WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He ...

2

Child Abuse in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death.
A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in...

2011-01-01

3

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

2010-01-01

4

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

Ermertcan Aylin

2010-01-01

5

Child Abuse in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2011-02-01

6

Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abus/span>e Potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the ability of the Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory to screen for child abus/span>e in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abus/span>e scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

1986-01-01

7

Unemployment and child abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The employment state of men living in the homes of children at the time that child abuse was diagnosed was determined. The series included a wide range of abuse, including non-accidental injury, failure to thrive, neglect, and emotional deprivation. Two cohorts of children seen during 1974-9 and 1980-5 were compared; these periods were chosen because a large increase in unemployment began in Sheffield in 1980. Although the proportion of the men without work was significantly increased during ...

1987-01-01

8

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... more basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any ... and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

9

Child Abuse and Family Violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

This annotated bibliography contains abstracts of books, journal articles, and research reports dealing with child abuse, wife abuse, and family violence in general. The 62 citations represent documents published in the United States, Canada, and Great Br...

1978-01-01

10

Child sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

2001-04-01

11

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... for the abuser becomes trapped between affection or loyalty for the person, and the sense that the ... sitter tells you to do Encouraging professional prevention programs in the local school system Sexually abused children ...

12

Incest and Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

1982-01-01

13

Child physical abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

2014-04-01

14

Early Detection of Child Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

Shearman, J. K.

1987-01-01

15

Child abuse in panic disorder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

2008-01-01

16

Orthopaedic aspects of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is one of the most serious problems encountered by on-call orthopaedic surgeons. There are adverse sequelae to both overdiagnosing and underdiagnosing this condition. Orthopaedic surgeons generally manage orthopaedic aspects of child abuse but should be aware of the associated injuries, diagnoses, prognoses, and natural history of abuse. Because fractures are the second most common presenting injury in children after skin lesions, orthopaedic surgeons are often on the front lines of treatment. No specific fracture is pathognomonic of child abuse, although some patterns, such as posterior rib fractures, metaphyseal corner fractures, and fractures in various stages of healing, are highly suggestive of abuse. Although metabolic bone disease is much rarer than child abuse, the child should be tested so treatment can be initiated, if needed, or for the purpose of demonstrating due diligence in the event of court proceedings. A diagnosis of child abuse is an understandably contentious issue; therefore, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of injury patterns and differential diagnoses. PMID:23395044

Baldwin, Keith D; Scherl, Susan A

2013-01-01

17

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...

18

Child abuse - sexual  

Science.gov (United States)

... sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling) ... and street drugs or engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors Do poorly in school Have excessive fears Withdraw ...

19

Children's literature and child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the use of children's literature in the treatment of child abuse, a method referred to as bibliotherapy. Appropriate children's books are described that can be used in this approach. PMID:2403904

Pardeck, J T

1990-01-01

20

GIRL CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

G.S. VENUMADHAVA

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
21

Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

2005-01-01

22

Attitudes towards child sexual abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the relation between participants’ knowledge-seeking on the one hand, their experiences, attitudes and actual knowledge about abuse on the other hand. Three studies are presented based on the same dat...

Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

2008-01-01

23

Child abuse in panic disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

Bonevski Dimitar

2008-01-01

24

Does child abuse cause crime?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

2006-01-01

25

PILL series. Management of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children deserve a childhood free from abuse, where their basic physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs are met. Child abuse is defined as any act of omission or commission by a parent or guardian that would endanger or impair the child's physical or emotional well-being, or that is judged by a mixture of community values and professionals to be inappropriate. A total of 247 cases of suspected child abuse in Singapore was investigated in 2012. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical neglect or emotional abuse accounted for 60%, 30% and 10% of these cases, respectively. Primary care providers play an important role in the early detection and referral of child abuse cases, which enable timely intervention to ensure the well-being of the child and prevent further abuse. Hospitals and other medical centres form the largest source of referrals of suspected child abuse. PMID:24154576

Wong, Pei Ying; How, Choon How; Wong, Peter Choong Yi

2013-10-01

26

Child abuser stereotypes: consensus among clinicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the results of an investigation of nurses' stereotypes of child abusers. Ninety-four registered nurses completed a questionnaire that measured subjects' knowledge of child abus/span>e; professional contact with perpetrators and victims of abuse; knowledge of the causes of child abus/span>e; and child abuser stereotypes. Results reveal a consensus among the subjects as to the stereotypes associated with child abusers. This study supports the notion that nurses stereotype individuals on the basis of demographic characteristics. This study also raises questions regarding the bias that may result from the use of child abuser stereotypes. Clinical decision-making processes could become compromised if biased judgements are used in planning nursing care for clients diagnosed as child abusers. PMID:2930179

Krowchuk, H V

1989-02-01

27

Attachment Theory and Child Abuse: Some Cautions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a response to Bolen's article, "Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?" (this issue). Heralds the article as a welcome addition to the child abuse field and further explores the issues pertaining to attachment theory and child abuse. (GCP)

Olafson, Erna

2002-01-01

28

Child Abuse: The Undetected "Special Need."  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explains forms of child abuse (neglect, emotional, sexual, and physical), outlines recommended school procedures for dealing with suspected child abuse in students with special educational needs, and emphasizes the need for increased teacher training and teacher action in reducing child abuse. (JDD)

Maher, Peter

1989-01-01

29

Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is suffici...

2011-01-01

30

Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the...

Selen Acehan; Aysegul Bilen; Mehmet Oguzhan Ay; Muge Gulen; Akkan Avci; Ferhat Icme

2013-01-01

31

Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

Bengü Pala

2011-03-01

32

Emotional Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... assuming the child is at fault, having unrealistic expectations of the child, openly admitting to disliking or ... sheets are issued periodically on a variety of subjects as needs arise. Fact sheets may be reproduced ...

33

Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…

Mapes, Bruce E.

34

Substance Abuse and Child Abus/span>e-Neglect: Implications for Direct-Service Providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the relationship between substance abuse and child abus/span>e-neglect by analyzing child protective services workers' (N=21) responses to a questionnaire. Found significant demographic differences between substance- and nonsubstance-abuse child abusers, and differences in protective service workers' service plans for substance and…

Kameen, Marilyn C.; Thompson, Diane L.

1983-01-01

35

The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…

Martin, Harold P.

36

Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Darkness to Light (DTL) is a national non-profit organization concentrating on the promotion of the prevention of child sexual abuse directed toward adult audiences. One of DTL's primary interventions utilizes mass media techniques. This project comprised...

A. A. Rheingold

2005-01-01

37

Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, towards an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods. Contacts were made with academics, government departments, NGOs and UN agencies. This was followed by a field trip in the summer of 2001 \twhere all available reports were examined and a wide r...

2004-01-01

38

75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

...free from fear, abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual, emotional, and physical abuse threaten too many children every day in communities...child abuse and provide for children's physical, emotional, and developmental needs. [[Page 17842

2010-04-07

39

Conceptualization, Reporting and Underreporting of Child Abuse in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 1,001 Hong Kong adults found a discrepancy between perceived prevalence and the ability to name different child abuse types without prompting. Only about 40 percent would report abuse cases to authorities. Those who would not report abuse were less likely to classify abuse situations as abusive. (Author/CR)

Lau, Joseph T. F.; Liu, Joseph L. Y.; Yu, Aaron; Wong, C. K.

1999-01-01

40

Accidents and child abuse in bathtub submersions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-accidental bath drowning is an infrequently reported form of child abuse. Details of 44 children who suffered from drowning or near drowning in the bath were analysed from a two year (1988-9) UK study to investigate factors that might point to abuse. Cases of near drowning were notified through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit inquiry system and drowning cases from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, the Scottish Government Record Office, and the Northern Ireland Office...

Kemp, A. M.; Mott, A. M.; Sibert, J. R.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Childhood Physical Abuse, Childhood Social Support, and Adult Child Abus/span>e Potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the role of social support in the discrimination of physical child abusers and nonabusers, both with a childhood history of physical child abus/span>e. In contrast to expectations, none of the social support factors distinguished between the abusers and nonabusers. (JPS)

Caliso, John A.; Milner, Joel S.

1994-01-01

42

Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

Serhat Nasiroglu

2014-02-01

43

Risk factors for child abuse: quantitative correlational design.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research study is to identify risk factors typical of different types of suspected child abuse reported at a hospital. The study was based on 114 cases of children for whom some type of abuse was reported. Physical abuse was the most frequently reported of all types of suspected child abuse. Most victims of sexual abuse were female and at least half the cases of neglect and physical abuse were attributed to parents. Most cases were identified in the emergency room by nurses. Children older than 10 were more susceptible to physical abuse and neglect. PMID:24263252

Ben-Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Barbashov, Polina; Minasyan, Yulia; Hanukayev, Isabella; Kajdan, David; Klein-Kremer, Adi

2014-01-01

44

Child Abus/span>e in Hong Kong Revisited after 15 Years: Characteristics of Victims and Abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the characteristics of victims and abusers in Hong Kong child abus/span>e cases in 1995 and compares findings with child abus/span>e cases in 1979. Results indicate an increase in female victims and in sexual abuse. In 1995, abusers were also more likely to be of either gender. (CR)

Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Davis, Cindy

1996-01-01

45

Screening for child abuse at emergency departments: a systematic review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Child abuse is a serious problem worldwide and can be difficult to detect. Although children who experience the consequences of abuse will probably be treated at an emergency department, detection rates of child abuse at emergency departments remain low. OBJECTIVE: To identify effective interventions applied at emergency departments that significantly increase the detection rate of confirmed cases of child abuse. DESIGN: This review was carried out according to the Cochrane Hand...

2009-01-01

46

Urgent Medical Assessment after Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…

Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.

2006-01-01

47

Diagnosing Child Sex Abuse: A Research Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing…

Duffy, Catrina; Keenan, Mickey; Dillenburger, Karola

2006-01-01

48

Attitudes of the Singapore Public to Actions Suggesting Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interviews with 401 randomly sampled residents of Singapore concerning the acceptability of 18 actions that suggested child abuse found strong disapproval of sexually motivated acts, greater disapproval of physical than emotional abuse/neglect, and some opposition to mandatory reporting of child abuse. Results support the use of definitions of…

Elliott, J. M.; And Others

1997-01-01

49

Protecting Children through Mandated Child-Abuse Reporting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains legal reporting requirements for child abuse and neglect. Describes legal standards for reasonable suspicion and indicators of various types of abuse. Details what should be included in a report and discusses implications for school personnel. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel; McQuillan, Kathleen

2003-01-01

50

Verbal Abuse on Children: Does It Amount to Child Abuse under the Malaysian Law?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children form an essential component of a society. The role of children has been acknowledged key to the survival, development as well as prosperity of that society. A child’s development stage is the most crucial and warrants serious attention from parents and teachers in order to assure their growth into mature adults, who are able to contribute to the society. One of the factors that may hamper their growth is child abuse. There are basically five main forms of child abuse known to take place in Malaysia namely physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect as well as abandonment. These forms of abuse have been given legal attention and recognition except emotional or psychological abuse. One common type of emotional abuse is verbal abuse, which is a form of abusive behavior involving the use of language. Alternatively known as reviling, it is a pattern of behavior that can seriously interfere with one’s positive emotional development and over time, it can lead to significant detriment to one’s self-esteem, emotional well-being and physical state. Although verbal abuse does not leave any outer mark or proof, a verbally abused victim usually suffers by having lower self-worth and low self-esteem. A child, who suffers verbal abuse may grow up to become a low self-esteem adult. Thus, verbal abuse may be considered as grave and must be given serious attention. Laws are the reflection of the attitude of a particular society. Since the function of law is mainly to maintain societal peace and order, it is through law that we can infer how society regards a particular issue, in this regard, verbal abuse on children. This paper aims to highlight firstly, on verbal abuse as another significant form of child abuse needing to be given serious consideration by the society and secondly, on the parameters of child abuse under the Malaysian Child Act 2001; and finally concludes with whether the provisions under the Malaysian Child Act 2001 are sufficient to protect children from verbal abuse.

Che Hasniza Che Noh

2012-04-01

51

Child advocacy center based group treatment for child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines initial symptom presentation among participants, outcomes, and social validity for a group treatment for child sexual abuse delivered at a child advocacy center. Participants were 97 children and their nonoffending caregivers who were referred to Project SAFE (Sexual Abuse Family Education), a standardized, 12-week cognitive-behavioral group treatment for families who have experienced child sexual abuse. Sixty-four percent of children presented with clinically significant symptoms on at least one measure with established clinical cutoffs. Caregivers of children who presented with clinically significant symptoms reported more distress about their competence as caregivers. Children who presented as subclinical were more likely to have experienced intrafamilial sexual abuse. Posttreatment results indicated significant improvements in functioning for all children who participated in treatment, with greater improvements reported for children who initially presented with clinically significant symptoms. Overall, the program was rated favorably on the posttreatment evaluation of social validity. PMID:24641523

Hubel, Grace S; Campbell, Christopher; West, Tiffany; Friedenberg, Samantha; Schreier, Alayna; Flood, Mary Fran; Hansen, David J

2014-01-01

52

3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

... The tragedy of child abuse may afflict American...emotionally. Child neglect, another form...Understanding the forms of child abuse is critical to...and respond to child abuse by strengthening...children's physical, emotional, and...

2010-01-01

53

Toronto multiagency child abus/span>e research project: the abused and the abuser.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information from 422 cases of child mistreatment in Toronto was gathered from the files of a child welfare agency and a children's hospital. These data were compared to patterns reported in previous studies and clinical writings on child mistreatment to investigate similarities and differences in families whose children have been abused in Canada, England, and the United States. Findings from the present study were similar to others in many respects. The differences were primarily in the area of lower incidences of such problems as perinatal difficulties in the children and intellectual limitations and social isolation in the parents; however, there was a higher incidence of single-parent families. The results suggest that clinicians should bear in mind that child mistreatment cannot be ruled out on the grounds that no serious problems have been noted for the child or the family. PMID:6541086

Caplan, P J; Watters, J; White, G; Parry, R; Bates, R

1984-01-01

54

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

... Federal Legislation Impacts Child Welfare Service Delivery Parent-Child Visits Video Series Library Library Search Logic Model Builders Logic ... Toolkit How Federal Legislation Impacts Service Delivery Parent-Child Visits Video Series Library Library search Logic Model Builders Event ...

55

Child abuse moderates cortisol's relationship to memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : Early life stress restructures the nervous system. In rodents, the level of maternal care causes lifelong differences in central glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity and memory. Furthermore, human adults with a history of child abuse have decreased hippocampal GC receptor gene expression and lower cortisol responses to stress. As GCs modulate memory, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functions altered by atypical care may influence memory. Methods : Participants ...

2012-01-01

56

An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

57

Parental Personality Factors in Child Abus/span>e.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to demonstrate that abusing parents differ from nonabusing parents in personality variables, the Michigan Screening Profile of Parenting was administered to six groups of mothers (n=100): adjudicated abuser, spouses of adjudicated abusers, mothers convicted of child neglect, nonabusing mothers from a college student population,…

Spinetta, John J.

58

Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…

Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.

1999-01-01

59

Child abuse prevalence in Russian urban population: a preliminary report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-reported data from 375 early and mid-adolescent school children in a Siberian city estimated a prevalence of child abuse at 28.9%. Of these children, 3.8% suffered injuries that required medical attention. This prevalence of child abuse indicates the need for additional research and development of a system to identify and manage child abuse in Russia. PMID:7780786

Berrien, F B; Aprelkov, G; Ivanova, T; Zhmurov, V; Buzhicheeva, V

1995-02-01

60

Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania. PMID:23829829

Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse: a continuation of Finkelhor  

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Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18 (5), 409417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods: Relevant articles about prevalence of child sexual abuse were identified through searches of computerized databases and a handsearch of Child Abuse & Ne...

2009-01-01

62

Child sexual abuse survivors' grief experience after the death of the abuser  

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This qualitative study used descriptive data in the form of CSA (child sexual abuse) survivors' own words to offer insights into these individuals' grief experiences following the death of their abusers. Sixteen CSA survivors who experienced the death of the abuser participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data. Six major themes emerged: (a) opposing experiences, (b) confusing emotions, (c) loss of opportunity, (d) influence of personal factors, (e) effec...

2010-01-01

63

Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009  

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Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Design and Setting: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary me...

Al-Mahroos Fadheela; Al-Amer Eshraq

2011-01-01

64

Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary co-morbid conditions.

HeleddHart

2012-03-01

65

Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey sample  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and high according to the socio-economical and cultural levels of the neighborhoods they were located in, and total fifteen schools were selected, three from each area, with characteristics suitable to represent the respective areas. Number of students included in the sample from these schools is 655. Study data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of items directed at determining the socio-demographic characteristics of the students, structures of families, quality of family relationships and presence or absence family violence against the child and relations and factors that might create the potential for violence.Findings: Proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their mothers was found as 54%, and proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their fathers was found as 46%. According to results of the regression analysis performed separately for mothers and fathers with the purpose of finding the variables with the greatest effect on being treated with violence of children by their parents and the level of effect of these variables, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their mothers were educational status of the mother, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the mother against the child, respectively.According to the results of the logistic regression analysis performed in relation with students’ experiences of violence from their fathers (Table 109, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their fathers were gender of the student, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the father against the child, respectively.

Sezer Ayan

2009-06-01

66

Evaluation of the North West Province educational programme for the primary prevention of child sexual abuse  

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Child sexual abuse is a widespread problem nationally and internationally. Sexual abuse is traumatic for the child victim. Usually the adult abuser takes advantage of the childs innocence and trust in adults. In many cases, the abuser threatens or bribes the child to keep silent. Because of t he threats, fear and embarrassment, most children do not tell anyone about the abuse. Keeping the secret of abuse only causes more emotional stress for the child and the family.

2008-01-01

67

Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

2011-01-01

68

Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

2008-01-01

69

Child Abuse and Neglect: A Literature Review and Selected Bibliography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document provides a review of the issues related to child abuse and neglect and presents a bibliography of 78 documents on the subject. Individual chapters, each containing a reference list, address the following areas: historical overview, incidence, characteristics of abuse and neglect, current legislation, systems approach to child

Eskin, Marian; Kravitz, Marjorie, Ed.

70

Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

2009-01-01

71

Definitions, Scope, and Effects of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... making sexual comments to the child * - Example: A coach told a team member he had a fine ... Public awareness Programs Developing programs Evidence-based practice Evaluation Prevention Month Responding to child abuse & neglect Overview ...

72

Child sexual abuse--the interface with genitourinary medicine.  

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Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose.

Rogers, D. J.; Roberts, R. E.

1995-01-01

73

Child abuse: discovering the horrifying truth.  

Science.gov (United States)

EMS is called to the residence of a 2-month-old child who's lethargic and has not eaten well for several days. On arrival, the grandmother of the patient states she's concerned because the child isn't acting right. During your assessment, you notice the child isn't acting age appropriate. Initial vital signs after placing the patient in the ambulance reveal: blood pressure 82/46, pulse 146 bpm, respirations 32 and a blood-glucose level of 134 mg/dL. Further assessment reveals bruising to the pinna of the right ear. On arrival at the emergency department (ED), the child begins to have periods of apnea, and the hospital healthcare providers intubate the patient. A post-intubation chest X-ray reveals multiple acute and sub-acute rib fractures. The ED staff exposed the patient during their assessment and noted bruising to the left ear and the jaw. There's also bruising found in different stages of healing to the anterior and posterior chest wall. The ED staff suspects this patient is a victim of child maltreatment, so the proper authorities are notified. During the investigation, the mother admits to abusing the child. PMID:21986384

Blair, Lee; Clauss, Eric; Meredith, Mark

2011-10-01

74

The Effects of Sexual Abuse as a Child on the Risk of Mothers Physically Abusing Their Children: A Path Analysis Using Systems Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The potential path from sexual abuse as a child to the current risk of physical abuse by mothers was assessed. Ontogenic variables including the experience of the parent's sexual abuse as a child and current depression or substance abuse were expected to have a greater impact on the risk of child abuse than microsystem and exosystem…

Mapp, Susan C.

2006-01-01

75

Preventing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Guidance for School Personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…

Wakefield, Cindy

76

[Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204

Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

2013-02-01

77

Prediction and Explanation of Child Abus/span>e: Cross-Validation of the Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide cross-validation data for the Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory, classification rates were determined for 220 physical child abusers and matched control subjects. Using all protocols, a discriminant analysis indicated the Abuse scale correctly classified 85.4% of the subjects, with 82.7% of the abusers and 88.2% of the control subjects…

Milner, Joel S.; And Others

1986-01-01

78

Child Abus/span>e: One Sign of a Troubled Society.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the characteristics of child abusers and physical and behavioral indicators of child abus/span>e. Advocates parenthood education programs for children and parents as child abus/span>e preventive measures. Suggests ways that educators can handle cases of suspected child abus/span>e. (DMM)

Fontana, Vincent J.

1987-01-01

79

Public attitudes toward child sexual abuse in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bringing public attention to the topic of sexual harrassment of children in Serbia during 2010 as well as the series of arrests of persons suspected of “peadophilia“, encouraged authors to conduct a study which will analyze the public opinion about sexual child abuse. The study is conducted using a sample of 804 people in three comparative categories, laymans, professionals who work with potential victims and sexual abusers, and students of the Belgrade university. Besides assessing how well the persons in question are informed and assessing their concrete knowledge, the authors will evaluate standpoints in five dimensions questioning the perception of the term child, the term abuser and cause often abusing, stands regarding punative measures for sexual delinquents, stands regarding victimization of children with developmental disorders and finally the perception of the child regarding the abuse.

Petkovi? Nikola

2010-01-01

80

Verbal Abuse on Children: Does It Amount to Child Abuse under the Malaysian Law?  

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Children form an essential component of a society. The role of children has been acknowledged key to the survival, development as well as prosperity of that society. A child’s development stage is the most crucial and warrants serious attention from parents and teachers in order to assure their growth into mature adults, who are able to contribute to the society. One of the factors that may hamper their growth is child abuse. There are basically five main forms of child abuse known to take ...

Che Hasniza Che Noh; Wan Izatul Asma Wan Talaat

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Research in Action: Assessment and Treatment of Child Sexual Abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews recent studies on child sexual abusers and abuser treatment and their implications for patient assessment and treatment. Reviews recidivism outcome studies from the perspective of their contributions to questions of which sort of treatments appear to be effective with which populations, and suggests that clinicians be aware of the need for…

Chaffin, Mark

1994-01-01

82

Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

2011-01-01

83

A social work study on family patterns and child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between different family characteristics and child abuse in city of Jarghooye located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 50 people and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, family educational background and family size on child abuse. The results indicate that while there were some meaningful relationships between family income and family educational background, there was not any statistical evidence to believe on such relationship between family size and child abuse.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2014-06-01

84

Child abuse and neglect: usefulness of the animal data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews and critically discusses the relevance of animal data to research on child abuse and neglect. Although parental investment theory can be useful in investigating the adaptiveness, if any, of child abuse and neglect, the evolutionary approach also has some limitations. The most suitable animal models for investigating the psychosocial processes underlying child abuse and neglect are probably found among the nonhuman primates. Whereas the heuristic value of social deprivation paradigms may be limited, recent studies suggest that the spontaneous occurrence of infant maltreatment in monkeys may be the closest approximation to child maltreatment provided by nonhuman animals. The investigation of adaptive and maladaptive processes in the parenting behavior of socially living nonhuman primates can inform research on child abuse and neglect and allow investigators to conduct studies that would be difficult or impossible in humans. PMID:9602555

Maestripieri, D; Carroll, K A

1998-05-01

85

Child abuse, mental health, mandatory reporting law  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The aims of the present study were to present the follow-up findings of abuse cases whose legal reporting procedures initiated by clinicians, to inform about the way of legal reporting procedures and to discuss this subject from legal, ethical and treatment point of views. Methods: Sixteen abuse cases whose legal reporting procedure was initiated by physicians were included in the study. Data were gathered from patient file records, retrospectively. Findings: The causes for the leg...

2008-01-01

86

Child Sexual Abuse: Fracturing Family Life  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research has shown that childhood sexual abuse can have damaging long-term effects on family life and relationships. Some effects have been widely recognised such as feelings of betrayal and confusion when fathers abuse, or bitterness at mothers who cannot protect. A new qualitative research study with a group of women survivors in Edinburgh, recruited because of their contact with mental health services, has found wide-ranging and subtle effects on family life that endure over the lifecourse...

2002-01-01

87

Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

2013-01-01

88

The Child Abus/span>e Crisis: Impact on the Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report explains the roles and responsibilities of schools in dealing with child abus/span>e. The introduction lists child abus/span>e facts and figures, defines child abus/span>e and neglect, provides a rationale for the involvement of educators in treatment and prevention efforts, and considers ethical issues. Chapter 1, which concentrates on keeping abusers

Fead, A. Kelley

89

The End of Innocence: Child Sexual Abuse in Ireland  

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The past decade (1990s) in Ireland has witnessed numerous high profile child abuse scandals, some involving members of the clergy and others occurring in institutions for children in care. A problem that was once seldom or never discussed is now very much in the public arena. The End of Innocence describes the background to the scandals uncovered during the 1990s and the reactions to them, and then provides a thorough understanding of all the issues surrounding child sexual abuse. Leading pra...

2001-01-01

90

Prevalence of Child Abuse in Khorramabad Secondary Schools  

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AbstractObjectives: This research was conducted to show the prevalence of child abuse in the se-condary school students in the town of Khorramabad. The effective factors were also deter- mined. Method: 240 students (117 girls, 123 boys) in the first, second, and third grades of second- dary schools were selected randomly as the subjects of this cross-sectional and descriptive study. Child Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire was used as the main instrument. The find- ings were analyzed and interpr...

2003-01-01

91

Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse r...

Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.

2009-01-01

92

Child pornography: a hidden dimension of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals? PMID:6542820

Pierce, R L

1984-01-01

93

Examining Mediators of Child Sexual Abuse and Sexually Transmitted Infections  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Interpersonal violence has increasingly been identified as a risk factor for sexually transmitted infections. Understanding the pathways between violence and sexually transmitted infections is essential to designing effective interventions. Objective To examine dissociative symptoms, alcohol use, and intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion as mediators of child sexual abuse and lifetime sexually transmitted infection diagnosis among a sample of women. Method A convenience sample of 202 women was recruited from health care settings, with 189 complete cases for analysis. A multiple mediation model tested the proposed mediators of child sexual abuse and lifetime sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. Bootstrapping, a resampling method, was used to test for mediation. Key variables included child sexual abuse, dissociative symptoms, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence. Results Child sexual abuse was reported by 46% of the study participants (n = 93). Child sexual abuse was found to have an indirect effect on lifetime sexually transmitted infection diagnosis, with the effect occurring through dissociative symptoms (95% CI = 0.0033, 0.4714) and sexual coercion (95% CI = 0.0359, 0.7694). Alcohol use and physical violence were not found to be significant mediators. Discussion This study suggests dissociation and intimate partner sexual coercion are important mediators of child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. Therefore, interventions that consider the roles of dissociative symptoms and interpersonal violence may be effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections among women.

Sutherland, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

94

The Effect of Severe Child Sexual Abuse and Disclosure on Mental Health during Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who…

O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

2010-01-01

95

Child Physical Abuse and concurrence of other types of Child Abuse : associations with health and risk behaviors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse and health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teen-agers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors. Methods: A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in two different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (N=7 262). The respo...

2012-01-01

96

A profile of the child-on-child sexual abuser in a children's home / T. Mocke.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child-on-child sexual abuse is seen as a severe social as well as a psychological problem, because of the current increasing dimension of sexual abuse in South-Africa. If the profile of a sexually abusive child in a children’s home is known, the individual development plan for the specific child can be accurately determined, in order to insure that the child receives the correct intervention. The risk that other children may be exposed to sexual abuse or sexual inappropriate behaviour might...

2013-01-01

97

Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:437–439.

Richard Lichenstein

2013-09-01

98

Peer abuse  

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Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a) is intended to cause harm or distress, (b) occurs repeatedly over time, and (c) occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may b...

2011-01-01

99

A Statewide Study of the Public Attitudes toward Child Abus/span>e.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 742 Kentucky adults revealed that they had a good understanding of the characteristics of abused children and child abusers, but a majority considered abusers as abnormal and intractable. Only a third of those aware of instances of child abus/span>e actually reported it to authorities. (Author/JDD)

Dhooper, Surjit Singh; And Others

1991-01-01

100

Evaluation of the North West Province educational programme for the primary prevention of child sexual abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child sexual abuse is a widespread problem nationally and internationally. Sexual abuse is traumatic for the child victim. Usually the adult abuser takes advantage of the child’s innocence and trust in adults. In many cases, the abuser threatens or bribes the child to keep silent. Because of t he threats, fear and embarrassment, most children do not tell anyone about the abuse. Keeping the secret of abuse only causes more emotional stress for the child and the family. Because of the betraya...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Occurrence of Child and Adolescent Abuse in Caruaru-PE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Verify the occurrence of child and adolescent abuse referred to Caruaru Tutelary Council between 2002 and 2004. Method: To this end, data on the complaints lodged in the period concerned was requested from the Tutelary Council. Results: From a total of 798 cases reported the most common was neglect (49.24% followed by psychological violence (28.94%. Physical and sexual abuse represented 17.6% and 4.66% of the total of the sample, respectively. As to sex, males represented 55.3% of the cases reported. Conclusion: According to literature, lesions are most frequent on the orofacial area. The awareness of such a piece of information makes a high demand for dental surgeons´ ethical and legal responsibility. Besides reporting suspect child abuse to authorities, there is now a call for creating protective mechanisms for the abused in addition to preventive educational campaigns with focus on the need for denouncing and avoiding all kinds of maltreatment.

Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA

2006-04-01

102

Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

2010-01-01

103

Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

2005-01-01

104

Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12% were caused by child battering and 13 (7% by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent and often substance dependence (31%. None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.

Juhani Merikanto

2012-01-01

105

ABUSED AND ALONE:How to Meet the Challenge of Child Sexual Abuse in Cambodia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The objective was to identify what special challenges the local communities in Cambodia meet concerning child sexual abuse and to find strategies to meet these challenges. Background: Since 1998 and the end of the civil war, IOM?s ?Childhood Mental Health & Counter Trafficking Project? has worked to prevent child mental health problems in the Rattanak/Mondul District of Cambodia. In the year of 2004 it was stated by the Program Director Dr. Eng Samnang that...

2006-01-01

106

A protocol for the empowerment of non-offending parents to report child sexual abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of child sexual abuse in South Africa is very high, and even though the reporting of child sexual abuse is legislated by the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act (32 of 2007), the rate at which sexual abuse is reported is alarmingly low. Based on experiences obtained in private practice, it is the researcher's opinion that many parents are concerned about the possibility of their child being abused, or have knowledge that their child is being sexuall...

Rust, Nolene; Strydom, Corinne; Vermeulen, Antoinette

2012-01-01

107

Implementation of Nuclear Medicine Methods for Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglec  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse and neglect are detrimental to a child’s health, physical and psychosocial development and result from inappropriate behavior or inattention on the part of those responsible for the child’s care and protection. Child abuse/neglect is a serious public problem encompassing medical, ethical and legal aspects. Imaging methods play an important role in investigating and documenting child abuse and neglect. Radiological imaging methods have particular priority. X-rays of the whole s...

2010-01-01

108

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. PMID:18504566

Drubach, Laura A; Sapp, Mark V; Laffin, Stephen; Kleinman, Paul K

2008-07-01

109

Keeping Kids Safe: A Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Manual. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The material in this book is intended to provide a review of information regarding child abuse prevention. It is divided into two sections. Part 1, The Facilitator's Guide, contains background information on child sexual abuse, with a particular emphasis on the dynamics of incest and other sexual abuse and their effects on the child. It presents a…

Tobin, Pnina; Kessner, Sue Levinson

110

Exploring Taboos: Comparing Male- and Female-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abus/span>e and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…

Peter, Tracey

2009-01-01

111

Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review  

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Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types.

Kemp, Alison M.; Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D. Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R.; Maguire, Sabine

2008-01-01

112

Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome, indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc. with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse of children is one of the most heinous crimes imaginable.

Prof. Sidhartha B. Sawant

2012-04-01

113

Child Maltreatment and Perceived Family Environment as Risk Factors for Adult Rape: Is Child Sexual Abuse the Most Salient Experience?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective:: Child maltreatment and family functioning were examined as predictors of adult rape in a sample of 925 college women. Method:: Information was obtained from retrospective self-report questionnaires. Child sexual abuse (CSA) was assessed with the Life Experiences Questionnaire, child emotional abuse (CEA) and physical abuse (CPA) were…

Messman-Moore, T.L.; Brown, A.L.

2004-01-01

114

Report and Recommendations on Child Abuse and Neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 1975, The Maine Human Services Council in response to a request from the Department of Human Services created a Task Force to assist the Department in the development of a state wide plan relating to the prevention and treatment of child abuse and ...

1976-01-01

115

Child abuse: A classic case report with literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect are serious global problems and can be in the form of physical, sexual, emotional or just neglect in providing for the child's needs. These factors can leave the child with serious, long-lasting psychological damage. In the present case report, a 12-year-old orphaned boy was physically abused by a close relative who caused actual bodily and emotional trauma to the boy. After satisfactorily managing the trauma and emotional effects to the patient, in addition to the counseling services provided to the caregiver, the patient made a steady recovery. He was also referred to a child support group for social support, and prepare him together with his siblings for placement in a children's home in view of the hostile environment in which they were living. PMID:24963259

Kemoli, Arthur M; Mavindu, Mildred

2014-04-01

116

On the structure of psychological consequences of child abuse  

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The article focuses on psychological consequences of child and teens abuse. We review the problem of ill-treatment as one of the most significant threats to the personal safety of minors, describe the phenomenology and the determinants of ill-treatment from the point of view of the different approaches, and present brief statistical data describing the extent of the problem. The main part of the article is an attempt to analyze the abuse consequences on the psychics of minors. According to th...

2013-01-01

117

Child Physical Abuse : Characteristics, Prevalence, Health and Risk?taking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The home is supposed to provide support and safety for children but can also be the place where children suffer abuse and other adverse treatment by their parents. Violence against children in homes has been banned in Sweden for more than 30 years but it is still a considerable problem in the society and a threat to public health. The overall aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon Child Physical Abuse (CPA) in Sweden after the ban on corporal punishment. Th...

Annerba?ck, Eva-maria

2011-01-01

118

Child Abuse Prevention: A Job Half Done. Chapin Hall Issue Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief discusses the findings of the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment (NIS 4), which reports a significant reduction in the overall rate of child maltreatment since the 1993 NIS. The study reflects substantial drops in the rates of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse. However, no significant changes…

Daro, Deborah

2010-01-01

119

Utility of Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys in Suspected Child Physical Abuse Evaluations  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate the utility of a follow-up skeletal survey in suspected child physical abuse evaluations. Methods: In this prospective study, follow-up skeletal surveys were recommended for 74 children who, after an initial skeletal survey and evaluation by the Child Abuse Team, were suspected victims of physical abuse. The number and…

Zimmerman, Stephanie; Makoroff, Kathi; Care, Marguerite; Thomas, Amy; Shapiro, Robert

2005-01-01

120

Preventing Child Abuse: A Meta-Analysis of Parent Training Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of parent training programs to reduce parents' risk of abusing a child. Method: A total of 23 studies were submitted to a meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included parents' attitudes toward abuse, emotional adjustment, child-rearing skills, and actual abuse. Conclusions:…

Lundahl, Brad W.; Nimer, Janelle; Parsons, Bruce

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…

Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael

2007-01-01

122

Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

2010-01-01

123

Professionals' criteria for detecting and reporting child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported. PMID:23156936

González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

2012-11-01

124

MR imaging evaluation of subdural hematomas in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR imaging is the most accurate modality for determining the presence, number, and aging of subdural hematomas. Based on seven patients studied with CT and MR imaging, MR imaging should be the gold standard in child abuse evaluations. Since the history of child abuse is often ambiguous, MR imaging can assist in dating when the injury occurred. MR imaging in two perpendicular planes is needed, with one plane having both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Chronic subdural hematomas on CT often have the same density as cerebrospinal fluid and may be misdiagnosed as atrophy or unrecognized. Therefore, the child may be returned into a dangerous situation and subjected to recurrent episodes of battering

1988-12-02

125

Abusive Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

... behavior. What Is Abuse? Abuse can be physical, emotional, or sexual. Physical abuse means any form of violence such as hitting, punching, pulling hair, and kicking. Abuse can occur in both dating relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) ...

126

The notion and consequences of emotional abuse of a child in the family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper considers the notion of emotional abuse of a child in the family as one of the most serious forms of family pathology. Emotional abuse is defined as parent’s or guardian’s acting or non acting, such as rejection insult, isolation, terror, verbal attack etc. that might cause serious and permanent disorders in child’s emotional development. Due to that, very complicated consequences of this serious form of abuse are particularly analyzed. In this paper, the author is standing up for the opinion that sexual and physical abuse are always in connection with the emotional, while emotional abuse could appear as a separate phenomenon.

Ljubojev Nadežda

2004-01-01

127

What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Federal Legislation Impacts Child Welfare Service Delivery Parent-Child Visits Video Series Library Library Search Logic Model Builders Logic ... Toolkit How Federal Legislation Impacts Service Delivery Parent-Child Visits Video Series Library Library search Logic Model Builders Event ...

128

Physical Child Abuse: What Are the External Factors?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children are an integral asset for future development of a nation. In lieu with this notion, countries pay much attention to their development and well being. In recent times, child abuse has been rampant. This issue is constantly making headlines in national newspapers in Malaysia. The alarming effect of this phenomenon is its inevitable implication on the family institution and the nation’s aspiration to create a better tomorrow. This current study is an attempt to discover the contributo...

Noremy M. A.; Zulkarnain A. H.; Kelvin F.; Adanan M. J.; Sarah W. M. H.

2012-01-01

129

The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

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Rosana Norman and colleagues conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes.

2012-01-01

130

Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of reviews.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders. PMID:23262751

Maniglio, Roberto

2013-04-01

131

Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

Lampert, Jo

2012-01-01

132

A Reappraisal of the Frequency of Child Abuse Seen in Pediatric Emergency Rooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of a child abuse case-finding checklist in the emergency department of a large children's hospital (Montreal, Canada) identified 39 (of 2,211 accident patients) for further evaluation of which 28 (1.3%) were presumed to be victims of abuse or neglect. Incidence of abuse was substantially lower than expected. (Author/DB)

Pless, I. B.; And Others

1987-01-01

133

Linkages between Child Abuse and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls: Behavioral and Social Correlates  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an…

Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

134

Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

Rodriguez, Christina M

2010-01-01

135

Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. RESULTS: The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. CONCLUSION: During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.

Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq

2011-01-01

136

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respo...

Bassani Diego G; Palazzo Lilian S; Béria Jorge U; Gigante Luciana P; Cl, Figueiredo Andre?ia; Rgc, Aerts Denise; Cw, Raymann Beatriz

2009-01-01

137

Primary identification of an abused child in dental office: A case report  

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Although the injuries of child abuse are many and varied, several types of injuries are common to abuse. Many of these injuries are within the scope of dentistry or easily observed by the dental professional in the course of routine dental treatment. The authors present a case of child abuse with multiple bruises. The child had been spanked in the previous night and the morning of the attendance by his mother. This case emphasized that all practitioners should be vigilant when patients presen...

Santos J; Cavalcanti A; Nunes K; Silva E

2007-01-01

138

Fatal child abuse in Japan: does a trend exist toward tougher sentencing?  

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BACKGROUND: It has been pointed out in Japan that criminal punishment in domestic homicide cases, especially in fatal child abuse cases, tends to be more lenient than in public homicide cases that occur outside the home. In recent news accounts of fatal child abuse cases, however, the media has reported that court-imposed sentences have tended to be stricter every year. METHODS: Using the online databases of three major Japanese newspapers, we collected articles about fatal child abuse cases ...

Saori Nambu; Ayako Nasu; Shigeru Nishimura; Akiyoshi Nishimura; Satoshi Fujiwara

2011-01-01

139

Child Abuse: Knowledge and Attitudes Among Pedodontics in Uberlandia e Araguari, Minas Gerais  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To identify from pediatric dentistry educational experiences and knowledge concerning child abuse/neglect, numbers of suspected cases of child abuse and knowledge of local child protection. Method: A survey with 26 pedodontics in Araguari and Uberlandia (Minas Gerais, Brazil) was done and they were sent a postal questionnaire, 17 responded, giving a 65.4 percent response rate. The survey requested demographic details, responses to possible physical abuse or neglect, and details of ...

2006-01-01

140

[Perforation of the eardrum caused by child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a complex, multifaceted form of child abuse that presents a challenge to all health-care providers. Diagnosis is difficult in cases of MSBP, and it is imperative to recognise the clinical features of MSBP in both the child and the perpetrator. All members of the health-care team must stay objective in the interactions with families where MSBP is suspected and make referrals to the proper agencies. A case is presented to explain the medical and social complexities associated with nursing and diagnosing MSBP. This article also provides a brief review of the definition of MSBP. PMID:21958485

Gindesgaard, Christian Banner; Møller, Troels Reinholdt

2011-09-26

 
 
 
 
141

Distinguishing Teaching Interactions of Physically Abusive from Nonabusive Parent-Child Dyads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated the ability of child protective service workers to distinguish videotaped interactions of physically abusive parent-child dyads from interactions of nonabuse dyads during a teaching task. Child protection workers achieved a 76 percent rate of accuracy in identify the abuse status of dyads after only three minutes of observed…

Deitrich-MacLean, Gay; Walden, Tedra

1988-01-01

142

A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

Tu?ba AYAZ

2013-07-01

143

When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

Tully, Fred

1998-01-01

144

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

145

Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Abuse and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised November 2012 Many people ... domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease ...

146

Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

147

Inhalant abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic...

Baydala, L.

2010-01-01

148

Alcohol Use, Drinking Venue Utilization, and Child Physical Abuse: Results from a Pilot Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A positive relationship between parents’ drinking and child physical abuse has been established by previous research. This paper examines how a parent’s use of drinking locations is related to physical abuse. A convenience sample of 103 parents answered questions on physical abuse with the Conflict Tactics Scale-Parent Child version (CTS-PC), current drinking behavior, and the frequency with which they drank at different venues, including bars and parties. Ordered probit models were used ...

Freisthler, Bridget

2011-01-01

149

Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was s...

2013-01-01

150

Case report : forensic anthropological assessment in a suspected case of child abuse from South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Not many case reports of suspected child abuse as assessed solely on skeletal remains are available. Forensic anthropologists have intimate knowledge of normal skeletal anatomy, bone trauma and processes of healing of bone and may therefore be of help in suspected cases of child abuse. Patterns of trauma in juvenile skeletal remains which are suggestive of abuse include fractures in different phases of healing, multiple fractures, typical fractures on ribs and long bones and severe, complicat...

Steyn, Maryna

2011-01-01

151

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

2006-01-01

152

Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate. If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family. In Southern Denmark approximately 40 children pr. year are examined in four different radiology departments. Until the autumn of 2012 different projections and imaging techniques were used for the skeletal surveys. This proposed difficulties, because all images are subject to second opinion statements. In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University Hospital. A follow-up meeting was arranged in Sept. 2013. The meeting focused on follow-up skeletal surveys in children < 2 years of age Results. Images are acquired at low noise levels. Speed class 100 against normally 200 - 400 is sufficient, demanding higher radiation dose compared to common pediatric examinations. For children < 2 years, images are acquired systematically and consequently. If a follow-up skeletal survey is needed, images of the spine, head and pelvis are not repeated. No cases of unnecessary supplement images or reexaminations have occurred since autumn 2012 indicating successful implementation of the guidelines

Mussmann, Bo

153

28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2 Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports...

2009-07-01

154

Irish child sexual abuse victims attending a specialist centre  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We profiled a cohort of CSA cases referred for assessment to a specialist child sexual abuse (CSA) centre in a national paediatric hospital in Ireland. Historical and clinical data were drawn from records of 171 cases. The majority of cases were referred by social workers following purposeful disclosure of CSA. Three quarters of the cases were female with a mean age of 9 years. They were from a wide spectrum of socioeconomic groups and many had suffered a range of family adversities. In most ...

O Riordan, Beth; Carr, Alan; Turner, Rhonda

2003-01-01

155

Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers whether attachment theory as it is applied to child sexual abuse might be susceptible to biases that reflect the larger sociocultural context. Although this paper concludes that attachment theory can potentially add an important dimension to the conceptualization of child sexual abuse and its dynamics, it is also suggested that…

Bolen, Rebecca

2002-01-01

156

Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…

Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia

2011-01-01

157

Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abus/span>e, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abus/span>e and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…

Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia

2011-01-01

158

Child Abus/span>e as a Work-Related Problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of child abus/span>e requires mental health intervention strategies, not only at the level of host and agent, but also the environment, particularly the work environment. Studies of the epidemiology of child abus/span>e have tended to emphasize the psycho...

B. Justice D. F. Duncan

1975-01-01

159

A phenomenological exploration of reflections on lived space by child sexual abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.). PMID:21142595

Garrett, Linda H

2010-12-01

160

Forced Suffocation of Infants with Baby Wipes: A Previously Undescribed Form of Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Foreign body aspiration in children is commonly seen in emergency departments and carries a significant mortality. Abusive foreign body suffocation is not well described. Methods: We present a case-series of four infants who presented with aspiration of a baby wipe. Results: Each child was found to be a victim of child physical abuse

Krugman, Scott D.; Lantz, Patrick E.; Sinal, Sara; De Jong, Allan R.; Coffman, Kathryn

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Prevention of child sexual abuse: analysis and discussion of the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevention of child sexual abuse is complicated, challenging, and highly necessary as sexual abuse of children and youth represents an extensive problem across the world. This article reviews the existing preventive interventions targeting children, parents, and professionals. An alternative way of organizing the child sexual abuse prevention research literature is offered and applied with emphasis on three areas: (a) child sexual abuse prevention interventions, (b) meta-analyses of child sexual abuse prevention interventions, and (c) general theoretical models about prevention and the child. Based on an analysis of these areas, it was found that there was a lack of connection between theoretical models and concrete preventive interventions. An overview of current challenges and future possibilities in this area is provided. PMID:23924180

Zeuthen, Katrine; Hagelskjær, Marie

2013-01-01

162

Potential mediators between child abuse and both violence and victimization in juvenile offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population. PMID:22924801

Day, David M; Hart, Trevor A; Wanklyn, Sonya G; McCay, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Alison; Burnier, Nathalie

2013-02-01

163

Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

2014-07-01

164

Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying areas and gaps for further research and program development. Material and Methods: Published articles in scientific journals during the years 2007-2012 with free access and online versions of English newspapers (2007-2012 in India were searched using the search engines such as ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google’. The key words used were ‘child abuse in (on, about India. First two researchers independently reviewed the content of articles/newspaper reports and decided the categories emerging from the articles and reports. Later on, the quantification of these categories was done by identifying the number of times it was reported in the reports. Results: The nature and extent of reporting child abuse in scientific journal is different from that of newspapers. In Journals, our search provided us with 9 articles, of which prevalence studies were predominant (4 followed by case reports (3 and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice studies (2. The studies were mostly conducted in the hospital setting. We obtained 38 reports from newspapers. Child abuse was found more among girls. Among type of abuse, sexual abuse was more common (84.2%. About 52.6% of the abusers were members known to the victim. The maximum cases were reported from West India especially in Goa, followed by South region. Most reports reported legal action on accused. Little was reported on what happened to a victim, indicators of abuse and settings of the abuse. The motives and consequences of the abuses were not mentioned explicitly. Conclusions: The articles were more focused on prevalence of child abuse in hospital settings. As per newspaper reports, female child abuse (sexual abuse by a known person to family was reported more. It was found more in West part of India. Recommendations: More research/reporting is required to study the extent of problem in different settings of India, settings of abuse, quality of life of victims, parental/community education on indicators of abuse and development of support program to victim.

Nalini PR

2014-02-01

165

Financial Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Financial Abuse Elder financial abuse spans a broad spectrum of conduct, including: Taking money or property Forging an older person's signature Getting an ... false pretence, or dishonest acts or statements for financial gain Telemarketing scams. Perpetrators call victims and use ...

166

Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Issues," Vol 20, No. 4 2008 Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical ... Baltimore, MD: Health Professionals Press. Home | About NCPEA | Elder Abuse | Calendar | Publications | Coalitions | Links | Members | Contact © 2008 NCPEA. ...

167

Sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child through cultural practices in Zimbabwe: a human rights perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"In Zimbabwe the sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child remains high. Recently the state has acknowledged the problem of sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child and has indicated the willingness to step up campaigns against it. This campaign, however, targets school children in primary and secondary schools. There has also been an increase of sexual abuse of children in schools by the teachers and other staff members. The family as an institution has facilitated child abuse a...

Hanzi, Roselyn

2006-01-01

168

Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Method. English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are examined. Reports from international and local NGOs and UN agencies are also examined. Results. Few published studies on the sexual abuse of chil...

2004-01-01

169

Elder abuse.  

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Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

Bradley, M.

1996-01-01

170

The Relationship between Child Sexual Abuse and Alexithymic Symptoms in a Population of Recovering Adult Substance Abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group of sexually abused substance abusers scored higher than non-abused group on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Alexithymia symptomatology was found to be positively related to the duration of the sexual abuse. Results were interpreted as indicating that the development of symptoms may represent another defense victims employ to insulate…

Scher, Dean; Twaite, James A.

1999-01-01

171

Child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania : possibilities and barriers for prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Child sexual abuse is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite beinga crime in most countries, and with well-known physical and mental health consequences, the majority of sexual offences are not reported. Child sexual abuse is a maltreatment form characterized by contact or non-contact acts perpetrated by adults or older children toward younger children who have little power to resist. This thesis aims to understand the social context of child sexualabuse, and the...

Kisanga, Felix

2012-01-01

172

Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (n=281). Over 60% of the sample reported a history of CSA and/or CPA. Results indicated significant differences in typography of substance abuse and dependence symptoms and rates of comorbid lifetime...

Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2009-01-01

173

The relationship between knowledge and child and caregiver distress during the medical examination for child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

When child sexual abuse is suspected, a child sexual abuse-related medical examination is recommended to ensure the child's well-being. While the extant research has sought to identify factors influencing child distress during this examination, only recently have studies began examining variables that may be directly associated with the child or with the medical setting. Knowledge of the child sexual abuse-related medical examination is one medical-related variable that has been implicated in child and caregiver distress during the examination. The current study contributes to the existing literature by investigating associations among examination knowledge in relation to caregiver and child anxiety at the time of a child sexual abuse-related medical examination, taking into account ethnicity, past child abuse, injury to child as result of abuse, and caregiver response to disclosure. Sixty-eight children and their nonoffending caregiver were assessed. Results indicated that understanding of the examination and caregiver response to disclosure were significantly associated with caregiver and child anxiety. PMID:23837655

Rheingold, Alyssa A; Davidson, Tatiana M; Resnick, Heidi; Self-Brown, Shannon; Danielson, Carla Kmett

2013-01-01

174

Validacion de Una Version Preliminar del Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory para su Uso en Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The validity of the Child Abus/span>e Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 40 child physical abusers and 40 nonabusers in Argentina. More than 97% of subjects were correctly classified as abusing or nonabusing individuals. The article is in Spanish. (CR)

Bringiotti, Maria Ines; Barbich, Alejandra; De Paul, Joaquin

1998-01-01

175

Autobiographical memory specificity in child sexual abuse victims.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the autobiographical memory interview. Individual difference measures, including those for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and CSA. Even with depression statistically controlled, reduced memory specificity in CSA victims relative to controls was observed among adolescents but not among adults. A higher number of posttraumatic stress disorder criteria met predicted more specific childhood memories in participants who reported CSA as their most traumatic life event. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of childhood trauma and autobiographical memory functioning and underscore the importance of considering the role of age and degree of traumatization within the study of autobiographical memory. PMID:23627947

Ogle, Christin M; Block, Stephanie D; Harris, Latonya S; Goodman, Gail S; Pineda, Annarheen; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony; Saywitz, Karen J

2013-05-01

176

Child Sexual Abuse in the United States: Perspectives on Assessment and Intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a widespread problem the United States as it is in many areas of the world today. CSA can lead to a host of psychological and emotional difficulties and disorders that can cripple some children and youth for a lifetime. In this article the authors discuss the sexual abuse of minors in the Unit...

Foster, Jennifer M.; Carson, David K.

2013-01-01

177

Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

2010-01-01

178

The Use of Therapeutic Stories in Counseling Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors  

Science.gov (United States)

Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuse

Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer

2010-01-01

179

Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse Reported by a Cross-Sectional Sample of New Zealand Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objective is to describe the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) among women in New Zealand, document ethnic specific rates, and outline the frequency of abuse experienced and the most commonly identified perpetrators. Associations between CSA and later adverse consequences were also explored. Methods: Retrospective report from a…

Fanslow, Janet L.; Robinson, Elizabeth M.; Crengle, Sue; Perese, Lana

2007-01-01

180

Preliminary Validation of the Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

2009-01-01

182

Child Sexual Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects of 101 Cases Seen in an Urban Malaysian Setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of 101 cases of child sexual abuse in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) found overrepresentation of the Indian ethnic group and a mean age of children involved of 6 to 8 years. Associated psychosocial factors included the absence of a protective adult at home, unemployment, and history of perpetrator drug abuse. (DB)

Kassim, Kasmini; Kasim, Mohd. Sham

1995-01-01

183

The notion and consequences of emotional abuse of a child in the family  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper considers the notion of emotional abuse of a child in the family as one of the most serious forms of family pathology. Emotional abuse is defined as parent’s or guardian’s acting or non acting, such as rejection insult, isolation, terror, verbal attack etc. that might cause serious and permanent disorders in child’s emotional development. Due to that, very complicated consequences of this serious form of abuse are particularly analyzed. In this paper, the author is standing up...

2004-01-01

184

The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of child sexual abuse perpetrated by women against minors, mainly against teenagers.

SORIN M. R?DULESCU

2010-04-01

185

[Elder abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prevention Law of Elder Abuse was enacted from April 1, 2006. There are two kinds of abuse by nursing family and by staff of nursing care home. In the case of abuse by family, 80s women were most victims and they were abused by their sons or husbands. While abused by staff of nursing care home, the number was small but increased rapidly. In the background of victims, they need high degree of care, and their dementia is severe. Those may affect the incident of abuse. Health Care workers have to examine the elders with thinking of their backgrounds, and it is important that we always suspect of the existence of abuse. PMID:23855213

Nishiyama, Kingo

2013-06-01

186

The value of speech-language assessment in the diagnosis of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Language deficits and developmental delays may be helpful clues in the diagnosis of child abuse and neglect. Speech-language assessment of 27 children burned through abuse or neglect identified 22 (81%) with language delays. Other significant trends included a decreased attention span, inappropriate affect, irritability, and withdrawn behavior. We recommend speech-language assessment for all burned children suspected to be victims of abuse or neglect as part of the abuse team investigation and to identify children who may benefit from intervention. PMID:2475645

Hammond, J; Nebel-Gould, A; Brooks, J

1989-09-01

187

76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

...well-being of our children by recognizing the signs of violence and creating safe, stable, and nurturing environments...factors for mistreatment like substance abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. We are also supporting programs that...

2011-04-06

188

Child sex abuse and the Irish criminal justice system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this study were to develop scales to assess experiences of sexually abused children in the Irish criminal justice system (CJS); identify aspects of the CJS which children experience as negative; compare the perceptions of children, parents and professionals of sexually abused children's experiences of the CJS; and determine correlations between perceptions of children's CJS experiences and current psychological adjustment. Forty-three children, 101 parents, 32 mental health profes...

Connon, Graham; Crooks, Allian; Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara A.; et al., .

2011-01-01

189

MIHAELA PU?CA?, Child Abuse. Forms, Motivation, Consequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mass-media frequently bring before the public cases in which parents abuse their own children. Each time the reactions of citizens are intense and unanimous:anger, revolt, requests for extreme punishment, the right to complain against aggressive behavior occurring in their vicinity. Modern research on family revealed a world loaded with tensions and conflicts in which abuse is often presented disguised as love for children and the wish to provide a good education. This article approaches the ...

2008-01-01

190

Peer abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a is intended to cause harm or distress, (b occurs repeatedly over time, and (c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4

Müjgan

2011-03-01

191

Sexual Abuse of Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

Csapo, Marg

1988-01-01

192

Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

2013-10-01

193

Child Abuse: Its Relationship to Birthweight, Apgar Score, and Developmental Testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship of child abuse to birthweight, five-minute Apgar score, and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development was studied in 75 low socioeconomic infants (ages 2-30 months). Journal availability: see EC 111 042. (Author)

Goldson, Edward; And Others

1978-01-01

194

Abuses of the girl child in some African societies: implications for nurse practitioners.  

Science.gov (United States)

The definition of a child in African societies varies. From the moment the girl child can talk and walk, she is allocated responsibilities within the family. Westernized cultures view such responsibilities as forms of abuse. Thus, various reports had been written about girl children and had been critical of African societies without acknowledging that Africa is a very large continent. This paper sets out to identify, explore, and present potential areas of abuse of the girl child, for example, female circumcision, child slaves, rape survivors, child soldiers, child prostitution, teenage pregnancy, and arranged marriages. This paper suggests strategies that healthcare professionals could initiate in situations where a girl child is being abused. PMID:16512869

Khalil, Doris Deedei

2006-01-01

195

Caring for adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Issues for family physicians.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional medical education has not taught physicians about the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Family physicians often feel poorly equipped to appreciate the effect of such a childhood history on current health or to recognize and treat survivors. This article links the experience of the sexually abused child to long-term effects and outlines the role of family physicians in screening and caring for survivors.

Bala, M.

1994-01-01

196

Substance-abusing mothers, their children and child protection. Narratives and reflections.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study I construct, together with mothers with substance abuse, narratives concerning the lives of the mothers and their children as well as the supportive child protection servicies they have received. The study belongs to the field of discussion of the support and care methods for substance-abusing mothers and their children. The purpose of this study is to develope professional methods and practicies for social workers within child protection work. My task is to study, a...

2008-01-01

197

The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of ...

2010-01-01

198

The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Studies conducted internationally confirm that child sexual abuse is a much more widespread problem than previously thought, with even the lowest prevalence rates including a large number of victims that need to be taken into account. Objective: To carry out a meta-analysis of the prevalence of child sexual abuse in order to establish an overall international figure. Methods: Studies were retrieved from various electronic databases. The measure of interest was the prevalence of ab...

2009-01-01

199

Evidence for distinct biological perturbations in PTSD with severe child abuse: implications for PTSD biomarkers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rationale/statement of the problem : Evidence for distinct biological perturbations in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with severe child abuse versus no child abuse: consequences for robust biomarkers for PTSD. The identification of biomarkers for PTSD has been difficult, likely due to inter-individual differences in genetic risk factors and environmental exposures. The aim of the current study was to interrogate the influences of the environment on gene expression profiles by characteri...

Divya Mehta

2012-01-01

200

Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial  

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The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized effectiveness trial of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST-CAN) for physically abused youth (mean age = 13.88 years, 55.8% female, 68.6% Black) and their families. Eighty-six families being followed by Child Protective Services due to physical abuse were randomly assigned to MST-CAN or Enhanced Outpatient Treatment (EOT), with both interventions delivered by therapists employed at a community mental health center...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001  

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All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguar...

Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda; Engku Ahmad Zaki bin Engku Alwi

2011-01-01

202

Human and animal research into sex-specific effects of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is the most potent experiential risk factor for developing a mood disorder later in life. The effects of child abuse are also more severe in girls and women than in men. In this review, we explore the origins of this epidemiological sex difference. We begin by offering the hypothesis that a sex-specific risk factor that influences how social cues are perceived and remembered makes girls more susceptible to the effects of child abuse. We then discuss the neural systems that mediate emotion and stress, and, how child abuse and/or mood disorders like anxiety and depression affect them. Drawing upon human and animal research, several candidates for such a risk factor are discussed. They include glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and corticotropin releasing factor receptor binding and signaling. Our own research shows that the morphometry of the prepubertal amygdala is sexually dimorphic, and could contribute to a sex difference in stimulus appraisal. We have also found that the brain of juvenile female rats is less selective than males' for threatening social stimuli. Thus, one way that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of child abuse is that they are more likely to perceive objectively benign stimuli as threatening. This bias in perception could compound with the genuinely traumatic memories caused by child abuse; the burden of traumatic memories and the increasingly reactive stress response systems could then dispose more women than men to develop depression and/or anxiety. PMID:24657521

Cooke, Bradley M; Weathington, Jill M

2014-04-01

203

The dynamics of child abuse in the family as a subject of psychological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article raises important questions of studying the temporal dynamics of child abuse, considering up-to-date literature. The severity of the problems discussed is proved by statistical data showing the prevalence of child abuse in Russian families. We highlight the ambiguity of relevant terminology, lack of certain features, boundaries and algorithms of psychological work with victims. The dynamic aspects of the problem of abuse are considered in light of the practical needs of adequate psychological prevention, timely and accurate identification of this phenomenon by psychologists. The author puts forward the problem of “starting point” of quantitative and qualitative transformations of child abuse syndrome in the family history, identifying possible problems and prospects for solving these problems. Particular attention is given to the time and the premises of origin acts attributed to manifestations of ill-treatment, in context of a specific family

Z.V. Lukovtseva

2013-10-01

204

Child abuse and neglect on Oahu, Hawaii: description and analysis of four purported risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four factors are commonly considered to indicate "high risk" for child abuse/neglect: (1) low birth weight, (2) young maternal age, (3) mother with single marital status, and (4) low socioeconomic status (SES). These factors were investigated for Oahu, Hawaii, in four separate retrospective studies (using 100 abused cases and 100 controls), to evaluate their usefulness for screening at delivery. Data were obtained from a sample of 2,036 confirmed cases, during the period from 1977 to 1979. Contrary to many studies from mainland United States, low birth weight and single marital status were not associated with increased risk of child abuse/neglect. Single marital status in Hawaii may not be associated with increased risk because it does not have the same social and cultural connotations as it does on the mainland United States. This observation suggests a need to consider regional and cultural variations in investigating and screening for child abuse/neglect. PMID:6609172

Starbuck, G W; Krantzler, N; Forbes, K; Barnes, V

1984-04-01

205

The Effects of Sample Selection Bias on Racial Differences in Child Abuse Reporting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from the National Incidence Study (NIS) of Child Abuse and Neglect suggest no racial difference in child maltreatment, although there are more black children within the child welfare population. This study found selection bias in the NIS design caused by the exclusion of family, friends, and neighbors that resulted in differences in NIS cases…

Ards, Sheila; Chung, Chanjin; Myers, Samuel L., Jr.

1998-01-01

206

Parental Depression and Child Outcomes: The Mediating Effects of Abuse and Neglect  

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Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…

Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

207

Juror Perceptions of Child Eyewitness Testimony in a Sexual Abuse Trial  

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A mock child sexual abuse trial was used to study juror perceptions of child eyewitnesses. The child's age (5, 11, or 16) and level of involvement (victim or bystander) were varied across conditions in order to test their impact on juror perceptions and verdict. Results indicated a significant effect of level of involvement on the verdict;…

Holcomb, Matthew J.; Jacquin, Kristine M.

2007-01-01

208

Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies  

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Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

2010-01-01

209

Sexual Abuse Of Children  

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Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relation...

Herbert, Carol P.

1982-01-01

210

"Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse  

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Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

2010-01-01

211

Assessing Employee Potentials for Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administered questionnaires to abusive (N=21) and nonabusive (N=21) employees to identify potential for institutional child abuse. Results corroborated earlier findings of institutional child abuse and demonstrated an attempt at developing an assessment tool needed to screen staff who are working with the developmentally disabled and children in…

Haddock, M. Dean; McQueen, William M.

1983-01-01

212

Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... more? Anetzberger, G.J. (1987). The etiology of elder abuse by adult offspring. Springfield, IL: Thomas. Baumhover, L. ... Professions Press. Quinn, M.J., & Tomita, S.K. (1997). Elder abuse and neglect: Causes, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. (2nd ...

213

Fetal Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

Kent, Lindsey; And Others

1997-01-01

214

Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the Definition of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The literature shows a discrepancy in the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual function. One of the proposed explanations for this discrepancy is the different ways in which CSA is assessed. While some studies explicitly ask potential participants whether they are sexual abuse survivors, others ask whether participants experienced specific unwanted sexual behaviors. Aim This study investigated the differences between women who self-identified as CSA survivors, women who experienced similar unwanted sexual experiences but did not identify as CSA survivors (NSA), and women with no history of sexual abuse (control). CSA was defined as unwanted touching or penetration of the genitals before the age of 16. Methods A sample of 699 college students anonymously completed a battery of questionnaires on sexuality and sexual abuse history. Main Outcome Measures Sexual function was measured with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and sexual satisfaction was measured with the Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Women. History of CSA was measured with a modified version of Carlin and Ward’s childhood abuse items. Results Differences emerged between women who experienced sexual abuse before age 16 and women who never experienced sexual abuse (control) on the personal distress subscale of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale. The CSA group (N = 89) reported greater sexual distress compared to the NSA (N = 98) group, and the NSA group reported more distress than the control group (N = 512). No significant group differences were observed in the FSFI. Characteristics of the abuse that predicted whether women identified as CSA survivors included vaginal penetration, fear at the time of the abuse, familial relationship with the perpetrator, and chronic frequency of the abuse. These abuse characteristics were associated with sexual satisfaction but not with sexual function. Conclusions Differences in levels of sexual satisfaction between women with and without a history of CSA were associated with the type of CSA definition adopted. It remains unexplained why the CSA group showed more personal distress about their sexuality but not more sexual dysfunction.

Rellini, Alessandra; Meston, Cindy

2008-01-01

215

The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maniglio R. The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2013: 00: 000-000. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Objectives:? The aim of this review was to elucidate the impact of child sexual abuse on all clinical phenomena that occur after the onset of bipolar disorder, including associated clinical features that are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Methods:? Five databases were searched and supplemented with a hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Study quality was assessed using a validated quality assessment tool. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers to reduce bias, minimize errors, and enhance the reliability of findings. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: ? Eighteen studies that included a total of 2996 adults and youths with bipolar disorder and met the minimum quality criteria necessary to ensure objectivity and not invalidate results were analyzed. Across studies, child sexual abuse was strongly (and perhaps directly) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; whereas it was less strongly (and perhaps indirectly) related to suicide attempts, alcohol and/or drug abuse or dependence, psychotic symptoms, and an early age of illness onset. In regard to the association between child sexual abuse and other clinical variables concerning the course of bipolar disorder, evidence was scant or conflicting. Conclusions:? Child sexual abuse is associated (either directly or indirectly) with some clinical phenomena that represent a more severe form of bipolar disorder. Although such a traumatic experience may directly affect the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, the effects of early sexual abuse on later suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and psychotic symptoms may operate through the mediating influences of certain psychopathological or neurobiological variables. PMID:23346867

Maniglio, Roberto

2013-01-24

216

Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C  

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Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

2012-01-01

217

Teachers' Beliefs about the Effects of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-nine teachers generated what they thought were typical outcomes of physical and emotional abuse on children's classroom behavior. Responses generally fell into the following categories: lowered self-esteem, heightened aggression, academic difficulties, and poor social interaction skills. Teachers' responses generally mirrored research…

Yanowitz, Karen L.; Monte, Emmanuelle; Tribble, Jamie R.

2003-01-01

218

Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to be violent while they're under the influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse, however, is not fully understood. ...

219

Educational paper: Detection of child abuse and neglect at the emergency room  

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The emergency room (ER) represents the main system entry for crises-based health care visits. It is estimated that 2% to 10% of children visiting the ER are victims of child abuse and neglect (CAN). Therefore, ER personnel may be the first hospital contact and opportunity for CAN victims to be recognised. Early diagnosis of CAN is important, as without early identification and intervention, about one in three children will suffer subsequent abuse. This educational paper provides the reader wi...

2012-01-01

220

Women survivors of child sexual abuse. How can health professionals promote healing?  

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OBJECTIVE: To explore how health professionals can practise in ways sensitive to adult women survivors of child sexual abuse. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured in-depth interviews. SETTING: Small and midsize cities in Ontario and Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. METHODS: Respondents were asked about their experiences with physical therapists and other health professionals and asked how practice could be sensitive to their needs as survivors....

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Women survivors of child sexual abuse. How can health professionals promote healing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To explore how health professionals can practise in ways sensitive to adult women survivors of child sexual abuse. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured in-depth interviews. SETTING: Small and midsize cities in Ontario and Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. METHODS: Respondents were asked about their experiences with physical therapists and other health professionals and asked how practice could be sensitive to their needs as surviv...

2004-01-01

222

The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain  

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Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Ch...

2012-01-01

223

Lost in Translation: The Legal appropriation of the voice of child sexual abuse victims in Ireland  

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This thesis sets out to examine the way in which legal reasoning constructs child sexual abuse in general, and how that works in Ireland in particular. In order to examine from a sociological perspective the construction of sexual abuse I apply a critical framework derived from feminist studies, Foucault‘s theory of knowledge and power and postcolonial/subaltern theories to highlight the foundations of the knowledge constructions involved. This critical approach is brought to bear on the as...

2010-01-01

224

"How Did You Feel?": Increasing Child Sexual Abuse Witnesses' Production of Evaluative Information  

Science.gov (United States)

In child sexual abuse cases, the victim’s testimony is essential, because the victim and the perpetrator tend to be the only eyewitnesses to the crime. A potentially important component of an abuse report is the child’s subjective reactions to the abuse. Attorneys may ask suggestive questions or avoid questioning children about their reactions, assuming that children, given their immaturity and reluctance, are incapable of articulation. We hypothesized that How questions referencing reactions to abuse (e.g., “how did you feel”) would increase the productivity of children’s descriptions of abuse reactions. Two studies compared the extent to which children provided evaluative content, defined as descriptions of emotional, cognitive, and physical reactions, in response to different question-types, including How questions, Wh-questions, Option-posing questions (yes–no or forced-choice), and Suggestive questions. The first study examined children’s testimony (ages 5–18) in 80 felony child sexual abuse cases. How questions were more productive yet the least prevalent, and Option-posing and Suggestive questions were less productive but the most common. The second study examined interview transcripts of 61 children (ages 6 –12) suspected of being abused, in which children were systematically asked How questions regarding their reactions to abuse, thus controlling for the possibility that in the first study, attorneys selectively asked How questions of more articulate children. Again, How questions were most productive in eliciting evaluative content. The results suggest that interviewers and attorneys interested in eliciting evaluative reactions should ask children “how did you feel?” rather than more direct or suggestive questions.

Lyon, Thomas D.; Scurich, Nicholas; Choi, Karen; Handmaker, Sally; Blank, Rebecca

2014-01-01

225

Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Findings: Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5% boys and 488 (47.5% girls 679 (66.05% cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%, 360 (35% and 394 (38.3% respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence.Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended.

Manoochehr Mahram

2013-04-01

226

Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

2014-04-01

227

Prevalence of Child Abuse in 15-17 year old Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a common phenomenon accompanies with unfavorable short and long term personal and social consequences. With changes in environment which child taken care, negative long term consequences could decreased. This study designed to determine the prevalence of all types of maltreatments in 15-17 year-old students in Kerman. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional- descriptive study, a sample of 360 students (184 boys/196 girls selected by cluster method from all boy and girls high school students of educational area one and two of Kerman and was evaluated. Maltreatment assessment instrument was a 48-questions standard self-report questionnaire which previously recorded. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests. Results: The average of child abuse among samples was 27.6%. The students have experienced physical, neglect and emotional abuse, 9.67%, 23.6% and 17.9% respectively in their history. Conclusion: Despite the lower frequency of child abuse types in comparison with other studies, it seems the early diagnosis and protective educational interventions could have critical roles in diminishing the prevalence and harmful consequences of child abuse.

Laya Sabzevari

2014-05-01

228

Characteristics and Management of Child Abus/span>e and Neglect Among Military Families.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of a survey, conducted by the Child Advocacy Resources Expansion Project, of the characteristics and management of child abus/span>e and neglect cases among military families in the San Antonio, Tex., metropolitan area. The surv...

S. M. Schnall

1977-01-01

229

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

Barth, Richard P.

2009-01-01

230

Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression  

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Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

2011-01-01

231

Using Video To Teach Planned Activities to Parents Reported for Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Video Planned Activities training was evaluated with parents (N=2) reported for child abuse. Video training was an effective intervention, improving parent use of planned activities and appropriate interaction skills. Corresponding improvements in appropriate child-interaction skills were also observed. Social-validation data indicates that…

Bigelow, Kathryn M.; Lutzker, John R.

1998-01-01

232

Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing"  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex offenders for…

Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric

2011-01-01

233

Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... of these may play a part in caregiver burnout, neglect, or abuse. Who Can Help? Elder mistreatment ... http://ovc.ncjrs.org/findvictimservices/ For information on nursing homes, nutrition, exercise, and other resources on health ...

234

The eye examination in the evaluation of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal hemorrhage is an important indicator of possible abusive head trauma, but it is also found in a number of other conditions. Distinguishing the type, number, and pattern of retinal hemorrhages may be helpful in establishing a differential diagnosis. Identification of ocular abnormalities requires a full retinal examination by an ophthalmologist using indirect ophthalmoscopy through a pupil that has been pharmacologically dilated. At autopsy, removal of the eyes and orbital tissues may also reveal abnormalities not discovered before death. In previously well young children who experience unexpected apparent life-threatening events with no obvious cause, children with head trauma that results in significant intracranial hemorrhage and brain injury, victims of abusive head trauma, and children with unexplained death, premortem clinical eye examination and postmortem examination of the eyes and orbits may be helpful in detecting abnormalities that can help establish the underlying etiology. PMID:20660545

Levin, Alex V; Christian, Cindy W

2010-08-01

235

Life trajectories of female child abuse survivors thriving in adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

A narrative study of thriving adult female survivors of childhood maltreatment was undertaken to discover how they had achieved success. Life trajectory patterns, turning points, and setbacks were identified. Data consisted of 81 interview transcripts derived from a series of three interviews, spaced over 6 to 12 months, with 27 survivors. The childhood abuse was intrafamilial, beginning as early as infancy and continuing, in most cases, until participants left home. The onset and pace of the healing trajectory were quite variable, including a roller-coaster pattern as well as patterns of slow, steady progress and continued struggle. Four types of redemption narratives were delineated. Survivors had not been spared depression but had made achievements in work and education and displayed remarkable generativity, parenting their own children well, and mentoring other young girls, especially victims of abuse. PMID:18216336

Thomas, Sandra P; Hall, Joanne M

2008-02-01

236

Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective?We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD).?Methods?Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual ...

2010-01-01

237

Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

2010-01-01

238

The interactive effect of blame attribution with characteristics of child sexual abuse on posttraumatic stress disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the role of attributions of blame for child sexual abuse (CSA) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The interactive effects of attribution of blame with characteristics of abuse on PTSD were studied. A sample of 151 female victims of CSA participated in the study. Self-blame and family blame were related to higher PTSD scores, whereas perpetrator blame was not related to PTSD. The strength of the relationship between blame and PTSD score was higher in cases of more severe, isolated, and extrafamilial abuse. The findings suggest that diminishing self-blame attributions may be particularly advantageous in cases of isolated and extrafamilial CSA, whereas diminishing family blame would be more advantageous in cases of severe abuse. PMID:22456587

Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

2012-04-01

239

Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse

Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

2009-01-01

240

Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The Alaska Native (AN population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design. PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today’s children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results. Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusions. The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children, supporting child victims in healing and to holding offenders accountable.

Diane Payne

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Child protection: legal and ethical obligation regarding the report of child abuse in four different countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child protection is the duty of every single member of the society. Health professionals who work with children, such as members of dental team, are in the unique position to recognize signs of physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as (dental) neglect. They should report any suspected case where a child is or may be in need of welfare. The professional responsibility is regulated by legal and ethical obligations. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the legal and ethical Acts, and the similarities vs. differences in obligations regarding reporting child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases in four countries: Croatia, United Kingdom, Italy and Canada. In all four countries all health professionals have a duty to report their suspicion if a child is in a harmful situation. All of them who fail to report, or even neglect or delay to report a suspicion, are liable on conviction to a pecuniary fine which varies from country to country. Depending on the country, if a professional has reasonable grounds to suspect that a child is or may be in need of protection, must report to: CAS (children's aid society), to CSS (center for social services), to police, to a Juvenile Court, or to the ombudsman. In all four countries, dentists are not asked to diagnose 'child maltreatment', but simply report the suspicion with supportive evidence. Ethical obligation comes from medical and dental ethical codes regulated by the Chamber or Council of Dentists. In all four countries legal and ethical obligations in reporting CAN are similar. Differences are related mostly to fines for nonreporting or a delay in reporting. Expanded investigation through other European countries and standard operational procedures is needed, in order to harmonize policies and guidelines for reporting CAN and maximize children protection. PMID:24776437

Cukovic-Bagic, Ivana; Welbury, Richard R; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Hatibovic-Kofman, Sahza; Nuzzolese, Emilio

2013-12-01

242

Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in China: Regulation the Child Abuse in Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse occurring outside the home in China is inflicted on school-age children and can result in serious physical and mental harm. China is a developing country with a population of over 1.2 billion, of whom over 300 million are children under the age of 16. Making a commitment to respect the rights of children has profound implications for the status of children in China. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter CRC requires that State Parties take all appropriate measures to protect child from abuse. China has ratified the CRC at domestic level and taken legislative, judicial and other measures to prevent children from abuse. Examination of the child abuse statutes and judicial practice of China reveals that China's domestic law has failed to provide adequate protection for children. Chinese traditional Confucian culture and deficiency of CRC both contribute to the soaring number of incidents of child abuse in schools. It is suggested that China review its legislation, establish the independent human rights commission, raise awareness of children's rights and improve cooperation with NGOs to ensure that it conforms fully with the requirements of the CRC.

Peng Xu

2014-03-01

243

Breaking the silence of child sexual abuse in the Caribbean: a community-based action research intervention model.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Trinidad and Tobago, little data exists on child sexual abuse, although there are many anecdotal reports of high prevalence. The Breaking the Silence Gender and Community Empowerment Model is a multidisciplinary intervention to prevent and respond to child sexual abuse in Trinidad and Tobago. It is an innovative, gender-sensitive intervention that uses a community based action research methodology anchored in a national framework. Preliminary evaluation of the Breaking the Silence model shows increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, increased willingness to discuss child sexual abuse, and an impact that goes beyond the target communities. This model can be replicated in communities to prevent and respond to child sexual abuse and adapted to address other sensitive social issues in the Caribbean. PMID:24745546

Reid, Sandra D; Reddock, Rhoda; Nickenig, Tisha

2014-04-01

244

The Influence of the Family Preservation Model on Child Sexual Abuse Intervention Strategies: Changes in Child Welfare Worker Tasks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines problems related to child sexual abuse assessment and intervention methods, especially in instances of intrafamilial offenses. Discusses the benefits of alternative strategies in use today, and the adaptations that child welfare workers, social workers, and other professionals have made to enhance intervention effectiveness. Suggests that…

Skibinski, Gregory J.

1995-01-01

245

Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child

Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

2011-01-01

246

The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ...

Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

2010-01-01

247

An Ecological Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure: Considerations for Child and Adolescent Mental Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Research continues to indicate a concerning number of children and youth, between 60–80%, withhold disclosure until adulthood suggesting that many children endure prolonged victimization or never receive necessary intervention. The study aim was to qualitatively identify factors that impede or promote child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure. Methods: Using a phenomenological design, forty adult survivors of CSA were interviewed about their disclosure experiences to provide retrospective accounts of their childhood and adolescent abuse experiences, disclosure attempts, and meaning-making of these experiences. Results: Findings show that disclosure is multiply determined by a complex interplay of factors related to child characteristics, family environment, community influences, and cultural and societal attitudes. An ecological analysis is offered to understand these complexities. Unless barriers to disclosure are eradicated, negative effects of CSA can persist manifesting in serious mental health issues. Conclusions: Practitioners can expect to work with children, adolescents and adults who have withheld disclosure or attempted to tell over time having experienced a wide range of responses. Multi-level intervention is recommended at the individual, community and macro-levels. Future investigations should focus on how to identify and measure the impact of community and macro level factors on disclosure, aspects that have received much less attention.

Alaggia, Ramona

2010-01-01

248

Child sexual abuse and subsequent relational and personal functioning: the role of parental support.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the role of nonoffending parental support in the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and later romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and couple adjustment. Of 348 adults engaged in stable romantic relationship, 59 (17%) reported sexual abuse. In this subgroup, 14% (n=8) reported parental intervention after the abuse was disclosed (i.e., support), 15% (n=9) reported a lack of parental intervention after abuse disclosure (i.e., nonsupport), and 71% (n=42) reported that their nonabusive parent(s) was(were) unaware of their abuse. Results indicated that, compared to other groups, CSA survivors with nonsupportive parents reported higher levels of anxious attachment, psychological symptoms, and dyadic maladjustment. In contrast, CSA survivors with supportive parent(s) expressed psychological and couple adjustment equivalent to non-abused participants, and lower attachment avoidance, relative to all other groups. Path analysis revealed that insecure attachment completely mediated the relationship between perceived parental support after CSA and later psychosocial outcomes. An actor-partner interdependence model showed different patterns for men and women and highlighted the importance of considering relational dynamics in dyads of CSA survivors. Overall, the results suggest that perceived parental support serves as a protective factor among those exposed to CSA. PMID:24199753

Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan

2014-02-01

249

Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

2011-01-01

250

Child and Partner Abuse: Self-Reported Prevalence and Attitudes in the North of Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To determine the self-reported prevalence of child and partner physical and emotional abuse in the north of Portugal and to investigate attitudes about these forms of family violence. Methods: Data were collected by questionnaire from a representative sample of parents in two-parent families with children under the age of 18 years. A…

Machado, Carla; Goncalves, Miguel; Matos, Marlene; Dias, Ana Rita

2007-01-01

251

Recidivism among Child Sexual Abusers: Initial Results of a 13-Year Longitudinal Random Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

In the initial analysis of data from a random sample of all those charged with child sexual abuse in Idaho over a 13-year period, only one predictive variable was found that related to recidivism of those convicted. Variables such as ethnicity, relationship, gender, and age differences did not show a significant or even large association with…

Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

2009-01-01

252

Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

2009-01-01

253

Building a Neighborhood Network: Interorganizational Collaboration to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on an interorganizational collaboration in which a community-based service network of family support programs to help prevent child abuse and neglect was implemented. Presents a theoretical framework for understanding community-based networks and interorganizational collaboration and describes and analyzes how collaboration was used to…

Mulroy, Elizabeth A.

1997-01-01

254

Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

2010-01-01

255

[Sexual child abuse: correlation between medical certificates' conclusions and judiciary sanctions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual child abuse, comprises of indecency attitudes and physical misbehaviours, directed towards children are dominated by rape. The objective of our study was to assess in sexual child abuse the relation between the conclusion of medical certificates and court decision. It is a retrospective study carried out from 1994 to 1998 on the clerk's office correctional repertories in Dakar regional court. An overall number of 79 cases of child abuse were collected in 5 years period. Children under 18 years old of of both sex, were concerned. Data found were correlated with a review of requisition cases received by the of gynaecology and obstetrics clinic of Aristide Dantec Hospital. This facilitates the establishement of the relationship between the offences and the pronounced sanctions, as well as the initial medical certificate and these sanctions. The sanctions were severe whenever rape had been retained. Some cases were disqualified in indecent assault and were judged as such. The judge decision, which follow the medical certificate conclusions in 11 cases out of 14 shows the importance and reliability of this medical document. All files reviewed at the medical and legal level were incomplete. The difficulty of the materiality of the rape and the psychological consequences in the long run and especially HIV infection should invite to a multidisciplinary, specialized and organized management of sexual child abuse. This study has shown the importance of a correct and complete drafting of the medical certificate, to enable the establishment by the judge the materiality of the facts. PMID:16295764

Soumah, M M; Bah, H; Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Yetognon, C; Sow, M L

2005-01-01

256

Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Assessing Subjectivity and Bias in Professional Judgements  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Evaluators examining the same evidence often arrive at substantially different conclusions in forensic assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study attempts to identify and quantify subjective factors that contribute to such disagreements so that interventions can be devised to improve the reliability of case decisions. Methods:…

Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel

2011-01-01

257

The Therapy Alliance: A Moderator in Therapy Outcome for Families Dealing with Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of the therapy alliance in therapy outcome for families dealing with child abuse and neglect was examined using the family as the unit of analysis. The alliance was tested as a moderator in relationship to posttreatment levels of symptom distress and physical violence. Results show that the bonds, goals, and tasks subscale scores are…

Johnson, Lee N.; Ketring, Scott A.

2006-01-01

258

Virtual patients: an effective educational intervention to improve paediatric basic specialist trainee education in the management of suspected child abuse?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Child abuse is a particularly difficult subject to teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Most doctors are dissatisfied with their training in child abuse recognition and management. We developed an interactive video based Virtual Patient to provide formal training for paediatric Basic Specialist Trainees in the recognition of suspected child abuse. The Virtual Patient case revolves around the management of suspected physical abuse in a seven month old child, who initially presents to the Emergency Department with viral upper respiratory tract symptoms. This Virtual Patient was used to facilitate a case discussion with Basic Specialist Trainees. A questionnaire was developed to determine their perception of the value of the Virtual Patient as an educational tool. Twenty five Basic Specialist Trainees completed the questionnaire. Upon completion of the case, 23\\/25 (92%) participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to recognize cases of suspected child abuse and 24\\/25 (96%) of participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to report cases of suspected child abuse. Basic Specialist Trainees perceived the Virtual Patient to be a useful educational tool. Virtual Patients may have a role to play in enhancing postgraduate training in the recognition of suspected child abuse.

McEvoy, M M

2011-09-01

259

A comparison of two programmes for victims of child sexual abuse: a treatment outcome study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of individual therapy and combined individual and group therapy in the treatment of the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self Report form (YSR), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) were administered before treatment and 6 months later to a group of 20 young people who participated in individual therapy (IT) programme...

2002-01-01

260

Police Interviews with Child Sexual Abuse Victims: Patterns of Reporting, Avoidance and Denial  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study investigated 27 sexually abused children's reports about abuse given in the context of police interviews. All abuse cases had been verified (with, e.g., photographs or video films), proving that abuse had occurred. Method: The interviews with the children were analyzed regarding amount and type of information reported,…

Leander, Lina

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

2008-01-01

262

Maltrato infantil: Experiencia de un abordaje interdisciplinario / Child abuse: An interdisciplinary management experience  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El maltrato infantil constituye una de las formas más frecuentes de violencia familiar. El presente estudio intenta mostrar la situación que, al respecto, existe en la ciudad de Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina y establecer algunas asociaciones propias de esa problemática. Población, ma [...] terial y métodos. Se presenta una serie de 128 casos de niños maltratados, de entre 0 y 19 años, entre noviembre de 1998 y noviembre de 2002 asistidos en Moiru, Centro de Prevención, Orientación, Asistencia y Capacitación en conductas sociales de riesgo, que funciona en Mercedes. Resultados. Se detectó 56% de maltrato físico; 30% de abuso sexual; 10% de negligencia; 3% de maltrato emocional y 1% de síndrome de Münchaussen con una distribución por sexos similares en el total de la casuística. Se señalan variables demográficas y ciertas asociaciones en casos de maltrato físico y abuso sexual. Se evidenció una asociación significativa entre madres víctimas de violencia doméstica y el maltrato físico que éstas proporcionan a sus hijos. Conclusiones. Fueron asistidos en nuestro servicio 128 niños y niñas maltratados Se considera que se trata de una casuística significativa, donde el maltrato físico y el abuso sexual se presentan como más relevantes. Abstract in english Introduction. Child abuse constitutes one of the most frequent forms of family violence. The following study tries to demonstrate the situation that arises in the city of Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina, and to establish some associations about that matter. Population, material and methods. A series [...] of 128 cases of abused children is presented, between 0 and 19 years old, attended from November 1998 to November 2002, in Moiru, Center of prevention, direction, attendance and qualification in social conducts of risk that works in Mercedes. Results. 56% of physical abuse; 30% of sexual abuse; 10% of neglect; 3% of emotional abuse and 1% of syndrome of Münchaussen was detected, with a similar distribution by sexes in the total population. Demographic variables and certain associations in cases of physical abuse and sexual abuse are indicated. A significant association between mothers victims of domestic violence and physical abuse towards their children was demonstrated. Conclusions. 128 young boys and girls were seen in our center. It is considered that, a significant population was treated where physical abuse and sexual abuse appears as most relevant.

José Julio, Seldes; Valentina, Ziperovich; Alejandra, Viota; Fernanda, Leiva.

263

[Update in Current Care guidelines. Evaluation of a suspected child sexual abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

According to Finnish Child Welfare Law, the authorities are obligated to report suspicions of child sexual abuse immediately to the police and to social services to ensure the well being of the child. The investigating police may request assistance for forensic interviews and medical assessments from specialized units. The child's disclosure is often the most important part of the evaluation. The timing of medical examination is crucial to obtain biological trace of evidence and to document evidence of acute injury or infection. The need for crisis support must be evaluated. PMID:23847915

Piha, Jorma; Aronen, Eeva; Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Komulainen, Jorma; Korkman, Julia; Raipela, Jouni; Tuominen, Mia

2013-01-01

264

Child Sexual Abuse in the United States: Perspectives on Assessment and Intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child sexual abuse (CSA is a widespread problem the United States as it is in many areas of the world today. CSA can lead to a host of psychological and emotional difficulties and disorders that can cripple some children and youth for a lifetime. In this article the authors discuss the sexual abuse of minors in the United States. Risk factors involved in and potential causes of CSA are discussed. Signs and symptoms of CSA are summarized along with common consequences associated with sexual abuse. Characteristics of sexual perpetrators of children and adolescents are also examined. In addition, the authors discuss the problems children often have in disclosing the abuse, along with the individual, familial and societal challenges involved in reporting incidences of sexual abuse. Some assessment issues and tools associated with CSA are highlighted, and the importance of investigators and clinicians capturing children's narrative descriptions of their abuse, and various methods for doing so, are outlined. Finally, an overview of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT for children is presented, and common challenges for therapists in treating children who have experienced sexual abuse and their families are discussed. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

Jennifer M. Foster

2013-07-01

265

Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression.Results: The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%, 260 (46% and 180 (32%, respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90% participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67% cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02, as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03, and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001.Conclusion: Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential.

Zahra Esmaeili Douki

2013-11-01

266

The influence of clinicians' previous trauma exposure on their assessment of child abuse risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has identified high levels of trauma exposure and PTSD in professionals responsible for assessing children at risk for abuse. An important question arising is the influence of stress and trauma on professional judgment. This study examined the association between critical incident exposure, PTSD and workers' judgments of child risk. Ninety-six child protection workers participated in 2 simulated clinical interviews and subsequently completed standardized risk assessment measures. Workers reported high levels of exposure to critical events in the workplace and high levels of traumatic stress symptoms. Number of prior critical events encountered was negatively associated with assessment of risk. Level of traumatic stress symptoms was negatively associated with risk on one, but not other measures of risk. It is concluded that standardized measures for assessing a child's risk of abuse may be influenced by previous exposure to critical workplace events and levels of traumatic stress in workers. PMID:20823721

Regehr, Cheryl; LeBlanc, Vicki; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion

2010-09-01

267

The influence of medical and behavioral evidence on conviction rates in cases of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse cases have one of the lowest conviction rates across all charges. While research has investigated the impact of attitudes and beliefs in judicial decision makers, little is known about the influence of medical evidence. The aim of this study was to examine how the presence or absence of evidence impacts on conviction. A sample of 113 child sexual abuse cases from Australia were coded for the types of evidence that were presented as well as other relevant descriptive data. The most significant predictor of verdict was the behavior of the child rather than the presence of medical evidence. This finding suggests that greater attention might be given to the collection and reporting of this evidence in future trials. PMID:24641628

Lewis, Tiffany E; Klettke, Bianca; Day, Andrew

2014-01-01

268

Coping with Child Sexual Abuse among College Students and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Role of Continuity of Abuse and Relationship with the Perpetrator  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the use of coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores in young adults, as well as the role of avoidance and approach coping strategies in those PTSD scores in CSA victims. The role of coping strategies was studied by considering…

Canton-Cortes, David; Canton, Jose

2010-01-01

269

Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who...

Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

2011-01-01

270

Abuse during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... It's been added to your dashboard . Abuse during pregnancy Abuse, whether emotional or physical, is never okay. ... or physical injuries. What can trigger abuse during pregnancy? For many families, pregnancy can bring about feelings ...

271

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... do anything with the Marketplace during Open Enrollment. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

272

Child abuse and neglect by parents with disabilities: A tale of two families  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two families, in which the children had been placed in foster care due to abuse and neglect by parents who had disabilities, were studied. In the first case, the mother was instructed in skills that our assessment suggested were important for her child's survival. The mother readily acquired and applied these skills, a fact reflected both in changes in her behavior and in changes in the child's well-being. In the second case, the parent's incremental resumption of child custody was made conti...

1995-01-01

273

Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Respondents in a stratified random sample of 750 males aged 18 to 27 in Calgary, Canada were asked to recall unwanted sexual contacts occurring before their 17th birthday: 117 (15.6%) had experienced one or more unwanted sexual contacts. Those recalling multiple events of abuse (52 individuals, 6.9% of all respondents) were distinguished from other respondents at a statistically significant level on the following indicators: emotional abuse in childhood, higher rates of current or recent depression, anxiety, suicidal feelings and behavior, and current sexual interest in or actual behavior involving minors. The combination of emotional abuse in the respondent's childhood with multiple events of sexual abuse was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. Eight apparently active pedophiles were identified, using a computer response system that assured anonymity. This study underscores the need for preventive measures, and the prompt identification and treatment of victims before they enter the victim-to-abuser cycle. PMID:7953908

Bagley, C; Wood, M; Young, L

1994-08-01

274

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Steven J Collings

2009-01-01

275

Medical evaluation for child physical abuse: what the PNP needs to know.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter physically abused children in their practice. This continuing education offering will help PNPs develop the skills necessary to recognize an injury that raises the concern for abuse based on characteristics of the injury such as appearance, location, or severity and characteristics of the history given for the injury. The link between corporal punishment and physical abuse will be discussed. Cutaneous findings of abuse, oral injuries, skeletal injuries, abdominal trauma, and abusive head trauma will also be discussed. PMID:22525996

Hornor, Gail

2012-01-01

276

Social service professionals' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in child sexual abuse cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less education would attribute more blame to the nonoffending caregivers. The findings revealed that respondent gender was the only significant predictor of blame attribution toward nonoffending caregivers, with level of education approaching significance as a predictor. There was no relationship between attribution of blame and years in job. The findings have important contributions for informing the practice of social service professionals who work with families of child sexual abuse. PMID:23682768

Wolfteich, Paula M; Cline, Monica L

2013-01-01

277

Demographic and clinical features of child abuse and neglect cases: one-year experience of The Hospital-Based Child Protection Team of Ege University, Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: Cases of child abuse and neglect (CAN) should be ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team. In the present study, our aim was to review the demographic and clinical features of cases of child abuse and neglect followed-up by the Child Protection Team of Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.Material and Method: The data of the cases of CAN referred to the multidisciplinary team of Ege University between August 2009 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic and clinical characteri...

2012-01-01

278

Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws  

Science.gov (United States)

... Federal Legislation Impacts Child Welfare Service Delivery Parent-Child Visits Video Series Library Library Search Logic Model Builders Logic ... Toolkit How Federal Legislation Impacts Service Delivery Parent-Child Visits Video Series Library Library search Logic Model Builders Event ...

279

Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions  

Science.gov (United States)

... Federal Legislation Impacts Child Welfare Service Delivery Parent-Child Visits Video Series Library Library Search Logic Model Builders Logic ... Toolkit How Federal Legislation Impacts Service Delivery Parent-Child Visits Video Series Library Library search Logic Model Builders Event ...

280

Adults with a history of child sexual abuse: evaluation of a pilot therapy service.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate a pilot service offering therapy specifically to adults with a history of child sexual abuse. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey. SETTING--Specialised therapy unit, Breakfree, which offers care, therapy, and support. SUBJECTS--116 clients presenting to the service who were offered therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Scores from three psychological questionnaires--the social activities and distress scale, the general health questionnaire, and the delusions, symptoms, and states in...

Smith, D.; Pearce, L.; Pringle, M.; Caplan, R.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The investigation of life-threatening child abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of covert video surveillance in the investigation of suspected life-threatening child abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy raises important ethical questions. That the recently reported provision of this facility in North Staffordshire was not presented to a Local Research Ethics Committee (LREC) for approval as a research exercise raises important questions about the ethical review of research and practice. The case made for avoiding such review is first set out and then examined. ...

Evans, D.

1995-01-01

282

A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impair...

2012-01-01

283

Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to t...

1996-01-01

284

Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED) through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members). The resulting list of facilitators...

2012-01-01

285

Sexual abuse and incest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

2012-09-01

286

Sexual Abuse Histories of Young Women in the U.S. Child Welfare System: A Focus on Trauma-Related Beliefs and Resilience  

Science.gov (United States)

This research provides descriptive data regarding sexual abuse histories of high-functioning women (N = 84; 18-25 years old) previously in the child welfare system. Placement histories of foster youth who were sexually abused were distinct. Girls with a history of sexual abuse were more likely to have been in restrictive housing and changed…

Breno, Angela L.; Galupo, M. Paz

2007-01-01

287

Child Abuse in Young, HIV-Positive Women: Linkages to Risk  

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In this article we explore the lives of young women living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these young women had complex abuse histories, often experien...

2009-01-01

288

Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Chi...

2013-01-01

289

Sin vergüenza: addressing shame with Latino victims of child sexual abuse and their families.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy victims, and the intersection of shame from sexual abuse with societal discrimination. Quotes and case material are drawn from the author's research and clinical work. The article includes clinical suggestions. PMID:17255077

Fontes, Lisa Aronson

2007-01-01

290

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5] was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]. Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3] and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7] ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

Gigante Luciana P

2009-05-01

291

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Beria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andreia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

292

Concepções da professora acerca do abuso sexual infantil Teachers' conceptions about sexual child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A escola mostra-se como lugar ideal para detecção e intervenção em casos de abuso sexual infantil, uma vez que o principal agressor geralmente encontra-se na família. Considerando que a escola deve ter como objetivo garantir a qualidade de vida de sua clientela, bem como promover a cidadania, para delinear um programa que possa capacitar tais profissionais em casos de abuso sexual, parece necessário, em primeiro lugar, conhecer o universo de informações que eles detêm sobre o tema, sobre a legislação a respeito e sobre os direitos da criança. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar as informações de 20 educadoras de escolas municipais de educação infantil sobre o abuso sexual de crianças em uma cidade de médio porte. As informações obtidas foram analisadas e divididas em sete categorias. Os resultados indicam que a maioria das educadoras possuía informações insuficientes acerca do tema e afirmava adotar procedimentos inadequados diante dos casos de crianças que sofreram abusos sexuais.The school proves to be an ideal place for detection and intervention in child sexual abuse cases, since the main aggressor is found generally within the family. Considering that one of the school's objectives should be to guarantee the quality of life of its pupils, as well as to promote citizenship, in order to develop a program to train teachers on what to do in cases of sexual abuse, it seems necessary first to survey the universe of information teachers have about the subject, the existing legislation, and the children's rights. This study aimed to characterize the information that twenty educators in municipal schools for early child education in a medium size city had about child sexual abuse. The data obtained were analyzed and divided into seven categories. The results indicate that the majority of educators had insufficient information on the subject, affirming as well that they took inadequate measures when faced with cases of children who suffered sexual abuse.

Rachel de Faria Brino

2003-01-01

293

Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

Fontes, Lisa Aronson

2007-01-01

294

Family patterns, attitudes and behaviour in relation to the upbringing of children in South Korea: the social construction of child abuse  

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This study explores the ways in which the Western concept of child abuse is understood by parents and professionals in Korea and how it is applied to Korean society. In order to address this, attention will be focused on parents' and relevant professionals' attitudes and perceptions in relation to child rearing, along with their responses to the problem of child abuse.

Yang, Sonam

2005-01-01

295

Parent Abuse: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

2007-01-01

296

Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

2009-07-01

297

To tell or not to tell? factors influencing young people's informal disclosures of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to understand the factors influencing informal disclosure of child sexual abuse experiences, taking account of dynamics operating prior to, during, and following disclosure. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 young people who experienced child sexual abuse and 14 parents. Grounded theory methodology informed the study. The key factors identified as influencing the disclosure process included being believed, being asked, shame/self-blame, concern for self and others, and peer influence. Many young people both wanted to tell and did not want to tell. Fear of not being believed; being asked questions about their well-being; feeling ashamed of what happened and blaming themselves for the abuse, for not telling, and for the consequences of disclosure; concern for how both disclosure and nondisclosure would impact on themselves and others; and being supported by and yet pressurized by peers to tell an adult, all illustrate the complex intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics reflecting the conflict inherent in the disclosure process. These findings build on previous studies that emphasize the dialogic and interpersonal dynamics in the disclosure process. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal influencing factors need to be taken account of in designing interventions aimed at helping children tell. The importance of asking young people about their psychological well-being and the role of peer relationships are highlighted as key to how we can help young people tell. PMID:24288188

McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

2014-03-01

298

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being  

Science.gov (United States)

Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8–16 years and who were reported to Child Protective Services for alleged sexual abuse. Sex differences were examined using t tests, logistic regression, and latent trajectory modeling. Results revealed that there were not sex differences in victims’ posttraumatic stress symptoms or trajectories. Whereas caseworkers substantiated girls’ abuse at higher rates than boys’ abuse and rated girls significantly higher than boys on level of harm, there were not sex differences in three more objective measures of abuse severity characteristics. Overall, higher caseworker ratings of harm predicted higher initial posttraumatic stress symptom levels, and substantiation status predicted shallower decreases in trauma symptoms over time. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed.

Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.

2011-01-01

299

False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.  

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Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegat...

Meadow, R.

1993-01-01

300

El maltrato infantil: un problema mundial / Child abuse: A worldwide problem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Al abordar el maltrato infantil se presentan diversos problemas: desconocimiento de la verdadera proporción de dicha problemática; raíces culturales e históricas profundas; diversidad de opiniones en cuanto a su definición y clasificación; dificultades en la investigación y, finalmente, una diversid [...] ad de consideraciones sobre sus repercusiones y su manejo terapéutico. En el presente artículo se estudia el maltrato infantil desde sus antecedentes históricos, así como sus clasificaciones, sus definiciones y su epidemiología. Asimismo, se revisan las repercusiones y se plantean las alternativas de tratamiento que en la bibliografía existente se han manejado como fundamentales para enfrentar este fenómeno cada vez más alarmante. Queda subrayada la necesidad de unificar criterios en cuanto a la definición y clasificación de información científica en torno a datos demográficos que, finalmente, hablarán de la realidad del problema, de los avances relacionados con sus causas, su diagnóstico, sus medidas preventivas y su tratamiento. Es fundamental utilizar medidas tendientes a prevenir el maltrato, pues una gran parte de los problemas en el niño se ven reflejados en la vida adulta. Se comparan las distintas clasificaciones en torno al tema, así como las características tanto del agredido como del agresor en los distintos tipos de maltrato. Abstract in english Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present stu [...] dy approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused.

ROSALINDA, SANTANA-TAVIRA; ROBERTO, SÁNCHEZ-AHEDO; EMILIO, HERRERA-BASTO.

 
 
 
 
301

Study on Child Abuse in Children and Adolescents in the Province of Buenos Aires:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to provide a current description of the child and teenager maltreatment phenomenon in the Buenos Aires Province. The sample was composed by 5341 cases of children and teenagers from 0 to 20 years old, whose were treated in 2010 for having been victims of maltreatment. Physical maltreatment was the most frequent one. The girls presented major proportion of sexual abuse, whereas boys registered major proportions of negligence, physical maltreatment and desertion situation. An increase of the sexual abuse frequency in teenagers from 12 years was observed. As a whole, the information demonstrates that sex and age of victims are differentially associated with different types of maltreatment, and these are pertinent variables to have into account by future investigations, and prevention and protection organisms.

Cuenya, Lucas

2011-12-01

302

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8–16 years and who were reported to Child Protective Services for alleged sexual abuse. Sex differences were examined using t tests, logistic regression, an...

Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.

2009-01-01

303

Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or s...

2010-01-01

304

Facilitating disclosure of child sexual abuse victims in the middle childhood : a forensic interview protocol for social workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on the development, implementation and evaluation of a research-based legally defensible forensic interview protocol for social workers in South Africa in order to improve the social worker's knowledge, understanding and skills regarding forensic assessment interviews in the field of child sexual abuse. The motivation for the study has its origin in the fact that current legislation in South Africa requires that all cases of alleged sexual abuse have to be reported to eithe...

2008-01-01

305

‘.XXX’ Sponsored Top-Level Domain – Is it a solution to curb child abuse due to Internet Pornography?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposal of having a zone for adult entertainment over Internet was previously not accepted by ICANN (Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers until the recent approval of ‘xxx’ domain for adult entertainment. Among other reasons the main reason to launch a specific domain for adult entertainment was to combat the child abuse cases due to internet pornography or child pornography in particular. This analysis is a submission of the effectiveness of ‘xxx’ domain. The effectiveness of ‘xxx’ will not depend on what ‘child abuse’ is but on the general practice of the children as to how and from where they access the Internet.

Indranath Gupta

2005-09-01

306

An Examination of the Association between Interviewer Question Type and Story-Grammar Detail in Child Witness Interviews about Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study compared the effects of open-ended versus specific questions, and various types of open-ended questions, in eliciting story-grammar detail in child abuse interviews. Methods: The sample included 34 police interviews with child witnesses aged 5-15 years ("M" age = 9 years, 9 months). The interviewers' questions and their…

Feltis, Brooke B.; Powell, Martine B.; Snow, Pamela C.; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H.

2010-01-01

307

The decision-making processes adopted by rurally located mandated professionals when child abuse or neglect is suspected.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect is a mandated role of medical doctors, nurses, police and teachers in Victoria, Australia. This paper reports on a research study that sought to explicate how mandated professionals working in rural Victorian contexts identify a child/ren at risk and the decisions they make subsequently. PMID:22724907

Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne; Sellick, Kenneth; James, Ainlsey; Miles, Maureen; Jones, Janet; Grant, Julie

2012-04-01

308

Hospital Based Emergency Department Visits Attributed to Child Physical Abuse in United States: Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED) visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008–2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of “Child physical abuse” (Battered baby or child syndrome) due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. Results Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7%) required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years). Male or female partner of the child’s parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%), intracranial injuries (32.3%) and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%). Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization). Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR?=?0.88, 95% CI?=?0.81–0.96, pphysically abused children, younger age, females and intracranial or crushing/internal injuries were independent predictors of mortality. Identification of high risk cohorts in the ED may enable strengthening of existing screening programs and optimization of outcomes.

Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Asad, Rahimullah; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Rampa, Sankeerth; Speicher, David G.; Rotta, Alexandre T.; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

2014-01-01

309

The nurse in sexual abuse child suspicion attention: a phenomenology approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: Introduction: This study brings reflexions and contributions about nurse attendance in child sexual abuse suspicion, in view the gravity and seriousness of this issue in society and the possibilities of actions to be undertaken by nurse face the child and his family, considering health promotion, protection and prevention. Objective was to analyze nurse actions in child sexual abuse suspicion context Methodology: qualitative research based on sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz, which emphasizes social relations and define the action as human conduct with a purpose, namely, has an intent, the In – Order- To motives of the action, that were captured by phenomenological interview. The questions that guided the interview were: When you attend a child with sexual abuse suspicion, what do you do? ; What you have in mind with nurse actions triggered in this type of attendance? Why? Results: The analysis of speech allowed the apprehension of four categories: interact with other professionals for child care; establish a dialogue and an open allowing, a care with a prospect from the other, to attend the children and fulfilling the routines of the unit.  Conclusions: From interviews comprehension and interpretation the understanding was that nurse’s actions can propel nurses in child health area research and offering possible interferences in family and child assistance and in yours healthy growing and development. Relevance to clinical practice: the study contributes to a better  attendance and identification of child sexual abuse suspicion by the nurse and a wide vision in violence cases assistance.

 

Keywords: Nursing. Child. Sexual abuse. Phenomenology.

Lia Leão Ciuffo

2009-12-01

310

Pedophilic sexual interests and psychopathy in child sexual abusers working with children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has identified stable and dynamic characteristics in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) that may distinguish them from other child sexual abusers (CSA). However, in previous research CSA-W have usually been included in the group of extra-familial CSA (CSA-E). Two hundred and forty-eight forensic-sexological reports about CSA conducted by the Federal Evaluation Centre for Violent and Sexual Offenders in the Austrian Prison System were evaluated retrospectively. One hundred and nineteen intra-familial CSA (CSA-I), 66 CSA-E, and 38 CSA-W were compared with regard to static risk factors, indicators of psychopathy, and pedophilic sexual interests. CSA-E had the highest risk of recidivism as measured by the Static-99 total score, followed by CSA-W. Furthermore, CSA-E had more previous convictions than CSA-W. Both CSA-E and CSA-I had higher total scores on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised than CSA-W. CSA-W had the highest prevalence of pedophilia diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, as well as the highest rate of pedophilia with an orientation toward male children, and the highest frequency of male victims. CSA-W also had the highest total scores in the Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interests. CSA-W seem to constitute a group with particular risk factors and criminogenic needs, that is, they show more indicators of pedophilic sexual interests but less general antisociality and psychopathy, and would thus seem to be distinguishable from other CSA. Future research should focus in particular on evaluating differences in the grooming strategies used by CSA-W to commit and disclose child sexual abuse, as well as on the resources of this particular offender group. PMID:24008098

Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Lohmann, Lena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer

2014-02-01

311

Situational Prevention of Child Abuse in the New Technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Situational prevention shifts attention from the psychological characteristics of the individual performing behaviour to the facilitating role played by the immediate environment in which the behaviour occurs. Applied to the problem of Internet child pornography, the situational approach emphasises the role of opportunity in driving consumption. It is argued that under the right environmental conditions the potential to view children as sexual objects is more widespread than sexual deviance m...

Wortley, R. K.

2012-01-01

312

Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?  

Science.gov (United States)

International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence. PMID:20726145

Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

2010-01-01

313

The Development of a Rural Team to Deal With Child Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last ten years teams for dealing with child abuse have become established in many urban centres. More recently rural communities have started similar programs; such a team was established in rural Manitoba in 1976. A series of events since then has improved the operation of the team. Cooperation with an urban team has enhanced the functioning of the rural team. A broad base of community support for this work has been essential. A review of cases seen in the last 18 months indicates 12 ...

Sigurdson, E.; Jones, K.

1982-01-01

314

Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... abusers are family members, most often an adult child or spouse. Abuse can also occur at a long term care ... enforcement are involved in uncovering and prosecuting elder abuse crimes. Moreover, many community coalitions and task forces have been formed to promote public awareness ...

315

Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

316

Educating physicians internationally in the diagnosis of child sexual abuse: evaluation of a brief educational intervention in Malawi.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed this pilot study to assess physician knowledge and comfort evaluating child sexual abuse in Malawi and to evaluate the feasibility of a brief educational intervention to improve physician knowledge. A survey was administered to 21 physicians before receiving training on child sexual abuse. The survey was administered again, 3 days later, to assess improvement. Prior to the training, 48% correctly identified the hymen in a photograph, and 24% correctly interpreted the photograph as normal. Of the 11 physicians available for the posttest 3 days later, significant improvement was found in their ability to correctly identify the hymen (6 of 11 pretraining and all 11 posttraining, p = 0.011) and to interpret the photograph correctly (1 of 11 correct pretraining, 9 of 11 posttraining, p = 0.001). This study demonstrates the feasibility of designing trainings on child sexual abuse in a low-income country. PMID:24745545

Miller, Aaron J; Barlup Toombs, Kristin

2014-04-01

317

Preventing Child Abus/span>e: A Bibliography of Information Professionals Should Know to Protect Deaf Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended to help professionals protect hearing impaired children from abuse and neglect, this bibliography lists 78 resources published between 1966 and 1985 in the following areas: general information, sexual abuse, institutional abuse, legal responsibilities, profiles of abusers and potential abusers, hiring and training of personnel, and…

McCrone, William P., Comp.; And Others

1985-01-01

318

A profile of abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of 260 children considered to have been the victims of child abuse or neglect, or both, 149 suffered non-accidental injury, 71 had evidence of growth problems, 87 had developmental and speech delay, and 63 showed evidence of appreciable behaviour disturbance. While the overall prevalence of development and behaviour problems in the series was high there were particular associations noted between growth problems and developmental delay, between increasing age and behaviour disturbance, and bet...

1988-01-01

319

Helping Yourself Heal: A Recovering Woman's Guide to Coping with Childhood Abuse Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

... the childhood abuse. The exception is when the abuser still has access to children and may harm ... people who have been abused as children. Addressing child abus/span>e issues takes time; you’ll need to develop ...

320

A social work study on parents’ income and personal characteristics and child abuse: A case study of city of Esfahan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are r...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Concepções da professora acerca do abuso sexual infantil / Teachers' conceptions about sexual child abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A escola mostra-se como lugar ideal para detecção e intervenção em casos de abuso sexual infantil, uma vez que o principal agressor geralmente encontra-se na família. Considerando que a escola deve ter como objetivo garantir a qualidade de vida de sua clientela, bem como promover a cidadania, para d [...] elinear um programa que possa capacitar tais profissionais em casos de abuso sexual, parece necessário, em primeiro lugar, conhecer o universo de informações que eles detêm sobre o tema, sobre a legislação a respeito e sobre os direitos da criança. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar as informações de 20 educadoras de escolas municipais de educação infantil sobre o abuso sexual de crianças em uma cidade de médio porte. As informações obtidas foram analisadas e divididas em sete categorias. Os resultados indicam que a maioria das educadoras possuía informações insuficientes acerca do tema e afirmava adotar procedimentos inadequados diante dos casos de crianças que sofreram abusos sexuais. Abstract in english The school proves to be an ideal place for detection and intervention in child sexual abuse cases, since the main aggressor is found generally within the family. Considering that one of the school's objectives should be to guarantee the quality of life of its pupils, as well as to promote citizenshi [...] p, in order to develop a program to train teachers on what to do in cases of sexual abuse, it seems necessary first to survey the universe of information teachers have about the subject, the existing legislation, and the children's rights. This study aimed to characterize the information that twenty educators in municipal schools for early child education in a medium size city had about child sexual abuse. The data obtained were analyzed and divided into seven categories. The results indicate that the majority of educators had insufficient information on the subject, affirming as well that they took inadequate measures when faced with cases of children who suffered sexual abuse.

Rachel de Faria, Brino; Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Williams.

322

Elder Abuse among African Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

2006-01-01

323

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

324

Prescription Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine ... another purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic ...

325

Cocaine: Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nicotine Commonly Abused Drugs Emerging Trends Related Topics Addiction Science Comorbidity Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... Drugs Chart Health Effects Emerging Trends Related Topics Addiction Science Investigating Drug Abuse Comorbidity Criminal Justice Drug ...

326

Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nicotine Commonly Abused Drugs Emerging Trends Related Topics Addiction Science Comorbidity Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... Drugs Chart Health Effects Emerging Trends Related Topics Addiction Science Investigating Drug Abuse Comorbidity Criminal Justice Drug ...

327

Violência contra a criança: indicadores dermatológicos e diagnósticos diferenciais Child abuse: skin markers and differential diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As denúncias de abuso contra a criança têm sido frequentes e configuram grave problema de saúde pública. O tema é desconfortável para muitos médicos, seja pelo treinamento insuficiente, seja pelo desconhecimento das dimensões do problema. Uma das formas mais comuns de violência contra a criança é o abuso físico. Como órgão mais exposto e extenso, a pele é o alvo mais sujeito aos maustratos. Equimoses e queimaduras são os sinais mais visíveis. Médicos (pediatras, clínicos-gerais e dermatologistas costumam ser os primeiros profissionais a observar e reconhecer sinais de lesões não acidentais ou intencionais. Os dermatologistas podem auxiliar na distinção entre lesões traumáticas intencionais, acidentais e doenças cutâneas que mimetizam maus-tratosReports of child abuse have increased significantly. The matter makes most physicians uncomfortable for two reasons: a Little guidance or no training in recognizing the problem; b - Not understanding its true dimension. The most common form of child violence is physical abuse. The skin is the largest and frequently the most traumatized organ. Bruises and burns are the most visible signs. Physicians (pediatricians, general practitioners and dermatologists are the first professionals to observe and recognize the signs of intentional injury. Dermatologists particularly, can help distinguish intentional injury from accidental, or from skin diseases that mimic maltreatment

Roberta Marinho Falcão Gondim

2011-06-01

328

Elder Abuse and Neglect  

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Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Med...

Muge Gulen; Abdulkadir Akturk; Selen Acehan; Mustafa Sencer Segmen; Ayca Acikalin; Aysegul Bilen

2013-01-01

329

Elder Abuse Awareness Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

1985-01-01

330

Elder Abuse in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

Arai, Mizuho

2006-01-01

331

Effects of Genotype and Child Abuse on DNA Methylation and Gene Expression at the Serotonin Transporter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Altered regulation of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4 is hypothesized to be a key event in many forms of neuropsychiatric illness, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which changes in gene function could lead to illness remains incomplete. In prior studies, we and others have demonstrated that methylation of CpG residues in the promoter associated CpG island alters SLC6A4 gene expression, that the extent of that DNA methylation in child abuse is genotype dependent, and that adverse childhood experiences such as child sex abuse are related to methylation. However, we have not examined whether these effects are splice variant specific, whether the association of methylation to gene expression varies as a function of genotype, and whether methylation in other SLC6A4 gene regions are more likely candidates for GxE effects. In the current investigation we measured methylation in lymphoblast DNA from 158 female subjects in the Iowa Adoption Studies at 16 CpG residues spread across the SLC6A4 locus, and analyzed their relationship to gene expression for two SLC6A4 splice variants. Methylation of two CpG residues in the shore of the CpG island (cg22584138 and cg05951817, a location immediately upstream from exon 1A, predicted gene expression for the splice variant containing Exon 1A + 1B. Methylation at two residues in the CpG island itself (cg 25769822 and cg05016953 was associated with total SLC6A4 expression. Examination of these four CpG residues indicated that methylation of cg22584138 was influenced by both genotype and sex abuse, whereas methylation of cg05016953 was influenced only by sex abuse history. Factors influencing methylation at other CpG dinucleotide pairs were not identified. We conclude that methylation effects on transcription may vary as a function of underlying gene motif and splice variant, and that the shore of CpG islands, upstream of TSS, may be of particular interest in examining environmental effects on methylation.

MeeshanthiniVijayendran

2012-06-01

332

Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

333

Personality development after physical abuse.  

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Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

Oates, R. K.

1984-01-01

334

Child abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration: a prospective investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49

Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann

2014-04-01

335

Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

2011-01-01

336

The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

2009-01-01

337

Child Abuse and Neglect: Alternatives for State Legislation. Report No. 6 of the Early Childhood Task Force.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1970 the early childhood task force of the Education Commission of the States (ECS) has worked to encourage states to focus attention on the quality of the life of children. As the task force explored the subject of child abuse, it quickly realized the need for: (1) better state programs for the prevention, identification and treatment of…

Fraser, Brian G.

338

At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

Lewis, Ione R.

2012-01-01

339

Child Physical Abuse and the Related PTSD in Taiwan: The Role of Chinese Cultural Background and Victims' Subjective Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study aimed to investigate child physical abuse (CPA) while taking into account the more rigorous definitions of CPA in the Chinese societies. The prevalence of CPA and CPA-related PTSD were estimated, together with the examination of peri-traumatic subjective reactions and their impacts on PTSD. Methods: In a Taiwanese sample of…

Chou, Chia-Ying; Su, Yi-Jen; Wu, Ho-Mao; Chen, Sue-Huei

2011-01-01

340

Childhood abuse :pregnancy and childbirth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A moralidade do abuso sexual intrafamiliar em menores Ethical aspects of the child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a moralidade do abuso sexual em menores, tendo em conta as características da vítima e seu meio familiar e do processo, desde a ocorrência do fato até a denúncia por parte dos familiares e conhecidos, a atenção prestada pelas instituições estatais à vitima e à família, bem como os meios probatórios usados pelos órgãos judiciais no julgamento do provável agressor. Os autores discutem as questões éticas da dinâmica do abuso sexual intrafamiliar, baseados em alguns princípios: autodeterminação, justiça, igualdade, eqüidade, consentimento livre e esclarecido, não maleficência/beneficência, entre outros.This article analyses the moral character of sexual abuse against minors taking into consideration the characteristics of the victim and its family environment, as well as the process itself, from when the fact occurred until it was reported to the authorities by relatives and acquaintances, the care provided by the State institucional organs to both the victim and its family members. Also, the probatory means used by the judging authorities during the trial of the probable aggressor. The authors discuss the ethical aspects involved in the dynamics of child sexual abuse within the family based on some principles, such as self-determination, justice, equality, equity, free and clear consent, no harmfulness/kindness, among others.

Álvaro E. Morales

2002-01-01

342

[Murder without a body or "just" an unusual case of child abuse?].  

Science.gov (United States)

A nine-year old boy was placed in a foster family--allegedly because of neglect after his mother had died in a car accident. Abnormal behaviour and the discovery of a photograph showing the boy naked from the waist down made the foster mother suspect sexual abuse. When she asked the boy to tell her the truth, the boy dictated a shocking story into her dictating machine. He described in detail how his mother had been killed and dismembered by her life partner in the bathtub with a saw before his eyes. Police investigations showed that the mother was not registered as deceased and that a suspicious neighbour had actually filed reports with the police months before because the man had given different versions on the alleged fatal accident of the mother. When the apartment was searched and evidence was collected, a bow saw with blood stains was found along with dental crowns in the bathtub drain. In spite of the boy's detailed statement where his mother's partner had allegedly disposed of her body parts she was never found. Four years later, a charge for manslaughter was brought against him. The unusual sentence--three years and 10 months' imprisonment for abuse of a person committed to his care-- was decisively influenced by the credibility assessment of the child's statement according to which the description given by the boy was based on a real event he had experienced. PMID:21121120

Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus

2010-01-01

343

Cultural health care or child abuse? The Southeast Asian practice of cao gio.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the immigration of Southeast Asians more than doubled over the past 20 years, much misunderstanding still persists regarding traditional, culture-bound health practices used by Vietnamese, Cambodian and Laotian families. The research presented in this paper explains one such traditional practice, that of cao gio. Cao gio, a dermabrasion therapy, is used extensively by many Southeast Asian women to treat a variety of illnesses. Health care providers do not appreciate this practice, however, to the extent that it is claimed to be a form of child abuse in some of the literature reviewed. A better understanding of the practice by those involved in the primary care of Southeast Asian families is not only necessary, but essential to avoid the mislabeling and misinterpretation of cultural, traditional health practices as child abuse. Lack of awareness of Southeast Asian cultural practices is quite significant, even though the United States experienced three major waves of Southeast Asian immigration during the past 20 years (Takeuchi, & Young, 1994). Over the past decade, the number of Southeast Asian immigrants and refugees to the United States has increased 108% or by more than 1 million individuals (Fong, & Mokuau, 1994; Frank-Stromborg, 1991; Ja, & Aoki, 1993; Tran, 1991; U.S. Census Bureau, 1998). Yet, despite this, Southeast Asian individuals are poorly understood, and the literature reveals little about what health, illness and treatment constitute for these different cultures (Boston, 1992; Buchwald, Panwala, & Hooton, 1992). The ethnic groups that comprise Southeast Asians, formerly known as the Indochinese, include individuals from Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos (Catanzaro, & Moser, 1982; Chung, & Kagawa-Singer, 1993). The majority of these individuals are refugees who fled their countries due to political persecution (Toole, & Waldman, 1993). This paper describes the findings of a phenomenological research study completed among 19 Southeast Asian women regarding beliefs about health and health practices. The women discussed the practice of cao gio (phonetically pronounced as gow yaw) and its importance, effectiveness and significance to their cultures. The discussion relates the study findings to the debate and issues surrounding child abuse, the consequences of misreporting, as well as the consequences of cultural ignorance in the provision of health care to those of different cultural practices and beliefs, particularly those of Southeast Asian ethnicity. PMID:11033688

Davis, R E

2000-03-01

344

BODY-ORIENTED THERAPY IN RECOVERY FROM CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: AN EFFICACY STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Context There has been little research on body therapy for women in sexual abuse recovery. This study examines body-oriented therapy—an approach focused on body awareness and involving the combination of bodywork and the emotional processing of psychotherapy. Objective To examine the efficacy and the perceived influence on abuse recovery of body-oriented therapy. Massage therapy served as a relative control condition to address the lack of touch-based comparisons in bodywork research. Design A 2-group, repeated measures design was employed, involving randomization to either body-oriented therapy or massage group, conducted in 8, hour-long sessions by 1 of 4 research clinicians. Statistical and qualitative analysis was employed to provide both empirical and experiential perspectives on the study process. Setting Participants were seen in treatment rooms of a university in the northwestern United States and in clinician’s private offices. Participants Twenty-four adult females in psychotherapy for child sexual abuse. Interventions Body-oriented therapy protocol was delivered in three stages, involving massage, body awareness exercises, and inner-body focusing process. Massage therapy protocol was stan- dardized. Both protocols were delivered over clothes. Main Outcome Measures The outcomes reflected 3 key con-structs—psychological well being, physical well-being, and body connection. Repeated measures included: Brief Symptom Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Crime-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Medical Symptoms Checklist, Scale of Body Connection and Scale of Body Investment. Results were gathered at 6 time points: baseline, 2 times during intervention, post-intervention, and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. To examine the experiential perspective of the study process, written questionnaires were administered before and after intervention and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. Results Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant improvement on all outcome measures for both intervention groups, providing support for the efficacy of body therapy in recovery from childhood sexual abuse. There were no statistically significant differences between groups; however, qualitative analysis of open-ended questions about participant intervention experience revealed that the groups differed on perceived experience of the intervention and its influence on therapeutic recovery.

Price, Cynthia

2007-01-01

345

Non-Abusive Mothers of Sexually Abused Children: The Role of Rumination in Maternal Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…

Plummer, Carol A.

2006-01-01

346

Maternal history of child sexual abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction : Maternal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is a key mechanism linking stress in pregnancy to adverse neonatal outcomes. Past research has failed to consider whether a woman's history of child maltreatment impacts her stress biology in pregnancy. In this study we assessed whether association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol was moderated by maternal history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods : Participants were 30 pregnant wome...

2012-01-01

347

The drug abuse problem in Peninsular Malaysia: parent and child differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out to gather information on knowledge, attitudes and perception of parents and their children in relation to drug abuse matters. Significantly more teenagers knew more of the cause of drug addiction, as well as places for treatment and rehabilitation. Both teenagers and parents were also aware of reasons why drug addicts find it difficult to change their habits, mainly lacking motivation to stop taking drugs and that drug addicts do not have the power to control themselves. Teenagers were significantly more aware of effects of negative parental attitudes contributing to drug abuse, apart from school factors. Personal experiences before abusing drugs such as knowledge of pleasurable effects of drugs and where to obtain them has also a role to play in leading to drug abuse. There was also agreement that unfulfilled needs such as 'not being respected recognised for ones capabilities' and 'not being loved or treated fairly by parents', were causes of drug abuse. Significantly more teenagers knew of the ways of abusing drugs, mainly by injection, smoking and sniffing, and also sources of information via the mass media, social clubs, rehabilitation centres and schools. However, both the parents and teenagers were relatively ignorant of the long term effects of abusing drugs. PMID:8889409

Low, W Y; Zulkifli, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalail, S; Aye, K W

1996-10-01

348

Factors from Durkheim's family integration related to suicidal ideation among men with histories of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual abuse were examined. Four variables--length of cohabitation, maternal support after disclosure, parental divorce, and older age--were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The analysis provides partial support for Durkheim's model. Implications for education, clinical practice, and future research are presented. PMID:23409795

Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M

2013-06-01

349

Caregivers' experiences of the South African judicial system after the reporting of child sexual abuse / N.L. Paulsen.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is found to occur in alarming proportions worldwide. In South Africa, children represent almost half of the victims of known sexual abuse, and this is becoming a great concern, even being described as a silent epidemic. This alarming fact as well as the researcher’s experiences as a social worker in this field, resulted in her reviewing literature, in order to gain further insight into the current situation in South Africa. It was discovered that the number of succe...

2013-01-01

350

Mothers who killed or attempted to kill their child: life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of killing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to examine the life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of homicidal acts of 48 mothers who killed/attempted to kill their child(ren) under age 12 between 1970-96 in Finland. Data on the mothers'life stresses, psychological problems, and childhood abuse were collected from mental state examination (MSE) reports. The cases were divided into 15 neonaticides and 33 mothers who killed an older child. Childhood abuse was documented in 63% of the mothers' MSE reports. Qualitative analysis identified neonaticides,joint homicide-suicide attempts, impulsive aggression, psychotic acts, postpartum depression, and abusive acts. Nonlinear principal components analysis showed that different variables were related to the neonaticide and non-neonaticide cases. We concluded that despite differences in the psychosocial profiles of neonaticides and other maternal homicidal acts the cycle of violence perspective can be applied to both cases, even though it may not be a sufficient explanation for maternal child killings. PMID:10606431

Haapasalo, J; Petäjä, S

1999-01-01

351

Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitising game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken.

ColleenJoyStieler-Hunt

2014-02-01

352

Psychophysiological sexual arousal in women with a history of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of literature that suggests that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher baseline sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity than healthy controls and research that suggests that the SNS plays a critical role in female physiological sexual arousal, we examined the impact of SNS activation through intense exercise on sexual arousal in women with CSA and PTSD. We measured physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women with CSA (n = 8), women with CSA and PTSD (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 10) during exposure to nonerotic and erotic videos. After exercise, women with CSA and women with CSA and PTSD showed no significant differences in the physiological sexual response compared with no exercise, which was different from the increased physiological sexual response after exercise observed in control women. PMID:16234222

Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

2006-01-01

353

Physical and Emotional Abuse of Primary School Children by Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of child abuse is unfortunately a reality of contemporary society. Although various organizations and researchers have been making progress in the struggle against abuse, it has not been decisively dealt with thus far. Most of the research on abuse has focused on the abuse of children in their family environment. Objective: The aim…

Theoklitou, D.; Kabitsis, N.; Kabitsi, A.

2012-01-01

354

Disclosure of child sexual abuse by adolescents: a qualitative in-depth study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A qualitative content analysis was conducted following Mayring and using the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.ti. In addition, quantitative correlation analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with disclosure. Less than one third of participants immediately disclosed CSA to another person. In most cases, recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were peers. More than one third of participants had never disclosed the abuse to a parent. Main motives for nondisclosure to parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden the parents. Factors that correlated positively with disclosure were extrafamilial CSA, single CSA, age of victim at CSA, and having parents who were still living together. Negative associations with disclosure were found for feelings of guilt and shame and the perpetrator's age. Many adolescent survivors of CSA have serious concerns about disclosure to their parents and consider friends as more reliable confidants. These findings have two main implications for prevention: (1) In order to facilitate disclosure to parents, the strengthening of the child-parent relationship should be given specific attention in prevention programs, and (2) prevention programs should aim at teaching adolescents how they can help a victim if they become a recipient of disclosure. PMID:22821848

Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A

2012-11-01

355

JAMA Patient Page: Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

JAMA PATIENT PAGE Elder Abuse E lder abuse refers to the mistreatment of an older adult that threatens his or her health or safety. ... discussing elder abuse and self-neglect. TYPES OF ELDER ABUSE • Physical abuse, such as infliction of pain or ...

356

Examining Child Sexual Abuse and Future Parenting: An Application of Latent Class Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to empirically derive latent classes of mothers who were sexually abused during childhood and to assess the association between depression, alcohol/drug use, supportive intimate partner, and specific classes.

2011-01-01

357

Non-accidental pediatric trauma: radiographic findings in the abused child  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The common radiographic manifestations of abused children are discussed along with the mandated obligation of the doctor to recognize and report any reasonable suspicion of non-accidental trauma in his/her pediatric patients.

Deltoff, Marshall

1994-01-01

358

Treatment Effects for Common Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Current Meta-Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present meta-analysis examined the effects of psychosocial treatments at reducing deleterious outcomes of sexual abuse. The meta-analysis included a total of 35 published and unpublished studies written in English, focusing on youth under the age of 18, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for the most common negative outcomes of sexual abuse: PTSD symptoms, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Results revealed medium effect sizes for PTSD symptoms, externalizing ...

Trask, Emily V.; Walsh, Kate; Dilillo, David

2011-01-01

359

Information Computing in Crime Mapping:The Pocket Man Case of Criminal Child Sexual Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It took Norwegian police thirty-two years to capture the Pocket Man who was responsible for more than hundred sexual abuses over that same time period. This article presents a study police investigations of the abuses by applying the value shop configuration. Primary activities in the value shop are (i) problem definition; (ii) investigation steps; (iii) investigation decision; (iv) investigation implementation; and (v) police performance evaluation. As discussed in this article, each value s...

Petter Gottschalk; Morten Espen Ørn

2011-01-01

360

Crime mapping in police value shops:The pocket man case of child sexual abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It took Norwegian police thirty-two years to capture the Pocket Man who was responsible for more than hundred sexual abuses over that same time period. This article presents a study police investigations of the abuses by applying the value shop configuration. Primary activities in the value shop are (i) problem definition; (ii) investigation steps; (iii) investigation decision; (iv) investigation implementation; and (v) police performance evaluation. As discussed in this article, each value s...

Gottschalk, Petter; Ørn, Morten Espen

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The role of bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of the suspected abused child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison was made of the radiographic and scintigraphic skeletal surveys of 261 children who were suspected victims of abuse. Radiography was positive in 105 children and produced false-negative results in 32; scintigraphy was positive in 120 children and produced false-negative results in two. Although radiography has traditionally been used to assess the skeletal injuries of battered children, the authors conclude that scintigraphy should be the screening procedure of choice for children suspected of having been abused

1983-01-01

362

Alternative drugs of abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

2014-02-01

363

Elder Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

Muge Gulen

2013-06-01

364

SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

Bano Rubeena

2009-12-01

365

Demographic and clinical features of child abuse and neglect cases: one-year experience of The Hospital-Based Child Protection Team of Ege University, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Cases of child abuse and neglect (CAN should be ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team. In the present study, our aim was to review the demographic and clinical features of cases of child abuse and neglect followed-up by the Child Protection Team of Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.Material and Method: The data of the cases of CAN referred to the multidisciplinary team of Ege University between August 2009 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the cases were summarized.Results: There were a total of 89 CAN cases evaluated by the team in our hospital during the last 12 months. The age of the cases ranged from 1 to 17 years, and 43 (48.3% of them were male, while 46 (51.7% were female. The sexual, physical and emotional abuse rates were 49%, 25% and 11% respectively, while 14% of them were diagnosed as pure neglect cases. The fathers were offenders in 67% of cases of physical abuse and in 9% of cases of sexual abuse. However, an extra-familial person was the perpetrator in 59% of the cases of sexual abuse. Conclusions: Recently, the number of reported CAN cases in our country has increased after the increase in the awareness of the public about this subject and multidisciplinary child protection teams have been established within hospitals. However, there is a long way to go, although remarkable improvements have been observed in the last decade. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 119-24

Feyza Koç

2012-06-01

366

Revelação do abuso sexual infantil: reações maternas Disclosure of child sexual abuse: mother's reactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A literatura tem indicado que mães de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual, ao tomarem conhecimento da situação de abuso de suas filhas, podem apresentar uma variedade de manifestações, que podem incluir ansiedade, depressão e estresse pós-traumático. Além disso, a reação frente à revelação pode ser de apoio e proteção ou, ainda, de evitação, indiferença ou ambivalência. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como mães de meninas abusadas sexualmente reagiram quando tomaram conhecimento do abuso. Foram entrevistadas 10 participantes que estavam sendo acolhidas em serviços especializados em situações de violência, em hospital público de Porto Alegre. As reações maternas foram classificadas em positivas e ambivalentes. A maioria das mães acreditou no relato das filhas e denunciou o abuso, embora nem todas tenham sido protetivas no sentido de afastar suas filhas do abusador ou de imediatamente procurar ajuda e realizar denúncia. Os fatores que contribuíram para as reações maternas também são discutidos.The literature has indicated that mothers of children victims of sexual abuse, when taking knowledge of the abuse situation of their children, can present a variety of manifestations that can include anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, the reaction facing abuse disclosure can be support and protection or, still, avoidance, indifference or ambivalence. This study aimed at investigating how mothers of sexually abused girls reacted when they had taken knowledge of the abuse. Ten participants who were being sheltered at a specialized service for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault in a public hospital of Porto Alegre were interviewed. The mother's reactions were classified in positive and ambivalent. The majority of the mothers believed in the report of their daughters and denounced the abuse, although not all had been protective in the sense of keeping their children safe from the abuser or immediately looking for help and carrying out the denunciation. The factors that contribute to mother's reactions are also discussed.

Samara Silva dos Santos

2009-03-01

367

Revelação do abuso sexual infantil: reações maternas / Disclosure of child sexual abuse: mother's reactions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A literatura tem indicado que mães de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual, ao tomarem conhecimento da situação de abuso de suas filhas, podem apresentar uma variedade de manifestações, que podem incluir ansiedade, depressão e estresse pós-traumático. Além disso, a reação frente à revelação pode ser de [...] apoio e proteção ou, ainda, de evitação, indiferença ou ambivalência. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como mães de meninas abusadas sexualmente reagiram quando tomaram conhecimento do abuso. Foram entrevistadas 10 participantes que estavam sendo acolhidas em serviços especializados em situações de violência, em hospital público de Porto Alegre. As reações maternas foram classificadas em positivas e ambivalentes. A maioria das mães acreditou no relato das filhas e denunciou o abuso, embora nem todas tenham sido protetivas no sentido de afastar suas filhas do abusador ou de imediatamente procurar ajuda e realizar denúncia. Os fatores que contribuíram para as reações maternas também são discutidos. Abstract in english The literature has indicated that mothers of children victims of sexual abuse, when taking knowledge of the abuse situation of their children, can present a variety of manifestations that can include anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, the reaction facing abuse disclosu [...] re can be support and protection or, still, avoidance, indifference or ambivalence. This study aimed at investigating how mothers of sexually abused girls reacted when they had taken knowledge of the abuse. Ten participants who were being sheltered at a specialized service for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault in a public hospital of Porto Alegre were interviewed. The mother's reactions were classified in positive and ambivalent. The majority of the mothers believed in the report of their daughters and denounced the abuse, although not all had been protective in the sense of keeping their children safe from the abuser or immediately looking for help and carrying out the denunciation. The factors that contribute to mother's reactions are also discussed.

Samara Silva dos, Santos; Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio.

368

Physical Abuse: Are Children with Disabilities at Greater Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines child abus/span>e and neglect in terms of the potential proportional threat to children with disabilities. Characteristic traits of abusers and victims, environmental and sociocultural factors, and the history of maltreatment of the disabled are discussed. Recommendations for practitioners and a list of child abus/span>e organizations…

Zirpoli, Thomas J.

1990-01-01

369

The Harmful Effects of Parental Substance Abuse on Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this final project was to describe the harmful effects of parental substance abuse from child perspective as having to grow up in a substance abusing family is considered as child maltreatment. In addition, the trends in parental substance abuse and the children's visibility in the treatment cycle were stressed as the data was gathered from Järvenpää Addiction Hospital's children's treatment documents.

Virtala, Maria; Suikkanen, Aino-kaisa

2010-01-01

370

Elder Abuse Awareness Module.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

Goettler, Darla

371

Associations Between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization Among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study participants were obtained from a community based sample examining women’s sexual decision-making. The continuous CSA measurement reflects cumulative histori...

Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

2011-01-01

372

A skills and needs analysis among social workers assessing alleged child sexual abuse in the Western Cape  

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This study focuses on the skills and needs of forensic social workers, working with alleged child sexual abuse in the Western Cape. Forensic social work is based on specialised knowledge drawn from established principles and their application within proven methodology of training, familiarity with the law, evaluation and objective criteria associated with treatment outcomes. The scope of forensic social work thus includes a specialised skill where human service systems communicate the languag...

2012-01-01

373

Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in longstanding eating disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current five year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (1) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (2) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at one-,...

Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Vrabel, Karianne R.; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Øyvind; Martinsen, Egil W.

2009-01-01

374

The Collision of the Adoption and Safe Families Act and Substance Abuse: Research-Based Education and Training Priorities for Child Welfare Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of descriptive literature demonstrates the problem of substance abuse in child welfare. The 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) established time frames that make children's need for permanency the overriding priority in families involved with the child welfare system. Child welfare workers often lack proper knowledge and skill…

Schroeder, Julie; Lemieux, Catherine; Pogue, Rene

2008-01-01

375

Barreiras, para a notificação pelo pediatra, de maus-tratos infantis / Barriers for reporter of child abuse by pediatricians  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: determinar os fatores que interferem na notificação de maus-tratos infantis, pelos pediatras, aos serviços de proteção à criança. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional transversal. Uma amostra aleatória de pediatras de Porto Alegre foi selecionada entre 990 inscritos na sociedade de pediatria loc [...] al. Variáveis sócio-demográficas, formação profissional, conhecimento diante de casos de maus-tratos infantis foram obtidos através de questionário anônimo. Análises descritiva e multivariada foram utilizadas para determinar os fatores associados a não notificação. RESULTADOS: foram incluídos 97 pediatras dos quais 92 concordaram em participar do estudo. Oitenta identificaram casos de maus-tratos, e destes 63 notificaram ao menos um caso. A maioria revelou medo de envolver-se legalmente, apresentou nível suficiente de conhecimento e baixo grau de confiança nos órgãos de proteção à criança. Conhecimento insuficiente (OR = 3,94), trabalhar exclusivamente no setor privado (OR = 6,33) foram fatores associados a não notificação. Após ajustes, o conhecimento insuficiente foi significativamente associado com o resultado OR = 5,06 (IC95% = 1,45 - 17,59). CONCLUSÕES: verificou-se uma alta taxa de identificação e notificação, pelo pediatra, de maus-tratos infantis. Programas de educação continuada, melhoria dos serviços de proteção, suporte técnico profissional para o setor privado podem aumentar a taxa de identificação e notificação de maus-tratos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to determine factors interfering with the reporting of child abuse by pediatricians to children protection services. METHODS: cross sectional observation study. A random sample of pediatricians from Porto Alegre was selected among the 990 registered in the local pediatrician's society. S [...] ocial and demographic variables, professional background, knowledge concerning child abuse were obtained through the application of anonymous questionnaires. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were utilized to determine factors associated to the failure in reporting. RESULTS: ninety seven pediatricians were selected and 92 agreed to participate of the study. Of these, 80 (86.9%) identified some case of child abuse, and 63 (78.7%) reported at least one case. The majority of pediatricians admitted fear of legal involvement, demonstrated adequate knowledge of the issue and low confidence in child protection entities. Insufficient knowledge (OR = 3.94), working exclusively in the private sector (OR = 6.33) were the factors associated to the failure in reporting. Following adjustments, insufficient knowledge was significantly associated to result OR = 5.06 (95%CI = 1.45 - 17.59). CONCLUSIONS: a high rate of identification and reporting of child abuse through pediatricians was determined. Continuous education programs, improvement of protection services, professional support to the private sector could increase child abuse identification and reporting.

Joelza M., Pires; Marcelo Zubaran, Goldani; Elisabeth M., Vieira; Tiago R., Nava; Letícia, Feldens; Kelly, Castilhos; Vinícius, Simas; Núbia S., Franzon.

376

Treatment Effects for Common Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Current Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The present meta-analysis examined the effects of psychosocial treatments at reducing deleterious outcomes of sexual abuse. The meta-analysis included a total of 35 published and unpublished studies written in English, focusing on youth under the age of 18, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for the most common negative outcomes of sexual abuse: PTSD symptoms, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Results revealed medium effect sizes for PTSD symptoms, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems following treatment for sexual abuse. This study also examined the potential moderating effects of treatment (e.g., modality, duration, inclusion of caregiver) and participant (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity) characteristics. Results indicated that longer interventions were associated with greater treatment gains while group and individual treatments were equally effective. These findings shed new light on treatment effectiveness and provide useful information regarding the conditions under which treatment may be most effective. Future directions for research in this area are discussed.

Trask, Emily V.; Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David

2010-01-01

377

Information Computing in Crime Mapping: The Pocket Man Case of Criminal Child Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It took Norwegian police thirty-two years to capture the Pocket Man who was responsible for more than hundred sexual abuses over that same time period. This article presents a study police investigations of the abuses by applying the value shop configuration. Primary activities in the value shop are (i problem definition; (ii investigation steps; (iii investigation decision; (iv investigation implementation; and (v police performance evaluation. As discussed in this article, each value shop activity had serious deficiencies in the investigations of Pocket Man cases.

Petter Gottschalk

2011-04-01

378

alcohol (alcohol abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org. The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

BrianJohnson

2011-12-01

379

Abuso físico: o perfil do agressor e da criança vitimizada Physical abuse: the profile of aggressor and child victim  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: conhecer o perfil da criança vítima de agressão física e do agente responsável pela violência contra ela. Método: investigaram-se 225 casos confirmados de abuso físico do SOS Criança, de Curitiba, durante o ano de 1.998, aos quais se aplicou um protocolo com quesitos voltados à análise da criança violentada e do agente agressor. Resultados: registraram-se os seguintes modelos: 56% das crianças avaliadas apresentavam-se em idade escolar; 59,6% eram o primeiro filho da família; 84,4% consistiam em filhos naturais e 71,1% das crianças apresentavam satisfatório rendimento escolar. Múltiplas lesões (38,2% atingiram o corpo das vítimas, e os ferimentos, na maioria das vezes (37,8%, apresentaram-se como hematomas. O principal agente agressor foi a mãe (42,2%, das quais 25,8% alegaram a causa disciplinar para o abuso, utilizaram-se das mãos (32,5% para efetuar a violência e 72% delas negam o uso de bebida alcóolica. Conclusões: As crianças que mais sofrem agressão física, segundo a amostra estudada, consistem em filhos legítimos e primogênitos, com faixa etária entre 5 e 11 anos e com nível escolar compatível com a idade. A mãe, com suas próprias mãos, resume-se no principal agente agressor, e deixa geralmente hematomas, em diversos segmentos do corpo da criança, com o princípio de educar, ou seja, a colocação de limites.Objective: To establish the profile of children who suffer abuse and of abuse perpetrators. Method: 225 cases of confirmed child-abuse (SOS Criança - Curitiba were studied in 1998; a protocol with queries to analyze the child and the abuser was applied. Results: The following patterns were observed: 56% of the children were in school age; 59.6% were the first child of the couple; 84.4% were natural offspring; and 71.1% of the children had a satisfactory school record. Multiple injuries (38.2% were found on the victims’ bodies, mostly bruises (37.8%. The main aggressor was the mother (42.2%; 25.8% of them said that the reason for the violence was disciplining the child; 72% of the mothers denied the use of alcohol. Conclusion: The children who suffer more from physical abuse, according to the study, are first-born children of married parents, between 5 and 11 years old; their schooling level is compatible with their age. The mother, with her own hands, is the main aggressor; she normally leaves bruises in several parts of the victim's body, with the objective of educating, or setting limits to the child.

Gilberto Pascolat

2001-02-01

380

Abuso físico: o perfil do agressor e da criança vitimizada / Physical abuse: the profile of aggressor and child victim  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: conhecer o perfil da criança vítima de agressão física e do agente responsável pela violência contra ela. Método: investigaram-se 225 casos confirmados de abuso físico do SOS Criança, de Curitiba, durante o ano de 1.998, aos quais se aplicou um protocolo com quesitos voltados à análise da [...] criança violentada e do agente agressor. Resultados: registraram-se os seguintes modelos: 56% das crianças avaliadas apresentavam-se em idade escolar; 59,6% eram o primeiro filho da família; 84,4% consistiam em filhos naturais e 71,1% das crianças apresentavam satisfatório rendimento escolar. Múltiplas lesões (38,2%) atingiram o corpo das vítimas, e os ferimentos, na maioria das vezes (37,8%), apresentaram-se como hematomas. O principal agente agressor foi a mãe (42,2%), das quais 25,8% alegaram a causa disciplinar para o abuso, utilizaram-se das mãos (32,5%) para efetuar a violência e 72% delas negam o uso de bebida alcóolica. Conclusões: As crianças que mais sofrem agressão física, segundo a amostra estudada, consistem em filhos legítimos e primogênitos, com faixa etária entre 5 e 11 anos e com nível escolar compatível com a idade. A mãe, com suas próprias mãos, resume-se no principal agente agressor, e deixa geralmente hematomas, em diversos segmentos do corpo da criança, com o princípio de educar, ou seja, a colocação de limites. Abstract in english Objective: To establish the profile of children who suffer abuse and of abuse perpetrators. Method: 225 cases of confirmed child-abuse (SOS Criança - Curitiba) were studied in 1998; a protocol with queries to analyze the child and the abuser was applied. Results: The following patterns were observed [...] : 56% of the children were in school age; 59.6% were the first child of the couple; 84.4% were natural offspring; and 71.1% of the children had a satisfactory school record. Multiple injuries (38.2%) were found on the victims? bodies, mostly bruises (37.8%). The main aggressor was the mother (42.2%); 25.8% of them said that the reason for the violence was disciplining the child; 72% of the mothers denied the use of alcohol. Conclusion: The children who suffer more from physical abuse, according to the study, are first-born children of married parents, between 5 and 11 years old; their schooling level is compatible with their age. The mother, with her own hands, is the main aggressor; she normally leaves bruises in several parts of the victim's body, with the objective of educating, or setting limits to the child.

Pascolat, Gilberto; Santos, Cristiane de F.L. dos; Campos, Eurico C.R. de; Valdez, Luciane C.O.; Busato, Daniela; Marinho, Daniela H..

 
 
 
 
381

Clinical features of the head injury caused by child abuse in infants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnosis and managements of the head injury in battered children are greatly complicated by medical history and the mechanisms of injury. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical features of the head injury in battered children. Clinical signs and symptoms, the mechanisms of injury, intracranial pathology, and prognosis of 25 battered children with head injury treated between 1984 and 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. The age of 25 children was between 1 month and 2 years old. The average of the ages was 7 months old. In 68% of 25 patients, the age was 6 months or less. The medical history of head injury was unclear in 16 children. The chief complains were disturbance of consciousness, convulsion, vomiting and hypothermia. Retinal hemorrhages were recognized in 88% of the patients and these were bilateral in 68%. Acute subdural hematomas (19 cases) and chronic subdural hematomas (6 cases) were shown on CTs or MRIs. In four cases, cerebral contusions were complicated as intracranial pathology. In 44% of the patients, the hypoxic-ischemic injury was confirmed on CTs or MRIs. Fractures of limbs and ribs were recognized on skeletal survey in 40% of the patients. 71% of 17 survival cases had moderate or severe psychomotor disabilities at the end of follow-up periods. In children under 2 years of age with subdural hematomas, clinical investigations other than CT and MRI, included ophthalmoscopy by ophthalmologist and skeletal survey, are crucial and mandatory for early diagnosis of the child abuse. (author)

2007-12-01

382

An evaluation of primary school teachers towards child sexual abuse and necessity of its reporting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction:Child sexual abuse (CSA is one of those problems which repeatedly happens and affects the future of children. In order to decrease the negative effects of CSA, many countries attemptto fight against this problem by developing new educational programs. One of the target populations t be educated in this regard is primary school teachers, who can offer great helps due to their day-to-day and close relationship with the victims of CSA. Therefore, they are supposed to have the knowledge and ability in this area. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge of primary school teachers regarding CSA and their attitudes towards it, and also to evaluate their ability to identify and report this phenomenon.Material and Methods:The sample group consisted of 62 primary school teachers in Karaj who were selected through cluster sampling method. To collect the data, a researcher-made questionnaire was used with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.86.Results:The analysis of data showed that although the teachers are aware of the significance of their role in identification and reporting of CSA, their knowledge in this area is insufficient. 86 percent of these teachers had received no instructions in this area and it seems that their ability to identify and report this phenomenon was not sufficient.Conclusion:Therefore, it seems necessary to provide the teachers with proper instructions about identification and reporting of this problem in pre-service educational courses.

Sajad Alboukordi

2011-02-01

383

Child Sexual Abuse and Adulthood Interpersonal Outcomes: Examining Pathways for Intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined a dual pathway, longitudinal mediational model in which child sexual abuse (CSA) influences adulthood interpersonal functioning and sexual risk through its impact on resiliency resources and psychological distress. Women were recruited from two obstetrics and gynecological clinics serving primarily low-income, inner-city women (N = 693) and interviewed at pretest (Time 1) and 6-month follow-up (Time 2). The proposed mediators were resiliency resources (i.e., self-esteem and self-efficacy) and psychological distress (i.e., depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms). The interpersonal outcomes were general interpersonal problems (measured via recent loss of interpersonal resources, lack of perceived current social support, and recent social conflict) and HIV/sexual risk (measured via lack of confidence asserting safe sex practices, intimate partner risk, and perceived barriers to safe sex). A respecified partial structural equation model implying full mediation supported our hypotheses (CFI = .96, RMSEA = .05, SRMR = .04). The impact of CSA on interpersonal problems was mediated through its effect on psychological distress, whereas the impact of CSA on HIV/sexual risk was mediated through its effect on resiliency resources. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:23543033

Lamoureux, Brittain E; Palmieri, Patrick A; Jackson, Anita P; Hobfoll, Stevan E

2012-11-01

384

Organisational Barriers in Working With Child Sexual Abuse (Csa Cases: The Malaysian Professionals’ Experiences  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine organisational barriers faced by professionals working with child sexual abuse (CSA cases in Malaysia. This study was conducted from a diverse sample of 18 social workers, medical social workers, counsellors and police officers who worked in CSA cases. These participants came from different organisations namely the royal police of Malaysia, the welfare department, hospitals and non-government agency. A qualitative approach was used for collecting and analysing data; and semi structured interview was used to guide the interview. Two main factors had been identified as barriers in working with CSA cases, namely within and between organisations. In terms of within organisations, participants identified factors such as inadequate support, excessive workload, safety issue and lack of resources as the major barriers. As for between organisations, factors such as conflict of power and disorganised system were mentioned as factors preventing capabilities of professionals in giving help. This paper provides an in depth analysis of major barriers facing by professionals working with CSA in Malaysia.

Salina Nen

2012-01-01

385

Heterogeneity of Individuals with a History of Child Sexual Abuse: An Examination of Children Presenting to Treatment  

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The current study examined children and families who presented for treatment through Project SAFE (Sexual Abuse Family Education) following childhood sexual abuse. Pretreatment assessment data were used to develop clusters of participants with significantly differing presentation of symptom outcome following abuse. Four clusters were discovered:…

Yancey, C. Thresa; Hansen, David J.; Naufel, Karen Z.

2011-01-01

386

NSDUH Report: Children Living with Substance-Dependent or Substance-Abusing Parents. 2002-2007.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parental substance dependence and abuse can have profound effects on children, including child abus/span>e and neglect, injuries and deaths related to motor vehicle accidents, and increased odds that the children will become substance dependent or abusers thems...

2009-01-01

387

Mental health policies on reporting child sexual abuse and physician-patient sexual relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

The reporting of child sexual abuse (CSA) and physician-patient sexual relationships (PPSR) are currently the focus of professional, legal and media attention in several countries. This paper briefly reviews mental health policies on these issues and reports on a WPA survey of them. While the WPA Madrid Declaration permits breaching confidentiality for mandatory reporting of CSA and clearly prohibits PPSR, it is not known how or to what extent these policies are implemented in WPA Member Societies’ countries. It is also not known whether policies or laws exist on these topics nationally or to what extent psychiatrists and the public are aware of them. Representatives of WPA Member Societies were e-mailed a survey about issues pertaining to CSA and PPSR. Fifty-one percent of 109 countries replied. All reporting countries had laws or policies regarding the reporting of CSA, but this was often voluntary (63%) and without protection for reporting psychiatrists either by law (29%) or by Member Societies (27%). A substantial number of psychiatric leaders did not know the law (27%) or their Society’s policy (11%) on these matters. With respect to PPSR, some reporting countries lacked laws or policies about PPSR with current (17%) or past (56%) patients. Fewer than half of responding representatives believed that their Society’s members or the public were well informed about the laws and policies pertaining to CSA or PPSR. There is clearly a wide range of laws, policies and practices about CSA and PPSR in WPA Member Societies’ countries. There is a need in some countries for laws or supplemental policies to facilitate the protection of vulnerable child and adult patients through clear, mandatory reporting policies for CSA and PPSR. Mechanisms to protect and support reporting psychiatrists should also be developed where they do not already exist. There is also a need in some countries to develop strategies to improve the education of psychiatrists, trainees, and the public on these issues.

STEWART, DONNA E.; VENOS, ERIK; ASHRAF, IRAM J.

2009-01-01

388

Recognizing the co-occurrence of domestic and child abuse: a comparison of community- and hospital-based midwives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to compare and contrast how midwives working in either hospital or community settings are currently responding to the co-occurrence of domestic and child abuse (CA), their perceived role and willingness to identify abuse, record keeping, reporting of suspected or definite cases of CA and training received. A survey questionnaire was sent to 861 hospital and community midwives throughout Northern Ireland which resulted in 488 midwives completing the questionnaire, leading to a 57% response rate. Comparisons were made using descriptive statistics and cross-tabulation, and the questionnaire was validated using exploratory factor analysis. Community midwives reported receiving more training on domestic and CA. Although a high percent of both hospital and community midwives acknowledged a link between domestic violence (DV) and CA, it was the community midwives who encountered more suspected and definite (P mothers using non-coercive, supportive and empowering mechanisms. Many women may not spontaneously disclose the issues of child or domestic abuse in their lives, but often respond honestly to a sensitively asked question. This issue is important as only 13% of the sample actually asked a woman a direct question about DV. PMID:19245424

Lazenbatt, Anne; Thompson-Cree, Margaret E M

2009-07-01

389

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation and One-Year Follow-Up.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of an adapted "Feeling Yes, Feeling No" sexual abuse prevention curriculum was measured with 286 third and fourth graders. Treatment children exhibited significantly greater knowledge and better ability to discriminate safe from unsafe situations compared to controls. These gains were maintained at six-week and one-year followup.…

Hazzard, Ann; And Others

1991-01-01

390

Arab Parents' Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of Clinical Records  

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This paper addresses parents' reactions to sexual abuse cases in their families. The study analyzed the clinical records of individual and family therapy sessions with 35 cases of Arab Palestinian clients, citizens of Israel (27 individuals and 8 families). Families were categorized as either functional or dysfunctional. It was concluded that…

Abu-Baker, Khawla

2013-01-01

391

Perceptions of Victims and Perpetrators in a Depicted Child Sexual Abuse Case: Gender and Age Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the roles of respondent, perpetrator, and victim gender on attributions toward a 10- or 15-year-old victim and an adult perpetrator in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. It was predicted (a) that female respondents would be more provictim and antiperpetrator than men, (b) that 10-year-old victims would be deemed more…

Rogers, Paul; Davies, Michelle

2007-01-01

392

Measures to Predict Child Abus/span>e: A Validation Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research was designed to: (1) test the predictive ability of a battery of measures, assembled and tested with known abusers and matched controls in a previous developmental study, (2) develop a typology of parents who would be high risk for malparenti...

M. A. Disbrow H. O. Doerr

1982-01-01

393

Forget the cultural niceties, we need to see FGM as child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Niall McCrae is a well-respected lecturer and researcher at King's College London with a particular interest in the history of psychiatry and mental health care. He has often spoken out against the abuse that is female genital mutilation (News May 28). PMID:24894251

Marsh, Catherine

2014-06-01

394

Therapeutic Alliance, Negative Mood Regulation, and Treatment Outcome in Child Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the related contributions of the therapeutic alliance and negative mood regulation to the outcome of a 2-phase treatment for childhood abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Phase 1 focused on stabilization and preparatory skills building, whereas Phase 2 was comprised primarily of imaginal exposure to traumatic…

Cloitre, Marylene; Chase Stovall McClough,K.; Miranda, Regina; Chemtob, Claude M.

2004-01-01

395

Child Abuse and Neglect by Parents with Disabilities: A Tale of Two Families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two families were studied that had children placed in foster care due to abuse and neglect by parents with mental retardation. One mother easily learned necessary parenting skills. In the second case, incremental resumption of custody was made contingent on completion of relevant parenting tasks; when progress in task completion ceased, parental…

Greene, Brandon F.; And Others

1995-01-01

396

Child sexual abuse--children and families referred to a treatment project and the effects of intervention.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The characteristics of a series of 274 families who were referred to a sexual abuse treatment programme were analysed. Information was obtained on 411 abused children and 362 non-abused children. Different forms of sexual abuse were noted, with 77% of girls and 23% of boys affected. Boys tended to be abused at a younger age, more severely, and for longer periods than girls. There was a predominance of lower social class groups among the parents, and a wide variety of family structures, with r...

Bentovim, A.; Boston, P.; Elburg, A.

1987-01-01

397

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact ... Health plan rules , current page File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact ...

398

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed for services or supplies you never got. Medicare fraud costs Medicare a lot of ...

399

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page could ... File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse ...

400

Commonly Abused Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... illicit and prescription drugs, listing their common and street names, how they are generally administered, and their potentially ... Drug Abuse Tobacco Category & Name Examples of Commercial & Street Names DEA Schedule How Administered* Nicotine Found in cigarettes, ...

 
 
 
 
401

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and SCI Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical ...

402

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... aren't medically necessary . A complaint about the quality of care you got from a doctor, hospital, ... facility isn't considered fraud or abuse. Your Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) can help you if you ...

403

[Drugs and drug abusers].  

Science.gov (United States)

DRUG ABUSERS: Drugs are widely used by toxicomaniacs to reproduce drug effects. Drug abusers generally start with psychotrops, but other abuse drug classes. Toxicomanic behavior leads to addictive practices that are difficult to control. BARBITURATES: Both the oral and intravenous routes are used. The expected result is a state of ecstasy with a feeling of comfort. Intoxication may cause respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce physical and psychic dependence. Abuse is not widespread with this class of drugs. BENZODIAZEPINES: Drug abuses widely use benzodiazepines orally or intravenously. They search for a flash effect, with sedation and a feeling of comfort. All benzodiazepines induce physical and psychic dependence. Death may result from combinations leading to respiratory depression. Flunitrazepam is the most widely abused benzodiazepine in France. It induces serious neuropsychic disorders. ANTIDEPRESSANTS: Few are used, mostly at high doses. OPIATES: Administration gives the same effect as heroine injection. Opiates induce physical and psychic dependence. The adverse effects are similar to those of morphine with a higher risk of respiratory depression. AMPHETAMINES: Few are used, either orally or intravenously. They induce a flash with excitation, euphoria, and a period of invincibility. This is followed by a period of depression with risk of suicide. Psychic dependence is high. ANTICHOLINERGIC ANTIPARKINSONIANS: These drugs are well known to abusers for their hallucinatory effect. They induce atropinic adverse effects and physical and psychic dependence. GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE: This anesthetic is used for its euphoria and sedation effects. It may induce falling sickness or coma, with a risk of respiratory depression. KETAMINE: Administered via the intranasal route, ketamine induces a state of indifference. Death has been observed. ANABOLIC AND ANDROGENIC STEROIDS: These drugs are used for their physical and psychic stimulating effect. They induce potentially dangerous adverse effects such as cardiovascular, hepatic, neurological and psychiatric disorders. Clinical signs of addiction and weaning are observed. OTHERS: Several other drug classes are used by abusers, including analgics, beta-adrenergic agents, nasal vasoconstrictors and corticosteroids. PMID:11252979

Schlatter, J; Sitbon, N; Saulnier, J L

2001-02-17

404

Physical abuse in pregnancy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of physical abuse during late pregnancy and to investigate how abused and nonabused pregnant women differ in demographic characteristics, health habits, psychologic distress and attitudes about fetal health. DESIGN: Survey of women attending for prenatal health care or admitted to hospital for delivery. The information was obtained on one occasion from self-report questionnaires, completed with the option of anonymity. SETTINGS: Community-based prenatal...

Stewart, D. E.; Cecutti, A.

1993-01-01

405

Vaccines for Cocaine Abuse  

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Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by ...

Orson, Frank M.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A. K.; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

406

Synthetic cathinone abuse  

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The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthet...

Capriola, Michael

2013-01-01

407

Drug Abuse Resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

STUDENTS NEED TO BE AWARE OF THE DANGERS OF DRUGS! The following includes helpful ways to learn about drug abuse resistance. Please finish the smoking quiz for class discussion on Friday! If parents would like a helpful resource on how to teach their children to say no to drugs and alcohol. See NIDA for Teens : The Science Behind Drug Abuse Click on the following link ...

Koyle, Mrs.

2005-03-22

408

The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis  

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Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction

Lia Leão Ciuffo

2008-03-01

409

The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction.

Lia Leão Ciuffo

2008-04-01

410

Maltrato infantil en la ciudad de Temuco: Estudio de prevalencia y factores asociados Child abuse in Temuco, Chile: Prevalence and risk factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Child maltreatment is recognised as a significant health problem in developed countries. There is increasing awareness on family violence in Chile, becoming a health priority in the last five years, but there is scant information about its prevalence. Aim: Determine prevalence of child abuse, and associated factors in a population sample from Temuco, Chile. Material and methods: A standardised questionnaire was applied to a sample of 422 women at their homes. Instrument had questions about disciplinary practices by caretakers, a standardised questionnaire to assess mental health, as measures of risk and protective factors for violence Results: The prevalence of psychological aggression delivered by mothers or fathers was 17.5% and 6.8 % respectively. The figures for corporal punishment delivered by mother or fathers were 42.3% and 17% respectively. Three percent of mothers and 1.2% of fathers recognised severe physical abuse. Associated factors were mother impaired mental health, antecedents of child abuse in both parents, parents alcohol abuse and child emotional/behavioral problem. Conclusion: Child abuse is a extended significant problem in Temuco that requires multidisciplinary intervention programs (Rev Méd Chile 2001; 129: 1425-32

María Beatriz Vizcarra L

2001-12-01

411

Conocimiento de los padres en la prevención del abuso sexual infantil / Parental Knowledge in the prevention of child sexual abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El abuso sexual infantil se presenta mayormente a nivel intrafamiliar es decir son los padres, tíos, hermanos, padrastros, que se aprovechan de la inocencia del niño, situación esta que impacta en gran manera su vida; el presente estudio tuvo como propósito Determinar el Nivel de conocimiento que po [...] seen los padres en Relación al Abuso Sexual Infantil. Se efectuó un estudio de campo de carácter descriptivo, no experimental transeccional. La población considerada estuvo conformada por 80 madres de los niños y niñas en edad escolar del sector Colinas de Mara II, Morón, estado Carabobo. La muestra correspondió 25% de la población objeto del estudio es decir 19 madres. La recolección de la información se obtuvo a través de un cuestionario con 19 ítems, de alternativas de respuestas dicotómicas (SÍ-NO), siendo validado por juicio de expertos. Y un coeficiente de confialidad de 0,79 por el método de alfa de Crombach. Del Análisis de los resultados se Concluyó, que un 50% de los padres encuestados no dialogan con su hijos sobre esta situación, medida vital que permite prevenir el abuso sexual infantil, lo que hace más relevante la necesidad de poner en práctica estrategias educativas para la prevención del abuso sexual infantil y así contribuir a combatir este flagelo social. Abstract in english Child sexual abuse occurs mostly within the family, i.e. the parents, uncles, brothers, stepfathers, who prey on the innocence of youth, a situation that impacts greatly on the child's life. This study was aimed at determining the level of knowledge parents have in relation to Child Sexual Abuse. A [...] cross-sectional, non experimentan descriptive field study was made. The population consisted of 80 mothers of school age children from the Mara Hill II sector, Moron, Carabobo State. The sample consisted of 25% of the population surveyed, i.e. 19 mothers. Data collection was obtained through a questionnaire with 19 items of dichotomous response options (YES-NO), and was validated by expert opinion. The confidence coefficient was 0.79 according to the Crombach alpha. Analysis of the results concluded that 50% of the parents surveyed do not talk to their children about the situation, when talkimg is a vital method of preventing child sexual abuse. It is, theregore, of great importance implement educational strategies for prevention of child sexual abuse and so help to combat this social scourge.

Morillo, B; Montero, L.; Colmenares, Z..

412

Physical and Sexual Abuse of Children in the West Midlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes 964 convicted and cautioned abusers of 1,113 children in the West Midlands, United Kingdom, police jurisdiction. Gender and demographic trends are noted. Multiple abuse tended to be sexual and perpetrated by men, although most cases involved only a single child. One third of abusers were unemployed, and most lived with their…

Morris, Ian; And Others

1997-01-01

413

Patterns of Language Comprehension Deficit in Abused and Neglected Children.  

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A study of the relationship between child abuse/neglect and language disability compared 30 abused, generally neglected, or severely neglected children, aged 3-8, to 10 nonabused controls. Results on language comprehension tests suggest that abused and severely neglected children show greater difficulty with language comprehension tasks than their…

Fox, Lynn; And Others

1988-01-01

414

National Center on Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and families. New annotated bibliographies related to recent elder abuse and neglect articles Read More Printable one-page ... convenes in DC Read More Forum on Global Elder Abuse and Its Prevention Read More Calendar Use our ...

415

Afectación de la Salud Oral en Niños que Padecen Maltrato Infantil: Reporte de Caso / Impact of Oral Health in Children with Child Abuse: A Case Report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El maltrato infantil es una patología de la cual se tienen registros desde las civilizaciones antiguas como la griega y egipcia; pero es hasta 1924 que se firma la declaración de Ginebra: Derechos de la infancia, siendo el IX derecho: No al Maltrato. En México se tiene registro de maltrato infantil [...] desde hace 20 años. Se ha tipificado el maltrato infantil en dos grandes rubros: activo y pasivo, la negligencia odontológica es clasificado como maltrato pasivo, por lo tanto el odontólogo (en especial el Odontopediatra) debe prestar atención al hacer la inspección clínica y elaboración de historia clínica del paciente, para encontrar indicios de maltrato infantil y llevar a cabo la atención de estos pacientes con adecuado manejo de su conducta, la cual puede ser variable dependiendo el tipo de maltrato que ha sufrido. Las consecuencias del maltrato en cavidad oral son múltiples y pueden manifestarse a corto, largo y mediano plazo. En este artículo se presenta un caso clínico de maltrato por abandono, negligencia odontológica y las consecuencias que éste tuvo en la salud oral y general de la paciente. Abstract in english Child abuse is a disease for which there are records from ancient civilizations like the Greek and Egyptian, but until 1924 when the Geneva Declaration was signed: Children's rights: No to Abuse. In Mexico records of child abuse have been kept for the last 20 years. It has classified child abuse int [...] o two major categories: active and passive, dental malpractice liability is classified as child abuse therefore the dentist (especially the pediatric dentist) should pay attention to realize a clinical inspection and preparation of patient history, for signs of child abuse, and carry out the care of these patients with adequate management of their behavior, which can vary depending on the type of abuse the child has suffered. The consequences of abuse in oral cavity are multiple and can occur at short, medium and long term. This article presents a case of abuse by dental neglect and the consequences that this has on oral health, and therefore on the general health of the patient.

Alejandra, Requena Mendoza; Norma Leticia, Robles Bermeo; Edith, Lara Carrillo.

416

Education, Male Child and Childlessness as Predictors of Spouse Abuse Among Rural and Urban Igbo-Nigerian Women  

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Full Text Available

This research work investigated education, male child and childlessness as predictors of spouse abuse among Ibowomen living in the rural and urban areas in Nigeria. The purposive sampling was used to select 331 married women, with age range of 22-66, and all living in Imo state. The spouse rape inventory (Sri developed by Uwaoma, Udeagha and Madukwe, (2011 was used to collect data. The multiple regression analysis of the SPSS II version 15 was used to analyze data. The researchers found education and residential area as significant predictors while male child and childlessness were not significant predictors of spouse abuse. The discussion highlighted the role of education in equipping women with the knowledge of their sexual rights and skills on how to cope with marriage based problems especially when they live in the rural areas.

Key words: Education; Abuse; Spouse Abuse; Male Child; Childlessness

Résumé Ce travail de recherche a étudié l’éducation, les enfants de sexe masculin et l’infécondité comme des prédicteurs de violence conjugale chez les Ibo-femmes vivant dans les zones rurales et urbaines au Nigeria. L’échantillonnage raisonné a été utilisé pour sélectionner 331 femmes mariées, avec la gamme d’âge des 22-66, et tous vivent dans l’État d’Imo. L’inventaire viol conjoint (Sri développé par Uwaoma, Udeagha et Madukwe, (2011 a été utilisé pour recueillir des données. L’analyse de régression multiple de la version SPSS II 15 a été utilisé pour analyser les données. Les chercheurs ont constaté domaine de l’éducation et résidentiel des prédicteurs significatifs tout enfant de sexe masculin et l’infécondité sont pas des prédicteurs significatifs de violence conjugale. La discussion a souligné le rôle de l’éducation à équiper les femmes de la connaissance de leurs droits sexuels et des compétences sur la façon de faire face à des problèmes de mariage à base surtout quand ils vivent dans les zones rurales.

Mots clés: Education; Violence; Violence conjugale; Enfant de sexe mâle; Infécondité

Nkwam C. Uwaoma

2012-03-01

417

Revisión sistemática de las consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil / Neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse: a systematic review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Los resultados de diversos estudios sugieren la existencia de un período crítico en el desarrollo del individuo en el cual la experiencia de maltrato y abuso sexual puede conllevar cambios neurobiológicos permanentes o muy duraderos, afectando especialmente a la respuesta del eje neuroend [...] ocrino hipotálamico-hipofisario-adrenal. El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer una revisión actualizada de las principales consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil. Métodos: Se seleccionaron aquellas publicaciones de enero de 1999 a enero de 2010, en inglés o español, centradas en las consecuencias neurobiológicas relacionadas con la experiencia de abuso sexual infantil mediante las bases de datos Medline, Scopus, Psycinfo y Web of Science. También se examinaron las listas de referencias de estudios publicados acerca de las consecuencias neurobiológicas de la victimización en la infancia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 34 estudios sobre consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil, de los cuales se extraen alteraciones neuroendocrinas, estructurales, funcionales y neuropsicológicas que afectan a un importante número de víctimas. Conclusiones: Los trabajos que hasta ahora han explorado los efectos neurobiológicos del maltrato muestran que es necesario considerar a éste y al abuso sexual infantil como problemas de salud que afectan a diferentes áreas de la vida de sus víctimas, favoreciendo así el desarrollo de programas de intervención y tratamiento teniendo en cuenta sus múltiples efectos. Abstract in english Objective: The results of several studies suggest that there is a critical timeframe during development in which experiences of maltreatment and sexual abuse may lead to permanent or long-lasting neurobiological changes that particularly affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. The a [...] im of the present study was to provide an updated review on the main neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse. Methods: We selected articles published between January 1999 and January 2010 in English or Spanish that focused on the neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse available through Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. We also examined the references in published articles on the consequences of sexual victimization in childhood. Results: In this review we included 34 studies on neurobiological consequences, indicating different kinds of effects, namely: neuroendocrine, structural, functional and neuropsychological consequences, which affect a large number of victims. Conclusions: The existing body of work on the neurobiological consequences of maltreatment shows the need to consider maltreatment and child sexual abuse as health problems that affect different areas of victims' lives, which would in turn favor the development of intervention and treatment programs that take these multiple effects into account.

Noemí, Pereda; David, Gallardo-Pujol.

418

Revisión sistemática de las consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil Neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Los resultados de diversos estudios sugieren la existencia de un período crítico en el desarrollo del individuo en el cual la experiencia de maltrato y abuso sexual puede conllevar cambios neurobiológicos permanentes o muy duraderos, afectando especialmente a la respuesta del eje neuroendocrino hipotálamico-hipofisario-adrenal. El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer una revisión actualizada de las principales consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil. Métodos: Se seleccionaron aquellas publicaciones de enero de 1999 a enero de 2010, en inglés o español, centradas en las consecuencias neurobiológicas relacionadas con la experiencia de abuso sexual infantil mediante las bases de datos Medline, Scopus, Psycinfo y Web of Science. También se examinaron las listas de referencias de estudios publicados acerca de las consecuencias neurobiológicas de la victimización en la infancia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 34 estudios sobre consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil, de los cuales se extraen alteraciones neuroendocrinas, estructurales, funcionales y neuropsicológicas que afectan a un importante número de víctimas. Conclusiones: Los trabajos que hasta ahora han explorado los efectos neurobiológicos del maltrato muestran que es necesario considerar a éste y al abuso sexual infantil como problemas de salud que afectan a diferentes áreas de la vida de sus víctimas, favoreciendo así el desarrollo de programas de intervención y tratamiento teniendo en cuenta sus múltiples efectos.Objective: The results of several studies suggest that there is a critical timeframe during development in which experiences of maltreatment and sexual abuse may lead to permanent or long-lasting neurobiological changes that particularly affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. The aim of the present study was to provide an updated review on the main neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse. Methods: We selected articles published between January 1999 and January 2010 in English or Spanish that focused on the neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse available through Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. We also examined the references in published articles on the consequences of sexual victimization in childhood. Results: In this review we included 34 studies on neurobiological consequences, indicating different kinds of effects, namely: neuroendocrine, structural, functional and neuropsychological consequences, which affect a large number of victims. Conclusions: The existing body of work on the neurobiological consequences of maltreatment shows the need to consider maltreatment and child sexual abuse as health problems that affect different areas of victims' lives, which would in turn favor the development of intervention and treatment programs that take these multiple effects into account.

Noemí Pereda

2011-06-01

419

Revisión sistemática de las consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil / Neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse: a systematic review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Los resultados de diversos estudios sugieren la existencia de un período crítico en el desarrollo del individuo en el cual la experiencia de maltrato y abuso sexual puede conllevar cambios neurobiológicos permanentes o muy duraderos, afectando especialmente a la respuesta del eje neuroend [...] ocrino hipotálamico-hipofisario-adrenal. El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer una revisión actualizada de las principales consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil. Métodos: Se seleccionaron aquellas publicaciones de enero de 1999 a enero de 2010, en inglés o español, centradas en las consecuencias neurobiológicas relacionadas con la experiencia de abuso sexual infantil mediante las bases de datos Medline, Scopus, Psycinfo y Web of Science. También se examinaron las listas de referencias de estudios publicados acerca de las consecuencias neurobiológicas de la victimización en la infancia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 34 estudios sobre consecuencias neurobiológicas del abuso sexual infantil, de los cuales se extraen alteraciones neuroendocrinas, estructurales, funcionales y neuropsicológicas que afectan a un importante número de víctimas. Conclusiones: Los trabajos que hasta ahora han explorado los efectos neurobiológicos del maltrato muestran que es necesario considerar a éste y al abuso sexual infantil como problemas de salud que afectan a diferentes áreas de la vida de sus víctimas, favoreciendo así el desarrollo de programas de intervención y tratamiento teniendo en cuenta sus múltiples efectos. Abstract in english Objective: The results of several studies suggest that there is a critical timeframe during development in which experiences of maltreatment and sexual abuse may lead to permanent or long-lasting neurobiological changes that particularly affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. The a [...] im of the present study was to provide an updated review on the main neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse. Methods: We selected articles published between January 1999 and January 2010 in English or Spanish that focused on the neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse available through Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. We also examined the references in published articles on the consequences of sexual victimization in childhood. Results: In this review we included 34 studies on neurobiological consequences, indicating different kinds of effects, namely: neuroendocrine, structural, functional and neuropsychological consequences, which affect a large number of victims. Conclusions: The existing body of work on the neurobiological consequences of maltreatment shows the need to consider maltreatment and child sexual abuse as health problems that affect different areas of victims' lives, which would in turn favor the development of intervention and treatment programs that take these multiple effects into account.

Noemí, Pereda; David, Gallardo-Pujol.

420

Sex Differences in Drug Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

2004-08-01

422

Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

Rabi, Keren

2006-01-01

423

Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

Schuckit, Marc A.

1977-01-01

424

Frequency of childhood abuse in university students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

Cem Zeren

2012-12-01

425

Synthetic cathinone abuse  

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Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

Capriola M

2013-07-01

426

The Legal Process in Child Sexual Abuse : Difficulties in confirming evidence and providing support  

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The overall purpose of this thesis was to study the situation of such children in the legal process. In depth-interviews were carried out on ten children aged 8-18 years old. The interviews focused on the children´s experiences and perceptions of meeting with various professionals in the legal process. In-depth interviews were also conducted with nine parents of children who had been sexually abused and who had entered into a legal process. Parents described how they experienced the situatio...

Back, Christina

2012-01-01

427

Frequency of childhood abuse in university students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students...

2012-01-01

428

Hemophilia and child abuse as possible causes of epidural hematoma: case report / Hemofilia e abuso infantil como possíveis causas de hematoma extradural: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Traumatismo crânio-encefálico é importante conseqüência de abuso infantil. Mecanismos fisiopatológicos específicos do abuso infantil são responsáveis pela ''whiplash shaken-baby syndrome'', o que favoreceria o aparecimento de hemorragias intracranianas. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos o caso d [...] e uma criança que desenvolveu hematoma extradural após trauma de pequena intensidade. Foi feito diagnóstico inicial de abuso infantil, mas investigações subseqüentes levaram ao diagnóstico de hemofilia A. CONCLUSÃO: Embora o hematoma extradural não esteja intimamente relacionado com abuso infantil, esta etiologia deve ser sempre considerada quando o mecanismo de trauma relatado estiver fora de proporção com as lesões encontradas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Head trauma is an important consequence of child abuse. Specific pathophysiological mechanisms in child abuse are responsible for the ''whiplash shaken-baby syndrome'', which would favour the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhages. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a child who develop [...] ed epidural hematoma following minor-intensity head trauma. Initial diagnosis of child abuse was made, but subsequent investigation led to the diagnosis of hemophilia A. CONCLUSION: Even though epidural hematoma is not closely associated with child abuse, this aethiology must always be considered when the reported trauma mechanism is out of proportion to the magnitude of the encountered lesions.

Fernando Campos Gomes, Pinto; Fabrizio Frutos, Porro; Liliana, Suganuma; Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos, Fontes; Almir Ferreira de, Andrade; Raul, Marino Jr.

429

An investigation of the clinical use of the house-tree-person projective drawings in the psychological evaluation of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification and evaluation of child sexual abuse is an integral task for clinicians. To aid these processes, it is necessary to have reliable and valid psychological measures. This is an investigation of the clinical validity and use of the House-Tree-Person (HTP) projective drawing, a widely used diagnostic tool, in the assessment of child sexual abuse. HTP drawings were collected archivally from a sample of sexually abused children (n = 47) and a nonabused comparison sample (n = 82). The two samples were grossly matched for gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. The protocols were scored using a quantitative scoring system. The data were analyzed using a discriminant function analysis. Group membership could not be predicted based on a total HTP score. PMID:11232089

Palmer, L; Farrar, A R; Valle, M; Ghahary, N; Panella, M; DeGraw, D

2000-05-01

430

Forensic aspects of animal abusing  

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Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

Aleksi? Jelena

2008-01-01

431

Subtypes of cocaine abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have characterized five subtypes of cocaine abusers on the basis of clinical presentation, family history data, and response to specific treatment interventions. These include depressed patients who value the euphorigenic effects of the drug, patients with bipolar or cyclothymic disorder who use cocaine to augment manic or hypomanic symptoms or to alleviate depression, adults with ADD, residual type, who find that cocaine has a paradoxical effect of increasing attention span and decreasing motor restlessness, patients with narcissistic and borderline personality disorders who use cocaine for its social prestige and because it bolsters self-esteem, and patients with antisocial personality disorder who use cocaine as part of an overall pattern of antisocial behavior. Although not all cocaine abusers fit neatly into these categories, careful psychiatric evaluation and subtyping is essential in designing a specific treatment program for these patients. As the prevalence rate of cocaine abuse increases, studies that examine the efficacy of various treatment approaches for specific subtypes of cocaine abusers will be essential. It is hoped that our work will be a step in that direction. PMID:3774602

Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M

1986-09-01

432

Education to prevent child sexual abuse. View of a sex educator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual abuse prevention education is a new undertaking for our schools. But, while at first glance it appears to necessitate a curriculum unique unto itself, such is not really the case. In fact, on close scrutiny it has a great deal in common with curriculum approaches being developed to combat a whole array of dangerous and dysfunctional adolescent and adult behavior: suicide and depression, alcohol and drug abuse, violent and exploitative behavior, eating disorders, premature sexual behavior and teen pregnancy, delinquency and underachievement. While some of the specific content material may vary (alcohol in beer or wine versus effectiveness rates of condoms or spermicides versus nutritional requirements), other important facets have general applicability. Specifically, these relate to the more generalized affective educational approaches (education about affect--feelings, values, attitudes about self and others). The key here is to increase one's understanding of and respect for self and others. And the most crucial issue is self-esteem. Those with poor self-esteem are likely to fall prey to any of a variety of dysfunctional behaviors; while those with a more positive sense of self-worth will behave in a way that is more protective of self and others. It is critical to understand that those who see themselves as lovable and capable human beings (Freud's recognition of the centrality of love and work) are far more likely to be the loving and caring citizens our society needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3602653

Selverstone, R

1987-03-01

433

Abuso sexual infantil y síndrome de alienación parental: criterios diferenciales Child sexual abuse an parental alienation syndrome: Differential criteria  

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Full Text Available El abuso sexual infantil y los denominados casos de interferencias parental son situaciones de especial gravedad para los menores que las padecen, así como de evidente dificultad para su adecuado diagnóstico y abordaje profesional. Discernir cuando el profesional se encuentra ante uno u otro caso entraña una complejidad para la que son necesarios una formación adecuada y unos criterios fiables. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo aportar algunos de los criterios recogidos de las publicaciones al respecto, que pretenden facilitar la diferenciación entre ambas situaciones. El análisis del relato del menor, así como diferentes indicadores clínicos presentes en una parte importante de las víctimas de abuso sexual pueden ayudar al profesional a tomar una decisión al respecto. Los efectos de un error diagnóstico en cualquiera de estos casos conllevaría un gran perjuicio para el menor, su familia y el sistema social, siendo fundamental que el profesional evite participar activamente en una evaluación de este tipo si no se dispone de la adecuada formación y experiencia.Child sexual abuse and those cases of parental interferences are severe situations with negative consequences for children suffering them. Moreover, these situations are not easy to tackle regarding the diagnosis and professional approach. To distinguish when the professional is in front of one of the above mentioned situations is a complex task for which are needed a strong, solid training and trustworthy criteria. The main aim of the present work is to suggest some criteria, gathered from the publications in the field, which would be able to differentiate between actual child sexual abuse and parental interference. The analysis of the child's report, as well as different clinical indicators that are present in many victims of sexual abuse can help the professional to take the right decision. The effects of a diagnostic mistake in any of these cases would imply harm for the child, his or her family and the social system. It is very important that the professional avoid taking part actively in an evaluation of this type if he or she does not have enough training and experience on this controversial field.

N. Pereda

2009-10-01

434

Psychopathology in chronic cocaine abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of 30 hospitalized cocaine abusers were studied, along with 124 hospitalized patients who were dependent upon opiates or central nervous system depressants. DSM-III diagnoses, family history data, demographic characteristics, and measures of current depressive symptomatology were compared in the two groups. Nineteen (63%) of the cocaine abusers met criteria for an Axis I diagnosis other than substance abuse; sixteen (53%) had affective disorder. These figures reflected a significantly higher prevalence rate of affective disorder among the cocaine abusers than among the opiate and depressant abusers. In addition, a significantly higher rate of affective disorder was found in the first degree relatives of the cocaine abusers when compared to the other group. Since these findings suggest that a substantial number of cocaine abusers may be suffering from other psychiatric disorders, careful diagnostic evaluation is indicated in this population. PMID:3788897

Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M; Michael, J L; Sollogub, A C

1986-01-01

435

How Much Child Sexual Abuse is "Below the Surface," and Can We Help Adults Identify it Early?  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) occurs frequently in society to children aged between 2 and 17. It is significantly more common in girls than boys, with the peak age for CSA occurring when girls are aged 13-17. Many children experience multiple episodes of CSA, as well as having high rates of other victimizations (such as physical assaults). One of the problems for current research in CSA is different definitions of what this means, and no recent review has clearly differentiated more severe forms of CSA, and how commonly this is disclosed. In general we suggest there are four types of behavior that should be included as CSA, namely (1) non-contact, (2) genital touching, (3) attempted vaginal and anal penetrative acts, and (4) vaginal and anal penetrative acts. Evidence suggests that CSA involving types (2), (3), and (4) is more likely to have significant long-term outcomes, and thus can be considered has having higher-impact. From the research to date approximately 15% of girls aged 2-17 experience higher-impact CSA (with most studies suggesting that between 12 and 18% of girls experience higher-impact CSA). Approximately 6% of boys experience higher-impact CSA (with most studies suggesting that between 5 and 8% experience higher-impact CSA). The data also suggests that in over 95% of cases the CSA is never disclosed to authorities. Thus, CSA is frequent but often not identified, and occurs "below the surface" in the vast majority of higher-impact cases. Helping adults to understand "below the surface" CSA might help them to recognize it early, but there are very few indicators specific to CSA, making this a challenging goal to achieve. Nonetheless, given that CSA frequently occurs with other types of abuse, a training program that focuses on both CSA and other abuse may offer a method to allow both early recognition and prevention by adults in the general population. PMID:23874306

Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

2013-01-01

436

Maus-tratos contra a criança e o adolescente no Estado de São Paulo, 2009 Child and adolescent abuse in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 2009  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil das notificações em crianças e adolescentes no Estado de São Paulo em 2009 e analisar possíveis fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 4.085 notificações em menores de 15 anos, registradas no Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (VIVA; um teste de regressão logística foi utilizado. RESULTADOS: O sexo feminino foi 61,4% do total. A faixa etária mais frequente entre as meninas foi a de 10 a 14 anos (38,8% e entre os meninos foi OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of the reports of child and adolescent abuse in the state of São Paulo in 2009, and to analyze possible associated factors. METHODS: A total of 4,085 reports regarding children and adolescents younger than 15 years recorded by the Domestic, Sexual, and Other Interpersonal Violence Surveillance System (Sistema de Vigilância de Violência Doméstica, Sexual e Outras Violências Interpessoais - VIVA were analyzed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: The females comprised 61.4% of the total cases. The most common age group among females was 10 to 14 years (38.8% and among males was < 5 years (35.8%. Physical abuse accounted for 43.3% of cases in males, and sexual abuse cases accounted for 41.7% of cases in females. The main perpetrators of the abuse were parents (43.8% of the total and acquaintances (29.4%. Male aggressors were 72.0% of the total. The abuse occurred at home in 72.9% of cases; repeated abuse was reported in 51.4% of cases. Differences between the cases of physical and sexual abuse: a physical abuse - mostly males (50.9%, parents as perpetrators (48.4%, and women as perpetrators (42.8%, b sexual abuse - mostly females (77.2%, known aggressors (48.4%, and men as perpetrators (96.1%. Variables associated with physical abuse: male gender (OR: 2.22, age 10-14 years (OR: 1.68, and parents as perpetrators (OR: 2.50. Sexual abuse was associated with female gender (OR: 2.84, age 5-9 years (OR: 1.66, and unknown authors (OR: 1.53. CONCLUSION: Public policies should guarantee that children and adolescents have a healthy and violence-free life. The analysis of the notifications is an important tool to establish prevention strategies.

Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

2012-12-01

437

Intergenerational patterns of substance abuse among urban American Indian families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance abuse continues to be a family problem in American Indian (AI) families. This article highlights findings from a two generation study on substance abuse among nine AI families. Five common themes shared by the parent and adult child groups included early onset of substance abuse, minimization of substance abuse (and a subtheme of efforts to control use), taking accountability for substance abuse (and a subtheme about perpetuated stereotypes), turning point moments in use (and a subtheme of negotiating and exploring sobriety), and perceptions of the abstinence only approach. Clinical implications are discussed in light of the findings. PMID:24564557

Myhra, Laurelle L; Wieling, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

438

Opportunities for prevention and intervention with young children: lessons from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The most effective way to provide support to caregivers with infants in order to promote good health, social, emotional and developmental outcomes is the subject of numerous debates in the literature. In Canada, each province adopts a different approach which range from universal to targeted programs. Nonetheless, each year a group of vulnerable infants is identified to the child welfare system with concerns about their well-being and safety. This study examines maltreatment-related investigations in Canada involving children under the age of one year to identify which factors determine service provision at the conclusion of the investigation. Methods A secondary analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect CIS-2008 (PHAC, 2010 dataset was conducted. Multivariate analyses were conducted to understand the profile of investigations involving infants (n=1,203 and which predictors were significant in the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services at the conclusion of the investigation. Logistic Regression and Classification and Regression Trees (CART were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome and predictors. Results The results suggest that there are three main sources that refer infants to the Canadian child welfare system: hospital, police, and non-professionals. Infant maltreatment-related investigations involve young caregivers who struggle with poverty, single-parenthood, drug/solvent and alcohol abuse, mental health issues, lack of social supports, and intimate partner violence. Across the three referral sources, primary caregiver risk factors are the strongest predictor of the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services. Conclusions Multivariate analyses indicate that the presence of infant concerns does not predict ongoing service provision, except when the infant is identified with positive toxicology at birth. The opportunity for early intervention and the need to tailor interventions for specific caregiver risk factors is discussed.

Fallon Barbara

2013-02-01

439

78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse...Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Advisory Council on...

2013-12-06

440

Associations Between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization Among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study participants were obtained from a community based sample examining women’s sexual decision-making. The continuous CSA measurement reflects cumulative histories of CSA through a composite score capturing abuse specific characteristics. Using a cross-validation approach, the sample (n = 835) was randomly split and the explanatory power of each measure was examined through a series of multiple linear regressions comparing model fit indexes and performing a formal likelihood ratio test of one model against another. All CSA measures explained a similar percentage of variance but overall the CSA summed composite explained the data significantly better in terms predicting negative sexual experiences and revictimization than a binary measure as demonstrated with the likelihood ratio test. The results were replicated by cross-validating the predictive power of the CSA composite score between the split samples. Consistency of CSA regression estimates for the summed composite between training and validation samples were also confirmed. Given the superiority of the CSA summed composites over the binary variable, we recommend using this measure when examining associations between CSA histories and negative sexual experiences and revictimization.

Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed. PMID:24070695

Easton, Scott D

2014-02-01

442

Actualización de las consecuencias físicas del abuso sexual infantil: an update / Physical consequences of child sexual abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La experiencia de abuso sexual conlleva importantes repercusiones en el bienestar físico y psicológico de la víctima. Se hace necesario conocer qué efectos puede tener esta experiencia sobre la salud, tanto para su posible detección temprana como para un tratamiento efectivo. Determinadas lesiones g [...] enitales y anales, la presencia de esperma, infecciones y enfermedades de transmisión sexual (gonococia, condilomas acuminados, sífilis) antes de la pubertad, así como el embarazo, pueden ser importantes indicadores de abuso sexual, si bien en la mayor parte de casos los hallazgos físicos son nulos en estas víctimas, dificultando la detección de estos casos. En la edad adulta, los dolores físicos, el trastorno de conversión, las crisis no epilépticas, el trastorno de somatización, trastornos ginecológicos, así como un inicio significativamente temprano de la menopausia, son algunos de los problemas físicos más frecuentemente presentes. Conclusiones: conocer los indicadores y consecuencias del abuso sexual para identificarlos y detectarlos tan pronto como sea posible se plantea como una necesidad de la que los profesionales del ámbito sanitario debemos ser conscientes para poder intervenir tempranamente y de forma efectiva en estos casos. Abstract in english Introduction: Child sexual abuse experience is usually followed by serious physical and psychological consequences. It is necessary to know the possible effects of this problem on the victim's health to detect early these situation