; HajarJannesari

2013-01-01

346

Risk factors of parents abused as children: a mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (Part I)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where ...

Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

347

Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy; Die akute Roentgendiagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung: Eine Strategie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features `PRO` raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings `CON` suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Strategie fuer die genaue Interpretation roentgenologischer Befunde, die auf eine Kindesmisshandlung hindeuten koennen, vorgeschlagen. Fuer jeden Befund werfen die unter `PRO` aufgefuehrten Merkmale die Frage nach einer Kindesmisshandlung auf, waehrend radiologische und klinische Befunde unter `CON` andere Erklaerungen nahelegen. Geburtstrauma, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Rettungstrauma und metastasierendes Neuroblastom sind unter den vielen zitierten Differentialdiagnosen. Drei moegliche Situationen koennen den Radiologen dazu veranlassen, systematisch nach Zeichen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu suchen, 3 moegliche Loesungen koennen aus dieser Suche hervorgehen. Eine Periostreaktion ist ein Kardinalbefund zur Datierung von Frakturen. Physiologische Periostreaktionen im fruehen Kindesalter und Periostreaktionen durch fruehere Frakturen muessen bei einer solchen Datierung von Frakturen mitbedacht werden. (orig.)

Oestreich, A.E. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

1998-04-01

348

Child abuse: review of the literature Maus-tratos infantis. Revisão da literatura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-accidental injuries in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Fractures are the second most common clinical manifestation of child abuse. The fracture of the femur is associated in more than 60% of child abuse in children younger than 3 years. The objective was to review the literature on child abuse in the major databases and report a rare case of bilateral subtrochanteric femur fractures associated with unilaterall humeral fracture in a 28-day newborn. The orthopedic surgeon is often the first physician to evaluate these children, so a high degree of suspicion, and a physical examination and a detailed clinical history is mandatory when evaluating a newborn with musculoskeletal injuries.Lesões não acidentais em crianças são uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade nesta população. Fraturas são a segunda causa mais comum de manifestação clínica de maus tratos. A fratura do fêmur está associada em mais de 60% dos casos a maus tratos em crianças menores de 3 anos. O objetivo do trabalho foi fazer uma revisão da literatura nas principais bases de dados a respeito dos maus-tratos infantis e relatar um caso raro de fratura subtrocantérica bilateral de fêmur associada com fratura umeral unilateral em um recém-nascido de 28 dias. O ortopedista muitas vezes é o primeiro médico a avaliar essas crianças; portanto, um alto grau de suspeição, além de um exame físico minucioso e uma história clínica detalhada, é mandatório ao se avaliar um recém-nascido com lesões musculoesqueléticas.

Bernardo Barcellos Terra; Eduardo Antônio de Figueiredo; Morena Pretti Espindula de Oliveira Lima Terra; Carlos Vicente Andreoli; Benno Ejnisman

2013-01-01

349

Explanations for child sexual abuse given by convicted offenders in Malawi: no evidence for "HIV cleansing".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"-the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex offenders for child sexual abuse and to determine if a desire to cure HIV infection motivated their offence. METHODS: Offenders convicted of sexual crimes against victims under the age of 18 were interviewed in confidence in Malawi's two largest prisons. During the interview the circumstances of the crime were explored and the offenders were asked what had influenced them to commit it. Each participant was asked the closed question "Did you think that having sex with your victim would cure or cleanse you from HIV?" RESULTS: 58 offenders agreed to participate. The median (range) age of offenders and victims was 30 (16-66) years and 14 (2-17) years, respectively. Twenty one respondents (36.2%) denied that an offence had occurred. Twenty seven (46.6%) admitted that they were motivated by a desire to satisfy their sexual desires. Six (10.3%) stated they committed the crime only because they were under the influence of drugs or alcohol. None of the participants said that a desire to cure or avoid HIV infection motivated the abuse. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that offenders convicted of a sexual crime against children in Malawi were not motivated by a desire to be cured or "cleansed" from HIV infection. A need to fulfil their sexual urges or the disinhibiting effect of drugs or alcohol was offered by the majority of participants as excuses for their behaviour.

Mtibo C; Kennedy N; Umar E

2011-02-01

350

Pedophilic sexual interests and psychopathy in child sexual abusers working with children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research has identified stable and dynamic characteristics in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) that may distinguish them from other child sexual abusers (CSA). However, in previous research CSA-W have usually been included in the group of extra-familial CSA (CSA-E). Two hundred and forty-eight forensic-sexological reports about CSA conducted by the Federal Evaluation Centre for Violent and Sexual Offenders in the Austrian Prison System were evaluated retrospectively. One hundred and nineteen intra-familial CSA (CSA-I), 66 CSA-E, and 38 CSA-W were compared with regard to static risk factors, indicators of psychopathy, and pedophilic sexual interests. CSA-E had the highest risk of recidivism as measured by the Static-99 total score, followed by CSA-W. Furthermore, CSA-E had more previous convictions than CSA-W. Both CSA-E and CSA-I had higher total scores on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised than CSA-W. CSA-W had the highest prevalence of pedophilia diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, as well as the highest rate of pedophilia with an orientation toward male children, and the highest frequency of male victims. CSA-W also had the highest total scores in the Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interests. CSA-W seem to constitute a group with particular risk factors and criminogenic needs, that is, they show more indicators of pedophilic sexual interests but less general antisociality and psychopathy, and would thus seem to be distinguishable from other CSA. Future research should focus in particular on evaluating differences in the grooming strategies used by CSA-W to commit and disclose child sexual abuse, as well as on the resources of this particular offender group.

Turner D; Rettenberger M; Lohmann L; Eher R; Briken P

2013-09-01

351

A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries' costs. METHODS: From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. RESULTS: The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound) and Canada (upper bound), whereas the result for the United States is much lower. CONCLUSION: Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries' costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings.

Habetha S; Bleich S; Weidenhammer J; Fegert JM

2012-01-01

352

Co-occurrence of intimate partner violence and child abuse in Hong Kong Chinese families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the prevalence of co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) in a cohort of Chinese parents drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. It also investigates the risk factors for CAN with a special emphasis on the role of IPV. A subsample of 2,363 parents was invited to complete the Conflict Tactics Scale and a demographic questionnaire examining the risk factors for CAN. Results show that among the perpetrators of child maltreatment, 37% and 36%, respectively, admitted they had been perpetrators and victims of IPV over their lifetime. Physical and psychological violence between spouses were the characteristics most significantly associated with child maltreatment. This suggests that intervention for CAN should include an assessment of IPV history. Integrative treatment for children suffering from CAN and interparental violence may be considered in intervention programs to combat CAN and IPV.

Ko Ling Chan

2011-05-01

353

[Mandatory reporting of child abuse by professionals of Family Health Teams].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Against the dimension of the problem on violence against child and adolescent for the public health, this article analyzes the process of notification of violence in children and adolescents for doctors, nurses and dentists by the family health teams in Fortaleza, Ceará State, in the exercise of professional practice. It is treated as a study of cut-traverse with the participation of 359 professionals, registered as Family Health Teams (FHT). The questionnaire was applied, and the data collected were organized, codified, tabulated and submitted to a descriptive statistical analysis and calculations of statistics measures significant, through the Qui-square Test of Pearson (chi2) with respective value of p = 0.05, in the program Statistical Social Package Sciences-SPSS, version 13.0 to Windows. It was observed that 52% of the professionals don't know the notification record and 69% never participated on training in the area. The time of formation is significant statistics in the notification of cases (p=0.002). The conclusion is that the notification of child abuse for professionals of FHT happens on a punctual way instead of a systematic, in that sense, the development of programs of continuous training and the amplification of the nets of professional support they can reduce the insecurity degree and to increase the number of notifications of cases of child abuse.

Luna GL; Ferreira RC; Vieira LJ

2010-03-01

354

Mental health of mothers and their premature infants for the prevention of child abuse and maltreatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Birth of preterm infants is a stressful event for their parents, particularly for mothers. The mothers of preterm infants often feel hard to relate their infants because they have separated since their first days after delivery. Long term separation and less attractive, less responsive appearance of preterm infants also make it difficult to build mother-child relationships. In addition, the mothers of preterm infants are likely to have mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders. The mothers’ psychiatric illnesses affect the psychosocial development of preterm infants and are often regarded as a risk factor for child abuse and maltreatment in later life. Child abuse and maltreatment are also prevalent among preterm infants than the full term infants. Intervention from the early period of preterm birth is an important issue for both preterm infants and their mothers. Medical and co-medical professionals should pay attention to developmental outcome of preterm as well as psychosocial conditions of their mothers for the improvement of their mental health.

Yuko Ishizaki; Teruyo Nagahama; Kazunari Kaneko

2013-01-01

355

Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. RESULTS: Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. CONCLUSION: Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations.

Hill SC; Dwyer AJ; Kaler SG

2012-11-01

356

Nature and severity of physical harm caused by child abuse and neglect: results from the Canadian Incidence Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Despite growing public concern about child maltreatment, the scope and severity of this significant public health issue remains poorly understood. This article examines the nature and severity of the physical harm associated with reports of child maltreatment documented in the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). Methods The CIS collected information directly from child welfare investigators about cases of reported child abuse or neglect. A multistage sampling design was used to track child-maltreatment investigations conducted at selected sites from October to December 1998. The analyses were based on the sample of 3780 cases in which child maltreatment was substantiated. Results Some type of physical harm was documented in 18% of substantiated cases; most of these involved bruises, cuts and scrapes. In 4% of substantiated cases, harm was severe enough to require medical attention, and in less than 1% of substantiated cases, medical attention was sought for broken bones or head trauma. Harm was noted most often in cases of physical abuse compared to other forms of maltreatment. Interpretation Rates of physical harm were lower than expected. Current emphasis on mandatory reporting, abuse investigations and risk assessment may need to be tempered for cases in which physical harm is not the central concern.

Trocme, Nico; MacMillan, Harriet; Fallon, Barbara; Marco, Richard De

2003-01-01

357

Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: evidence and opportunities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors-substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems-that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly focus on improving parenting skills, says Richard Barth, remains uncertain. Barth begins by describing how each of the four parental issues is related to child maltreatment. He then examines a variety of parent education interventions aimed at preventing child abuse. He cautions that many of the interventions have not been carefully evaluated and those that have been have shown little effect on child maltreatment or its risk factors. Although some argue that parent education cannot succeed unless family problems are also addressed, much evidence suggests that first helping parents to be more effective with their children can address mental health needs and improve the chances of substance abuse recovery. Barth recommends increased public support for research trials to compare the effectiveness of programs focused on parenting education and those aiming to reduce related risk factors. Child welfare services and evidence-based parent training, says Barth, are in a period of transformation. Evidence-based methods are rapidly emerging from a development phase that has primarily involved local and highly controlled studies into more national implementation and greater engagement with the child welfare system. The next step is effectiveness trials. Citing the importance and success of multifaceted campaigns in public health policy, Barth discusses a multifaceted parenting campaign that has demonstrated substantial promise in several large trials. The goal of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is to help parents deal with the full gamut of children's health and behavioral issues. The campaign includes five levels of intervention, each featuring a different means of delivery and intensity of service. More broadly, Barth suggests that the evidence-based Triple P approach offers a general framework that could be used to guide the future evolution of parenting programs.

Barth RP

2009-01-01

358

The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child's risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in adolescence. When accounting for risk factors associated with additional stressors in the family and surrounding environment, only those children with dual exposure had an elevated risk of the tested outcomes compared to non-exposed youth. However, while there were some observable differences in the prediction of outcomes for children with dual exposure compared to those with single exposure (i.e., abuse only or exposure to domestic violence only), these difference were not statistically significant. Analyses showed that the effects of exposure for boys and girls are statistically comparable.

Moylan CA; Herrenkohl TI; Sousa C; Tajima EA; Herrenkohl RC; Russo MJ

2010-01-01

359

Predictors of child pornography offenses and child sexual abuse in a community sample of pedophiles and hebephiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about factors that distinguish men who act upon their self-identified sexual interest in prepubescent or pubescent children from those who do not. Even less is known about pedophiles or hebephiles who are not involved with the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 155 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia (or paraphilia not otherwise specified for those who were sexually attracted to pubescent children). Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on sociodemographic variables and measures of dynamic risk factors. The first set was based on recent activity and compared men who had committed child pornography only or child sexual abuse offenses in the past six months with men who remained offense-free during the same period. The second set was based on lifetime offense history (excluding the most recent six months) and compared child pornography offenders with child sexual abuse offenders and men who had committed both kinds of offenses. Overall, there were more similarities than differences between groups. PMID:20935341

Neutze, Janina; Seto, Michael C; Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Beier, Klaus M

2010-10-09

360

Predictors of child pornography offenses and child sexual abuse in a community sample of pedophiles and hebephiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about factors that distinguish men who act upon their self-identified sexual interest in prepubescent or pubescent children from those who do not. Even less is known about pedophiles or hebephiles who are not involved with the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 155 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia (or paraphilia not otherwise specified for those who were sexually attracted to pubescent children). Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on sociodemographic variables and measures of dynamic risk factors. The first set was based on recent activity and compared men who had committed child pornography only or child sexual abuse offenses in the past six months with men who remained offense-free during the same period. The second set was based on lifetime offense history (excluding the most recent six months) and compared child pornography offenders with child sexual abuse offenders and men who had committed both kinds of offenses. Overall, there were more similarities than differences between groups.

Neutze J; Seto MC; Schaefer GA; Mundt IA; Beier KM

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. RESULTS: The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Systematically exploring and evaluating parental concerns with an instrument like the SPARK can contribute to the early recognition of families at risk for major child rearing problems.

Staal II; Hermanns JM; Schrijvers AJ; van Stel HF

2013-07-01

362

Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse; Klinischer Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [German] Gewalt gegen Kinder hat viele Gesichter: Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlaessigung, sexueller Missbrauch und elterliche Partnerschaftsgewalt koennen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu akuten und bleibenden Schaeden fuehren und ihre Entwicklung und Lebensentwuerfe nachhaltig beeinflussen. Betroffen ist in Industrienationen fast jedes zehnte Kind. Bis zu 10% der Kindesmisshandlungen betreffen das zentrale Nervensystem. Von diesen ereignen sich ca. 80% im ersten Lebensjahr. Weltweit sterben nach Angaben der Kinderhilfsorganisation UNICEF jaehrlich ueber 50.000 Kinder an den Folgen von Gewalt, Missbrauch und Vernachlaessigung. In Deutschland ereignen sich pro Jahr ca. 120 Faelle an nichtakzidentellen Kopfverletzungen. Den oeffentlich bekannten Faellen steht eine hohe Dunkelziffer aller Formen von Gewalt gegenueber. Sie zu erkennen und den Betroffenen zu helfen, setzt einen entsprechenden Verdacht voraus sowie die Kenntnis der Pathophysiologie. Der Verdacht erfordert eine gut dokumentierte Anamnese und interdisziplinaere Diagnostik. Aufgrund der aerztlichen Schweigepflicht ist die Informationsweitergabe erschwert, weshalb Netzwerke zur Frueherkennung und Leitlinien zur Kooperation unverzichtbar sind. (orig.)

Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2009-10-15

363

Modos de visibilidad pública del abuso sexual infantil/ Modes of Public Visibility of Child Sexual Abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación sociosemiótica que interrogó la temática del abuso sexual infantil desde un aspecto poco explorado: la fuerte presencia mediática. Se tomó como eje central el grado de visibilidad pública entendido en términos de iconicidad e imagen ya que se consideró, a modo de hipótesis preliminar, que en los modos de velar/ocultar/espectacularizar a las víctimas y a los victimarios es donde puede rastrearse la (more) supervivencia del tabú que adscribe a las víctimas del abuso al terreno de lo prohibido y vergonzante. Entre otras consideraciones, se observó que la notoriedad mediática del tema instaura una equivalencia recurrente entre el cuidado-exhibición de la identidad de las víctimas del abuso sexual infantil y el cuidado-exhibición de los protagonistas de la violencia juvenil. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a research study in the field of Social Semiotics that questioned the topic of child sexual abuse from a scarcely explored aspect: strong media presence. The focus was placed on the degree of public visibility understood in terms of iconicity and image since it was assumed, as a preliminary hypothesis, that it is in the ways of veiling/hiding/spectacularizing the victims and their perpetrators where we can trace the survival of the taboo (more) that situates the victims of abuse in the field of the forbidden and shameful. Among other considerations, it was observed that media relevance of the issue establishes recurrent equivalence between care/exhibition of the identity of the victims of child sexual abuse and care/exhibition of protagonists of youth violence.

Ledesma, María; Rozados, Laura; Cattaneo, Juliana; Rosa, Claudia; De Zan, María Eugenia; Dagatti, Mariano

2010-05-01

364

Violência contra a criança: indicadores dermatológicos e diagnósticos diferenciais Child abuse: skin markers and differential diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As denúncias de abuso contra a criança têm sido frequentes e configuram grave problema de saúde pública. O tema é desconfortável para muitos médicos, seja pelo treinamento insuficiente, seja pelo desconhecimento das dimensões do problema. Uma das formas mais comuns de violência contra a criança é o abuso físico. Como órgão mais exposto e extenso, a pele é o alvo mais sujeito aos maustratos. Equimoses e queimaduras são os sinais mais visíveis. Médicos (pediatras, clínicos-gerais e dermatologistas) costumam ser os primeiros profissionais a observar e reconhecer sinais de lesões não acidentais ou intencionais. Os dermatologistas podem auxiliar na distinção entre lesões traumáticas intencionais, acidentais e doenças cutâneas que mimetizam maus-tratosReports of child abuse have increased significantly. The matter makes most physicians uncomfortable for two reasons: a) Little guidance or no training in recognizing the problem; b - Not understanding its true dimension. The most common form of child violence is physical abuse. The skin is the largest and frequently the most traumatized organ. Bruises and burns are the most visible signs. Physicians (pediatricians, general practitioners and dermatologists) are the first professionals to observe and recognize the signs of intentional injury. Dermatologists particularly, can help distinguish intentional injury from accidental, or from skin diseases that mimic maltreatment

Roberta Marinho Falcão Gondim; Daniel Romero Muñoz; Valeria Petri

2011-01-01

365

Child sexual abuse and the pathophysiology of suicide in adolescents and adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is widespread and is associated with various psychopathologies, including Axis I and II disorders, maladaptive and impulsive behaviors, and suicidal behavior in adolescence and adults. The pathophysiology of this association is not well understood; however, it is clear that suicidal behavior in individuals with a history of CSA is a significant social and medical problem that warrants further investigation. Methods: An electronic search of the major behavioral science databases (limited to the most recent studies in the last 20 years) was conducted to retrieve studies detailing the social, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of child sexual trauma and their relation to suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults. Results: Studies indicate that CSA is related to an increase in Axis I and II diagnoses, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorders, eating disorders, alcohol and drug abuse, panic disorders, and borderline personality disorder. CSA not just related to an increase in impulsivity and risky behaviors, it has also been linked to an increase in suicidality as well. Conclusion: CSA makes both direct and indirect contributions to suicidal behavior. It is a complex process involving multiple variables, which include psychopathology, maladaptive personality features and the direct contribution of CSA itself. Psychopathologies, such as impulsivity and mood and personality disorders, may modulate the relationship between CSA and suicidal behavior. Some preventive measures for decreasing the prevalence of CSA and suicidality may include education as well as increased access to mental health services.

O'Brien BS; Sher L

2013-01-01

366

Child sexual abuse and the pathophysiology of suicide in adolescents and adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is widespread and is associated with various psychopathologies, including Axis I and II disorders, maladaptive and impulsive behaviors, and suicidal behavior in adolescence and adults. The pathophysiology of this association is not well understood; however, it is clear that suicidal behavior in individuals with a history of CSA is a significant social and medical problem that warrants further investigation. Methods: An electronic search of the major behavioral science databases (limited to the most recent studies in the last 20 years) was conducted to retrieve studies detailing the social, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of child sexual trauma and their relation to suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults. Results: Studies indicate that CSA is related to an increase in Axis I and II diagnoses, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorders, eating disorders, alcohol and drug abuse, panic disorders, and borderline personality disorder. CSA not just related to an increase in impulsivity and risky behaviors, it has also been linked to an increase in suicidality as well. Conclusion: CSA makes both direct and indirect contributions to suicidal behavior. It is a complex process involving multiple variables, which include psychopathology, maladaptive personality features and the direct contribution of CSA itself. Psychopathologies, such as impulsivity and mood and personality disorders, may modulate the relationship between CSA and suicidal behavior. Some preventive measures for decreasing the prevalence of CSA and suicidality may include education as well as increased access to mental health services. PMID:23843572

O'Brien, Betsy S; Sher, Leo

2013-01-01

367

Violência contra a criança: indicadores dermatológicos e diagnósticos diferenciais/ Child abuse: skin markers and differential diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As denúncias de abuso contra a criança têm sido frequentes e configuram grave problema de saúde pública. O tema é desconfortável para muitos médicos, seja pelo treinamento insuficiente, seja pelo desconhecimento das dimensões do problema. Uma das formas mais comuns de violência contra a criança é o abuso físico. Como órgão mais exposto e extenso, a pele é o alvo mais sujeito aos maustratos. Equimoses e queimaduras são os sinais mais visíveis. Médicos (p (more) ediatras, clínicos-gerais e dermatologistas) costumam ser os primeiros profissionais a observar e reconhecer sinais de lesões não acidentais ou intencionais. Os dermatologistas podem auxiliar na distinção entre lesões traumáticas intencionais, acidentais e doenças cutâneas que mimetizam maus-tratos Abstract in english Reports of child abuse have increased significantly. The matter makes most physicians uncomfortable for two reasons: a) Little guidance or no training in recognizing the problem; b - Not understanding its true dimension. The most common form of child violence is physical abuse. The skin is the largest and frequently the most traumatized organ. Bruises and burns are the most visible signs. Physicians (pediatricians, general practitioners and dermatologists) are the first p (more) rofessionals to observe and recognize the signs of intentional injury. Dermatologists particularly, can help distinguish intentional injury from accidental, or from skin diseases that mimic maltreatment

Gondim, Roberta Marinho Falcão; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Petri, Valeria

2011-06-01

368

Where the individual meets the ecological: a study of parent drinking patterns, alcohol outlets, and child physical abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite well-known associations between heavy drinking and child physical abuse, little is known about specific risks related to drinking different amounts of alcohol in different drinking venues. This study uses a context-specific dose-response model to examine how drinking in various venues (e.g., at bars or parties) is related to physically abusive parenting practices while controlling for individual and psychosocial characteristics. METHODS: Data were collected via a telephone survey of parents in 50 cities in California, resulting in 2,163 respondents who reported drinking in the past year. Child physical abuse and corporal punishment were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-Child version. Drinking behaviors were measured using continued drinking measures. Data were analyzed using zero-inflated Poisson models. RESULTS: Drinking at homes, parties, or bars more frequently was related to greater frequencies of physically abusive parenting practices. The use of greater amounts of alcohol in association with drinking at bars appeared to increase risks of corporal punishment, a dose-response effect. Dose-response relationships were not found for drinking at homes or parties or drinking at bars for physical abuse nor for drinking at home and parties for corporal punishment. CONCLUSIONS: Frequencies of using drinking venues, particularly bars and home or parties, are associated with greater use of abusive parenting practices. These findings suggest that a parent's routine drinking activities place children at different risks of being physically abused. They also suggest that interventions that take into account parents' alcohol use at drinking venues are an important avenue for secondary prevention efforts.

Freisthler B; Gruenewald PJ

2013-06-01

369

Sexual Abuse of Children: Selected Readings.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of selected readings contains a wide range of materials on the subject of child sexual abuse. The eight chapters in Part I, written by the staff of the Child Protection Center, Children's Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, D.C., discuss the etiology and short-term management of child sexual abuse, describe an approach to…

Jones, Barbara McComb, Ed.; And Others

370

The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. METHOD: The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. RESULTS: This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

Bernet W; Chang DK

1997-01-01

371

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts \\ Substance Abuse and SCI Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and SCI How Family Life Changes After SCI ...

372

Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home » Publications » Research Reports » Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction Methamphetamine: Abuse and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Provides an overview of the latest scientific findings on methamphetamine, including short- and long-term health consequences, effects ...

373

Cocaine: Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Connect with NIDA : Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ... Strategic Plan Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ...

374

Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse-12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.

Stylianou AM; Postmus JL; McMahon S

2013-11-01

375

Measuring Abusive Behaviors: Is Economic Abuse a Unique Form of Abuse?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse-12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.

Stylianou AM; Postmus JL; McMahon S

2013-08-01

376

Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse-12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse. PMID:23946140

Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah

2013-08-14

377

Parenting and Family Support for Families 'at risk' - Implications from Child Abuse Reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of family experiences on children’s development and wellbeing has been widely documented. Yet, recent reports generated by inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the Irish context raise disturbing questions with regard to how the severe maltreatment of children can occur within the family context. It is imperative that the messages generated from these inquiries can effectively inform policy and practice in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support to families at-risk. The present paper draws together key issues for parenting and family support for families ‘at risk’ based on the Roscommon and Monageer inquiries with a view to gaining insight into key issues which need to be addressed in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support for parents experiencing adversity. A number of implications arising from these reports are outlined and discussed. Specifically, the need to amplify the focus on support for parenting in the context of poverty and substance abuse is highlighted with a particular emphasis on developing sensitive screening and assessment for parents who may be difficult to engage with due to chronic mental health issues. The importance of accessing the voice of children within the provision of family support is also underlined in these findings. A key recommendation from these reports is that the needs, wishes and feelings of each child must be considered as well as the totality of the family situation. Moreover, the need for staff in child welfare and protection services to have access to ongoing training and professional development to meet the complex and changing needs of the children and families they are working with is also highlighted. Specifically, ongoing training for frontline staff in understanding the effects of drug and alcohol dependency, and, in particular, the effects on parenting and parent-child relationships is underscored in findings from these reports.

Ann Marie Halpenny

2012-01-01

378

Diagnostic accuracy in child sexual abuse medical evaluation: role of experience, training, and expert case review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: (1) The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of clinicians who examine children for suspected sexual abuse to recognize and interpret normal and abnormal ano-genital findings in magnified photographs using an online survey format. (2) Determine which factors in education, clinical practice, and case review correlate with correct responses to the survey questions. METHODS: Between July and December 2007, medical professionals participated in a web-based survey. Participants answered questions regarding their professional background, education, clinical experience, and participation in case review. After viewing photographs and clinical information from 20 cases, participants answered 41 questions regarding diagnosis and medical knowledge. Answers chosen by an expert panel were used as the correct answers for the survey. RESULTS: The mean number of correct answers among the 141 first-time survey respondents was 31.6 (SD 5.9, range 15-41). Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAP) had mean total scores which were significantly higher than Pediatricians (Ped) (34.8 vs. 30.1, p<0.05) and Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE) (34.8 vs. 29.3, p<0.05). The mean total scores for Ped, SANE, and Advanced Practice Nurses (APN) who examine fewer than 5 children monthly for possible CSA were all below 30. Total score was directly correlated with the number of examinations performed monthly (p=0.003). In multivariable regression analysis, higher total score was associated with self-identification as a CAP, reading The Quarterly Update newsletter (p<0.0001), and with quarterly or more frequent expert case reviews using photo-documentation (p=0.0008). CONCLUSIONS: Child Abuse Pediatricians, examiners who perform many CSA examinations on a regular basis, examiners who regularly review cases with an expert, and examiners who keep up to date with current research have higher total scores in this survey, suggesting greater knowledge and competence in interpreting medical and laboratory findings in children with CSA. Review of cases with an expert in CSA medical evaluation and staying up to date with the CSA literature are encouraged for non-specialist clinicians who examine fewer than 5 children monthly for suspected sexual abuse.

Adams JA; Starling SP; Frasier LD; Palusci VJ; Shapiro RA; Finkel MA; Botash AS

2012-05-01

379

Can the Punishment Fit the Crime When Suspects Confess Child Sexual Abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To determine significant predictors of severity of sentencing of sex offenders of minors in a jurisdiction which obtains many confessions. Method: Data were abstracted from 323 criminal court case records of sexually abused minors over 11 years in a county which places a high priority on sexual abuse prosecution. The sample used in this…

Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Birdsall, William C.; Vandervort, Frank; Henry, James

2006-01-01

380

Maltrato psicológico/ Psychological abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psico (more) lógico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make r (more) eference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

Gómez de Terreros Guardiola, M.

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola

2006-01-01

382

Risk factors for out-of-home custody child care among families with alcohol and substance abuse problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To study the risk of children to mothers with alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for early childhood out-of-home care in Finland. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 526 pregnant women attending special outpatient clinics during 1992-2001 and their 626 offspring, with out-of-home care data until 2003 provided by the National Child Welfare Register. RESULTS: Fifty percent (95% confidence interval 46-54%) were at some point and 38% (34-42%) by the age of two years, in out-of-home care. Out-of-home care was associated with maternal care for substance abuse after delivery, nonemployment, housing, daily smoking during pregnancy, increasing number of previous births, mother in custody in her childhood, maternal education, previous child in custody, drug in urine during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, partner with significant abuse, regular health-care contact for abuse, daily alcohol consumption before and/or during pregnancy, newborn not discharged with mother, neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS), intensified perinatal surveillance or NICU, and delayed discharge from hospital. CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial risk of children born to mothers with significant alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for out-of-home care during early childhood. Factors identified during the pre- and perinatal period are associated with this risk.

Sarkola T; Kahila H; Gissler M; Halmesmäki E

2007-11-01

383