WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse child abuse

  1. Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Raymond H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews definitions, causal hypotheses, research, and information regarding incidence and treatment of child abuse. Discusses problems with screening, including poor validity of the measures utilized to predict abuse, invasion of family privacy, and the absence of adequate treatment and prevention programs. (GC)

  2. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to stop. Back Continue What Are the Effects of Abuse? When people are abused, it can affect every ... report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can ...

  3. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  4. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermertcan Aylin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Child abuse - sexual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minor children to sexual activity. This means a child is forced or talked into sex or sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling)

  6. Child Abuse Potential and Authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Joanne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship between child abuse, as measured by the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory, and authoritarianism, as measured by the Public Opinion Scale (POS). Results indicated a nonsignificant relationship between abuse scores and authoritarianism. However, significant relationships were found betwen the CAP abuse factor rigidity…

  7. Primary Prevention of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mindy S.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    1985-01-01

    Discusses primary prevention of child abuse, child injury, substance abuse with children and adolescents, and school maladjustment. Describes methods of prevention research with children, action approaches to primary prevention, and a school-based divorce intervention program. (MCF)

  8. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  9. Economic Conditions and Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Lindo, Jason M.; Schaller, Jessamyn; Hansen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Although a huge literature spanning several disciplines documents an association between poverty and child abuse, researchers have not found persuasive evidence that economic downturns increase abuse, despite their impacts on family income. In this paper, we address this seeming contradiction. Using county-level child abuse data spanning 1996 to 2009 from the California Department of Justice, we estimate the extent to which a county's reported abuse rate diverges from its trend when its econo...

  10. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive resand Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  11. Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... engage in prostitution or in the production of child pornography. In seven States, the definition of sexual abuse ... abuse, or child abuse, a reportable offense (including child pornography, child prostitution, or incest), or neglect that appears ...

  12. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... 37. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Child Welfare ... Abuse and Neglect. Available at: https://www.childwelfare.gov/ ...

  13. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  14. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  15. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  16. A Review of the Child Abuse Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeannine

    The paper presents a review of the literature on physical child abuse. Aspects covered include the history of child abuse, incidence and statistics, definitions, improved reporting and detection systems, the physician's role, informing the public, child abuse theories, potential for abuse in the parent, the child's own contribution to his or her…

  17. GIRL CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. VENUMADHAVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

  18. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  19. Child abuse in Setswana folktales

    OpenAIRE

    Malimabe-ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Maree, Kobus; Maree, J. G.; Molepo, Maisha M.; Alexander, Daleen

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the possible role played by African folk literature, taking Setswana folktales as a case in point, in justifying and perpetuating the abusive behaviour so often witnessed and decried in postmodern society. We found some evidence that certain folktales may depict real-life child abuse by adults (male and female), and, indeed, serve to perpetuate pre-modern societal beliefs. Ideally speaking, citizens should probably be educated about the possible negative impact of that p...

  20. Does Child Abuse Cause Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

  1. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  2. Q & A on Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Rea

    2007-01-01

    As an advocate for all students, educators have a legal, moral, and ethical responsibility for identifying and reporting child abuse. One of the most difficult tasks a teacher may face is also one of the most important a teacher can do. If a teacher knows what to look for and what to do, he or she can help a child heal physically and emotionally.…

  3. Child physical abuse : Reports and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindell, Charlotta

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was begun in 1998 at a time when increased numbers of police reports regarding child physical abuse was presented. The increase had been overshadowed by the research on the sexual abuse of children and showed that child physical abuse in Sweden had only been scarcely investigated since the institution of the Swedish anti spanking law in 1979. The aim of this thesis was to investigate child physical abuse from a judicial, social, child- and adolescent psychiatric and a user perspec...

  4. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  5. Attachment Theory and Child Abuse: Some Cautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Erna

    2002-01-01

    Presents a response to Bolen's article, "Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?" (this issue). Heralds the article as a welcome addition to the child abuse field and further explores the issues pertaining to attachment theory and child abuse. (GCP)

  6. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  7. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  8. Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intima Alrimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

  9. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the protection of children younger than age 18. Child protection agencies usually make a decision whether the child ... go into foster care or can return home. Child protection agencies generally make every effort to reunite families ...

  10. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  11. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child?s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  12. A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  13. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  14. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  15. What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

    Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

  16. Child Discipline and Abuse in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuda, Garythe M.

    1988-01-01

    Patterns of child abuse in Hong Kong are described. Noted are difficulties in distinguishing between normal discipline and child abuse. A survey of 100 university students found that physical punishment was used in 95 percent of homes with 46 percent recalling beatings. Few students approved of such severe discipline, however. (Author/DB)

  17. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  18. Overturning the diagnosis of child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Three cases, one of bullous impetigo, one of a Mongolian spot, and one of constriction of the toe by a hair, were mistakenly diagnosed as cases of child abuse. The diagnosis of child abuse is not usually simple and requires a careful evaluation of the injuries and the family if cases are not to be either overlooked or overdiagnosed.

  19. Understanding the effects of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, S L

    1977-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the difficult social phenomena with which the technologist directly deals as a part of his professional responsibilities. To be able to respond to all of the child's needs, radiologic technologists need to understand not only the physical effects, but also the psychological effects of the child. Understanding also helps the technologist deal with his own feelings when interacting with either the abused child or the child's parents. The Draw-A-Person test (DAP) was utilized in this study to illustrate visually the effect of abuse on the child's self-image. The subsequent personality characteristics of these children include low self-esteem, withdrawal, extreme forms of impulse control, and self-destructive behavior. Using the DAP, the abused child's self-portrait frequently showed body distortion, lack of detailing and poor sexual identification. In addition, the personality pattern of abusing parents was found to have many of the same characteristics as the personalities of abused children, because many times abusing parents were themselves abused as children. PMID:331392

  20. Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Acehan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the light of the latest information. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 591-614

  1. The effects of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Macintyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of empirical evidence now shows that child sexual abuse has profound effects on the psychological adjustment of children (Kendall-Tackett, Williams & Finkelhor, 1993) and these effects in some instances continue on into adulthood (Beitchman, Zucker, Hood, Da Costa & Akman, 1991). A wide range of factors mediate the impact of abuse on adjustment (Spacarelli, 1994). In this chapter the impact of sexual abuse on children and adults will be addressed with refe...

  2. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Judy

    2005-08-01

    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse. PMID:16114716

  3. Food for thought [on child sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M

    1999-01-01

    This article uncovers the hidden side of child rape and sexual abuse in the Philippines. The imposition of the death penalty, however, is not the solution to the problem because, firstly, child abuse often occurs over a prolonged period of time, before a complaint is made; secondly, child abuse cases will not make it to courts unless an adult recognizes the problem; thirdly, victims often keep silent because they know adults will not believe them and will blame them instead; fourthly, many victims keep silent to protect a mentor, especially a relative; finally, child sexual abuse involves authoritarian power relations. Thus, this article suggests preventive measures to prevent incidents from occurring. These are: recognizing that there is a problem, identifying the problem through rigorous research, identifying local risk factors that lead to abuse, and recognizing that children can prevent abuse. No one can heal a sexually abused child; only the victim can do this, given the opportunity and support to move forward on the road toward becoming a survivor. PMID:12349199

  4. Three models of child abuse consultations: A qualitative study of inpatient child abuse consultation notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A

    2014-12-01

    Child abuse pediatricians have multiple roles in caring for abused children, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and, when needed, expert legal opinion. The child physical abuse consultation differs from the traditional medical consultation in that it has medical, investigative and legal audiences, all of whom have different information needs. How child abuse pediatricians approach their cases and how they document their initial inpatient consultations that will be used by such a diverse audience is currently unexplored. We used content analysis to examine 37 child physical abuse consultation notes from a national sample of child abuse pediatricians in order to understand physicians' approaches to these consultations. Three commonly used models of child physical abuse consultation were identified in the data that we named the base model, the investigative model, and the family-dynamic model. While model types overlap, each is distinguished by key features including the approach used to gather information, the information recorded, and the language used in documentation. The base model most closely mirrors the traditional medical approach; the investigative model concentrates on triangulation of sources of information; and, the family-dynamic model concentrates on physician perceptions of family relationships. The three models of consultations for child physical abuse mirror the areas of child abuse pediatrics: diagnostic, forensic and therapeutic. These models are considered in relationship to best practice from other medical specialties with forensic components. PMID:25484319

  5. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev

    2014-12-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents. PMID:25465678

  6. Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Assistant Professor Rama Pande; Prof. Shubhangi Gavhane

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually...

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Interventions Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2012: Statistics and Interventions Series Title Numbers and Trends Author(s) ... data from Child Maltreatment 2012 , this summary presents statistics and information on child fatalities due to abuse ...

  8. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  9. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  11. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  12. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  13. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  14. Child Abuse in the Eyes of the Beholder: Lay Perceptions of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Brian H.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Perry, Andrea R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to explore the effects of victim and perpetrator gender, type of abuse, and victim-perpetrator relationship on university students' and non-students' perceptions of different kinds of child abuse. Method: One hundred and ninety-nine participants (including university students and non-student adults) evaluated each of 24…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child

  16. Diagnosing Child Sex Abuse: A research challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karola Dillenburger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing effectively with the detrimental effects of CSA on the child or adult. The research challenge to find effective alternative procedures is outlined.

  17. Diagnosing Child Sex Abuse: A research challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Karola Dillenburger; Mickey Keenan; Katrina Duffy

    2006-01-01

    Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing effectively with the detrimental effects of CSA on the child or adult. The research challenge to find effective alternative procedures is outlined.

  18. Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistant Professor Rama Pande

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually stimulating acts including masturbation, prostitution, heterosexual or homosexual, forcible or other intercourse – vaginal, oral or anal. A legal definition of sexual abuse includes child molestation, incest and rape in the Indian context, child prostitution rape and child marriage are common forms of sexual abuse.

  19. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.)

  20. Tested Compatibility in Child Abusers and Target Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Gail S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the degree of compatibility between the personalities of 22 self-reported child abusers and the target child singled out for abuse in the family. Results showed abusing parents tended to be rigid while their children were more often coded as artistic. Results confirmed Holland's theory of personality. (JAC)

  1. Bridging the Gap of Teacher Education about Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    School personnel, particularly educators and school psychologists, are a first line of defense in protecting children from abuse. Teachers play an important role in the detection and reporting of child abuse. The relationship established between teachers and their students can facilitate the identification of child abuse. By virtue of their work,…

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

  3. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  4. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  5. Tips for Protecting Child Athletes from Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask these questions to find out if preventing child sexual abuse is a priority for your child’s youth-sports ... Does staff receive training on recognizing and reporting child sexual abuse? How often? Is there a staff code of ...

  6. Child sexual abuse: prevalence, effects and school based prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay?e Rezan Çeçen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a complex and serious phenomenon that causes short and long term debilitating effects on individuals and their quality of life and life satisfaction. Last three decades child sexual abuse (prevalence, effects and prevention methods has been very important multidisciplinary topic in academic field in North American developed countries but In our country, Turkey there are not sufficient studies related to prevalence, effects and prevention of child sexual abuse. In this study child sexual abuse reviewed considering prevalence, effects on child and prevention in the light of literature. The last part of article has been suggesting and stressing urgently intervention school-based prevention programs child sexual abuse to prevent child sexual abuse.

  7. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. PMID:20971410

  8. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    HeleddHart

    2012-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evide...

  9. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  10. Child sexual abuse research knowledge among child abuse professionals and laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisoli, Cátula; Herman, Steve; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) Assess child abuse professionals' and nonprofessionals' knowledge of scientific research findings that are relevant to forensic child sexual abuse (CSA) evaluations and (2) describe associations between child abuse professionals' levels of research knowledge and their education and experience. An 18-item multiple-choice test was administered to 188 child abuse professionals and 457 nonprofessionals (undergraduate college students) in Brazil and the United States. The nonprofessionals' average percent correct, M=44%, was not significantly different than what would be expected for random guessing (45%). The professionals' average percent correct, M=55%, was higher than that of nonprofessionals and random guessing (both ps<.001). The average percent correct score for the US-sample psychologists, M=76%, was higher than the average score of the other professionals, M=51%, p<.001. Professionals' educational level, as measured by the highest academic degree obtained, was positively associated with percent correct scores, Spearman's ?=.46, p<.001. Controlling for educational attainment, professional experience, as measured by the total number of CSA evaluations performed, was weakly associated with percent correct scores, partial r=.15, p=.04. Percent correct scores were low for both nonprofessionals and professionals. Most of the participants in this study were uninformed or misinformed about scientific research findings that are important for conducting optimal forensic CSA evaluations and for making accurate judgments about the validity of sexual abuse allegations. PMID:25192960

  11. [Clinical ethic dilemmas and difficulties in reporting child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Yi; Chiang, Wan-Lin; Su, Yi-Fei; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2012-08-01

    The number of reported cases of child abuse has been rising steadily in Taiwan. Although child abuse reporting is mandatory for healthcare professionals, Taiwan-specific social norms and traditional cultural values make the decision to report such abuse more complex and difficult. We used Jonsen's four topics method to examine a suspected case of child abuse and to analyze its associated dilemmas and ethical difficulties. We then discussed the identified conflicts among the three aspects of cultural values, legal obligations, and personal values. Findings indicate that healthcare professionals experience dilemmas among these three aspects. Reporting suspected child abuse appears the best resolution after considering and balancing the principles of non-malfeasance, beneficence, fidelity and follow-up care. Once reported, resources can be provided to the affected child and his ÷ her family. This case analysis provides a reference for healthcare professionals to deal with child abuse cases. PMID:22851401

  12. Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…

  13. Child sexual abuse: prevalence, effects and school based prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Ay?e Rezan Çeçen

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a complex and serious phenomenon that causes short and long term debilitating effects on individuals and their quality of life and life satisfaction. Last three decades child sexual abuse (prevalence, effects and prevention methods) has been very important multidisciplinary topic in academic field in North American developed countries but In our country, Turkey there are not sufficient studies related to prevalence, effects and prevention of child sexual abuse. In this s...

  14. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  15. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change. PMID:25381277

  16. The Child Abusing Family: II. Child and Child-Rearing Variables, Environmental Factors and Typologies of Abusing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Audrey M.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics such as prematurity, illegitimacy, handicaps, or behavior deviations have been found with high frequency in abused children. Aggressive/coercive behavior may be typical of child rearing techniques in abusing families who tend to be socially isolated and experience environmental stress. Investigators must interpret such factors with…

  17. A cognitive approach to child abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Ellerson, Patricia Crane; Lin, Eta K; Rainey, Bonnie; Kokotovic, Anna; O'Hara, Nathan

    2002-09-01

    This investigation tested the incremental utility of cognitive retraining as a component within a program designed to prevent child maltreatment. High-risk families (N = 96) were randomly assigned to a control condition, home visitation modeled after the Healthy Start program (unenhanced home visitation), or home visitation that included a cognitive component (enhanced home visitation). Mothers were identified late during pregnancy or soon after birth, and their participation continued for 1 year. Lower levels of harsh parenting were found among mothers in the enhanced home visitation condition than among those in the unenhanced home visitation or control conditions. Prevalence of physical abuse (percentage of mothers who were abusive) during the first year was 26% in the control condition, 23% in the unenhanced home visitation condition, and 4% in the enhanced home visitation condition. Benefits were greatest in families that included a medically at-risk child. A linear pattern of benefits was found for child health; as program features were added, benefits for child health increased. PMID:12238408

  18. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do when children are at risk. Includes frequently asked questions and links to related Federal and national organizations and State ... or Neglect Find Help With a Personal Situation Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Link to Child Welfare Information Gateway Disclaimer and Policies ...

  19. [Organ donation after brain death due to child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Villar-Guerra, Pablo; Rey Galán, Corsino; Vivanco Allende, Ana; Medina Villanueva, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    More than 40 percent of deaths from child abuse occur among children younger than 5 years. The injury pattern in child abuse is block abuse head trauma which in the most severe cases produces brain death. Organ donation is uncommon in children younger than five years. We describe two cases of child abuse that caused brain death; subsequently they were subsidiary for organ donation. It is very important to establish a good coordination between health, social care and legal assistance teams to obtain organ donation. PMID:25622174

  20. Risk and Protection in the Perpetration of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Michelle Hughes and her colleagues provide a comprehensive and accurate summary of the literature on predictors of child abuse in this issue of the North Carolina Medical Journal.1 Their review is organized in layers that conform to an ecological model of the factors that lead someone to engage in abuse or neglect of a child. The factors are further organized into risk factors (those that increase the likelihood of abuse) and protective factors (those that buffer a parent from engaging in abu...

  1. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeleddHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary co-morbid conditions.

  2. Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezer Ayan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and high according to the socio-economical and cultural levels of the neighborhoods they were located in, and total fifteen schools were selected, three from each area, with characteristics suitable to represent the respective areas. Number of students included in the sample from these schools is 655. Study data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of items directed at determining the socio-demographic characteristics of the students, structures of families, quality of family relationships and presence or absence family violence against the child and relations and factors that might create the potential for violence.Findings: Proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their mothers was found as 54%, and proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their fathers was found as 46%. According to results of the regression analysis performed separately for mothers and fathers with the purpose of finding the variables with the greatest effect on being treated with violence of children by their parents and the level of effect of these variables, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their mothers were educational status of the mother, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the mother against the child, respectively.According to the results of the logistic regression analysis performed in relation with students’ experiences of violence from their fathers (Table 109, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their fathers were gender of the student, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the father against the child, respectively.

  3. Child physical punishment, injury and abuse (part two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Dianne; Cousins, Judy

    2005-09-01

    This is the second paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. Paper one concentrated on the extent of child physical punishment, injuries sustained and the relationship between macrotheoretical factors. It highlighted a continuum between child physical discipline, injuries and child physical abuse. Paper two introduces the reader to microtheoretical factors that contribute to child physical punishment and its relationship with child physical injuries and abuse. The focus is on parental and child influences, lifestyle factors and socialisation of parents. It will integrate macrotheroretical factors highlighted in paper one and microtheroretical factors presented in this paper into a framework for the prevention of child physical injury and abuse based on an ecological model. PMID:16187665

  4. The Impact of Learning About Child Abuse Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Many counselors attend graduate courses and seminars on the treatment of child abuse and neglect. Educators and trainers need to focus on the feelings and reactions elicited from exposure to the content of these courses. This article provides information on the impact of learning about the trauma of child abuse. (Author)

  5. Child Sexual Abuse: Offenders, Disclosure, and School-Based Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldman, Jonathan P.; Crespi, Tony D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristics of the child sexual offender and the devastating impact of sexual abuse on children. It discusses the importance of a child's disclosure of victimization and its significance in the treatment process. Recommendations are presented on ways to improve school-based sexual abuse programs since they are in a…

  6. Bullying in Schools: A Form of Child Abuse in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluedse, Oyaziwo

    2006-01-01

    Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its prevalence,…

  7. Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

  8. School Counselors and Child Abuse Reporting: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…

  9. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  10. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  11. Planning, Funding, and Implementing a Child Abuse Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Rebekah L.; Moore, Douglas J.; Schaerfl, Caroline A.

    Preventing child abuse is an endeavor that requires equal parts of caring, optimism, and pragmatism. Drawing on the experiences of more than 100 child abuse prevention projects, this field-tested manual integrates the abstract principles of program development and prevention with the real world experiences and challenges faced by prevention…

  12. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse in Shelby County, Tennessee: A New Epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muram, David; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated child sexual abuse statistics since introduction of a child sexual abuse program in 1985 in Shelby County, Tennessee. Findings suggest a highly fluctuating validation rate, higher validation rates for girls than boys, possible underreporting of male victims, and 78 percent of the perpetrators being known to their victims.…

  14. Increasing medical burden of child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A.; Sunderland, R.

    1988-01-01

    During the decade January 1976 to December 1985, as a result of increased public awareness, the numbers of reported (but not proved) cases of abuse to children living in South Birmingham increased thirty-fold; the incidence of detected and proved cases of abuse increased fourfold. The increase was principally due to bruises, scalds, and neglect. The numbers of serious fractures and brain injuries did not increase. The first case of sexual abuse was reported in 1981 and this was followed by a ...

  15. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  16. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  17. The New Untouchables: Risk Management of Child Abuse in Child Care--Policies and Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jim; Reynolds, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    Suggests procedures that should be established by child care centers pertaining to child abuse or suspected child abuse. Includes policy regarding reporting; response by staff to allegations; physical discipline; joking about or threatening punishment or abuse; physical restraint; follow-up to reports; aid to injured children; personnel screening;…

  18. Abdominal injury due to child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter M; Norton, Catherine M; Dunstan, Frank D; Kemp, Alison M; Yates, David W; Sibert, Jonathan R

    Diagnosis of abuse in children with internal abdominal injury is difficult because of limited published work. We aimed to ascertain the incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse in children age 0-14 years. 20 children (identified via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit) had abdominal injuries due to abuse and 164 (identified via the Trauma Audit and Research Network) had injuries to the abdomen due to accident (112 by road-traffic accidents, 52 by falls). 16 abused children were younger than 5 years. Incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse was 2.33 cases per million children per year (95% CI 1.43-3.78) in children younger than 5 years. Six abused children died. 11 abused children had an injury to the gut (ten small bowel) compared with five (all age >5 years) who were injured by a fall (relative risk 5.72 [95% CI 2.27-14.4]; p=0.0002). We have shown that small-bowel injuries can arise accidentally as a result of falls and road-traffic accidents but they are significantly more common in abused children. Therefore, injuries to the small bowel in young children need special consideration, particularly if a minor fall is the explanation. PMID:16023514

  19. Treatment of child abuse: a review of the behavioral interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse....

  20. About the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA): A Legislative History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect Screening & Assessment in Child Protection Differential Response in Child Protective Services Child Protection Casework Practice Responding to Child Fatalities and Near ...

  1. Preventing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Guidance for School Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Cindy

    This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…

  2. The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

  3. Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Prof Sidhartha B.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc.) with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse o...

  4. Verbal Abuse on Children: Does It Amount to Child Abuse under the Malaysian Law?

    OpenAIRE

    Che Hasniza Che Noh; Wan Izatul Asma Wan Talaat

    2012-01-01

    Children form an essential component of a society. The role of children has been acknowledged key to the survival, development as well as prosperity of that society. A child’s development stage is the most crucial and warrants serious attention from parents and teachers in order to assure their growth into mature adults, who are able to contribute to the society. One of the factors that may hamper their growth is child abuse. There are basically five main forms of child abuse known to take ...

  5. A social work study on family patterns and child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between different family characteristics and child abuse in city of Jarghooye located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 50 people and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, family educational background and family size on child abuse. The results indicate that while there were some meaningful relationships between family income and family educational background, there was not any statistical evidence to believe on such relationship between family size and child abuse.

  6. A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April

    2008-01-01

    The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

  7. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  8. Child Abuse: Group Treatment for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Mary L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the benefits of group counseling for abusing parents. Suggests that groups structured to maximize peer support and reduce social isolation provide a context in which parents can make changes in cognition and behavior. (Author/JAC)

  9. Child sexual abuse, attachment style, and depression: the role of the characteristics of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. PMID:24958133

  10. Child Sexual Abuse: Fracturing Family Life

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Research has shown that childhood sexual abuse can have damaging long-term effects on family life and relationships. Some effects have been widely recognised such as feelings of betrayal and confusion when fathers abuse, or bitterness at mothers who cannot protect. A new qualitative research study with a group of women survivors in Edinburgh, recruited because of their contact with mental health services, has found wide-ranging and subtle effects on family life that endure over the lifecourse...

  11. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  12. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Juhani Merikanto; Anne Leena Marika Kauppi; Kari Karkola; Tuija Vanamo

    2012-01-01

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the vict...

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  14. Child Abuse in the Family: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shojaeizadeh

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of child abuse in the world is 47 per 1000. According to the Child Protective Service agency (CPS more than 3 million children were abused in the USA in 1998. There was 1.7% increase in comparison with 1996. The prevalence of child abuse in the USA is 15 per 1000. A crosssectional study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, and influential factors on child abuse among families in Tehran. A sample of 420 students was selected from secondary school girls in Tehran in 1999. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and the collected data were analysed through statistical tests such as X2 and other forms of descriptive tests. The findings of research showed that in terms of abnormal (unexpectedly bad behaviour, 28% of the sample were faced quarrelsome and bitted by their fathers. The mothers' reactions for similar behaviour were more or less the same: 34.9% quarrelsome and 7% bitting. Child abuse, physically and emotionally, has had significant relation with socioeconomic status of families as well as having interaction with mentally ill or addicted person(s among families. Mothers' employment, religious beliefs, and parents' educational attainments also demonstrated significant relations with child abuse. A statistically significant relationship has also been found between mothers' employment, addicted or mentally ill person among family members, and doubtful child sexual abuse.To prevent child abuse the following actions should be taken: Education of parents about children rights and how to treat their children. Establishment of centers to protect the children at risk. Education of young couples to take more reponsibility of having children.

  15. Physical child abuse: A comprehensive family based approach to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Physical abuse within the family may be conceptualized as the outcome of a complex process in which a child with particular characteristics which rendered him or her vulnerable to abuse, is injured by a parent involved in an ongoing problematic behaviour pattern, subserved by particular belief systems and constrained by historical, contextual and constitutional predisposing factors. When families are referred by statutory child protection agencies to therapy services for treatment...

  16. A social work study on family patterns and child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani; Hossein Ebrahimzadeh Asmin; Shahram Basity; Seyed Mohsen Khalifeh Soltani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a social work study on relationship between different family characteristics and child abuse in city of Jarghooye located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 50 people and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, family educational background and family size on child abuse. The results indicate that while there were some meaningful relationships between family income and family educational ...

  17. 28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2...reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required...

  18. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mahroos Fadheela; Al-Amer Eshraq

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Design and Setting: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care fac...

  19. The Effect of Severe Child Sexual Abuse and Disclosure on Mental Health during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who…

  20. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  1. The Admissibility of Evidence in Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothard, Sol

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the liberalization of rules of evidence in child sexual abuse cases in order to protect the child victims and benefit families. Some states have enacted legislation simplifying introduction of the child's out-of-court statements, although constitutionality has yet to be tested. (Author/NH)

  2. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934

  3. Síndrome del maltrato infantil / Child abuse syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys, Fernández Couse; Jesús, Perea Corral.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El síndrome del maltrato infantil (SMI) es un importante problema de salud de carácter universal, que resulta de una compleja interacción de los factores de riesgo del individuo, la familia y la sociedad. Su identificación es un verdadero reto para el médico, pues la historia clínica recogida es muc [...] has veces inexacta, engañosa, los hallazgos al examen físico son en muchas ocasiones inespecíficos y los médicos, la mayoría, no lo incluyen en su diagnóstico diferencial. Por todo lo señalado los médicos deben afrontar la disyuntiva de diferenciar entre lesiones intencionales y no intencionales (también llamado por algunos "accidentes") y tomar una decisión operativa en beneficio de la salud del niño. El objetivo de esta revisión consiste en actualizar los conocimientos del SMI, especialmente: su definición, clasificaciones, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas y el manejo integral. Abstract in english The child abuse syndrome (CAS) is an important world health problem resulting from a complex interaction of the risk factors of the individual, the family and the society. Its identification is a real challenge for physicians, since the medical history is many times inaccurate and deceptive, and the [...] physical examination is frequently unspecific and most of the physicians do not include it in their differential diagnosis. Therefore, physicians should make a difference between intentional and unintentional injuries (called "accidents" by some) and to make an operative decision that benefits the child's health. The objective of this review is to update the knowldege about CAS, specially, its definition, staging, physiopathology, clinical manifestations and comprehensive management.

  4. Occurrence of Child and Adolescent Abuse in Caruaru-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the occurrence of child and adolescent abuse referred to Caruaru Tutelary Council between 2002 and 2004. Method: To this end, data on the complaints lodged in the period concerned was requested from the Tutelary Council. Results: From a total of 798 cases reported the most common was neglect (49.24% followed by psychological violence (28.94%. Physical and sexual abuse represented 17.6% and 4.66% of the total of the sample, respectively. As to sex, males represented 55.3% of the cases reported. Conclusion: According to literature, lesions are most frequent on the orofacial area. The awareness of such a piece of information makes a high demand for dental surgeons´ ethical and legal responsibility. Besides reporting suspect child abuse to authorities, there is now a call for creating protective mechanisms for the abused in addition to preventive educational campaigns with focus on the need for denouncing and avoiding all kinds of maltreatment.

  5. Child abuse: A classic case report with literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kemoli, Arthur M.; Mavindu, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious global problems and can be in the form of physical, sexual, emotional or just neglect in providing for the child's needs. These factors can leave the child with serious, long-lasting psychological damage. In the present case report, a 12-year-old orphaned boy was physically abused by a close relative who caused actual bodily and emotional trauma to the boy. After satisfactorily managing the trauma and emotional effects to the patient, in addition to the cou...

  6. Is the Diagnosis of Physical Abuse Changed when Child Protective Services Consults a Child Abuse Pediatrics Subspecialty Group as a Second Opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  8. Prosecuting Child Sexual Abuse: The Importance of Evidence Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Jones, Lisa M.; Cross, Theodore P.; Lippert, Tonya

    2010-01-01

    Corroborating evidence has been associated with a decrease in children's distress during the court process, yet few studies have empirically examined the impact of evidence type on prosecution rates. This study examined the types of evidence and whether charges were filed in a sample of child sexual abuse cases (n = 329). Cases with a child

  9. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  10. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  11. Child Abuse and Neglect: Training Needs of Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiple-choice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting;…

  12. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Merikanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12% were caused by child battering and 13 (7% by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent and often substance dependence (31%. None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.

  13. Prevalence and demographic distribution of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Honami; Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamura, Kunio

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with a national epidemiological survey to investigate the prevalence and demographic distribution of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure the history of child abuse and the demographic characteristics. The participants reported the following 4 types of child abuse: physical abuse (3%), sexual abuse (0.6%), neglect (0.8%), and psychological abuse (4%). Significant unequal distribution of child abuse was found to be associated with sex, living region, marital status, job status, and educational status. We determined the prevalence of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan and found that their demographic characteristics were unequally distributed. Policy makers and public health providers should take these demographic disparities into account in considering effective public health interventions for survivors of child abuse. PMID:23687257

  14. Community characteristics, conservative ideology, and child abuse rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Rebekah J; MacPhee, David

    2015-03-01

    Authoritarian ideology, including religious conservativism, endorses obedience to authority and physical punishment of children. Although this association has been studied at the level of the family, little research has been conducted on whether conservativism in the broader community context correlates with the mistreatment of children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this relation between conservativism and physical punishment of children extends to child abuse rates at the community level. Predictors included county-level religious and political conservativism and demographic variables. Political and religious conservativism covaried, and both were inversely related to child abuse rates. Population density was strongly related to rates of maltreatment and with demographic factors controlled, religious conservativism but not political conservativism continued to predict rates of child abuse. The results suggest that community factors related to social disorganization may be more important than religious or political affiliation in putting children at risk for maltreatment. PMID:25524270

  15. A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice. Child Abuse and Neglect User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jill; Salus, Marsha K.; Wolcott, Deborah; Kennedy, Kristie Y.

    Child abuse and neglect is a community concern. Each community has a legal and moral obligation to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, which includes responding effectively to child maltreatment. At the State and local levels, professionals assume various roles and responsibilities ranging from prevention, identification,…

  16. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Anne Leena Marika; Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-07-26

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child's behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent's life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105

  17. Origins and consequences of child neglect in substance abuse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marija G; Tarter, Ralph E; Mezzich, Ada C; Vanyukov, Michael; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina

    2002-09-01

    The empirical literature pertaining to the prevalence, origins, and consequences of neglectful parenting as it relates to substance abuse is critically reviewed. Available evidence indicates that children who experience parental neglect, with or without parental alcohol or drug abuse, are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD). The effects of parental substance abuse on substance abuse outcome of their children appear to be partly mediated by their neglectful parenting. The discussion concludes with presentation of a developmental multifactorial model in which neglect, in conjunction with other individual and environmental factors, can be integratively investigated to quantify the child's overall liability across successive stages of development as well as to map the trajectory toward good and poor outcomes. PMID:12238246

  18. Adult Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B

    2014-06-01

    Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400

  19. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376

  20. Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Prakash Balkrishna; Mulmule, Akshata Nandu

    2013-01-01

    We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and “protection of children from sexual offences act” 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences ...

  1. Culturally based interventions for substance use and child abuse among native Hawaiians.

    OpenAIRE

    Mokuau, Noreen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of child abuse among culturally diverse populations in Hawaii, substance use among culturally diverse students in Hawaii, and culturally based interventions for preventing child abuse and substance abuse in Native Hawaiian families. OBSERVATIONS: Native Hawaiians accounted for the largest number of cases of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii between 1996 and 1998. Alcohol and other drugs have increasingly been linked with child maltreatment. Native ...

  2. Is Dental Neglect a Child Abuse? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpalatha C.; Tammannavar, Praveen S.; Anand Nimbal; Shrenik Jain

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect (maltreatment) is a widespread problem that permeates all ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic segments of our society. All health professionals are legally mandated to report suspected cases of child maltreatment to the proper authorities, consistent with the laws of the jurisdiction in which they practice. But dentists, as a group, have been fairly inactive participants in recognizing and reporting child maltreatment when compared to other health professionals. Dental...

  3. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  4. Are Teachers Prepared? Predictors of Teachers' Readiness to Serve as Mandated Reporters of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greytak, Emily A.

    2009-01-01

    The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (1974) requires that states receiving U.S. federal funds directed at child abuse implement mandated reporting laws. As a result, all states have adopted legislation requiring teachers and other professionals who deal with children to report suspicions of child abuse. The federal mandate for such…

  5. Information on Child Abuse: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy

    The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…

  6. Schools and Child Abuse: A National Survey of Principals' Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nicole; And Others

    A national survey assessed principals' attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning child abuse and its prevention. Of particular interest were principals': (1) attitudes concerning the amount and quality of child abuse education in schools; (2) responses to suspected cases of child abuse and neglect; (3) perceptions of possible barriers to…

  7. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Alison M.; Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D. Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R.; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types.

  8. Exploring Taboos: Comparing Male- and Female-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…

  9. Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Sidhartha B. Sawant

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome, indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc. with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse of children is one of the most heinous crimes imaginable.

  10. MIHAELA PU?CA?, Child Abuse. Forms, Motivation, Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE FLORIAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass-media frequently bring before the public cases in which parents abuse their own children. Each time the reactions of citizens are intense and unanimous:anger, revolt, requests for extreme punishment, the right to complain against aggressive behavior occurring in their vicinity. Modern research on family revealed a world loaded with tensions and conflicts in which abuse is often presented disguised as love for children and the wish to provide a good education. This article approaches the psychological aspects of the various forms of child abuse, as these are treated in the specialized literature, trying to offer answers to legitimate questions: are these isolated cases or are we dealing with a real phenomenon; how spread is this phenomenon; do people today love their children less than before; is there a social environment which favors such behavior; how can abuse situations which are spread over years be explained; which are the visible signs that a child is being abused by his/her parents; what are the consequences on the development of personality; are there statistics for a larger period of time to help knowing whether the phenomenon is increasing or decreasing?

  11. Role of Natural Helpers in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Julius R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines social isolation and the use of informal helping networks of families (N=130) at risk for child abuse or neglect. Preventive service workers' (N=13) responses to a natural helper survey revealed that friends, relatives, and neighbors are potential helpers for such families and are effective in resolving problems they address. (NRB)

  12. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…

  15. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  16. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...

  17. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  18. The Price of Privacy in the Social Dynamics of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1977-01-01

    Discusses patterns of child abuse, the role of privacy, and the dangers of family isolation which permits child abuse when stress and parental instability are present. Decries trend away from "instrusive kinship and neighborhood networks," and calls for support for abuse-monitoring systems. (BF)

  19. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  20. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  1. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  2. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  3. Child Abuse Prevention: A Job Half Done. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This brief discusses the findings of the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment (NIS 4), which reports a significant reduction in the overall rate of child maltreatment since the 1993 NIS. The study reflects substantial drops in the rates of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse. However, no significant changes…

  4. The Ability of Elementary School Children to Learn Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutty, Leslie M.

    1992-01-01

    This evaluation of a child abuse prevention program with 200 children (Grades K, 1, 3, and 6) 5 months after a child abuse prevention program found participating children scored significantly higher on the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire than did controls. Age was a critical factor. All participants maintained their level of knowledge…

  5. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  6. Protective Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment and Child Abuse Injury in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Yang, Hye Lin; Yoo, Changgeun; Yoo, Jieun; Jang, Ja Kyung

    2014-11-11

    Previous findings on the relationship between neighborhood informal social control and child abuse have been mixed. We implemented a scale created by Emery, Trung, and Wu to study protective informal social control of child maltreatment (ISC_CM) by neighbors in a three-stage random cluster sample of 541 families in Seoul, South Korea. Random-effects regression models found that protective ISC_CM significantly moderated the relationship between very severe abuse and child injuries. Very severe abuse was associated with fewer injuries when levels of protective ISC_CM were higher. Implications are discussed. PMID:25392376

  7. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  8. The notion and consequences of emotional abuse of a child in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojev Nadežda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the notion of emotional abuse of a child in the family as one of the most serious forms of family pathology. Emotional abuse is defined as parent’s or guardian’s acting or non acting, such as rejection insult, isolation, terror, verbal attack etc. that might cause serious and permanent disorders in child’s emotional development. Due to that, very complicated consequences of this serious form of abuse are particularly analyzed. In this paper, the author is standing up for the opinion that sexual and physical abuse are always in connection with the emotional, while emotional abuse could appear as a separate phenomenon.

  9. The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: Dreaming of Child Safe Organisations?

    OpenAIRE

    William Budiselik; Frances Crawford; Donna Chung

    2014-01-01

    On 12 November 2012 the then Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard announced she was recommending to the Governor General the establishment of a Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Following inquiries in Australia and elsewhere much is already known about institutional and inter-institutional child protection failures and what is required to address them. That Australia’s national government has pursued another abuse inquiry with terms of reference limited...

  10. Child abuse: perception and management of the Brazilian endodontists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Maris Losso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, dentists have a legal, moral, and ethical obligation to notify competent authorities of suspected cases of maltreatment. Studies conducted in several countries reported the difficulties of dentists in the diagnosis, documentation, and reporting of suspected abuse cases to authorities. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the perception, diagnosis and attitudes of Brazilian endodontists towards child abuse. Material and methods: Data were collected from 56 questionnaires, considering a total of 248 sent by mail (response rate = 23% to the endodontists (female = 73%. Results: Forty-one percent (n = 23 of the professionals answered that they were able to identify cases of abuse, while 59% (n = 33 answered that they were unable. Considering their graduation years, 93% (n = 52 stated that they had received little information on this issue, and only 5% (n = 3 attended seminars on this subject during the year before the questionnaire’s application. Although 61% (n = 34 of the professionals affirmed that suspicious cases must be reported, only 30% (n = 17 knew to whom. Eighteen percent (n = 10 of the endodontists reported they had already treated suspicious cases, although only 3.5% (n = 2 reported the case to the authorities. The most cited signs of abuse were: body bruises (48%; n = 27, change in behavior (48%; n = 27 and burn marks (12.5%; n = 7. Lesions presented in the face, mouth, and teeth were reported by 27% (n = 15 of the professionals. There were no statistically differences regarding the number of notifications in relation to either the number of years since graduation or the workplace. Conclusion: It was concluded that it is necessary to improve endodontists’ formation concerning to child abuse identification, in order to modify their behavior, therefore, increasing the number of suspicious cases’ notifications.

  11. Child Abuse: Knowledge and Attitudes Among Pedodontics in Uberlandia e Araguari, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Fernandes SANTOS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify from pediatric dentistry educational experiences and knowledge concerning child abuse/neglect, numbers of suspected cases of child abuse and knowledge of local child protection. Method: A survey with 26 pedodontics in Araguari and Uberlandia (Minas Gerais, Brazil was done and they were sent a postal questionnaire, 17 responded, giving a 65.4 percent response rate. The survey requested demographic details, responses to possible physical abuse or neglect, and details of suspected child abuse reporting behavior. Results: In their working lives 52.9 percent said that they had seen a suspicious child physical abuse case; however, only 14.3 percent had reported a suspicious case to the authorities. Twenty-nine percent of dentists did not know their legal responsibility concerning reporting child abuse; and 61 percent did know where to report child abuse. Conclusion: Due to lack of training, most practitioners were unsure what to do in the event of a suspicion of child abuse. There is need for continuing education of dentistry practitioners regarding symptoms and signs of physical abuse and the role of dental team in the multidisciplinary management of child abuse. Dental curricula should be revisited to ensure that students are adequately prepared for this professional task.

  12. Child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-mahroos, Fadheela T.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To provide an overview of the problem and patterns of child abuse and neglect in the 7 countries of the Arab Peninsula, and to highlight some of the difficulties and shortcomings. METHODS This study was conducted by reviewing medical literature, published between January 1987 and May 2005. In addition, reports were obtained from regional meetings and professional organizations. Each study or report was reviewed, assessed, and summarized. RESULTS Three studies from Ku...

  13. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  14. The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Rosana Norman and colleagues conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes.

  15. Child abuse and its legislation: the global picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutland, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    Amid the high income nations the first recognisable child abuse society was founded in the late 19th century in North America, but it was a century before the first global rights-based legislation in the form of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) came into play. In isolation, international legislation is insufficient to protect children but becoming party to international law sends a clear signal to the community and stakeholders that a country is committed to ensuring child protection. Incorporating and implementing the UNCRC and other child protection based legislation on a global scale is not without difficulty and there are many obstacles to fulfilling its principles and monitoring its progress. The author reviews the global pandemic of violence against children and provides an overview of the legislation that has evolved over the last century in response to it. The author also seeks to examine some of the practical difficulties and limitations in implementing global child abuse legislation with reference to three important areas: the prohibition of violence, professional capacity enhancement, and data collection and research. The role of the paediatrician is also discussed in applying a rights-based approach to promoting global child protection. PMID:22563035

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Child Abuse Training on the Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills of Police Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, George T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of mandatory child abuse training on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward abused children and abusive parents among a sample of police recruits. An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in which 81 participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and 101 to…

  17. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  18. The Impact of Sexual Abuse Committed by a Child on Mental Health in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Tellez, Alexandra; Wevodau, Amy; Woods, Carol L; Percosky, Amy

    2014-01-23

    Numerous research studies document the negative mental health outcomes associated with the experience of childhood sexual abuse. In addition, factors such as one's relationship with the perpetrator and the severity of the abuse predict the likelihood of future mental health problems. Less attention, however, has focused on the age of the perpetrator, and recent years have seen an increased interest in children who display sexual behavior problems. College students completed measures of mental health functioning and retrospective reports of maltreatment histories. Participants were categorized as abused by an adult (n = 48), teenager (n = 39), or another child (n = 37), and non-abused (n = 219). Victims of abuse, regardless of perpetrator age, displayed higher levels of mental health problems than non-abused participants. There were no differences between the abused groups on any of the mental health outcomes; however, individuals who were abused by other children were less likely to label their experiences as abuse. PMID:24457220

  19. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mahroos Fadheela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Design and Setting: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. Patients and Methods: The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. Results: The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years; 222 were males (50.5% and 218 were females (49.5%. There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5% were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. Conclusion: During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.

  20. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship Between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. The current analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ) which are hypoth...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  2. Dissociation as a Mediator of Child Abuse across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Byron; Susman-Stillman, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Eleven mothers who were abused and maltreated their children were compared to 10 mothers who broke the cycle of abuse. The abusing mothers were rated higher on idealization, inconsistency, and escapism in their description of their childhood, and they scored higher on the Dissociative Experience Scale than the comparison mothers. (DB)

  3. Facing suspected child abuse – what keeps Swedish general practitioners from reporting to child protective services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of suspected child abuse among Swedish general practitioners (GPs), and to investigate factors influencing them in their decision whether or not to report to child protective services (CPS). Design. A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Setting. Primary health care centres in western Sweden. Subjects. 177 GPs and GP trainees. Main outcome measures. Demographic and educational background, education on child abuse, attitudes to reporting and CPS, previous experience of reporting suspected child abuse, and need of support. Results. Despite mandatory reporting, 20% of all physicians had at some point suspected but not reported child abuse. Main reasons for non-reporting were uncertainty about the suspicion and use of alternative strategies; for instance, referral to other health care providers or follow-up of the family by the treating physician. Only 30% of all physicians trusted CPS's methods of investigating and acting in cases of suspected child abuse, and 44% of all physicians would have wanted access to expert consultation. There were no differences in the failure to report suspected child abuse that could be attributed to GP characteristics. However, GPs educated abroad reported less frequently to CPS than GPs educated in Sweden. Conclusions. This study showed that GPs see a need for support from experts and that the communication and cooperation between GPs and CPS needs to be improved. The low frequency of reporting indicates a need for continued education of GPs and for updated guidelines including practical advice on how to manage child abuse. PMID:25676563

  4. A proposal for a foster grandmother intervention program to prevent child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Neergaard, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of child abuse and neglect is epidemic. Many abused children have sustained lifelong injuries. Often they become perpetrators of abuse, continuing the cycle into future generations. Studies have indicated that mothers who are likely to abuse their children can be identified by a predictive method during the prenatal and postpartum periods. Pilot studies have indicated that mothers who are identified by the method and who receive early intervention, consisting of home visits by r...

  5. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program: Impact in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Anne; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of home visiting in preventing child abuse and neglect in the first 3 years of life in families identified as at-risk of child abuse through population-based screening at the child's birth. Methods: This experimental study focused on Hawaii Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based…

  6. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  7. Two Tragic Forms of Child Sexual Abuse: Are They Often Overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis

    2002-01-01

    The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child

  8. CHILD ABUSE IN INDIA A SOCIAL PROBLEM : A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON CHILD LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar Basappa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child labour coupled with child abuse has today become one of the greatest maladies that have spread across the world. Each year statistics show increasing numbers of child abuse, more so in the case of the girl child. When a girl is probably abused by someone at home, to hide this fact she is sold to an employer from a city as domestic help, or then as a bride to an old man. Though eradicating the menace seems like a difficult and nearly impossible task, immense efforts have to be made in this direction. The first step would be to become aware of the causes of child labour. The leading reason is that children are employed because they are easier to exploit. On the other hand, people sell their children as commodities to exploitive employers to have additional sources of income

  9. Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... privately or commercially • Members of a child fatality review team or the multidisciplinary child protection team https://www. ... or assessing the report, or to a multidisciplinary team • Under ... fatality review panel established by § 620.055 https://www.childwelfare. ...

  10. Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS. Beyond its devastating effects on individual health, methamphetamine abuse threatens whole communities, causing new waves of crime, unemployment, child neglect or abuse, and other social ills. A ...

  11. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu?ba AYAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

  13. "It's Going to Stop in This Generation": Women with a History of Child Abuse Resolving to Raise Their Children without Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sioux

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…

  14. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  15. Inhalant abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Baydala, L.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic...

  16. Exploring the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica: addressing the deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms, Kimika M; Cholewa, Blaire E

    2014-01-01

    Jamaican media sources have recently noted the prevalence of child sexual abuse within the country. While research has continually noted the mental health impact of child sexual abuse, there is a dearth of literature on the relationship between the two in Jamaica. The purpose of this article is to provide the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica, including the cultural considerations, current legislation, government created agencies, and modes of treatment. Moreover, recommendations are given for public health educators, school personnel, and mental health service providers in order to improve the psychological well-being of sexually abuse children. PMID:24512432

  17. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  18. Is Child Sexual Abuse Declining in Canada? An Analysis of Child Welfare Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Helie, Sonia; Trocme, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Canadian victimization surveys and police databases suggest that, overall, no decline in sexual crimes in Canada had occurred lately. We aimed at reviewing the existing data from Canadian child protection services to further explore whether a decline in the number of substantiated child sexual abuse (CSA) cases has occurred during the…

  19. Child Abuse, Child Protection, and Defensive "Touch" in PE Teaching and Sports Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…

  20. Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo

    Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate. If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family. In Southern Denmark approximately 40 children pr. year are examined in four different radiology departments. Until the autumn of 2012 different projections and imaging techniques were used for the skeletal surveys. This proposed difficulties, because all images are subject to second opinion statements. In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University Hospital. A follow-up meeting was arranged in Sept. 2013. The meeting focused on follow-up skeletal surveys in children < 2 years of age Results. Images are acquired at low noise levels. Speed class 100 against normally 200 - 400 is sufficient, demanding higher radiation dose compared to common pediatric examinations. For children < 2 years, images are acquired systematically and consequently. If a follow-up skeletal survey is needed, images of the spine, head and pelvis are not repeated. No cases of unnecessary supplement images or reexaminations have occurred since autumn 2012 indicating successful implementation of the guidelines

  1. Case report : forensic anthropological assessment in a suspected case of child abuse from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Maryna

    2011-01-01

    Not many case reports of suspected child abuse as assessed solely on skeletal remains are available. Forensic anthropologists have intimate knowledge of normal skeletal anatomy, bone trauma and processes of healing of bone and may therefore be of help in suspected cases of child abuse. Patterns of trauma in juvenile skeletal remains which are suggestive of abuse include fractures in different phases of healing, multiple fractures, typical fractures on ribs and long bones and severe, complicat...

  2. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Manoochehr Mahram; Zahra Hoseinkhani; Saharnaz Nedjat; Ali Aflatouni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was s...

  3. Irish child sexual abuse victims attending a specialist centre

    OpenAIRE

    O Riordan, Beth; Carr, Alan; Turner, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    We profiled a cohort of CSA cases referred for assessment to a specialist child sexual abuse (CSA) centre in a national paediatric hospital in Ireland. Historical and clinical data were drawn from records of 171 cases. The majority of cases were referred by social workers following purposeful disclosure of CSA. Three quarters of the cases were female with a mean age of 9 years. They were from a wide spectrum of socioeconomic groups and many had suffered a range of family adversities. In most ...

  4. Cultural Factors in Decision-Making about Child Physical Abuse: Identifying Reporter Characteristics Influencing Reporting Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Pemberton, Joy R.; Terao, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined cultural factors that may influence child physical abuse reporting. Relevant cultural factors such as the respondents' ethnic identity and corporal punishment acceptability were investigated as proximal variables of ethnicity that affect child physical abuse reporting tendencies. Method: Participants consisted of 378…

  5. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  6. An ecological model of maternal substance abuse and child neglect: issues, analyses, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Scottye J; Wilke, Dina J

    2003-10-01

    This study examined an ecological model of maternal substance abuse and child neglect. Data are presented that identified an interplay among family history, interpersonal risk factors, current family functioning, and community networks in examinations of child neglect in a sample of substance-abusing women entering treatment. PMID:14609401

  7. Interpersonal difficulties mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of interpersonal functioning as a mediator in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms, after accounting for the influence of child physical abuse. The research questions build on the existing knowledge base by examining mechanisms of adult adjustment among child sexual abuse survivors. In the current study, 2,892 young adult women (18-29 years old; M = 19.06) reported on child sexual and physical abuse, 5 domains of interpersonal functioning, and depression symptoms. The results supported aggression, sensitivity, ambivalence, and lack of sociability as mediators in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms. These results suggest that interpersonal difficulties related to hostility, emotional reactivity, inability to collaborate, and isolation may be of particular interest when understanding depression in child sexual abuse survivors. The findings support interpersonal problems as a key mechanism of depression symptoms following child sexual abuse and is even demonstrated when examining long-term outcomes and controlling for child physical abuse. The hypotheses and findings are discussed in the context of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. PMID:25774421

  8. Long-Term Socioeconomic Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect greatly influence victims' long-term wellbeing. Until recently, however, little was known about how such experiences affect victims' later socioeconomic status. Current research has examined the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on adult employment, income, and reliance on public assistance, as well as the reasons…

  9. Modern History of Child Sexual Abuse Awareness: Cycles of Discovery and Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Erna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Over 150 years, public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse has emerged and been suppressed repeatedly. Research now indicates the prevalence of sexual abuse and its injurious impact on human development, but in the contemporary mental health professions, courts, and media, a backlash has emerged against the latest discovery of child

  10. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  11. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  13. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  14. Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

  15. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  16. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child

  17. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  18. Comprehensive Outcomes Planning: Strategies for a Non-Profit Child Abuse Prevention Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christina Olenik; Davis, Stephanie Rice

    This paper discusses the development of evaluation strategies for a nonprofit child abuse prevention agency in Maryland. The Family Tree, an organization associated with National Parents Anonymous and the National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse, serves more than 15,000 people per year through community training,…

  19. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-11-12

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (Mage = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. PMID:25395225

  20. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  1. Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…

  2. The Contested Terrain of Teachers Detecting and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Schweitzer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article establishes the important role of early childhood teachers in child abuse and neglect and argues for empirical research into their practice of detecting, and reporting, known or suspected child abuse and neglect in a State with new and unique reporting obligations for teachers. It emphasizes the practical value of such research for…

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Practical Guide for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem. Often professional school counselors (PSCs) express feelings of anxiety at the prospect of working with such cases. Indeed, one of educators' greatest fears is dealing with child abuse and neglect cases (Wilson, Ireton, & Wood, 1997). Rarely do ethical dilemmas confronting professional school…

  4. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether attachment theory as it is applied to child sexual abuse might be susceptible to biases that reflect the larger sociocultural context. Although this paper concludes that attachment theory can potentially add an important dimension to the conceptualization of child sexual abuse and its dynamics, it is also suggested that…

  6. Child sexual abuse: A comprehensive family based approach to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Narrow definitions of CSA which focus on repeated penetrative abuse yield prevalence rates of 2% and 4% for males and females respectively. Most abusers are male. About two thirds of all victims develop psychological symptoms and for a fifth these problems remain into adulthood. Children who have been sexually abused show a range of conduct and emotional problems coupled with oversexualized behaviour. Traumatic sexualization, stigmatization, betrayal and powerlessness are four ...

  7. Sexual Identity Group Differences in Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Alvy, Lisa M.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse, but little is known about potential within-group variations in experiences of abuse among sexual minority women. We investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse among women from five sexual identity groups. Our analyses used a pooled sample of women from a national probability study and a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed ...

  8. Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2014-07-01

    Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

  9. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  10. Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguard children from abuse, neglect and violence such as incest which has been criminalized by the Penal Code and the Domestic Violence Act which protects the child against violence within family. This Act was introduced to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the care, protection and rehabilitation of children. With the Act beforehand, numbers of child abuse cases are still alarming. Therefore, this article is an attempt to give an overview of care and protection provided under the Child Act 2001 towards children who are being the victims of abuse. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the extent of the protection and care given under the Act to safeguard the children in the social justice system in Malaysia. At the end of the paper some areas are identified for further improvement and future amendment.

  11. A criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group. PMID:24088813

  12. Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dastjerdi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

  13. Female offenders in child sexual abuse cases: a national picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David Axlyn

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual offenders are significantly underrepresented in the literature. Largely due to a failure of our society to recognize women as offenders, we allow them to avoid detection, prosecution, and interventions like tracking, registration, or mandated treatment. This could be partially due to differences that exist in their offending behaviors, victim profiles, and personal characteristics that set them apart from male offenders, to whom our systems have become more attuned. This article features an examination of virtually every substantiated child sexual abuse case reported to child protective services in the United States for 2010. Findings detail observed differences between male and female offenders on multiple domains and affirm female sexual offenders to be distinctly different from their male counterparts. PMID:25635900

  14. Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini PR

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying areas and gaps for further research and program development. Material and Methods: Published articles in scientific journals during the years 2007-2012 with free access and online versions of English newspapers (2007-2012 in India were searched using the search engines such as ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google’. The key words used were ‘child abuse in (on, about India. First two researchers independently reviewed the content of articles/newspaper reports and decided the categories emerging from the articles and reports. Later on, the quantification of these categories was done by identifying the number of times it was reported in the reports. Results: The nature and extent of reporting child abuse in scientific journal is different from that of newspapers. In Journals, our search provided us with 9 articles, of which prevalence studies were predominant (4 followed by case reports (3 and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice studies (2. The studies were mostly conducted in the hospital setting. We obtained 38 reports from newspapers. Child abuse was found more among girls. Among type of abuse, sexual abuse was more common (84.2%. About 52.6% of the abusers were members known to the victim. The maximum cases were reported from West India especially in Goa, followed by South region. Most reports reported legal action on accused. Little was reported on what happened to a victim, indicators of abuse and settings of the abuse. The motives and consequences of the abuses were not mentioned explicitly. Conclusions: The articles were more focused on prevalence of child abuse in hospital settings. As per newspaper reports, female child abuse (sexual abuse by a known person to family was reported more. It was found more in West part of India. Recommendations: More research/reporting is required to study the extent of problem in different settings of India, settings of abuse, quality of life of victims, parental/community education on indicators of abuse and development of support program to victim.

  15. Financial Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financial Abuse Elder financial abuse spans a broad spectrum of conduct, including: Taking money or property Forging an older person's signature Getting an ... false pretence, or dishonest acts or statements for financial gain Telemarketing scams. Perpetrators call victims and use ...

  16. Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Abuse Physical abuse is physical force or violence that results in bodily injury, pain, or impairment. ... or clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns ...

  17. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to ... influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse, however, is not fully understood. ...

  18. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (n=281). Over 60% of the sample reported a history of CSA and/or CPA. Results indicated significant differences in typography of substance abuse and dependence symptoms and rates of comorbid lifetime...

  19. Child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania : possibilities and barriers for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kisanga, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite beinga crime in most countries, and with well-known physical and mental health consequences, the majority of sexual offences are not reported. Child sexual abuse is a maltreatment form characterized by contact or non-contact acts perpetrated by adults or older children toward younger children who have little power to resist. This thesis aims to understand the social context of child sexualabuse, and the...

  20. Characteristic Features of Severe Child Physical Abuse-A Multi-informant Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Annerba?ck, Eva-maria; Svedin, Carl Go?ran; Gustafsson, Per

    2010-01-01

    Minor child physical abuse has decreased in Sweden since 1979, when a law banning corporal punishment of children was passed, but more serious forms have not decreased. The aim of this study was to examine risk and background factors in cases of severe child abuse reported to the police. Files from different agencies (e.g., Social services, Adult and Child psychiatry and Pediatric clinic) for 20 children and 34 caretakers were studied. An accumulation of risk factors was found. It is conclude...

  1. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  2. Inhalant abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydala, L

    2010-09-01

    Inhalant abuse - also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging - is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic boundaries. Inhalants are pharmacologically diverse products that are selected for their low price, legal and widespread availability, and ability to rapidly induce euphoria. Chronic abuse is associated with serious and often irreversible effects. Widespread screening and early referrals to treatment programs have resulted in significant improvements in the mental, physical and social conditions of those affected. The present statement reviews critical aspects of inhalant abuse, highlighting new information and data that pertain to Aboriginal children and youth, and provides recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:21886449

  3. An exploration of child sexual abusers' sexual fantasies before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffer, T; Hollin, C; Beech, A; Beckett, R; Fisher, D

    2000-01-01

    Although there is a substantial literature looking at the relationship between deviant sexual fantasies and child sexual abuse, there is scant previous work that focuses upon the actual content of such fantasies. The present study looks at child sexual abusers' deviant fantasies both pre- and postintervention. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, a description of the frequency and content of, and triggers for, child sexual abusers' deviant fantasies is reported both pre- and postintervention. The implications of this information for subsequent intervention programs is explored. PMID:10729960

  4. Doing the right thing: a primary care pediatrician's perspective on child abuse reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire

    2008-09-01

    The Child Abuse Recognition Experience Study (CARES) demonstrated that primary care physicians and nurse practitioners who treat injured children find the decision of whether to report suspected abuse difficult. This commentary briefly summarizes and responds to the papers presented at the Child Abuse Recognition, Research, and Education Translation (CARRET) Conference. The commentator traces her own changing views of child protective services as she became more involved in a multidisciplinary assessment team. Pediatricians are called on to advocate for more effective collaborations to better protect vulnerable maltreated children. PMID:18676511

  5. The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. R?DULESCU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of child sexual abuse perpetrated by women against minors, mainly against teenagers.

  6. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive

  7. Crossing the Line from Physical Discipline to Child Abuse: How Much Is Too Much?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Ellen E.; Richey, Cheryl A.

    1997-01-01

    A search of the literature to differentiate among definitions of physical discipline, corporal punishment, and physical child abuse identified five studies which revealed that abusive parents spanked their children more often than did nonabusive parents. Aggregated data from nonabusive parents suggested a "normal range" of daily spanking…

  8. Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

  9. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  10. Understanding Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests from a Situational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects of 101 Cases Seen in an Urban Malaysian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Kasmini; Kasim, Mohd. Sham

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of 101 cases of child sexual abuse in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) found overrepresentation of the Indian ethnic group and a mean age of children involved of 6 to 8 years. Associated psychosocial factors included the absence of a protective adult at home, unemployment, and history of perpetrator drug abuse. (DB)

  12. Domestic Abuse and Child Contact: Positioning Children in the Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a three-year Irish research study, this paper focuses on the decision-making process in child contact, specifically the assessment and management of risk of continuing abuse to young people previously exposed to domestic abuse. A mixed methodological approach involved the completion of survey questionnaires by 219 mothers and the…

  13. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: The Roles of Sadism and Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criville, Albert

    1990-01-01

    A hypothesis, based on concepts of narcissism and perversion, is presented of the mental functioning of the physically and sexually abusive parent. The concept also gives insight into the structuring of the personality of the child-victim, who undergoes the risk of himself becoming a physically and/or sexually abusive parent. (DB)

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  15. Teachers' Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect: Behaviour and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.

    2008-01-01

    By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…

  16. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  17. Prevention of child abuse and neglect in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, C B

    1998-09-01

    The number of cases of child abuse and neglect has risen steadily since reporting began in the 1960s. Today, child abuse and neglect is a major cause of injury and death in those ages 0 to 5. Studies have identified certain factors that increase the risk of maltreatment. The primary care practitioner is in an ideal position to assess for the presence of risk factors and to provide primary prevention interventions. This article defines child abuse and neglect and reviews its epidemiology; the risk factors of child abuse and neglect are also summarized. The concept of attachment as a theoretical framework is discussed; its significance in the attainment of a positive adjustment to the maternal role should drive the clinician's thought process. Suggested interventions are aimed at strengthening the parent-child relationship, reducing stress, and providing support. A protocol is presented that may be a useful guide for the practitioner. PMID:9778670

  18. The conversation: interacting with parents when child abuse is suspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, John

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews some of the challenges and pitfalls in communicating with families when abuse is part of the differential diagnosis and offers some suggestions for improving communication with parents and children in these challenging clinical settings. PMID:25242710

  19. Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A Guide for Foster and Adoptive Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child’s naked body), exhibitionism, or exposing the child to pornography. Abusers often do not use physical force but may use play, deception, threats, or other forms of coercion to engage ... keep the child engaged. These tactics—referred to as ‘grooming’—may ...

  20. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: real or detection bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; DuMont, Kimberly A

    2015-03-27

    The literature has been contradictory regarding whether parents who were abused as children have a greater tendency to abuse their own children. A prospective 30-year follow-up study interviewed individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched comparisons and a subset of their children. The study assessed maltreatment based on child protective service (CPS) agency records and reports by parents, nonparents, and offspring. The extent of the intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect depended in large part on the source of the information used. Individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect have higher rates of being reported to CPS for child maltreatment but do not self-report more physical and sexual abuse than matched comparisons. Offspring of parents with histories of childhood abuse and neglect are more likely to report sexual abuse and neglect and that CPS was concerned about them at some point in their lives. The strongest evidence for the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment indicates that offspring are at risk for childhood neglect and sexual abuse, but detection or surveillance bias may account for the greater likelihood of CPS reports. PMID:25814584

  1. Implementation of Nuclear Medicine Methods for Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser Kaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect are detrimental to a child’s health, physical and psychosocial development and result from inappropriate behavior or inattention on the part of those responsible for the child’s care and protection. Child abuse/neglect is a serious public problem encompassing medical, ethical and legal aspects. Imaging methods play an important role in investigating and documenting child abuse and neglect. Radiological imaging methods have particular priority. X-rays of the whole skeletal system are obtained for evaluation of the bone structure. Computerized tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and ultrasonography (US are used for the detection of cranial and internal organ damage. Due to the rapid developments in technology, diagnostic methods using nuclear medicine have also been initiated for use in identifying abuse and neglect. Detection of abuse and neglect carries ethical, judicial and moral liabilities as well as a responsibility for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Implementation of diagnostic methods of nuclear medicine in determining child abuse and neglect might contribute significantly in resolving court cases by providing objective evidence in medicolegal cases for realization of fair trials and in facilitating substantial conclusions. It is hoped that nuclear medicine methods will be helpful in terms of providing objective evidence for the experts. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 30-5

  2. Child sex abuse and the Irish criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Connon, Graham; Crooks, Allian; Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara A.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop scales to assess experiences of sexually abused children in the Irish criminal justice system (CJS); identify aspects of the CJS which children experience as negative; compare the perceptions of children, parents and professionals of sexually abused children's experiences of the CJS; and determine correlations between perceptions of children's CJS experiences and current psychological adjustment. Forty-three children, 101 parents, 32 mental health profes...

  3. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric...

  4. A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitchman, J H; Zucker, K J; Hood, J E; daCosta, G A; Akman, D

    1991-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part report that critically evaluates empirical studies on the short- and long-term effects of child sexual abuse. With the exception of sexualized behavior, the majority of short-term effects noted in the literature are symptoms that characterize child clinical samples in general. Among adolescents, commonly reported sequelae include sexual dissatisfaction, promiscuity, homosexuality, and an increased risk for revictimization. Depression and suicidal ideation or behavior also appear to be more common among victims of sexual abuse compared to normal and psychiatric nonabused controls. Frequency and duration of abuse, abuse involving penetration, force, or violence, and a close relationship to the perpetrator appear to be the most harmful in terms of long-lasting effects on the child. The high prevalence of marital breakdown and psychopathology among parents of children who are sexually abused makes it difficult to determine the specific impact of sexual abuse over and above the effects of a disturbed home environment. Given the broad range of outcome among sexual abuse victims, as well as the methodological weaknesses present in many of the studies reviewed, it is not possible at this time to postulate the existence of a "post-sexual-abuse-syndrome" with a specific course or outcome. PMID:1959086

  5. [School-detected child abuse in Geneva: outlook on the past 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneff, Christina; Jeannot, Emilien; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Lazarevic, Claire Anne Wyler; Chastonay, Philippe

    2014-08-13

    The Child and youth health service of the Canton of Geneva is an important actor in support of abused children attending school. Incidence of child abuse is stable at around 3.5 per 1,000 school children. Physical, psychological abuse and neglect are the types most frequently encountered. The main risk factors for abuse are precarious socio-economic situations, parenting issues and finally issues related to young people themselves. Although the incidence of abuse is stable in recent years, with respect to the growing number of children attending school, we can conclude that the absolute number of children at risk increases, confirming the need to develop and maintain common policies and prevention actions in this area. PMID:25199228

  6. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  7. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

  8. The Role of Child Care Providers in Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…

  9. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. PMID:25484318

  10. The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereda Beltran, Noemi?; Guilera Ferre?, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Go?mez Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies conducted internationally confirm that child sexual abuse is a much more widespread problem than previously thought, with even the lowest prevalence rates including a large number of victims that need to be taken into account. Objective: To carry out a meta-analysis of the prevalence of child sexual abuse in order to establish an overall international figure. Methods: Studies were retrieved from various electronic databases. The measure of interest was the prevalence of ab...

  11. Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Economic Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967–1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003–2004 (N = 807). Results indicate that a...

  12. Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda; Engku Ahmad Zaki bin Engku Alwi

    2011-01-01

    All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguar...

  13. Linkages Between Child Abuse and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls: Behavioral and Social Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and a matched comparison sample of girls without ADHD (n = 88), all aged 6-12 years. A thorough chart review reliably established documented rates of physical and sexual abuse in both samples. Results: There were significantly higher rates of abuse for girls with ADHD (14.3%) than for the comparison sample (4.5%), with most of the abuse found in girls with the Combined as opposed to the Inattentive type. Higher rates of externalizing behaviors (including objective observations in a research summer camp) and peer rejection (indexed through peer sociometric nominations) characterized the subgroup of girls with ADHD with abuse histories compared to the subgroup without such histories, with moderate to large effect sizes. Subgroup differences regarding internalizing problems and cognitive deficits did not emerge. Findings regarding peer rejection were explained, in part, by higher rates of observed aggressive behavior in the abused subgroup. Conclusions: The findings raise important questions about the possible etiologic and/or exacerbating role of abusive trauma in a subgroup of children with ADHD. PMID:17097140

  14. Exploring the Relations among the Nature of the Abuse, Perceived Parental Support, and Child's Self-Concept and Trauma Symptoms among Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carla J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined two resiliency factors: self-concept and perceived parental support, in conjunction with abuse factors that impact psychological functioning. Data were collected on 61 sexually abused children prior to treatment. Findings indicate that a child's self-concept was associated with all the trauma symptoms except sexual concerns and…

  15. Multiple Forensic Interviews during Investigations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D.; Foster, E. Michael; Pierce, Matthew W.; Berkoff, Molly C.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    In suspected child sexual abuse some professionals recommend multiple child interviews to increase the likelihood of disclosure or more details to improve decision-making and increase convictions. We modeled the yield of a policy of routinely conducting multiple child interviews and increased convictions. Our decision tree reflected the path of a…

  16. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  17. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  18. Parental Depression and Child Outcomes: The Mediating Effects of Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…

  19. The dynamics of child abuse in the family as a subject of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Lukovtseva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article raises important questions of studying the temporal dynamics of child abuse, considering up-to-date literature. The severity of the problems discussed is proved by statistical data showing the prevalence of child abuse in Russian families. We highlight the ambiguity of relevant terminology, lack of certain features, boundaries and algorithms of psychological work with victims. The dynamic aspects of the problem of abuse are considered in light of the practical needs of adequate psychological prevention, timely and accurate identification of this phenomenon by psychologists. The author puts forward the problem of “starting point” of quantitative and qualitative transformations of child abuse syndrome in the family history, identifying possible problems and prospects for solving these problems. Particular attention is given to the time and the premises of origin acts attributed to manifestations of ill-treatment, in context of a specific family

  20. Child abuse and neglect on Oahu, Hawaii: description and analysis of four purported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, G W; Krantzler, N; Forbes, K; Barnes, V

    1984-04-01

    Four factors are commonly considered to indicate "high risk" for child abuse/neglect: (1) low birth weight, (2) young maternal age, (3) mother with single marital status, and (4) low socioeconomic status (SES). These factors were investigated for Oahu, Hawaii, in four separate retrospective studies (using 100 abused cases and 100 controls), to evaluate their usefulness for screening at delivery. Data were obtained from a sample of 2,036 confirmed cases, during the period from 1977 to 1979. Contrary to many studies from mainland United States, low birth weight and single marital status were not associated with increased risk of child abuse/neglect. Single marital status in Hawaii may not be associated with increased risk because it does not have the same social and cultural connotations as it does on the mainland United States. This observation suggests a need to consider regional and cultural variations in investigating and screening for child abuse/neglect. PMID:6609172

  1. Abused Kids Not Destined to Be Abusive Parents, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campbell agreed. "If we want to work on child abuse prevention, we need to better understand the perpetrators of abuse," she said. "My experience is that very few parents who abuse their ... pediatrics, child protection and family health, University of Utah, Salt ...

  2. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  3. Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30?min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N?=?9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N?=?18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N?=?14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history. PMID:23863127

  4. The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: Dreaming of Child Safe Organisations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Budiselik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On 12 November 2012 the then Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard announced she was recommending to the Governor General the establishment of a Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Following inquiries in Australia and elsewhere much is already known about institutional and inter-institutional child protection failures and what is required to address them. That Australia’s national government has pursued another abuse inquiry with terms of reference limited to institution-based (excluding the family sexual abuse is of interest given the lack of political will to enact previous findings and recommendations. This article examines the background to the Government’s announcement, the Commission’s terms of reference and some of its settings, and literature on the nature of royal commissions across time and place. After the lack of success in implementing the recommendations of previous inquiries into how to better protect Australia’s children, the question is: how will this Royal Commission contribute to Australian child protection and safety? Will the overwhelming public support generated by “truth speaking to power” in calling for this inquiry translate into action?

  5. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  6. The Long-Term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse by Female Perpetrators: A Qualitative Study of Male and Female Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denov, Myriam S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual…

  7. The Effects of Abuse History on Sexually Intrusive Behavior by Children: An Analysis of Child Justice Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Irit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: A commonly cited risk factor for sexually intrusive behavior (SIB) among children and adolescents is a history of abuse. Based on a large and non-clinical nationwide sample of children who were investigated as abuse victims and suspects of SIBs in Israel over a decade, the present study examines the rate of abuse history among child

  8. Child abuse as an inhibiting factor for family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, H I; Faris, R

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of using children as an economic asset to the family thus, in one way increasing the prevalence of child abuse in Egypt and also hindering the family planning program. Two focus-group interviews were conducted in urban & rural areas for 10 women with the same age range and socioeconomic background. All were non-users of any contraception. Subsequently an interview was conducted for all women who attended the Ob. & Gyn. Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital in the period from June to August 1991, their ages ranged from 30-35 years and they never used contraception. Another group of women with the same characteristics were interviewed from a rural area at Fayoum Governorate. A questionnaire was filled for each interviewed woman. The total women interviewed in urban area is 340 while in the rural area they were 400 women. Sixty percent of urban women and 80% of rural women are illiterate, 70% of the urban & 100% of rural women are housewives. Their years of marriage ranged between 10-20 years and all of them have more than five children. A percentage of 73.5% of urban women and 85% of rural women stated that children are used as an economic asset to their families, they work in urban areas as assistants in motor repairs, hair-dressers, beggars, bakeries, shops, restaurants and factories while in rural areas they work as agricultural workers. PMID:1295939

  9. Individual differences in emotional memory: adult attachment and long-term memory for child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Robin S; Ghetti, Simona; Quas, Jodi A; Goodman, Gail S; Alexander, Kristen Weede; Redlich, Allison D; Cordón, Ingrid M

    2005-11-01

    In the present study, attachment-related differences in long-term memory for a highly emotional life event, child sexual abuse (CSA), were investigated. Participants were 102 documented CSA victims whose cases were referred for prosecution approximately 14 years earlier. Consistent with the proposal that avoidant individuals defensively regulate the processing of potentially distressing information (Bowlby, 1980), attachment avoidance was negatively associated with memory for particularly severe CSA incidents. This finding was not mediated by the extent to which participants reported talking about the abuse after it occurred, although post abuse discussion did enhance long-term memory. In addition, accuracy was positively associated with maternal support following the abuse and extent of CSA-related legal involvement. Attachment anxiety was unrelated to memory accuracy, regardless of abuse severity. Implications of the findings for theories of avoidant defensive strategies and emotional memory are discussed. PMID:16207772

  10. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Almuneef, Maha; Al-eissa, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed ...

  11. Child physical abuse risk moderates spontaneously inferred traits from ambiguous child behaviors?

    OpenAIRE

    Mccarthy, Randy J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Hiraoka, Regina; Rutledge, Ericka; Jenkins, Jade

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether parents at high-risk for child physical abuse (CPA) differed from low-risk parents in their tendency to infer positive traits and negative traits from children’s behaviors. The final sample consisted of 58 (25 low CPA risk and 33 high CPA risk) parents. Parents completed a false-recognition task, which involved viewing behavior descriptions paired with child photographs. Half of the behavior descriptions vaguely/strongly implied a trait and half of the imp...

  12. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  13. Emotional Closeness with Perpetrators and Amnesia for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Tammy; Passmore, J. Lawrence; Yoder, C. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, a contentious debate regarding delayed memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has existed. In order to address this debate, 240 female participants completed questions about CSA, the Dissociative Experience Scale (Bernstein & Putnam, 1986), Perceived Emotional Closeness with Perpetrator Scale (Schultz, Passmore, & Yoder,…

  14. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, ... Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drugged Driving ...

  15. Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology. PMID:23393950

  16. Motivational interviewing: an intervention tool for child welfare case workers working with substance-abusing parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, M M

    1998-01-01

    Child welfare case workers have long known that abuse of alcohol and drugs is a major problem with many parents on their caseloads. This article discusses motivational interviewing, an intervention technique used with substance abusers. Motivational interviewing, which is based on the principles of motivational psychology, postulates that motivation is created in an interaction between the client and worker. Principles of motivational interviewing are discussed and illustrated in a case example. PMID:9599421

  17. Educational paper: Detection of child abuse and neglect at the emergency room

    OpenAIRE

    Teeuw, Arianne He?le?ne; Derkx, Bert H. F.; Koster, Willeke A.; Rijn, Rick R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergency room (ER) represents the main system entry for crises-based health care visits. It is estimated that 2% to 10% of children visiting the ER are victims of child abuse and neglect (CAN). Therefore, ER personnel may be the first hospital contact and opportunity for CAN victims to be recognised. Early diagnosis of CAN is important, as without early identification and intervention, about one in three children will suffer subsequent abuse. This educational paper provides the reader wi...

  18. Women survivors of child sexual abuse. How can health professionals promote healing?

    OpenAIRE

    Cl, Schachter; Na, Radomsky; Ca, Stalker; Teram E

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how health professionals can practise in ways sensitive to adult women survivors of child sexual abuse. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured in-depth interviews. SETTING: Small and midsize cities in Ontario and Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. METHODS: Respondents were asked about their experiences with physical therapists and other health professionals and asked how practice could be sensitive to their needs as survivors....

  19. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Mahram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Findings: Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5% boys and 488 (47.5% girls 679 (66.05% cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%, 360 (35% and 394 (38.3% respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence.Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended.

  20. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

  1. The development of hemorrhagic shock encephalopathy syndrome due to child abuse-a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Yalaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse/neglect is a very important problem in our country as it is in the world. It may be as physical, sexual, psychological abuse and child neglect. A previously healthy baby at the age of 2.5 months was brought to the emergency service with complaints of not breathing and cyanosis. Evaluation of the patient and the history obtained suggested a diagnosis of hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome. During the following period, problems of spasticity and vision impairment appeared. The family history of the patient revealed a case of child abuse/neglect and consultation with the social service resulted in a committee decision of transfer of the custody of the baby to the child protection department. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44: 143-5

  2. What they tell you to forget: from child sexual abuse to adolescent motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmans, Mary Patrice; Black, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between child sexual abuse and adolescent motherhood, using a life story interview method. The sample consists of 27 mothers participating in a home-visitation parenting program for mothers at risk of child maltreatment. The failure to articulate the violation of child sexual abuse and to appropriately construct blame resulted in a range of self-destructive behaviors, some of which placed mothers at greater risk of teen pregnancy. Repressed feelings associated with the trauma often resurfaced with motherhood as victims re-experienced their innocence and vulnerability as children. PMID:18174537

  3. [Increasing number of child abuse cases in Sweden--in accordance with reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C; Horgby, K; Borres, M P

    2001-05-01

    The number of police reports on child assault shows an increasing trend during the last two decades in Sweden. The purpose of this article is to present possible explanations. Increased awareness of child abuse, legislative reforms, changes in attitudes toward corporal punishment and violence in general, and changed routines within schools can explain the increasing trend in police reporting. An actual increase in the rate of child abuse is possible but less likely. Reports of increasingly violent behavior among young people must be taken seriously. PMID:11402983

  4. Child maltreatment, abuse and neglect in a Nigerian adolescent boy, the common but unheard menace: A case report form Southwest, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzodimma, Chinyere C.; Ogundeyi, Morufat M.; Dedeke, Florence I.; Olasunkanmi Owolabi

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse is a global problem. It includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that result in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, development or dignity. Child abuse and neglect are common in Nigeria, yet poorly reported. We herein report a case of child abuse and neglect in a 14-year-old boy, complicated by severe malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus infection and gross under achievement of ed...

  5. Attitude toward Child Abuse among Mothers Referring Health Centers of Tabriz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Asadollahi, Maliheh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohhammad; Hallaj, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Parental attitude is an important factor in prediction of child abuse. Awareness of people's attitudes is important in the prediction of their behavior and controlling it. This study was conducted to determine the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 261 mothers referred to the 13 health centers of Tabriz with children aged 2-12, they were selected by a multistage method and their attitudes were assessed using a questionnaire within 2 months. Higher score were representing more negative attitudes. Results: The results showed that the mean score of total attitude toward child abuse was significantly higher than the middle and was significantly associated with mothers' educational level, employment status, attendance status, number of children they have, and economic status. Conclusion: The results showed that although the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse were negative, because of the relationship between mothers' attitudes with their demographic characteristics, it is necessary to enhance mothers' quality of life, and their social and spiritual support to improve their attitudes and prevent the child abuse. PMID:25821761

  6. Linking Schools and Social Services: The Case of Child Abuse Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellman, Gail L.

    1990-01-01

    Coordination of schools and child protective services (CPSs) concerning child abuse reporting was studied via a survey of 267 public school principals. National data reveal that school staff generally comply with reporting laws. However, CPS policies limiting reports and focusing resources on the most serious cases counteract school district…

  7. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  8. The School Counselors' Ideas on Features, Determinant and Intervention on Child Negligence and Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…

  9. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Assess Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

  11. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  12. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  13. Adult adjustment of survivors of institutional child abuse in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-howard, Roisi?n; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Method Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Personality Disorders, the Trauma Symptom Inventory, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Results The prevalence of psychological disorders among adult survivors o...

  14. El maltrato infantil: mecanismos subyacentes / Child abuse: underlying mechanisms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys S., Martínez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La exposición durante la infancia a estrés traumático, en la forma de abuso o negligencia, está asociada con una mayor vulnerabilidad, la cual resulta en el desarrollo de diversas psicopatologías, relación que ha sido confirmada una y otra vez en estudios epidemiológicos; sin embargo, aún se descono [...] cen los mecanismos neurales que subyacen dichas alteraciones y solo recientemente se han empezado a estudiar los cambios neurobiológicos subyacentes en padres y madres maltratadores. En esta revisión se resumen investigaciones en que se ha abordado esta temática y se presentan algunos de los modelos animales usados para su estudio. Abstract in english Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confirmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are [...] still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I review some of the studies using animal models of early adverse trauma and present some of the data on neural changes. Further studies of brain abnormalities in abusive parents are still needed.

  15. Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Duncan B.; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective?We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD).?Methods?Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual ...

  16. Child abuse: Effects on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achema G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a major problem that has been living with man and seen by many as one of his day to day activities. Aim: The study aimed to ascertain the practice and effects of child abuse on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra state, and also to identify the factors associated with child abuse among the children. Methods: The study is a descriptive survey design using self-administered interviewer questionnaire. Four villages were purposively sampled for the study; Oruokwe, Awobu, Urukpeleke, and Uruogbo. Systematic sampling technique was adopted in sampling subjects. Results: Findings showed that the most common associated factor with child abuse with parent/guardian is poverty (50.7% and low social economic status (34.5%. The practices of child abuse are majorly concerned with starving the children (44.2% and kicking/shaking the children (41.2%. The effects on the child abuse on the child and family could lead the abused children into early marriage (26.5% and unwanted pregnancy (22.5%. Conclusion: The study indicated that child abuse in Njikoka LGA is due to poverty/low socio-economic status. The practices of child abuse borders on starving the children, kicking/shaking them and that, the effects of child abuse could lead the children into early marriage and/or having unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, social awareness campaign on child abuse and effects should be adopted and effective child abuse laws should be enacted by the government and stiff penalties and sanctions should be melted out to the offenders.

  17. The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

  18. Child abuse and treatment difficulty in inpatient treatment of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, C C; Colson, D B; McParland, M Q; O'Malley, F; Pope, K K; Coyne, L

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the associations between abuse and staff perceived treatment difficulty in sixty-nine hospitalized children and adolescents. Subjects were rated on a treatment difficulty scale, and clinical charts were reviewed for evidence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, abuse between parents, and parental history of abuse. Subjects with histories of abuse were not rated as more difficult or less responsive to treatment than other patients. Physically abused youngsters were rated as more self-destructive and more accessible to treatment than non-abused children, while sexually abused youngsters were self-destructive and demanding, and their families were seen as more distant and unavailable. PMID:7805436

  19. Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

    2014-01-01

    Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually escalates to violence. According to one theory, there may be a degree of transgenerational transmission of these communication patterns in children who have been victims of violence, thus propagating the conditions for violence, this time perpetrated by the victims themselves. Therefore there is a pressing need for prevention, perhaps through psychoeducation for parents or through early detection and treatment of traumatized children and adolescents, in the hope that the transgenerational vicious cycle of violence may be broken. PMID:25367662

  20. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

  1. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  2. Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

  3. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  4. Child Abuse in Group of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hadianfard, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very difficult to handle. It can be very frustrating and needs an outstanding tolerance. Behavioral difficulties in ADHD children may increase the risk of child abuse for them. The aim of this research was to compare child abuse, and neglect between ADHD group and normal children.

  5. Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Payne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Alaska Native (AN population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design. PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today’s children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results. Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusions. The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children, supporting child victims in healing and to holding offenders accountable.

  6. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  7. Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in China: Regulation the Child Abuse in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse occurring outside the home in China is inflicted on school-age children and can result in serious physical and mental harm. China is a developing country with a population of over 1.2 billion, of whom over 300 million are children under the age of 16. Making a commitment to respect the rights of children has profound implications for the status of children in China. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter CRC requires that State Parties take all appropriate measures to protect child from abuse. China has ratified the CRC at domestic level and taken legislative, judicial and other measures to prevent children from abuse. Examination of the child abuse statutes and judicial practice of China reveals that China's domestic law has failed to provide adequate protection for children. Chinese traditional Confucian culture and deficiency of CRC both contribute to the soaring number of incidents of child abuse in schools. It is suggested that China review its legislation, establish the independent human rights commission, raise awareness of children's rights and improve cooperation with NGOs to ensure that it conforms fully with the requirements of the CRC.

  8. Child abuse inventory at emergency rooms: CHAIN-ER rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwenhuis Edward ES

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the injured children attending the emergency room, the consequences of both missed child abuse cases and wrong suspicions are substantial. Therefore, the accuracy of ongoing detection at emergency rooms by health care professionals is highly important. Internationally, several diagnostic instruments or strategies for child abuse detection are used at emergency rooms, but their diagnostic value is still unknown. The aim of the study 'Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms' (CHAIN-ER is to assess if active structured inquiry by emergency room staff can accurately detect physical maltreatment in children presenting at emergency rooms with physical injury. Methods/design CHAIN-ER is a multi-centre, cross-sectional study with 6 months diagnostic follow-up. Five thousand children aged 0-7 presenting with injury at an emergency room will be included. The index test - the SPUTOVAMO-R questionnaire- is to be tested for its diagnostic value against the decision of an expert panel. All SPUTOVAMO-R positives and a 15% random sample of the SPUTOVAMO-R negatives will undergo the same systematic diagnostic work up, which consists of an adequate history being taken by a pediatrician, inquiry with other health care providers by structured questionnaires in order to obtain child abuse predictors, and by additional follow-up information. Eventually, an expert panel (reference test determines the true presence or absence of child abuse. Discussion CHAIN-ER will determine both positive and negative predictive value of a child abuse detection instrument used in the emergency room. We mention a benefit of the use of an expert panel and of the use of complete data. Conducting a diagnostic accuracy study on a child abuse detection instrument is also accompanied by scientific hurdles, such as the lack of an accepted reference standard and potential (non- response. Notwithstanding these scientific challenges, CHAIN-ER will provide accurate data on the predictive value of SPUTOVAMO-R.

  9. Child abuse-related homicides in New Mexico: a 6-year retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol K; Lathrop, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed autopsy records at a statewide medical examiner's office in order to identify and characterize deaths due to child abuse. In a 6-year period in New Mexico, the medical examiner investigated 45 deaths determined to be child abuse-related. Decedents were predominantly male (68.9%), Hispanic White (53.3%), and all were 5 years of age or younger, with a median age of 1 year. Head injuries were the most common cause of death (44.4%), followed by battered baby syndrome (15.6%). Relatives were involved as alleged perpetrators in 80% of the cases, with the father most often implicated (36.1% of cases), and 88.9% of child abuse injuries resulting in death occurred in the family's residence. Toxicology was positive in 26.7% of cases, but only two cases had substances of abuse present. Information on risk factors such as prematurity, parental age, and history of abuse was also collected. PMID:20412157

  10. Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jent, Jason F; Eaton, Cyd K; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F; Merrick, Melissa T; Dandes, Susan K

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipline and constitute child physical abuse. Biased or subjective decisions may be made if certain case-specific characteristics or CPT professionals' personal characteristics are used in making physical abuse determinations. Case vignettes with visual depictions of inflicted injuries were sent to CPT professionals in Florida and their substantiation decisions, personal beliefs about corporal discipline, and coercive discipline were collected. Results of the study demonstrated relatively high agreement among professionals across vignettes about what constitutes physical abuse. Further, CPT professionals strongly considered their perceptions of the severity of inflicted injuries in substantiation decisions. Although case specific characteristics did not bias decisions in a systematic way, some CPT professional characteristics influenced the substantiation of physical abuse. Practice implications and future directions of research are discussed. PMID:21804681

  11. Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, P

    1995-01-01

    The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

  12. The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ...

  13. How parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatsikos, Georgia; Miles, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand how parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse, including prevention as well as early intervention and detection strategies. Using a social constructivist theoretical foundation and grounded theory methods, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with Australian parents between 2006 and 2008. Based on the data, a balance theory was developed, which explains how parents attempt to balance the type of information given to children in order to protect their children from sexual abuse without scaring them as well as how parents manage sexual boundary crossing incidents experienced by their children in the context of complex social relationships. Implications for prevention programs as well as reporting of child sexual abuse are discussed. PMID:25635898

  14. Child sexual abuse: relationship between sexual acts and genital findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muram, D

    1989-01-01

    A comparison was made between the findings observed during the examination of female victims of sexual abuse with the sexual acts to which the perpetrator confessed to have performed. In Shelby County, TN, during the calendar years 1985-1987, 30 individuals confessed to have sexually assaulted 31 girls. The mean age of the girls was 9.1 years, and that of the offenders was 30 years. In 18 of the 31 cases the offender admitted to vaginal penetration. Specific findings were observed in 11 of these 18 (61%) girls, compared with only 3 of 13 (23%) girls when penetration was denied. Although specific findings were more commonly observed when the perpetrator admitted to vaginal penetration, in 7 of 18 girls (39%) the examiner described normal appearing genitalia (n = 2), or nonspecific abnormalities only (n = 5). The author concludes that all complaints of sexual abuse must be considered potentially valid and should be investigated further, even if the physical examination fails to detect any abnormalities. PMID:2743181

  15. Child and adolescent abuse and neglect in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2014-10-01

    Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support. PMID:24661691

  16. Proximate Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program in Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Piche, Christiane; Poitras, Michele

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the sexual child abuse prevention program ESPACE were evaluated with 133 Canadian children (grades 1-3). Children participating in the prevention program showed greater preventive knowledge and skills relative to children not participating. Follow-up data showed knowledge gains were maintained while the preventive skill gains may…

  17. Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examinations on the Dependency and Criminal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Allan R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews previous research on the sociolegal impact of medical evaluations for child sexual abuse; offers a recommended menu of research questions, concerning process and outcomes of these evaluations, interviewing techniques, the use of medical evidence in prosecution, and knowledge level of professionals in the criminal and dependency systems.…

  18. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  19. Assisting Psychosocially Distressed Mothers-to-Be: Primary Prevention of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussey, M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A program was established in Rennes, France, to aid expectant mothers felt to be at risk for abusing or neglecting a child. The program provided information, ensured medical/psychological care, decreased social isolation, encouraged independent decision making, fostered communication within the family, and helped mothers establish a nurturing…

  20. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  1. Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Crafting a Positive Process for Health Professionals and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…

  2. Experiences of School Counselors during and after Making Suspected Child Abuse Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during and after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. A total of 847 school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) participated in this study. Results showed that professional school counselors encountered some…

  3. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  4. Introduction to the Development of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Desmond K.; Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    The "World Report on Children and Violence", (Pinheiro, 2006) was produced at the request of the UN Secretary General and the UN General Assembly. This report recommended improvement in research on child abuse. ISPCAN representatives took this charge and developed 3 new instruments. We describe this background and introduce three new measures…

  5. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  6. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Processes, Stress, Personal Control, and Risk for Physical Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. Methods: In-home and phone interview data…

  7. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  8. The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

  9. Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2013-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different…

  10. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  11. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  12. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  13. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  14. Community Notification: Perceptions of Its Effectiveness in Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D.

    2001-01-01

    Megan's law enables law enforcement to notify communities when convicted sex offenders reside in their neighborhoods. Investigates community members', law enforcement officials', and law students' attitudes toward community notification and other child abuse prevention measures. The groups significantly differed in support of Megan's Law and…

  15. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  16. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  17. Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Ethical Dilemmas, and Guidelines for Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Grace C.; Lee, Sandra S.

    All states have laws mandating that certain individuals report suspected occurrences of child abuse. Mandatory reporting statutes, their administration, and their judicial interpretation have created many ethical, legal, and clinical dilemmas. The abrogation of the confidentiality in the therapeutic relationship is probably the foremost ethical…

  18. The Therapy Alliance: A Moderator in Therapy Outcome for Families Dealing with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee N.; Ketring, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The role of the therapy alliance in therapy outcome for families dealing with child abuse and neglect was examined using the family as the unit of analysis. The alliance was tested as a moderator in relationship to posttreatment levels of symptom distress and physical violence. Results show that the bonds, goals, and tasks subscale scores are…

  19. Healthy Families New York (HFNY) Randomized Trial: Effects on Early Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMont, Kimberly; Mitchell-Herzfeld, Susan; Greene, Rose; Lee, Eunju; Lowenfels, Ann; Rodriguez, Monica; Dorabawila, Vajeera

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a home visiting program modeled after Healthy Families America on parenting behaviors in the first 2 years of life. Methods: A sample of 1173 families at risk for child abuse and neglect who met the criteria for Healthy Families New York (HFNY) was randomly assigned to either an intervention group that was…

  20. Interpartner Conflict and Child Abuse Risk among African American and Latino Adolescent Parenting Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David R.; Florsheim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify links between observed conflict interactions and risk for child abuse and harsh parenting among a multiethnic sample of adolescent mothers (14-19 years) and young fathers (14-24 years). Methods: Prior to childbirth (T1), observation-based relationship data were collected from 154 expectant…

  1. Rape, Statutory Rape, and Child Abuse: Legal Distinctions and Counselor Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Clifton W.; Rogers, Reagan E.

    2003-01-01

    This article explains the legal distinctions between rape, statutory rape, and child abuse and school counselors' obligations related to each. In addition, complicating issues such as cultural differences as well as the potential effect of mandated reporting on counselors' roles are addressed. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)

  2. Legal Outcomes of Sexually Abused Children Evaluated at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugue-Castillo, Mariella

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the legal outcomes and factors associated with case reaching court and conviction for sexual abuse of children seen at the Philippine General Hospital Child Protection Unit (PGH-CPU) from 1997 to 2000. Methods: Mixed transdisciplinary research design combined longitudinal cohort with qualitative methods. Data were obtained…

  3. Battling the Passions: The Birth of a Conceptual Understanding of Suspicion for Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Einboden

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Legal obligations for reporting child abuse and neglect have positioned suspicion as a trigger for nursing responses. Suspicion dwells between emotion and thought, and is fraught with uncertainty. Given the importance of suspicion to initiating child protection, suspicion requires critical examination. Spinoza’s ideas of the imagination, and his distinctive inclusion of emotions in understanding human knowledge, provide a framework to explore the human experience of suspicion. These theoretical dimensions of suspicion are illustrated using a recent newspaper article of a missing child in Sydney, Australia. This process reveals the ontological vulnerability of the human mind to construct knowledge that is heavily influenced by our emotionality, our close social connections and our social values. Attending to these vulnerabilities generates new possibilities for understanding and using human suspicions of child abuse and neglect more effectively and creatively in nursing practice.

  4. Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have additional worries. Many put their own financial future on hold when they give up paying jobs ... service agencies can help with emotional, legal, and financial problems. If you ... Is the Long-Term Effect of Abuse? Most physical wounds heal in ...

  5. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dating Abuse Hotline: 1-866-331-9474 National Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-SAFE (1-800-799-7233) Previous Next: Survival Tips Written by the CYWH and YMH Staff at Children's Hospital Boston Updated: 3/24/2015 Looking for ...

  6. Virtual patients: an effective educational intervention to improve paediatric basic specialist trainee education in the management of suspected child abuse?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEvoy, M M

    2011-09-01

    Child abuse is a particularly difficult subject to teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Most doctors are dissatisfied with their training in child abuse recognition and management. We developed an interactive video based Virtual Patient to provide formal training for paediatric Basic Specialist Trainees in the recognition of suspected child abuse. The Virtual Patient case revolves around the management of suspected physical abuse in a seven month old child, who initially presents to the Emergency Department with viral upper respiratory tract symptoms. This Virtual Patient was used to facilitate a case discussion with Basic Specialist Trainees. A questionnaire was developed to determine their perception of the value of the Virtual Patient as an educational tool. Twenty five Basic Specialist Trainees completed the questionnaire. Upon completion of the case, 23\\/25 (92%) participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to recognize cases of suspected child abuse and 24\\/25 (96%) of participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to report cases of suspected child abuse. Basic Specialist Trainees perceived the Virtual Patient to be a useful educational tool. Virtual Patients may have a role to play in enhancing postgraduate training in the recognition of suspected child abuse.

  7. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... names, including inflicted traumatic brain injury and shaken impact syndrome. All of these names mean the same thing: an injury to a child's brain as a result of child abuse. Abusive head trauma (AHT) can be caused by ...

  8. Multiple Forensic Interviews During Investigations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Stephanie D.; Foster, E. Michael; Pierce, Matthew W.; Berkoff, Molly C.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    In cases of suspected child sexual abuse (CSA) some professionals routinely recommend multiple interviews by the same interviewer because any additional details provided might improve decision-making and increase perpetrator convictions. We analyzed alternative policies about child interviewing to estimate the probability that a policy of all children receiving multiple interviews will increase criminal convictions and better protect children. Using decision analysis, we prepared a decision t...

  9. From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model

    OpenAIRE

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early ex...

  10. A comparison of two programmes for victims of child sexual abuse: a treatment outcome study

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Margretta; Carr, Alan; Fitzpatrick, Carol; et al.

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of individual therapy and combined individual and group therapy in the treatment of the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self Report form (YSR), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) were administered before treatment and 6 months later to a group of 20 young people who participated in individual therapy (IT) programme...

  11. Battling the Passions: The Birth of a Conceptual Understanding of Suspicion for Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle Einboden; Trudy Rudge; Colleen Varcoe

    2011-01-01

    Legal obligations for reporting child abuse and neglect have positioned suspicion as a trigger for nursing responses. Suspicion dwells between emotion and thought, and is fraught with uncertainty. Given the importance of suspicion to initiating child protection, suspicion requires critical examination. Spinoza’s ideas of the imagination, and his distinctive inclusion of emotions in understanding human knowledge, provide a framework to explore the human experience of suspicion. These theoret...

  12. Prosecuting child abusers, respecting victims: a contrast of approaches in the UK, Tajikistan and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David M

    2013-11-01

    This article summarises child abuse as a global problem of increasing breadth and complexity. It reviews the development of procedures for prosecuting alleged abusers and treating complainants appropriately in the course of investigations, medical examinations and court hearings. It contrasts the diverse environments of the UK, Tajikistan and Tanzania. The author draws on his experience of practising criminal law since 1984 in England and Wales and working as a consultant in 2011 with the Girls Support Service in Tajikistan, a European-and UN-funded NGO, and with UNICEF in Tanzania in 2012. PMID:24069954

  13. [Dynamics of child suggestibility in accusations of sexual abuse in divorce proceedings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bois, R; Röcker, D

    1996-11-01

    A case of a mother confabulating an extended sexual abuse of her 13 and 15 year old children involving bizarre sadistic features is presented and discussed. The kinship to Munchhausen Syndrome by proxy, identity diffusion, Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome, folie à deux and other concepts is highlighted. It is suggested that sexual confabulations are generated within incestuous family structures as a means to stimulate and satisfy needs of personal closeness when losses and disruptive events have occurred. The disclosure or suspicion of sexual abuse may prove neither true nor false but may hint to an impending emotional breakdown of a parent and to ongoing subtle incestuous traumatisation of a child. PMID:9036386

  14. Do Elementary School-based Child Abuse Prevention Programs Work? A High School Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Susan F.; Cosden, Merith A.

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the impact of a school-based prevention program by surveying high school students who previously had abuse prevention programs available to them. Students who attended prevention programs were more knowledgeable about abuse concepts and reported fewer incidents of abuse. However, the effectiveness of students' responses to abuse was…

  15. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  16. Maltrato infantil: Experiencia de un abordaje interdisciplinario / Child abuse: An interdisciplinary management experience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Julio, Seldes; Valentina, Ziperovich; Alejandra, Viota; Fernanda, Leiva.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El maltrato infantil constituye una de las formas más frecuentes de violencia familiar. El presente estudio intenta mostrar la situación que, al respecto, existe en la ciudad de Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina y establecer algunas asociaciones propias de esa problemática. Población, ma [...] terial y métodos. Se presenta una serie de 128 casos de niños maltratados, de entre 0 y 19 años, entre noviembre de 1998 y noviembre de 2002 asistidos en Moiru, Centro de Prevención, Orientación, Asistencia y Capacitación en conductas sociales de riesgo, que funciona en Mercedes. Resultados. Se detectó 56% de maltrato físico; 30% de abuso sexual; 10% de negligencia; 3% de maltrato emocional y 1% de síndrome de Münchaussen con una distribución por sexos similares en el total de la casuística. Se señalan variables demográficas y ciertas asociaciones en casos de maltrato físico y abuso sexual. Se evidenció una asociación significativa entre madres víctimas de violencia doméstica y el maltrato físico que éstas proporcionan a sus hijos. Conclusiones. Fueron asistidos en nuestro servicio 128 niños y niñas maltratados Se considera que se trata de una casuística significativa, donde el maltrato físico y el abuso sexual se presentan como más relevantes. Abstract in english Introduction. Child abuse constitutes one of the most frequent forms of family violence. The following study tries to demonstrate the situation that arises in the city of Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina, and to establish some associations about that matter. Population, material and methods. A series [...] of 128 cases of abused children is presented, between 0 and 19 years old, attended from November 1998 to November 2002, in Moiru, Center of prevention, direction, attendance and qualification in social conducts of risk that works in Mercedes. Results. 56% of physical abuse; 30% of sexual abuse; 10% of neglect; 3% of emotional abuse and 1% of syndrome of Münchaussen was detected, with a similar distribution by sexes in the total population. Demographic variables and certain associations in cases of physical abuse and sexual abuse are indicated. A significant association between mothers victims of domestic violence and physical abuse towards their children was demonstrated. Conclusions. 128 young boys and girls were seen in our center. It is considered that, a significant population was treated where physical abuse and sexual abuse appears as most relevant.

  17. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on the Education of Boys in Residential Care between 1950 and 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Andrew; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Children's education may be adversely impacted by external factors during their childhood. For example, learning to learn, critical reflection, experiential learning and self-direction may be permanently impaired. Many children in out-of-home residential care during the last century suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect, including sexual abuse,…

  18. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  19. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

  20. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse in the United States: Perspectives on Assessment and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Foster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse (CSA is a widespread problem the United States as it is in many areas of the world today. CSA can lead to a host of psychological and emotional difficulties and disorders that can cripple some children and youth for a lifetime. In this article the authors discuss the sexual abuse of minors in the United States. Risk factors involved in and potential causes of CSA are discussed. Signs and symptoms of CSA are summarized along with common consequences associated with sexual abuse. Characteristics of sexual perpetrators of children and adolescents are also examined. In addition, the authors discuss the problems children often have in disclosing the abuse, along with the individual, familial and societal challenges involved in reporting incidences of sexual abuse. Some assessment issues and tools associated with CSA are highlighted, and the importance of investigators and clinicians capturing children's narrative descriptions of their abuse, and various methods for doing so, are outlined. Finally, an overview of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT for children is presented, and common challenges for therapists in treating children who have experienced sexual abuse and their families are discussed. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  2. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esmaeili Douki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression.Results: The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%, 260 (46% and 180 (32%, respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90% participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67% cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02, as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03, and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001.Conclusion: Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential.

  3. Coping with Child Sexual Abuse among College Students and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Role of Continuity of Abuse and Relationship with the Perpetrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton-Cortes, David; Canton, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the use of coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores in young adults, as well as the role of avoidance and approach coping strategies in those PTSD scores in CSA victims. The role of coping strategies was studied by considering…

  4. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz, Tug?ba; Yilmaz O?zpolat, Ays?e Gu?l; Yu?cel, Damla; Altuno?z, Umut

    2013-01-01

    It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and r...

  5. Child abuse: Effects on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Achema G; Emmanuel A; Odinigwe N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Child abuse is a major problem that has been living with man and seen by many as one of his day to day activities. Aim: The study aimed to ascertain the practice and effects of child abuse on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra state, and also to identify the factors associated with child abuse among the children. Methods: The study is a descriptive survey design using self-administered interviewer questionnaire. Four ...

  6. Child abuse and neglect by parents with disabilities: A tale of two families

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Brandon F.; Norman, K. Renee; Searle, Mariana S.; Daniels, Monica; Lubeck, Roger C.

    1995-01-01

    Two families, in which the children had been placed in foster care due to abuse and neglect by parents who had disabilities, were studied. In the first case, the mother was instructed in skills that our assessment suggested were important for her child's survival. The mother readily acquired and applied these skills, a fact reflected both in changes in her behavior and in changes in the child's well-being. In the second case, the parent's incremental resumption of child custody was made conti...

  7. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who...

  8. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  9. Caregiver Substance Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Violence in a Nationally Representative Child Welfare Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Seay, Kristen D.; Kohl, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children’s exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not fin...

  10. Preventing child abuse: psychosocial description of clients of brief intervention programs in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gómez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study describe characteristics and risk factors for child abuse and neglect,in 591 children and adolescents, their parents and families served by eight brief intervention programs (PIB “Viviendo en Familia”, funded by the Chilean National Service of Children (SENAME and implemented by Protectora de la Infancia (a non-profit organization in Chile. The results revealed the existence of problems of moderate complexity, on the environment,parental competencies, family interactions, family safety and child well-being. About three of each four caregivers show signs of high risk for the abuse or neglect of children, especially in their mental health, a topic that must be considered by the staff to develop a plan of coordinated work with the local network of health services.

  11. EL MALTRATO INFANTIL EN LA PRÁCTICA DOCENTE: ESTUDIO DE UN CASO CHILD ABUSE IN THE TEACHING PRACTICE: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER SUÁREZ GONZÁLEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a topic of particular interest in the national and international context because the citizens of different countries know about the impact this phenomenon within the society and future generations and organizations like the ICBF (Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar, (in Colombia, UNESCO and the ONU (in around the world have drawn attention to the fact that institutions such as families and schools have become partners in practice of child abuse. This article presents the results about a research that focused on classroom practice and teacher to describe whether through speech, actions and interactions (teacherstudent had evidence of child abuse. This suggested a qualitative research, whose design was a single case study. The subject of study was a preschool teacher at a school of social stratum medium Burjassot town in the province of Valencia - Spain. Among the results of the study are the following: the discourse and interaction are within the categories of teaching practice show a particular degree of child abuse. Child abuse in the classroom is not a practice intended by the teacher, but rather factors such as number of students, teaching little accompaniment (class observation and the aid of a practitioner or consultant, among others, mean that child abuse may be evident in the teaching practice.

  12. Medical evaluation for child physical abuse: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Physical abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter physically abused children in their practice. This continuing education offering will help PNPs develop the skills necessary to recognize an injury that raises the concern for abuse based on characteristics of the injury such as appearance, location, or severity and characteristics of the history given for the injury. The link between corporal punishment and physical abuse will be discussed. Cutaneous findings of abuse, oral injuries, skeletal injuries, abdominal trauma, and abusive head trauma will also be discussed. PMID:22525996

  13. Twins abused by their father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

  14. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2014-10-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7 % of the sample, and 67 % was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8 % of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  15. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Halpe?rin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffe?, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astie?, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to t...

  16. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Habetha Susanne; Bleich Sabrina; Weidenhammer Jörg; Fegert Jörg M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the indiv...

  17. Dysfunctional cognitions and adult psychological functioning in child sexual abuse survivors.

    OpenAIRE

    Wenninger, K.; Ehlers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between cognitions and long-term symptoms in adult child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors. In Study 1, an American sample of 43 survivors completed questionnaires assessing attributional style and dysfunctional beliefs in cognitive themes affected by victimization, as well as measures of posttraumatic symptoms. Survivors' attributions of negative events were more internal, stable, and global than those of 29 comparison subjects without a history of CSA. Howev...

  18. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  19. Sexual abuse and incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

  20. Parents Who Abuse: What Are They Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Alexandra C.; Prinz, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse is a major social concern around the world. Important to tackling the problem is an understanding of the mechanisms contributing to abusive parenting. This article brings together research on the cognitive variables associated with abusive or high-risk parenting. Considered are dysfunctional child-centered and parent-centered…

  1. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful debate about mandatory reporting. 

  2. The Roles of Peritraumatic Dissociation, Child Physical Abuse, and Child Sexual Abuse in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Adult Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…

  3. Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson

    2007-01-01

    This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

  4. Lonely Parents: Observations by Public Health Nurses of Alienation in Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marjorie

    Public health nurses (n=191) were queried regarding their observations of alienation in families who abuse their children. Comparison was made of social isolation and powerlessness in abusive families and a control group of non-abusive families, through the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and FIRO-B, with significant differences noted in…

  5. Early marriage, rape, child prostitution, and related factors determining the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry

    2011-05-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child prostitution were more symptomatic than those who were married early. Respondents for whom less time had elapsed since their first experience of abuse demonstrated a significantly higher level of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative reactions by others, self-blame, and guilt than those for whom more time had elapsed since such an experience. The respondents in an intact marital relationship were found to be less symptomatic than their never married and divorced counterparts. Implications for intervention and further investigations are discussed. PMID:21660816

  6. To tell or not to tell? factors influencing young people's informal disclosures of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to understand the factors influencing informal disclosure of child sexual abuse experiences, taking account of dynamics operating prior to, during, and following disclosure. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 young people who experienced child sexual abuse and 14 parents. Grounded theory methodology informed the study. The key factors identified as influencing the disclosure process included being believed, being asked, shame/self-blame, concern for self and others, and peer influence. Many young people both wanted to tell and did not want to tell. Fear of not being believed; being asked questions about their well-being; feeling ashamed of what happened and blaming themselves for the abuse, for not telling, and for the consequences of disclosure; concern for how both disclosure and nondisclosure would impact on themselves and others; and being supported by and yet pressurized by peers to tell an adult, all illustrate the complex intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics reflecting the conflict inherent in the disclosure process. These findings build on previous studies that emphasize the dialogic and interpersonal dynamics in the disclosure process. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal influencing factors need to be taken account of in designing interventions aimed at helping children tell. The importance of asking young people about their psychological well-being and the role of peer relationships are highlighted as key to how we can help young people tell. PMID:24288188

  7. Shared parenting: a new paradigm for the treatment of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabinet, L

    1983-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that child abuse can be most effectively prevented by recasting it as a part of a larger problem of inadequately parented families. Services for these families may be offered for voluntary participation. They need not be thought of as treatments since they would be designed to prevent rather than treat injuries. The goal of the services would be to improve the childrearing experiences of children in two ways: by helping their parents to function more effectively and providing whatever elements of parental functioning (nurture, education, discipline, or protection) which the natural parents could not give. The proposed facilities would provide supplemental parenting and other services for children as necessary. Facilities would include outreach into the homes, family drop-in centers, family half-way houses for parents who can take care of their children only with onsite supervision, and residential facilities and foster homes at which natural parents would be encouraged to visit and participate. The majority of child abuses occur when there is stress on parents who are inadequate because they themselves have received deficient parenting. The proposed services would relieve stress on parents. This sharing of parental responsibilities between the natural parents and the sharing parents encountered in the proposed facilities would provide children with more adequate parenting than they could receive from their natural parents alone. This would give them a chance to grow into adequate, nonabusive parents and thus interrupt the generational cycle of abuse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6686792

  8. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  9. El Maltrato Infantil desde la bioética: El sistema de salud y su labor asistencial ante el maltrato infantil, ¿qué hacer? / Child Abuse from bioethics perspective: the health system and its work in child abuse. What to do?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La reflexión bioética de este artículo está orientada al Maltrato Infantil (MI) en general, abarcando lo que es común a todas las formas y no en particular al maltrato severo y al abuso sexual. Por ser lo más frecuente, nos orientamos al maltrato que se produce en el medio intrafamiliar. En la prime [...] ra parte de este artículo se hará un análisis de hechos, revisando la información epidemiológica y de relevancia clínica en el MI. En la segunda parte, se hace un análisis valórico sobre las dificultades de definir el MI y sobre los fundamentos para tratarlo como un problema de salud. En la tercera parte, se discute desde una perspectiva ética, los dilemas que surgen en la atención de los niños maltratados y sus familias. Finalmente se presenta una propuesta, una visión que tiene el comité de maltrato para organizar la labor asistencial de salud Abstract in english The bioethics thoughts of this article are guided to Child Abuse in general, not only to severe abuse and sexual abuse; it is directed to the most frequent form of abuse that occurs inside the family. In the first part of this article, an analysis of facts is performed, checking over epidemiologic a [...] nd clinical relevant information of child abuse. In the second part, the analysis is based on values, difficulties in defining child abuse and the reasons why it should be managed as a health problem. In the last part, the discussion is maintained from an ethics perspective, regarding the problems in the attention of abused children and their families. The committee of child abuse presents a proposal for organization of health work in this subject

  10. El maltrato infantil: un problema mundial / Child abuse: A worldwide problem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROSALINDA, SANTANA-TAVIRA; ROBERTO, SÁNCHEZ-AHEDO; EMILIO, HERRERA-BASTO.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Al abordar el maltrato infantil se presentan diversos problemas: desconocimiento de la verdadera proporción de dicha problemática; raíces culturales e históricas profundas; diversidad de opiniones en cuanto a su definición y clasificación; dificultades en la investigación y, finalmente, una diversid [...] ad de consideraciones sobre sus repercusiones y su manejo terapéutico. En el presente artículo se estudia el maltrato infantil desde sus antecedentes históricos, así como sus clasificaciones, sus definiciones y su epidemiología. Asimismo, se revisan las repercusiones y se plantean las alternativas de tratamiento que en la bibliografía existente se han manejado como fundamentales para enfrentar este fenómeno cada vez más alarmante. Queda subrayada la necesidad de unificar criterios en cuanto a la definición y clasificación de información científica en torno a datos demográficos que, finalmente, hablarán de la realidad del problema, de los avances relacionados con sus causas, su diagnóstico, sus medidas preventivas y su tratamiento. Es fundamental utilizar medidas tendientes a prevenir el maltrato, pues una gran parte de los problemas en el niño se ven reflejados en la vida adulta. Se comparan las distintas clasificaciones en torno al tema, así como las características tanto del agredido como del agresor en los distintos tipos de maltrato. Abstract in english Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present stu [...] dy approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused.

  11. Study on Child Abuse in Children and Adolescents in the Province of Buenos Aires:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuenya, Lucas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to provide a current description of the child and teenager maltreatment phenomenon in the Buenos Aires Province. The sample was composed by 5341 cases of children and teenagers from 0 to 20 years old, whose were treated in 2010 for having been victims of maltreatment. Physical maltreatment was the most frequent one. The girls presented major proportion of sexual abuse, whereas boys registered major proportions of negligence, physical maltreatment and desertion situation. An increase of the sexual abuse frequency in teenagers from 12 years was observed. As a whole, the information demonstrates that sex and age of victims are differentially associated with different types of maltreatment, and these are pertinent variables to have into account by future investigations, and prevention and protection organisms.

  12. The influence of child sexual abuse on the self from adult narrative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer, Anne; Seddon, Diane; Robinson, Catherine A; Gwilym, Hefin

    2015-01-01

    The impact of child sexual abuse on the adult self is not yet clearly understood. We explored adult perspectives through the use of narrative interviews (N = 30). Three key themes or views of self were identified in all narratives to varying degrees: the worthless self, the self as unknown, and the potential/developing self. Ambivalence and tension were present in all narratives. Individuals were challenged to integrate the sexual abuse experience in a constructive way and develop a more coherent perception of the self. The narrative method highlighted the dynamic nature of peoples' experiences at the same time recognizing that the narratives themselves are in progress. Reactions to disclosure, social support, and interpersonal connections are crucial at every turn. PMID:25747417

  13. Mood as a mediator of the link between child sexual abuse and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, S; Bebbington, P

    2015-04-01

    The significance of affective changes in psychosis is increasingly acknowledged, as is the role of early traumatic events. In a previous paper, using data from the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (APMS2007), strong associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychosis were demonstrated, with some evidence of mediation by affect. In the current paper, we subjected the same dataset to formal tests of mediation. For CSA involving sexual intercourse, 38.5 % of the link was mediated, 30.0 % by depression and 8.5 % by anxiety. For all forms of contact abuse, 38.2 % was mediated, 29.1 % by depression and 9.1 % by anxiety. PMID:25308056

  14. Substance abuse and prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, M H; Pines, A M; Lynch, T

    1982-01-01

    A study of 200 street prostitutes documented a high prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse in their family of origin, during the drift into prostitution and as part of prostitution. Additionally, the study documented a high prevalence of substance abuse among the child molesters and rapists of the subjects. The existence of a relationship between substance abuse and prostitution in and of itself does not imply causality. It is not clear whether substance abuse is one of the factors that pushed these women into prostitution (as noted earlier, 55% of the subjects reported being addicted prior to their prostitution involvement) or whether it was prostitution that caused their drug involvement (30% became addicted following and 15% concurrently with their prostitution involvement). Most likely, both prostitution and substance abuse are the behavioral translations of these women's endless cycles of victimization and severely disturbed backgrounds, as well as an expression of the self-destructive pull, the sense of hopelessness, helplessness, negative self-concept and psychological paralysis reported by almost every subject in the study. PMID:7143150

  15. Corporeal punishment and child abuse : a pastoral perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Samuel Jacob

    2014-01-01

    For many decades, violence that is perpetuated by parents and loved ones against children in the name of physical child discipline or corporal punishment, has been a major concern for various governments and church leaders among most nations of the world. This does not only take into account hitting or beating a child with a stick, belt, slapping, or choking, but also spanking; especially when it is aggressive or excessive (Bradshaw 2009; Straus 1994; Kanyandago in Waruta & Kin...

  16. Sex, lies, and statistics: inferences from the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Curcio Alexander, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child sexual abuse often recant their complaints or do not report incidents, making prosecution of offenders difficult. The child with sexual abuse accommodation syndrome (CSAAS) has been used to explain this phenomenon by identifying common behavioral responses. Unlike PTSD but like rape trauma syndrome, CSAAS is not an official diagnostic term and should not be used as evidence of a defendant's guilt or to imply probative value in prosecutions. Courts have grappled with the ideal use of CSAAS in the evaluation of child witness testimony. Expert testimony should be helpful to the jurors without prejudicing them. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled recently that statistical evidence about CSAAS implying the probability that a child is truthful runs the risk of confusing jury members and biasing them against the defendant. We review the parameters of expert testimony and its admissibility in this area, concluding that statistics about CSAAS should not be used to draw inferences about the victim's credibility or the defendant's guilt. PMID:24051595

  17. Predicting the impact of child sexual abuse on women: the role of abuse severity, parental support, and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, L L; Thomsen, C J; Sinclair, B B; Gold, S R; Milner, J S

    2001-12-01

    Female Navy recruits (N = 5,226) completed surveys assessing history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood strategies for coping with CSA, childhood parental support, and current psychological adjustment. Both CSA and parental support independently predicted later adjustment. In analyses examining whether CSA victims' functioning was associated with CSA severity (indexed by 5 variables), parental support (indexed by 3 variables), and coping (constructive, self-destructive, and avoidant), the negative coping variables were the strongest predictors. A structural equation model revealed that the effect of abuse severity on later functioning was partially mediated by coping strategies. However. contrary to predictions, the model revealed that childhood parental support had little direct or indirect impact on adult adjustment. PMID:11777126

  18. ‘.XXX’ Sponsored Top-Level Domain – Is it a solution to curb child abuse due to Internet Pornography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranath Gupta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of having a zone for adult entertainment over Internet was previously not accepted by ICANN (Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers until the recent approval of ‘xxx’ domain for adult entertainment. Among other reasons the main reason to launch a specific domain for adult entertainment was to combat the child abuse cases due to internet pornography or child pornography in particular. This analysis is a submission of the effectiveness of ‘xxx’ domain. The effectiveness of ‘xxx’ will not depend on what ‘child abuse’ is but on the general practice of the children as to how and from where they access the Internet.

  19. A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are randomly selected. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among the sample people, which is categorized in four groups of physical, sexual, emotional and neglect child abuse. The results are analyzed using different tests including Pearson correlation test, Chi-Square, etc. to test different hypotheses. The results of our survey indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between different family characteristics including age, occupation, family size, educational background, and drug-addiction and child abuse. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between home status and child abuse risk.

  20. Two deaths, one blind eye, one imprisonment: child abuse in the guise of corporal punishment in Nigerian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianu, E

    2000-07-01

    An examination of reported cases of child abuse in Nigerian schools was carried out against the backdrop of the legal framework for the protection of pupils. The objective was to highlight the deficiency in Nigerian law on child protection in the light of UN Conventions which Nigeria has ratified. PMID:10905423

  1. The nurse in sexual abuse child suspicion attention: a phenomenology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Introduction: This study brings reflexions and contributions about nurse attendance in child sexual abuse suspicion, in view the gravity and seriousness of this issue in society and the possibilities of actions to be undertaken by nurse face the child and his family, considering health promotion, protection and prevention. Objective was to analyze nurse actions in child sexual abuse suspicion context Methodology: qualitative research based on sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz, which emphasizes social relations and define the action as human conduct with a purpose, namely, has an intent, the In – Order- To motives of the action, that were captured by phenomenological interview. The questions that guided the interview were: When you attend a child with sexual abuse suspicion, what do you do? ; What you have in mind with nurse actions triggered in this type of attendance? Why? Results: The analysis of speech allowed the apprehension of four categories: interact with other professionals for child care; establish a dialogue and an open allowing, a care with a prospect from the other, to attend the children and fulfilling the routines of the unit.  Conclusions: From interviews comprehension and interpretation the understanding was that nurse’s actions can propel nurses in child health area research and offering possible interferences in family and child assistance and in yours healthy growing and development. Relevance to clinical practice: the study contributes to a better  attendance and identification of child sexual abuse suspicion by the nurse and a wide vision in violence cases assistance.

     

    Keywords: Nursing. Child. Sexual abuse. Phenomenology.

  2. Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy; Die akute Roentgendiagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung: Eine Strategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, A.E. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-04-01

    A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features `PRO` raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings `CON` suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Strategie fuer die genaue Interpretation roentgenologischer Befunde, die auf eine Kindesmisshandlung hindeuten koennen, vorgeschlagen. Fuer jeden Befund werfen die unter `PRO` aufgefuehrten Merkmale die Frage nach einer Kindesmisshandlung auf, waehrend radiologische und klinische Befunde unter `CON` andere Erklaerungen nahelegen. Geburtstrauma, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Rettungstrauma und metastasierendes Neuroblastom sind unter den vielen zitierten Differentialdiagnosen. Drei moegliche Situationen koennen den Radiologen dazu veranlassen, systematisch nach Zeichen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu suchen, 3 moegliche Loesungen koennen aus dieser Suche hervorgehen. Eine Periostreaktion ist ein Kardinalbefund zur Datierung von Frakturen. Physiologische Periostreaktionen im fruehen Kindesalter und Periostreaktionen durch fruehere Frakturen muessen bei einer solchen Datierung von Frakturen mitbedacht werden. (orig.)

  3. The measurement of psychological maltreatment: early data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, B; Becker-Lausen, E

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a self-report measure, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, which yields a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of various types of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence. Data on this measure are presented for two large samples of college students and for a small clinical sample of subjects with a diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder. The strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the scale in the college population is documented, and its validity is attested to by demonstrating that it correlates significantly with outcomes such as dissociation, depression, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and victimization, all of which have previously been associated with childhood trauma or abuse. The extremely high scores of the Multiple Personality subjects confer additional validity to the measure. The authors suggest that the construct of psychological maltreatment underlies the destructive elements of numerous forms of abuse and neglect, and that the scale they have developed may provide a useful index of this construct. PMID:9278731

  4. Situational Prevention of Child Abuse in the New Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Wortley, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Situational prevention shifts attention from the psychological characteristics of the individual performing behaviour to the facilitating role played by the immediate environment in which the behaviour occurs. Applied to the problem of Internet child pornography, the situational approach emphasises the role of opportunity in driving consumption. It is argued that under the right environmental conditions the potential to view children as sexual objects is more widespread than sexual deviance m...

  5. Attitudes related to child sexual abuse: scale construction and explorative study among psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnilä-Tuohimaa, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Björnberg, Linda; Hakala, Niina; Niemi, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2008-08-01

    A Child Sexual Abuse Attitude and Belief Scale was constructed and then answered by 242 child psychologists. Four CSA related attitude and belief subscales were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: (1) The Disclosure subscale reflecting favouring a disclosure at any cost; (2) The Pro-Child subscale reflecting unconditional belief in children's reports; (3) The Intuition subscale reflecting favouring an intuitive approach to CSA investigations; and (4) The Anti Criminal Justice System subscale reflecting negative attitudes towards the legal system. Beliefs that were erroneous according to empirical research were analyzed separately. The results suggest that some psychologists hold extreme attitudes and many erroneous beliefs related to CSA. Some misconceptions are common. Female participants tended to have stronger attitudes than male participants. The more training in interviewing children the participants had had, the more erroneous beliefs and stronger attitudes they had. Experience did not affect attitudes and beliefs. PMID:18363589

  6. A entrevista de crianças com suspeita de abuso sexual / Interviewing alleged victims of child sexual abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Roberto, Benia.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo revisar a literatura científica referente às melhores práticas na entrevista de investigação do abuso sexual infantil. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura sobre as particularidades da memória e das habil [...] idades de comunicação da criança em situação de entrevista investigativa, bem como as diferentes técnicas que permitem aprimorar a qualidade dos relatos infantis e maximizar a quantidade de informações obtidas. Foram pesquisadas as seguintes bases de dados: MedLine, PsychInfo e SciELO, no período de 1995 a 2012, utilizando-se as palavras-chave "sexual abuse", "children", "interview", "investigative" e "forensic". Foram encontradas 196 referências, das quais 34 foram selecionadas para inclusão neste artigo. Foi encontrado grande número de evidências demonstrando a necessidade de procedimentos cuidadosos para avaliar as suspeitas de abuso sexual. Técnicas específicas são descritas, assim como são discutidas as dificuldades frequentemente encontradas pelos entrevistadores. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review to describe the best practice guidelines to evaluate sexual abuse interviews. A narrative literature review was carried out to establish the children's memory and communicative skills during an inve [...] stigative interview, as well as the interview techniques that improve the quality of children's reports and maximize the amount of information elicited. We used the following electronic on-line databases: MedLine, PsychInfo and SciELO, referring to the period 1995-2012. The keywords searched for in the databases were "sexual abuse", "children", "interview", "investigative", "forensic". A total of 196 references were identified and 34 were selected for this paper. We found a large amount of evidence that recommends careful procedures when evaluating child sexual abuse. We describe the specific techniques and discuss the most common difficulties interviewers face during interviews.

  7. Mental health of mothers and their premature infants for the prevention of child abuse and maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Kaneko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Birth of preterm infants is a stressful event for their parents, particularly for mothers. The mothers of preterm infants often feel hard to relate their infants because they have separated since their first days after delivery. Long term separation and less attractive, less responsive appearance of preterm infants also make it difficult to build mother-child relationships. In addition, the mothers of preterm infants are likely to have mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders. The mothers’ psychiatric illnesses affect the psychosocial development of preterm infants and are often regarded as a risk factor for child abuse and maltreatment in later life. Child abuse and maltreatment are also prevalent among preterm infants than the full term infants. Intervention from the early period of preterm birth is an important issue for both preterm infants and their mothers. Medical and co-medical professionals should pay attention to developmental outcome of preterm as well as psychosocial conditions of their mothers for the improvement of their mental health.

  8. The Development of a Rural Team to Deal With Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurdson, E.; Jones, K.

    1982-01-01

    In the last ten years teams for dealing with child abuse have become established in many urban centres. More recently rural communities have started similar programs; such a team was established in rural Manitoba in 1976. A series of events since then has improved the operation of the team. Cooperation with an urban team has enhanced the functioning of the rural team. A broad base of community support for this work has been essential. A review of cases seen in the last 18 months indicates 12 ...

  9. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    OpenAIRE

    ColleenJoyStieler-Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitising game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has im...

  10. Effects of Genotype and Child Abuse on DNA Methylation and Gene Expression at the Serotonin Transporter

    OpenAIRE

    MeeshanthiniVijayendran; StevenBeach

    2012-01-01

    Altered regulation of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) is hypothesized to be a key event in many forms of neuropsychiatric illness, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which changes in gene function could lead to illness remains incomplete. In prior studies, we and others have demonstrated that methylation of CpG residues in the promoter associated CpG island alters SLC6A4 gene expression, that the extent of that DNA methylation in child abuse is genotype dependent, a...

  11. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. PMID:24145397

  12. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... schools to obtain a "high." What are the effects of inhalant abuse? Sniffing can cause sickness and death. For example, ... openly and stressing the devastating consequences of inhalant abuse, you can help prevent a tragedy. If you suspect your child or someone you know is an inhalant abuser, ...

  13. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  14. Prevalencia y características de los abusos sexuales a niños/Prevalence and characteristics of child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantón-Cortés (España

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue delimitar las tasas de prevalencia de los abusos sexuales infantiles, así como, especialmente, clarificar las características más frecuentes de los abusos, las víctimas y los agresores. Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas. Estos resultados serán relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos. The aim of the present work was to delimit the prevalence of child sexual abuse, as well as, especially, to clarify the most frequent characteristics of abuse, survivors and perpetrators. Results show the problematic of sexual abuse to minors, as well as the circumstances under they take place and the profile of perpetrator and survivors. These results are relevant in order to design abuse detection and prevention programs

  15. Predictors of child pornography offenses and child sexual abuse in a community sample of pedophiles and hebephiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Seto, Michael C; Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Beier, Klaus M

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about factors that distinguish men who act upon their self-identified sexual interest in prepubescent or pubescent children from those who do not. Even less is known about pedophiles or hebephiles who are not involved with the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 155 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia (or paraphilia not otherwise specified for those who were sexually attracted to pubescent children). Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on sociodemographic variables and measures of dynamic risk factors. The first set was based on recent activity and compared men who had committed child pornography only or child sexual abuse offenses in the past six months with men who remained offense-free during the same period. The second set was based on lifetime offense history (excluding the most recent six months) and compared child pornography offenders with child sexual abuse offenders and men who had committed both kinds of offenses. Overall, there were more similarities than differences between groups. PMID:20935341

  16. Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect: The Impact on Texas Children, Families, and Communities and the Need for Treatment Services. A Report to the 71st Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    The report provides a comprehensive review of child abuse and neglect concerns in Texas and offers a variety of recommendations. Data on the extent of the problem indicate that the need for treatment services has outstripped available resources. The direct and indirect costs of untreated child abuse are estimated. The joint study committee…

  18. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  19. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse; Klinischer Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [German] Gewalt gegen Kinder hat viele Gesichter: Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlaessigung, sexueller Missbrauch und elterliche Partnerschaftsgewalt koennen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu akuten und bleibenden Schaeden fuehren und ihre Entwicklung und Lebensentwuerfe nachhaltig beeinflussen. Betroffen ist in Industrienationen fast jedes zehnte Kind. Bis zu 10% der Kindesmisshandlungen betreffen das zentrale Nervensystem. Von diesen ereignen sich ca. 80% im ersten Lebensjahr. Weltweit sterben nach Angaben der Kinderhilfsorganisation UNICEF jaehrlich ueber 50.000 Kinder an den Folgen von Gewalt, Missbrauch und Vernachlaessigung. In Deutschland ereignen sich pro Jahr ca. 120 Faelle an nichtakzidentellen Kopfverletzungen. Den oeffentlich bekannten Faellen steht eine hohe Dunkelziffer aller Formen von Gewalt gegenueber. Sie zu erkennen und den Betroffenen zu helfen, setzt einen entsprechenden Verdacht voraus sowie die Kenntnis der Pathophysiologie. Der Verdacht erfordert eine gut dokumentierte Anamnese und interdisziplinaere Diagnostik. Aufgrund der aerztlichen Schweigepflicht ist die Informationsweitergabe erschwert, weshalb Netzwerke zur Frueherkennung und Leitlinien zur Kooperation unverzichtbar sind. (orig.)

  20. A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani; Shahram Basity; Faezeh Taghipour; AllahyarArabmomeni; HajarJannesari

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are r...

  1. Modos de visibilidad pública del abuso sexual infantil / Modes of Public Visibility of Child Sexual Abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María, Ledesma; Laura, Rozados; Juliana, Cattaneo; Claudia, Rosa; María Eugenia, De Zan; Mariano, Dagatti.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación sociosemiótica que interrogó la temática del abuso sexual infantil desde un aspecto poco explorado: la fuerte presencia mediática. Se tomó como eje central el grado de visibilidad pública entendido en términos de iconicidad e imagen ya [...] que se consideró, a modo de hipótesis preliminar, que en los modos de velar/ocultar/espectacularizar a las víctimas y a los victimarios es donde puede rastrearse la supervivencia del tabú que adscribe a las víctimas del abuso al terreno de lo prohibido y vergonzante. Entre otras consideraciones, se observó que la notoriedad mediática del tema instaura una equivalencia recurrente entre el cuidado-exhibición de la identidad de las víctimas del abuso sexual infantil y el cuidado-exhibición de los protagonistas de la violencia juvenil. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a research study in the field of Social Semiotics that questioned the topic of child sexual abuse from a scarcely explored aspect: strong media presence. The focus was placed on the degree of public visibility understood in terms of iconicity and image since it was [...] assumed, as a preliminary hypothesis, that it is in the ways of veiling/hiding/spectacularizing the victims and their perpetrators where we can trace the survival of the taboo that situates the victims of abuse in the field of the forbidden and shameful. Among other considerations, it was observed that media relevance of the issue establishes recurrent equivalence between care/exhibition of the identity of the victims of child sexual abuse and care/exhibition of protagonists of youth violence.

  2. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...disclosure and use of alcohol abuse patient records were...Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and...alcoholism or alcohol abuse education, training...of record of suspected child abuse and neglect...

  3. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  5. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  6. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bano Rubeena; Agarwal V.K; Kalakoti Piyush; Ahmed Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The proce...

  7. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B. B.

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  8. School-based child sexual abuse prevention programs: moving toward resiliency-informed evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian G; Miller, David J; Kelly, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Although recent years have seen an increase in the range of child sexual abuse prevention programs delivered in schools, there have been relatively few efficacy studies. Those conducted have focused primarily on intrinsic child factors and have often lacked an explicit theoretical framework. We offer resiliency theory as a useful and apposite theoretical framework for program evaluation. Resiliency theory suggests that a wider range of factors should be considered, including intrinsic (personal characteristics) and extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such factors may increase risk or, alternatively, protect children from the negative effects of adversity. We argue that a resiliency perspective to efficacy studies should recognize a long-term view on children's capacity to cope and can employ both standardized and contextual resiliency-informed measures. PMID:25635899

  9. Parenting and Family Support for Families 'at risk' - Implications from Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marie Halpenny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of family experiences on children’s development and wellbeing has been widely documented. Yet, recent reports generated by inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the Irish context raise disturbing questions with regard to how the severe maltreatment of children can occur within the family context. It is imperative that the messages generated from these inquiries can effectively inform policy and practice in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support to families at-risk. The present paper draws together key issues for parenting and family support for families ‘at risk’ based on the Roscommon and Monageer inquiries with a view to gaining insight into key issues which need to be addressed in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support for parents experiencing adversity. A number of implications arising from these reports are outlined and discussed. Specifically, the need to amplify the focus on support for parenting in the context of poverty and substance abuse is highlighted with a particular emphasis on developing sensitive screening and assessment for parents who may be difficult to engage with due to chronic mental health issues. The importance of accessing the voice of children within the provision of family support is also underlined in these findings. A key recommendation from these reports is that the needs, wishes and feelings of each child must be considered as well as the totality of the family situation. Moreover, the need for staff in child welfare and protection services to have access to ongoing training and professional development to meet the complex and changing needs of the children and families they are working with is also highlighted. Specifically, ongoing training for frontline staff in understanding the effects of drug and alcohol dependency, and, in particular, the effects on parenting and parent-child relationships is underscored in findings from these reports.

  10. Effects of Genotype and Child Abuse on DNA Methylation and Gene Expression at the Serotonin Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MeeshanthiniVijayendran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Altered regulation of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4 is hypothesized to be a key event in many forms of neuropsychiatric illness, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which changes in gene function could lead to illness remains incomplete. In prior studies, we and others have demonstrated that methylation of CpG residues in the promoter associated CpG island alters SLC6A4 gene expression, that the extent of that DNA methylation in child abuse is genotype dependent, and that adverse childhood experiences such as child sex abuse are related to methylation. However, we have not examined whether these effects are splice variant specific, whether the association of methylation to gene expression varies as a function of genotype, and whether methylation in other SLC6A4 gene regions are more likely candidates for GxE effects. In the current investigation we measured methylation in lymphoblast DNA from 158 female subjects in the Iowa Adoption Studies at 16 CpG residues spread across the SLC6A4 locus, and analyzed their relationship to gene expression for two SLC6A4 splice variants. Methylation of two CpG residues in the shore of the CpG island (cg22584138 and cg05951817, a location immediately upstream from exon 1A, predicted gene expression for the splice variant containing Exon 1A + 1B. Methylation at two residues in the CpG island itself (cg 25769822 and cg05016953 was associated with total SLC6A4 expression. Examination of these four CpG residues indicated that methylation of cg22584138 was influenced by both genotype and sex abuse, whereas methylation of cg05016953 was influenced only by sex abuse history. Factors influencing methylation at other CpG dinucleotide pairs were not identified. We conclude that methylation effects on transcription may vary as a function of underlying gene motif and splice variant, and that the shore of CpG islands, upstream of TSS, may be of particular interest in examining environmental effects on methylation.

  11. SENSIBILIDAD MATERNA Y MALTRATO INFANTIL / MATERNAL RESPONSIVENESS AND CHILD ABUSE / SENSIBILIDADE MATERNA E ABUSO INFANTIL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ARIEL, VITE SIERRA; FLORENTE, LÓPEZ RODRÍGUEZ; AGUSTÍN, NEGRETE CORTÉS.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O interesse deste estudo foi avaliar a construção de sensibilidade materna em um grupo de díades mãe-criança com história de abuso físico na infância frente a um grupo de mães não abusadoras. Os participantes foram 30 díades mãe-bebê: 15 com história de abuso físico e 15 sem histórico de abuso físic [...] o, que foram pareadas com relação à idade e ao sexo das crianças. As duplas foram observadas pelo Sistema de Captura de Dados Ocupacionais (SICD) em situação acadêmica (Vite, Garcia y Rose, 2006). Os resultados indicam que o comportamento das crianças abusadas foi mais aversivo do que as crianças controle, mas foram semelhantes nos comportamentos pró-sociais. Respeito ao comportamento materno, observou-se que as mães abusadoras mostram um comportamento aversivo e instrucional maior do que o comportamento das mães controle, ainda que suas frequências nos comportamentos neutral e pró-social foram semelhantes. Os dois grupos de mães aprovam em proporções baixas o comportamento pró-social de seus filhos. As mães abusadoras são menos sensíveis ao comportamento de seus filhos do que as mães não abusadoras. Estes resultados são uma tentativa de mostrar uma nova perspectiva sobre os intercâmbios sociais que levam as crianças e suas mães a episódios coercivos que terminam em abuso físico. Abstract in spanish El interés del presente estudio fue evaluar el constructo de sensibilidad materna en un grupo de diadas madre-hijo con historia de maltrato físico infantil en relación con un grupo de madres no maltratadoras. Participaron 30 diadas madre-hijo, 15 con historia de maltrato físico y 15 sin historia de [...] maltrato físico, las cuales fueron apareadas con relación a la edad y el sexo de los niños. Todas las diadas fueron observadas a través del Sistema de Captura de Datos Observacionales SICDO (Vite, García y Rosas, 2006), en una condición académica. Los resultados indican que los niños maltratados mostraron mayor comportamiento aversivo que sus contrapartes controles, pero fueron similares en la conducta prosocial. En relación con el comportamiento materno, se observó que las madres maltratadoras presentan mayor comportamiento aversivo e instruccional que las madres control, pero manifestaron frecuencias similares en los comportamientos prosocial y neutral. Así mismo, ambos grupos de madres aprueban de manera similar y en bajas proporciones la conducta prosocial de sus hijos. Por otra parte, las madres maltratadoras son menos sensibles al comportamiento de sus hijos que las madres no maltratadoras. Estos hallazgos representan un intento exploratorio de proporcionar una nueva perspectiva en el proceso de los intercambios sociales a través del cual los niños y sus madres se involucran en episodios coercitivos que llevan al maltrato físico infantil. Abstract in english The interest of this study was to assess the construct of maternal responsiveness in a group of mother-infant dyads with a history of child physical abuse as compared to a group of nonabusive mothers. The sample included 30 mother-infant dyads, 15 with history of physical abuse and 15 without histor [...] y of physical abuse, which were paired in relation to age and sex of children. All dyads were observed through the Data Capture System Observational SOI-I (Vite, Garcia y Rosas, 2006), in an academic condition. The results indicate that abused children were more aversive than their controls, but similar in pro-social behavior. In relation to maternal behavior, the abusive mothers displayed more aversive and instructional behavior than control mothers, but showed similar frequencies in neutral and pro-social behavior. . Also, both groups of mothers approve in a similar manner and in a low rate their children's pro-social behavior. On the other hand, the abusive mothers were less responsive to the behavior of their children than non abusive mothers. These findings represent an exploratory attempt to provide a new perspective on the process of social exchanges through which children a

  12. Clusters of abusive parenting: a latent class analysis of families referred to Child Protective Services in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ana Luísa; Moleiro, Carla; Dias, José G

    2014-12-01

    From the perspective of ecological models, it is suggested that a thorough behavior analysis of parental mistreatment and neglect is undertaken from a general approach to a more comprehensive and multi-dimensional perspective. Hence, the main goal of the present study was to determine if meaningful groups or clusters of abusive parenting in Portugal could be identified based on the characterization of the children and adolescents, their parents and context variables. An instrument was developed to assess variables of the children or adolescents, the family and the social context, all of which have been shown to be important in the literature. Child and Youth Protection Commissions from the whole of Portugal participated in the study, a total of 504 cases. Latent class analysis was applied in order to identify distinct parenting abusing behavior. The results showed four distinct clusters of families which are clearly defined in light of the types of risk and associated variables. The four groups are probabilistic and propose the composition of clusters with socio-demographic variables related to the types of risk. The significant interrelationships of different profiling characteristics are directly related to parenting abusing behavior. The results of this study confirmed our hypothesis of heterogeneous abusive parenting in Portugal. The findings yield useful policy-oriented results. Meaningfully organizing abusive parenting may be an important step not only in understanding the origins of abuse and neglect, but also in integrating this information into intervention models with children, young people and their families. PMID:25466423

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  14. Experiences with Ritualist Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Study from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, F.; Jonker-Bakker, P.

    1991-01-01

    The case of apparent ritual sexual abuse of children in a community in the Netherlands is described in terms of the children's stories, behaviors, and physical symptoms and the community's reaction to reactions of police and other professionals. Suggestions are made for improving interviews and evaluations of such types of sexual abuse. (BRM)

  15. Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  16. Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  17. Personality development after physical abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  18. Preadoptive Child Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Moves in Care, Adoption Disruptions, and Inconsistent Adoptive Parent Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Ryan, Scott D.; Howard, Jeanne A.; Smith, Susan Livingston

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To date, little empirical attention has been given to the impact of preadoptive child sexual abuse (CSA) on adoption adjustment. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether preadoptive CSA was associated with more placement moves, adoption disruption, and inconsistent parental commitment compared to adopted…

  19. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  20. The Impact of a Management Protocol on the Outcomes of Child Abuse in Hospitalized Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm C. W.; Li, C. H.; So, K. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the outcomes of children hospitalized for suspected child abuse before and after the implementation of a management protocol in a hospital in Hong Kong. Study period: Two 2-year periods before (1994-1995) and after (2002-2003) the implementation of the protocol in 1998. Methods: This is a retrospective hospital chart review in…

  1. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  2. Dissociation is associated with emotional maltreatment in a sample of traumatized women with a history of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Lisa; Bebermeier, Anke; Möllering, Andrea; Neuner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Theories of dissociation emphasize that symptoms of dissociation are correlated with traumatic events. Although the association of dissociative symptoms and retrospective reports of child abuse with a focus on mainly sexual and physical abuse has been well documented, investigation of the contribution of emotional or psychological types of maltreatment to the prediction of dissociation has been neglected to a great extent. The aim of this study was to determine the differential impact of different types of maltreatment on dissociative symptoms in a sample of 203 female residential patients treated for posttraumatic stress disorder linked to child maltreatment. Moreover, it was examined whether the link between dissociation and child maltreatment is direct or indirect. Subjects completed questionnaires on child maltreatment, posttraumatic stress, and dissociative symptoms. Although all types of maltreatment were related to dissociative symptoms, emotional abuse was the strongest and most direct predictor of dissociation in multivariate hierarchical analyses with the influence of other trauma types being confounded by emotional abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional types of maltreatment for the genesis of dissociative symptoms in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25365464

  3. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  4. The Relationship of Child Maltreatment and Self-Capacities with Distress when Telling One's Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…

  5. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  6. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  7. Intention to Participate in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Study of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…

  8. Helping To Prevent Child Abuse--and Future Criminal Consequences: Hawai'i Healthy Start. Program Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Ralph B.

    This document describes Hawai'i's Healthy Start Program, a statewide, multisite home visitation program designed to screen, identify, and work with at-risk families of newborns. Goals of the program include: (1) reducing family stress; (2) improving family functioning; (3) enhancing child health and development; and (4) preventing abuse and…

  9. Stages in the delivery of home-based services to parents at risk of child abuse: a Healthy Start experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, V A; Lister, L

    1995-01-01

    Hawaii's Healthy Start program of home-based services to families identified at risk for child abuse and neglect is becoming a model for the nation. The present paper provides background information about Healthy Start and describes a three-phase process of engagement and service delivery that characterizes the Healthy Start home visitation model. PMID:7667568

  10. When Worlds Collide: Social Science, Politics, and the Rind et al. (1998). Child Sexual Abuse Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a 1998 article on the effects of child sexual abuse, which created considerable controversy in the media, conservative organizations, and Congress. The incident raises questions about authors' responsibilities in reporting controversial findings, academic and scientific freedom, the American Psychological Association's role in disabusing…

  11. Barriers Preventing the Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Comparison of School Social Workers in Public and Private Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgus, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Timely and accurate reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect is essential to protect victimized children; however, there are barriers to such reporting. The importance of barriers may be based on organizational theories that suggest structure has an impact on behavior independent of individual factors and on identity theory which suggests…

  12. Child Physical Abuse and the Related PTSD in Taiwan: The Role of Chinese Cultural Background and Victims' Subjective Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Su, Yi-Jen; Wu, Ho-Mao; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate child physical abuse (CPA) while taking into account the more rigorous definitions of CPA in the Chinese societies. The prevalence of CPA and CPA-related PTSD were estimated, together with the examination of peri-traumatic subjective reactions and their impacts on PTSD. Methods: In a Taiwanese sample of…

  13. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Communication Practices of Parents of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…

  14. / The origin of maltreatment: An exploratory study on the intergenerational transmission of child abuse typologies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel V., Oliveira; João, Maroco; Lucía G., Pais.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se informa fue determinar si, en casos de transmisión inter-generacional de maltrato, se verificaba transmisión de tipologías de abuso y establecer el contexto del abuso. Se desarrolló un estudio exploratorio con 10 agresores de niños, quienes habían sido víctimas de abus [...] o. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron una entrevista semi-estructurada y un cuestionario socio-demográfico. Se realizó un análisis del contenido para estudiar los datos textuales, el test de Fisher para determinar la posible dependencia entre los tipos de abuso sufridos y practicados y análisis del componente principal para explorar asociaciones entre categorías. Se verificó la transmisión del abuso físico en siete casos, en dos casos de abuso psicológico y en dos de negligencia. No se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre las tipologías de abuso sufrido y practicado. Las categorías Entorno Familiar (218 unidades de registro -u.r- unidad de codificación básica) y Relaciones Intrafamiliares (151u.r.) presentaron el mayor número de u.r., y las categorías Abuso Sexual (1u.r.) y Agresor como Figura de Identificación Reconocida (4u.r.), el más bajo. El contexto del abuso se explica mejor mediante un modelo bidimensional: Maltrato e Interacciones Sociales y Contexto del Abuso, Sentimientos y Percepciones. Se encontraron fuertes asociaciones entre Abuso Psicológico y Físico, Relaciones Interpersonales, Inclinación al Abuso y Hábitos Tóxicos, y entre ser la única víctima de agresiones, viendo al otro como figura de identificación y sentimientos negativos hacia el agresor. La transmisión de las tipologías de abuso no fue significativa, pero se encontraron asociaciones entre aspectos contextuales y son discutidos junto con sus limitaciones e implicaciones. Abstract in english The way child maltreatment has been seen and dealt with has changed over time. Nowadays, it is a phenomenon of great importance and social recognition, being the target of many studies, and having led to the creation and implementation of several protection measures. The intergenerational transmissi [...] on of maltreatment is one of the main causes for current child abuse and neglect. In this way, our objective was to assess whether a transmission of abuse typologies occurred, in the cases where an intergenerational transmission of maltreatment is observed. Thus, we developed an exploratory study using a convenience sample of 10 child aggressors, who had been victims of abuse during their own childhood, from the district. All participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar socio-economic background. The participants gave their informed consent to participate in this study. For data collection we used a semi-structured interview, developed specifically for this study, and a socio-demographic questionnaire that enabled a characterization of the sample. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data produced was then analyzed using as used content analysis, to study the textual data collected with the interviews, and principal components analysis. Fisher’s test was used to determine the association between suffered and inflicted types of abuse (p

  15. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogmo Idar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation. Conclusion Children raised by former substance abusing mothers scored worse on the neuropsychological screening than children who had substance abusing mothers and mostly were raised in foster homes. This indicates that it is important to focus on the environment in cases where help and support are provided to presently or formerly addicted women raising children.

  16. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habetha Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound and Canada (upper bound, whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings.

  17. A moralidade do abuso sexual intrafamiliar em menores Ethical aspects of the child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro E. Morales

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a moralidade do abuso sexual em menores, tendo em conta as características da vítima e seu meio familiar e do processo, desde a ocorrência do fato até a denúncia por parte dos familiares e conhecidos, a atenção prestada pelas instituições estatais à vitima e à família, bem como os meios probatórios usados pelos órgãos judiciais no julgamento do provável agressor. Os autores discutem as questões éticas da dinâmica do abuso sexual intrafamiliar, baseados em alguns princípios: autodeterminação, justiça, igualdade, eqüidade, consentimento livre e esclarecido, não maleficência/beneficência, entre outros.This article analyses the moral character of sexual abuse against minors taking into consideration the characteristics of the victim and its family environment, as well as the process itself, from when the fact occurred until it was reported to the authorities by relatives and acquaintances, the care provided by the State institucional organs to both the victim and its family members. Also, the probatory means used by the judging authorities during the trial of the probable aggressor. The authors discuss the ethical aspects involved in the dynamics of child sexual abuse within the family based on some principles, such as self-determination, justice, equality, equity, free and clear consent, no harmfulness/kindness, among others.

  18. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (pintroduction of adult interpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (p<.001 and p=.002, respectively), and the model showed a good fit across multiple indices. Finally, weight-related teasing was a significant moderator in the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did. PMID:24412223

  19. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Esmaeili Douki; Mohammad Reza Esmaeili; Nazanin Vaezzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Hamideh Azimi; Robabeh Sabbaghi; Mousa Esmaeil; Zohreh Shahhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child age...

  20. Family patterns, attitudes and behaviour in relation to the upbringing of children in South Korea: the social construction of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sonam

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the ways in which the Western concept of child abuse is understood by parents and professionals in Korea and how it is applied to Korean society. In order to address this, attention will be focused on parents' and relevant professionals' attitudes and perceptions in relation to child rearing, along with their responses to the problem of child abuse. Qualitative methodologies were used; semi-structured in-depth interviews with 50 participants. The findings suggest t...

  1. Factors from Durkheim's family integration related to suicidal ideation among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M

    2013-06-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual abuse were examined. Four variables--length of cohabitation, maternal support after disclosure, parental divorce, and older age--were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The analysis provides partial support for Durkheim's model. Implications for education, clinical practice, and future research are presented. PMID:23409795

  2. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  3. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ColleenJoyStieler-Hunt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitising game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken.

  4. Coexisting Child Neglect and Drug Abuse in Young Mothers: Specific Recommendations for Treatment Based on a Review of the Outcome Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad

    2004-01-01

    Although perpetrators of child neglect often abuse illicit substances, treatment outcome evaluations in drug-abusing young mothers who have been found to neglect their children are conspicuously absent. Problem-solving interventions and family-based therapies that include skill acquisition components have demonstrated effectiveness in…

  5. The Presence of a Stepfather and Child Physical Abuse, as Reported by a Sample of Brazilian Mothers in Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Substitute fathers are often reported to commit child abuse at higher rates than birth (i.e., putative genetic) fathers. Due to the paucity of studies, especially in developing countries, and to some conflicting results from developed countries regarding the identity of perpetrators of less extreme forms of physical abuse of children in…

  6. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  7. Sense of Personal Worth, Self-Esteem, and Anomia of Child-Abusing Mothers and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorkey, Clayton T.

    1980-01-01

    Control mothers reported stronger feelings of personal worth based on their perceptions of others' evaluations of them. Abusing mothers scored higher on feelings of social alienation. On the Self-Esteem scale, no significant differences were found between groups. (Author)

  8. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2014-08-20

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. PMID:25143437

  9. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  10. Judges' views of child sexual abuse: evaluating beliefs against research findings in a Finnish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Julia; Svanbäck, Jatta; Finnilä, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N = 104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding their professional experience of CSA cases. The judges held both correct and incorrect beliefs; while their CSA prevalence estimates were rather well in line with research findings, half of the participants estimated that no professionals use suggestive methods when interviewing children and more than 40% thought suggestive methods can be useful when trying to get a child to tell about real events. Judges correctly assumed symptoms cannot be used to assess a CSA case, however, the majority thought play observations were appropriate means for evaluating such suspicions. Experience seemed to lead to more confidence in their own expertise but not in an actual increase in knowledge, namely, judges thought themselves more expert when more experienced although their expertise as measured by the questionnaire did not improve. Overall, the judges had both correct and erroneous beliefs but while experience did not improve the situation, gaining information about CSA did. More research about the beliefs of judges and how such beliefs impact legal decision-making is needed. PMID:25040839

  11. Revelação do abuso sexual infantil: reações maternas / Disclosure of child sexual abuse: mother's reactions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samara Silva dos, Santos; Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A literatura tem indicado que mães de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual, ao tomarem conhecimento da situação de abuso de suas filhas, podem apresentar uma variedade de manifestações, que podem incluir ansiedade, depressão e estresse pós-traumático. Além disso, a reação frente à revelação pode ser de [...] apoio e proteção ou, ainda, de evitação, indiferença ou ambivalência. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como mães de meninas abusadas sexualmente reagiram quando tomaram conhecimento do abuso. Foram entrevistadas 10 participantes que estavam sendo acolhidas em serviços especializados em situações de violência, em hospital público de Porto Alegre. As reações maternas foram classificadas em positivas e ambivalentes. A maioria das mães acreditou no relato das filhas e denunciou o abuso, embora nem todas tenham sido protetivas no sentido de afastar suas filhas do abusador ou de imediatamente procurar ajuda e realizar denúncia. Os fatores que contribuíram para as reações maternas também são discutidos. Abstract in english The literature has indicated that mothers of children victims of sexual abuse, when taking knowledge of the abuse situation of their children, can present a variety of manifestations that can include anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, the reaction facing abuse disclosu [...] re can be support and protection or, still, avoidance, indifference or ambivalence. This study aimed at investigating how mothers of sexually abused girls reacted when they had taken knowledge of the abuse. Ten participants who were being sheltered at a specialized service for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault in a public hospital of Porto Alegre were interviewed. The mother's reactions were classified in positive and ambivalent. The majority of the mothers believed in the report of their daughters and denounced the abuse, although not all had been protective in the sense of keeping their children safe from the abuser or immediately looking for help and carrying out the denunciation. The factors that contribute to mother's reactions are also discussed.

  12. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  13. False Memory for Trauma-Related DRM Lists in Adolescents and Adults with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, Latonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the ...

  14. Caregiver Unresolved Loss and Abuse and Child Behavior Problems: Intergenerational Effects in a High-Risk Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Zajac, Kristyn; Kobak, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational effects of caregivers’ Unresolved loss and abuse on children’s behavior problems from middle childhood to early adolescence in an economically disadvantaged sample. One hundred twenty four caregivers completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and a lifetime trauma interview during the age 13 wave of the study. Child behavior problems were assessed at four time points (ages 6, 8, 10, and 13) with teacher-reported CBCL total problem scales. The ...

  15. Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Bublitz, Margaret H.; Stroud, Laura R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30 minute...

  16. A skills and needs analysis among social workers assessing alleged child sexual abuse in the Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Iffley, Roche? Shandre?

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the skills and needs of forensic social workers, working with alleged child sexual abuse in the Western Cape. Forensic social work is based on specialised knowledge drawn from established principles and their application within proven methodology of training, familiarity with the law, evaluation and objective criteria associated with treatment outcomes. The scope of forensic social work thus includes a specialised skill where human service systems communicate the languag...

  17. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in longstanding eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Vrabel, Karianne R.; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Øyvind; Martinsen, Egil W.

    2009-01-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current five year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (1) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (2) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at one-,...

  18. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  19. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasukazu Ogai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J. One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA. Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA. Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  20. Controversies and challenges of ritual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, S

    2000-11-01

    Children who have survived ritual abuse have endured physical, psychological, and sexual trauma; brain-washing; and mind-altering drugs. Their trust in adults has been eroded. Their coping strategies include anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation. Although reports of ritual abuse initially seem hard to believe, nurses have a responsibility to detect clues to abuse, diagnose the child's responses, and recognize controversial issues regarding ritual abuse. To evaluate ritual abuse, nurses should avoid interview strategies that influence the child's recall (e.g., coaching, suggestions) and recognize that some reports are discounted as false memories because they emerge from fantasy, distortions, innocent deceptions, false beliefs, lies, or adult coaching. Nurses play an important role in case finding and treatment. They can evaluate clues to ritual abuse to reduce sources of error in assessment, build a child's trust, monitor their own attitudes toward ritual abuse, and intervene to increase self-esteem, empathy, boundary establishment, and coping. Nurses have an important opportunity to detect and begin healing the wounds caused by a child's abuse. PMID:11105292