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1

Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... find out how!. Apply Now Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse If you are in an abusive relationship or ... Policy and Legislation The New Parent Support Program Domestic Abuse Domestic Abuse Military Reporting Options Domestic Abuse and ...

2

Child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

3

Child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

Dorst, J.P.

1982-08-01

4

[Child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

It is estimated that in the Netherlands over 100.000 children per year are victims of child abuse. In more than 50% of the cases of physical abuse there is a trauma of the head and neck area. Therefore, it is likely that (without realizing it) dentists are regularly confronted with cases of child abuse. Dentists have an ethical duty to take positive action in cases of suspected child abuse. They may refer the patient to an oral surgeon, consult the family physician or ask the advice of the 'Advies- en Meldpunt Kindermishandeling' (Advice and Report Centre for Child Abuse). The Dutch Dental Association, the Dutch Association of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physiotherapists have signed a formal agreement to promote closer cooperation in identifying child abuse more quickly. PMID:19438074

Allard, R H B; van Merkesteyn, J P R; Baart, J A

2009-04-01

5

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

6

Child abuse - physical  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical child abuse or non-accidental child trauma refers to fractures and other signs of injury that occur when a ... is hurt in anger. The physical signs of child abuse used to be called battered child syndrome. This ...

7

Child Abuse and Neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

Ya?ar T?ra?ç?; Süleyman Gören

2007-01-01

8

Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

Ya?ar T?ra?ç?

2007-01-01

9

Who Owns Child Abuse?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

Gerald Cradock

2014-11-01

10

Prevent Child Abuse America  

Science.gov (United States)

... the important work done by Grandparen?ts! Prevent Child Abuse America, founded in 1972 in Chicago, works to ... Mission Want to find out more about Prevent Child Abuse America? Learn about our mission and our organization . ?? ? ...

11

Child Abuse in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this ...

Mohammad Reza Iravani,

2011-01-01

12

Causes of Child Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

S. Erhan Deveci

2003-08-01

13

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the risk that the child will develop serious problems as an adult. For additional information see Facts for Families : #4 The Depressed Child #5 Child Abuse #10 Teen Suicide #28 Responding to Child Sexual Abuse #62 Talking ...

14

Emotional Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... in topics related to emotional child abuse and parent-child relationships must be undertaken. 1 Sources 1) Garbarino, J. & Garbarino, A. Emotional Maltreatment of Children. (Chicago, National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, ... Florida Center for Parent Involvement (website: http://lumpy.fmhi.usf.edu/cfsroot/ ...

15

Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises  

Science.gov (United States)

... version of this document . The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

16

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

Ermertcan Aylin

2010-01-01

17

Child Abuse in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2011-02-01

18

Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

2013-01-01

19

Primary Prevention of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses primary prevention of child abuse, child injury, substance abuse with children and adolescents, and school maladjustment. Describes methods of prevention research with children, action approaches to primary prevention, and a school-based divorce intervention program. (MCF)

Rosenberg, Mindy S.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

1985-01-01

20

Child abuse - sexual  

Science.gov (United States)

... abuse , including: Alcohol and drug abuse Family troubles Poverty Abusers sometimes have a history of physical or ... for sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis and HIV, and pregnancy in females. These tests can help ...

 
 
 
 
21

Child sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

22

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

Kleinman, P.K.

1987-01-01

23

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

24

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies Mental Health Rural Child Welfare Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse Youth Search A to Z Services & ...

25

[Child abuse: a world problem].  

Science.gov (United States)

Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present study approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused. PMID:9567659

Santana-Tavira, R; Sánchez-Ahedo, R; Herrera-Basto, E

1998-01-01

26

Child physical abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

2014-04-01

27

[Child abuse in the family].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals: abuse of the embryo, foetus or new-born child, and sexual abuse. In Portugal the existence of various forms of poverty (whether in material or educational terms), and the lack of family support services and mechanisms, are of particular significance. And tied in with this structural aspect there is the significant factor of alcoholism, which in the sample under investigation is statistically much more significant than drug addiction. PMID:12525019

De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

2002-01-01

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Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

29

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

2002-04-01

30

GIRL CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

G.S. VENUMADHAVA

2013-03-01

31

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... hard to make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

32

Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

2005-01-01

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Child abuse, a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

Andri M.T. Lubis

2004-02-01

34

Child abuse in panic disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

Bonevski Dimitar

2008-01-01

35

Q & A on Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

As an advocate for all students, educators have a legal, moral, and ethical responsibility for identifying and reporting child abuse. One of the most difficult tasks a teacher may face is also one of the most important a teacher can do. If a teacher knows what to look for and what to do, he or she can help a child heal physically and emotionally.…

Kirk, Rea

2007-01-01

36

What's a Kid To Do about Child Abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet discusses child abuse, targeting pre-teenagers and teenagers. It describes what child abuse is, why it happens, and what a teenager can do about it. These topics are covered: (1) definition of child abuse and types of child abuse; (2) differentiating between child abuse and discipline; (3) sexual abuse; (4) family types of child

Hittleman, Margo

37

What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

2006-01-01

38

Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

2011-01-01

39

Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports  

Science.gov (United States)

When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

Hartill, Mike

2013-01-01

40

Fatal child abuse in Georgia: the epidemiology of severe physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decisions about the occurrence of child abuse are increasingly difficult to make because concepts of what qualifies as reportable child abuse may be broadening. We examined this question by comparing 51 fatal child abuse cases occurring in Georgia between July 1975 and December 1979 to non-fatal cases and to the Georgia population. Overall rates of fatal child abuse were higher for male perpetrators compared with female and black perpetrators compared with white. However, the latter finding varied with economic and geographic status. The highest child abuse fatality rates were found in poor, rural, white families (3.3/100,000 children) and in poor, urban, black families (2.4/100,000 children). Risk factors for fatal abuse included early childhood (RR 6:1), parental teenage childbearing (RR 4:1), and low socioeconomic status. These characteristics were similar to those of the severe child abuse cases noted in the early child abuse literature. Non-fatal cases did not clearly share these risk factors. Severe abuse, here represented by fatal cases, is a distinct subset of reported child abuse, but characteristics associated with it are frequently attributed to all reportable child abuse. Medical personnel should be aware that they cannot rely on the presence or absence of these characteristics in screening for risk of reportable child abuse. Child abuse research should use restricted, stated case definitions. When intervention and prevention programs are being organized, they should not generalize research findings to all forms of child abuse. PMID:6605181

Jason, J; Andereck, N D

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

Intima Alrimawi

2014-01-01

42

Cranial imaging in child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

2002-04-01

43

Cranial imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

44

Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

Bengü Pala

2011-03-01

45

Towards understanding child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

Clara Inés Carreño

2010-02-01

46

A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

Murat TOPBAS

2004-08-01

47

Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child?s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

Subramanian E; Subhagya B; Muthu M; Sivakumar N

2005-01-01

48

Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child?s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

Subramanian E

2005-06-01

49

What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

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77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

...8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the...young Americans. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our...unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and parents and caregivers...

2012-04-05

51

75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

...8490 of April 1, 2010 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the...productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our...protecting children and responding to child abuse, promoting healthy...

2010-04-07

52

Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

Alexander, Randell A.

2011-01-01

53

Exploring Child Abuse among Vietnamese Refugees.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study interviewed 28 Vietnamese refugee families in St. Louis (Missouri) to determine difficulties in adjusting to the United States and to assess the prevalence of child abuse among this population. Findings were inconsistent and suggested that common methods of identifying child abuse may not be valid among populations reluctant to admit to…

Segal, Uma A.

2000-01-01

54

What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies Mental Health Rural Child Welfare Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse Youth Search A to Z Services & ...

55

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.)

56

Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the light of the latest information. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 591-614

Selen Acehan

2013-08-01

57

ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

Nicol, A. R.

1989-01-01

58

Tips for Protecting Child Athletes from Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... rights reserved. Tips for Protecting Child Athletes from Sexual Abuse is adapted from Know The Rules…For Child ... these questions to find out if preventing child sexual abuse is a priority for your child’s youth-sports ...

59

Dinamika Forgiveness Pada Orang Dewasa Yang Pernah Mengalami Child Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peristiwa penganiayaan anak biasa dikenal dengan istilah child abuse atau child maltreatment. Child abuse atau child maltreatment meliputi dua perilaku yaitu abuse dan neglect. Abuse mengarah pada tindakan yang menimbulkan kerusakan pada anak, sedangkan neglect mengarah pada tidak ada tindakan sama sekali, yaitu pengabaian yang merusak anak. Perilaku abuse dan neglect ini memiliki empat tipe. Pertama, physical abuse, yaitu kekerasan terhadap fisik anak yang dapat berupa puku...

Hayati, Reinidar Devirasari Nirmala

2011-01-01

60

Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

Julich, Shirley

2005-01-01

62

Brain MR imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

63

Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

64

Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child

Chan, Ko Ling

2012-01-01

65

The Child Abuse Crisis: Impact on the Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report explains the roles and responsibilities of schools in dealing with child abuse. The introduction lists child abuse facts and figures, defines child abuse and neglect, provides a rationale for the involvement of educators in treatment and prevention efforts, and considers ethical issues. Chapter 1, which concentrates on keeping abusers

Fead, A. Kelley

66

Bruising, coagulation disorder, and physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child protection is a priority, and the medical community has a responsibility to detect cases of abuse and to intervene using the appropriate measures. Bruises are the most common manifestation of physical abuse, although their interpretation can be extremely challenging for paediatricians as the evidence base is limited. As a history of abuse is a strong risk factor for further non-accidental injury, a correct diagnosis is vital. Clearly, the diagnostic process must determine whether an underlying coagulation disorder exists. It is important to realize, however, that the presence of a coagulation deficit does not necessarily exclude abuse. A growing body of evidence suggests that the practice of estimating bruise age is unreliable; therefore, a key factor in diagnosing abuse is the pattern of bruise distribution, which must be linked to the child's history and stage of development. The paediatrician must also consider the combined probabilities of individual bruises being due to abuse. Our scoring system, which uses a Bayesian approach to evaluate these probabilities and assess bruising patterns, is a potentially useful tool for discriminating between abused and non-abused children. We recommend that paediatricians and haematologists should work together to reach a diagnostic consensus that is acceptable in both the clinic and a court of law. PMID:15166933

Sibert, Jo

2004-05-01

67

Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect. PMID:25084799

Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

2014-01-01

68

Financial Fraud and Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.

Little, Allison Dare

2014-01-01

69

Child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Children in the Arab Peninsula are subjected to all forms of child abuse and neglect. Child abuse is ignored or may even be tolerated and accepted as a form of discipline, abused children continue to suffer and most abusers go free, unpunished and untreated. Confronting these realities is a necessary step in the long and hard road to break silence, respond to and prevent child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula.

Fadheela T. Al-Mahroos

2007-02-01

70

Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

71

Accidents and child abuse in bathtub submersions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-accidental bath drowning is an infrequently reported form of child abuse. Details of 44 children who suffered from drowning or near drowning in the bath were analysed from a two year (1988-9) UK study to investigate factors that might point to abuse. Cases of near drowning were notified through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit inquiry system and drowning cases from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, the Scottish Government Record Office, and the Northern Ireland Office...

Kemp, A. M.; Mott, A. M.; Sibert, J. R.

1994-01-01

72

Recurrent concerns for child abuse: repeated consultations by a subspecialty child abuse team.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physically abused children may be repeatedly reported to child protection services and undergo multiple medical evaluations. Less is known about recurrent evaluations by hospital-based child abuse teams for possible abuse. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of repeated consultations by child abuse teams and to describe this cohort in terms of injury pattern, perceived likelihood of abuse, disposition plan, and factors related to repeat consultation. This was a prospectively planned, secondary analysis of data from the Examining Siblings to Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) research network. Subjects included children younger than 10 years of age who were referred to child abuse subspecialty teams at one of 20 U.S. academic centers. Repeat consultations occurred in 101 (3.5%; 95% CI 2.9-4.2%) of 2890 subjects. The incidence of death was 4% (95% CI 1-9%) in subjects with repeated consults and 3% (95% CI 2-3%) in subjects with single consults. Perceived likelihood of abuse from initial to repeat visit remained low in 33% of subjects, remained high in 24.2% of subjects, went from low to high in 16.5%, and high to low in 26.4% of subjects. Themes identified among the subset of patients suspected of repeated abuse include return to the same environment, failure to comply with a safety plan, and abuse in foster care. Repeated consultation by child abuse specialists occurs for a minority of children. This group of children may be at higher risk of subsequent abuse and may represent an opportunity for quality improvement. PMID:24726050

Martindale, Jennifer; Swenson, Alice; Coffman, Jamye; Newton, Alice W; Lindberg, Daniel M

2014-07-01

73

Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

DC Action for Children, 2011

2011-01-01

74

Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

Serhat Nasiroglu

2014-02-01

75

78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

...whether by lifting children toward their full potential...Administration has made addressing child abuse a priority. Since...Reauthorization Act and the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act...progress in stopping child abuse and neglect....

2013-04-04

76

Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

2007-10-01

77

Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

2007-10-01

78

Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

79

Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

Nguyen, Pamela H.; Burrowes, Delilah M.; Ali, Saad; Shaibani, Ali [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bowman, Robin M. [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

2007-06-15

80

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILD ABUSE AND ADULT SMOKING*  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective A strong association between a history of child abuse and subsequent psychiatric disorders including substance use has been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the relationship between child abuse and cigarette smoking in individuals without co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In this study, the relationship between severe childhood abuse and smoking were examined in a group of adults without significant psychopathology. Methods Participants (N = 57) represent the control group of a larger study of substance dependence. Participants were without major DSM-1V psychopathology, including substance use disorders, major depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder. The Early Trauma Inventory [20] assessed history of exposure to traumatic events prior to age 18. Results The majority of individuals with, as compared to without, a history of severe child abuse (79% vs. 47%, p = .02) were current cigarette smokers. The odds of smoking was four times as high in participants with versus without a severe childhood abuse history (OR = 4.0, p = 0.04). Conclusions Although preliminary, the findings demonstrate a strong link between early childhood trauma and later adult cigarette smoking among individuals without significant substance use or other psychopathology. PMID:20391862

SPRATT, EVE G.; BACK, SUDIE E.; YEATTS, SHARON D.; SIMPSON, ANNIE N.; McRAE-CLARK, AIMEE; MORAN-SANTA MARIA, MEGAN M.; PRICE, KIMBER L.; HARTWELL, KAREN T.; BRADY, KATHLEEN T.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention. PMID:24056826

Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

2013-01-01

82

Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child

Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

2010-01-01

83

45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357...TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State...assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or...

2010-10-01

84

45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section 1357...IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded...

2010-10-01

85

Risk factors for child abuse: quantitative correlational design.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research study is to identify risk factors typical of different types of suspected child abuse reported at a hospital. The study was based on 114 cases of children for whom some type of abuse was reported. Physical abuse was the most frequently reported of all types of suspected child abuse. Most victims of sexual abuse were female and at least half the cases of neglect and physical abuse were attributed to parents. Most cases were identified in the emergency room by nurses. Children older than 10 were more susceptible to physical abuse and neglect. PMID:24263252

Ben-Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Barbashov, Polina; Minasyan, Yulia; Hanukayev, Isabella; Kajdan, David; Klein-Kremer, Adi

2014-01-01

86

Japan's emerging challenge for child abuse: system coordination for early prevention of child abuse is needed.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the end of 2013, a Japanese newspaper reported that 4,173 children were unidentified or missing in Japan. The article concluded that child abuse was a matter of national concern. In examining the strengths and weaknesses of Japan's welfare system in regard to child abuse, it would seem that a weakness exists with regard to its ambiguity on the roles of different officers who contact suspected cases. Although three types of officer (health, welfare, and police officers) can take charge, child abuse cases might be missed because the division of labor varies between the different types of officer. However, a strength exists in the periodical pediatric health check system that is in place in each of Japan's 1,742 municipalities. To efficiently implement early intervention for child abuse, it is necessary to rearrange the division of labor among the three types of officers to clarify who should intervene in suspected cases. PMID:25224630

Takahashi, Kenzo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Nagisa

2014-08-01

87

Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

2008-01-01

88

Influence of Child Abuse on Adult Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Genetic inheritance and developmental life stress both contribute to major depressive disorder in adults. Child abuse and trauma alter the endogenous stress response, principally corticotropin-releasing hormone and its downstream effectors, suggesting that a gene × environment interaction at this locus may be important in depression. Objective To examine whether the effects of child abuse on adult depressive symptoms are moderated by genetic polymorphisms within the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRHR1) gene. Design Association study examining gene × environment interactions between genetic polymorphisms at the CRHR1 locus and measures of child abuse on adult depressive symptoms. Setting General medical clinics of a large, public, urban hospital and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Participants The primary participant population was 97.4% African American, of low socioeconomic status, and with high rates of lifetime trauma (n=422). A supportive independent sample (n=199) was distinct both ethnically (87.7% Caucasian) and socioeconomically (less impoverished). Main Outcome Measures Beck Depression Inventory scores and history of major depressive disorder by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Results Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms spanning 57 kilobases of the CRHR1 gene were examined. We found significant gene × environment interactions with multiple individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eg, rs110402, P=.008) as well as with a common haplotype spanning intron 1 (P <.001). Specific CRHR1 polymorphisms appeared to moderate the effect of child abuse on the risk for adult depressive symptoms. These protective effects were supported with similar findings in a second independent sample (n=199). Conclusions These data support the corticotropin-releasing hormone hypothesis of depression and suggest that a gene × environment interaction is important for the expression of depressive symptoms in adults with CRHR1 risk or protective alleles who have a history of child abuse. PMID:18250257

Bradley, Rebekah G.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Epstein, Michael P.; Tang, Yilang; Nair, Hemu P.; Liu, Wei; Gillespie, Charles F.; Berg, Tiina; Evces, Mark; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N.; Heim, Christine M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Schwartz, Ann; Cubells, Joseph F.; Ressler, Kerry J.

2008-01-01

89

Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually stimulating acts including masturbation, prostitution, heterosexual or homosexual, forcible or other intercourse – vaginal, oral or anal. A legal definition of sexual abuse includes child molestation, incest and rape in the Indian context, child prostitution rape and child marriage are common forms of sexual abuse.

Assistant Professor Rama Pande

2012-03-01

90

Bridging the Gap of Teacher Education about Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

School personnel, particularly educators and school psychologists, are a first line of defense in protecting children from abuse. Teachers play an important role in the detection and reporting of child abuse. The relationship established between teachers and their students can facilitate the identification of child abuse. By virtue of their work,…

Sinanan, Allison N.

2011-01-01

91

Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. PMID:24269330

Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L

2014-03-01

92

Verbal Abuse on Children: Does It Amount to Child Abuse under the Malaysian Law?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children form an essential component of a society. The role of children has been acknowledged key to the survival, development as well as prosperity of that society. A child’s development stage is the most crucial and warrants serious attention from parents and teachers in order to assure their growth into mature adults, who are able to contribute to the society. One of the factors that may hamper their growth is child abuse. There are basically five main forms of child abuse known to take place in Malaysia namely physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect as well as abandonment. These forms of abuse have been given legal attention and recognition except emotional or psychological abuse. One common type of emotional abuse is verbal abuse, which is a form of abusive behavior involving the use of language. Alternatively known as reviling, it is a pattern of behavior that can seriously interfere with one’s positive emotional development and over time, it can lead to significant detriment to one’s self-esteem, emotional well-being and physical state. Although verbal abuse does not leave any outer mark or proof, a verbally abused victim usually suffers by having lower self-worth and low self-esteem. A child, who suffers verbal abuse may grow up to become a low self-esteem adult. Thus, verbal abuse may be considered as grave and must be given serious attention. Laws are the reflection of the attitude of a particular society. Since the function of law is mainly to maintain societal peace and order, it is through law that we can infer how society regards a particular issue, in this regard, verbal abuse on children. This paper aims to highlight firstly, on verbal abuse as another significant form of child abuse needing to be given serious consideration by the society and secondly, on the parameters of child abuse under the Malaysian Child Act 2001; and finally concludes with whether the provisions under the Malaysian Child Act 2001 are sufficient to protect children from verbal abuse.

Che Hasniza Che Noh

2012-04-01

93

Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

2012-01-01

94

Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons with Child Abuse and Neglect Issues. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, 36.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of the Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series examines treatment issues for both adult survivors of child abuse or neglect and adults in treatment who may be abusing or neglecting their own children. Chapters 1 through 3 focus primarily on adult survivors of child abuse and neglect. Chapter 1 defines child abuse and neglect,…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

95

Pediatric radiological diagnostics in suspected child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostics are essential in the case of clinical suspicion of pediatric injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities when there is no case history or when ''battered child syndrome'' is assumed on the basis of inadequate trauma. In particular, the aim of this sophisticated diagnostic procedure is the detection of lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to initiate prompt medical treatment. If diagnostic imaging shows typical findings of child abuse, accurate documented evidence of the diagnostic results is required to prevent further endangerment of the child's welfare. (orig.)

96

Neuroimaging of child abuse: a critical review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evide...

Hart, Heledd; Rubia, Katya

2012-01-01

97

The stress of child sexual abuse examinations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper was to determine if the medical evaluation of sexual abuse victims is stressful by heart rate variability monitoring. The design of the study was a case series of children referred for sexual abuse examination to determine child stress response monitored by heart rate variability during baseline, disclosure, and anogenital examination with photographs. The setting was a referral center for the investigation of child sexual abuse in two sites (Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada, USA). Patients included a consecutive sample of 30 children; 15 in Reno ranging in age from 3-10 years with a mean age of 7.1 (1 male and 14 females); 15 in Las Vegas ranging in age from 6-10 years with a mean age of 7.8 (3 males and 12 females). Measurements and results were: each subject's heart rate was obtained during the first 3 minutes of the baseline, disclosure, and the anogenital examination with photographs, using a telemetric Vantage Performance Heart Watch consisting of a 5.5 x 1.25 inch transmitter attached to a chest strap and a microcomputer wristwatch attached to the subject's non-dominant wrist. Heart rates were taken every 5 or 15 seconds throughout the entire examination. A follow-up home visit was made 6 weeks after the examination to determine the replicability of clinic baseline measures and child behavioral sequelae. Physiologic measurements did not show statistically significant stress responses when children were prepared according to the clinic protocol in Reno and Las Vegas. There was a trend toward more responsivity among some of the older subjects during the anogenital examination with photographs, and when clinic procedures inadvertently overlapped several procedures at the same time (anogenital examination, photographs and disclosure). The conclusion of the study was that child sexual abuse investigations may be accomplished without undue psychophysiological stress when recommended precautions are taken. PMID:16371260

Peterson, L W; Meservy, Z; Furth, S E; Morris, X; Peele, K; Cortese, A

1994-06-01

98

Community-based child abuse prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prematurity, congenital abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal illness often impair parent-infant attachment, which can contribute to subsequent child abuse. Enhancement of parent-infant relationships, parental coping skills, and social support systems through parent education and home visitation has been shown to reduce the incidence of abuse and is emphasized in the child abuse prevention program proposed in this article. New parents who participate in the program learn about the behavioral capabilities and responses of their newborn from a trained and supervised volunteer perinatal coach/parent aide. With this knowledge, parents can develop optimal sensory communication skills for interacting with their infant. Perinatal coaches/parent aides also foster better parental understanding of the child's physical and emotional development and needs, help reduce family isolation, offer emotional support and practical parenting assistance, and serve as a positive parental role model. Social workers are integral to the program because they select, train, and supervise the perinatal coaches/parent aides. PMID:2284599

Darmstadt, G L

1990-11-01

99

[Diagnosis and management in case of (suspicion of) child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

About 5% of all children presented at a First Aid Unit in the Netherlands is a victim of child abuse. It is estimated that in the Netherlands yearly about 50.000 to 80.000 children are victims of child abuse, which is about ten children per dental practice per annum. In more than 50% of the cases there is a trauma of the head- and neck-area. Therefore, it is likely that dentists are regularly confronted with cases of child abuse. This high percentage of oro-facial trauma puts a high responsibility on the dental profession. Dentists have an ethical duty to act actively in cases of child-abuse. They may refer to an oral surgeon, consult the family physician or ask advice of the 'Advies- en Meldpunt Kindermishandeling' (Advice- and Report Centre for Child Abuse). This article describes the symptoms of child abuse and the recommended procedure for action. PMID:11933528

Allard, R H B; Baart, J A; Becking, A G

2002-03-01

100

Gender Differences in Social Reactions to Abuse Disclosures, Post-Abuse Coping, and PTSD of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This research examines the understudied issue of gender differences in disclosure, social reactions, post-abuse coping, and PTSD of adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). Method: Data were collected on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 733 college students completing a confidential survey about their demographic…

Ullman, S.E.; Filipas, H.H.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The New Untouchables: Risk Management of Child Abuse in Child Care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews eight situations that have legal implications concerning child abuse for child care directors. Also notes some new state laws and trends concerning the definition, reporting and handling of child abuse cases. (BB)

Strickland, Jim; Reynolds, Stuart

1989-01-01

102

Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

2012-01-01

103

Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

1993-01-01

104

Child neglect and psychological abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... food, water, shelter, clothing, medical care, or other necessities. Other forms of child neglect include: Allowing the ... low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Rebellious behavior Sleep disorders Vague physical complaints See also: Failure to ...

105

Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?  

Science.gov (United States)

... hallmark clinical features of OI, such as blue sclera, bone deformity, or brittle teeth. Infants and children ... clinical features of OI in the child--blue sclera; translucent, opalescent, or discolored teeth (even in unerupted ...

106

Sexual orientation, child abuse, and intimate partner violence victimization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has consistently found rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in nonheterosexual relationships to be comparable or higher than rates of IPV in heterosexual relationship. Less is understood about the relationship between child abuse, sexual orientation, and IPV victimization. The role of sexual orientation in the relationship between child abuse and IPV victimization is important to consider given research has found higher rates of childhood abuse among nonheterosexual individuals. In addition, the relationship between child abuse victimization and IPV victimization in adulthood has also been documented. This research extends the literature on IPV by comparing child abuse victimization as a predictor for IPV between heterosexual and nonheterosexual IPV victims. Using the National Violence Against Women Survey, this study used logistic regression models to find partial support for the hypothesis that nonheterosexuals who experience child abuse will be more likely to be IPV victims as adults than similarly situated heterosexuals. PMID:25069148

Koeppel, Maria D H; Bouffard, Leana

2014-01-01

107

25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases...Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation...

2010-04-01

108

48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse. 352.237-71 Section 352...Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70...Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child Abuse (January 2006) (a)...

2010-10-01

109

3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

...8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009 8355...2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the...they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides...

2010-01-01

110

5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders...BENEFITS Court Orders Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability...838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement...

2010-01-01

111

3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

...April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009 8355 Proclamation 8355... Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the President of the...are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity...

2010-01-01

112

25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled... § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and...

2010-04-01

113

Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey) sample  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high) students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and h...

Sezer Ayan; Faruk Kocac?k

2009-01-01

114

The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse: a continuation of Finkelhor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18 (5), 409417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods: Relevant articles about prevalence of child sexual abuse were identified through searches of computerized databases and a handsearch of Child Abuse & Ne...

Pereda Beltran, Noemi?; Guilera Ferre?, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Go?mez Benito, Juana

2009-01-01

115

Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey sample  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and high according to the socio-economical and cultural levels of the neighborhoods they were located in, and total fifteen schools were selected, three from each area, with characteristics suitable to represent the respective areas. Number of students included in the sample from these schools is 655. Study data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of items directed at determining the socio-demographic characteristics of the students, structures of families, quality of family relationships and presence or absence family violence against the child and relations and factors that might create the potential for violence.Findings: Proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their mothers was found as 54%, and proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their fathers was found as 46%. According to results of the regression analysis performed separately for mothers and fathers with the purpose of finding the variables with the greatest effect on being treated with violence of children by their parents and the level of effect of these variables, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their mothers were educational status of the mother, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the mother against the child, respectively.According to the results of the logistic regression analysis performed in relation with students’ experiences of violence from their fathers (Table 109, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their fathers were gender of the student, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the father against the child, respectively.

Sezer Ayan

2009-06-01

116

[The dentist's role in the child abuse: diagnosis and report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Child Abuse is a frequent problem worldwide that surpasses ethnicity, religion, culture, economic and social classes. In the United States of America child protective services account, per year, over one million cases of child abuse or neglect. In Portugal, the incidence of the problem is unknown but each year thousands of abused children are accompanied by the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Youth at Risk. This abuse threatens children's physical, emotional and intellectual development, as well as their dignity, security, well-being and even their own lives. The body regions most frequently affected in physical abuse, are the cranium, neck and orofacial region, in fact, about 50% of the injuries arising from child abuse occur in the orofacial region. These data place the dentist in a privileged position to make the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse. Therefore, these professionals must be prepared to recognize, diagnose and report their suspicions to the appropriate authorities, which play a key role in victims protection and criminal investigation. This review intends to stress the important role of the dentist in the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse, systematizing child abuse risk factors and indicators essential to the intervention of these professionals. This problem's approach is multidisciplinary, involving particularly dentists, who must obtain continuing education and training in this area. PMID:22863503

Crespo, Manuela; Andrade, David; Alves, Ana La-Salete; Magalhães, Teresa

2011-12-01

117

Neuroimaging of child abuse: a critical review  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, gray and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum (CC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during response inhibition, working memory, and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioral and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary co-morbid conditions. PMID:22457645

Hart, Heledd; Rubia, Katya

2012-01-01

118

Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary co-morbid conditions.

HeleddHart

2012-03-01

119

Containing the secret of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as one of containing the secret of child sexual abuse. Three key dynamics were identified: the active withholding of the secret on the part of the child, the experience of a 'pressure cooker effect' reflecting a conflict between the wish to tell and the wish to keep the secret, and the confiding itself which often occurs in the context of an intimacy being shared. Children's experiences of disclosure were multidetermined and suggest the need for multifaceted and multisystemic approaches to prevention and intervention. The need for the secret to be contained, individually and interpersonally in appropriate safeguarding and therapeutic contexts needs to be respected in helping children tell. PMID:22203619

McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

2012-04-01

120

Physical child abuse and causative factors in Edirne, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to identify the frequency and causative factors of physical child abuse and any correlations with other domestic violence types. In a representative sample of 15-49-year-old married women living in Edirne chosen with stratified cluster sampling, 275 women were interviewed face-to-face in their residence or places of employment. The questionnaire used included any violent behavior of the women or their husbands toward their children as well as demographic features, habits, Marriage Relation Scales, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, history of partner abuse, and childhood violence exposition. The physical child abuse rate was 61.1% among the women and 20.7% among the husbands according to the women's declarations. Social support was not associated with child abuse rates. Child abuse rate among the women was increased 2.7 times in the presence of the partner's child abuse, 1.6 times with each additional child, 3.1 times in the presence of a history of physical childhood abuse, and 1.9 times in the presence of a history of partner abuse. Child abuse by the husbands was increased 2.9 times in the presence of physical childhood abuse history and 2.3 times in case of partner abuse. Child abuse is widely seen although morally unacceptable in contemporary society. Violent behaviors spread out horizontally among family members and vertically through generations, although at decreasing rates. Healthcare professionals should behave in a sensitive manner and take responsibility together with those from other related fields to prevent this condition, which can result in several social complications. PMID:21980839

Sahin, Erkan Melih; Yetim, Dilek

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Hostile siblings in the abused child’s mind  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper is about the presence of a destructive link in an abused child’s mind between on the one side painful feelings related to fear of rejection from unavailable and violent parental objects and on the other side burning jalousie and fear of hostile sibling figures. I will present some findings concerning the quality of inner sibling relations, as found in a systematic single case study focusing on an abused child’s experience of breaks in a 2-weekly child psychotherapy. Thus in the mind of this child, hostile siblings seemed to be lurking everywhere, posing a threat to the survival of the baby in her mind by intruding and spoiling every good relational experience with adults. The findings will be discussed in the perspective of two possible, probably mutually reinforcing causal explanations: Firstly, the hostile sibling figures may originate from the external reality of the child’s life e.g. in actual abuse experienced in infancy by aggressive older siblings acting out parental hostility and further stimulated by witnessing terrifying violence between parents, behaving like envious siblings. Secondly, the hostile conception of siblings may be rooted in internal reality, in an experience of siblings as representing violent inner parental objects not fully differentiated from hostile sibling objects, e.g. linked to a fantasy of an inattentive breast-mother feeding herself and a violent paternal part-object, the two of them in a fused state becoming merged as an undifferentiated crowd of terrifying sibling figures.

Grünbaum, Liselotte

122

The challenge of ritualistic child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survivors of ritual abuse have endured physical and psychosexual trauma typically compounded by mind-altering drugs. Some abused children have never known a trustworthy adult to protect them from harm. Children often cope with the anxiety and terror of abuse through psychological defenses such as denial, self-hypnosis, and dissociation, but more extreme responses such as self-mutilation or multiple personalities may occur. Reports of ritual abuse of children are so shocking and bizarre that professionals initially respond with confusion and disbelief (Cozolino, 1989). Nurses need to assess clues and detect symbols of abuse in drawings or flashbacks, to build trust, and to monitor their attitudes and countertransference. Nurses are in a critical position to detect and begin healing wounds of ritual abuse. PMID:1602365

Valente, S M

1992-01-01

123

Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

2008-01-01

124

Child Sexual Abuse: Offenders, Disclosure, and School-Based Initiatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the characteristics of the child sexual offender and the devastating impact of sexual abuse on children. It discusses the importance of a child's disclosure of victimization and its significance in the treatment process. Recommendations are presented on ways to improve school-based sexual abuse programs since they are in a…

Fieldman, Jonathan P.; Crespi, Tony D.

2002-01-01

125

Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

2009-01-01

126

National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect acquires, preserves and disseminates high quality datasets relevant to the study of child abuse and neglect. The Archive facilitates secondary analysis by distributing data in ready-to-use formats for microcomputers and mainframes, providing technical support to data users, and sponsoring training programs for researchers.

1995-01-01

127

The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

Cooper, Sharon W.

2011-01-01

128

School Counselors and Child Abuse Reporting: A National Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…

Bryant, Jill K.

2009-01-01

129

Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

2010-01-01

130

A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

2012-01-01

131

Bullying in Schools: A Form of Child Abuse in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its prevalence,…

Aluedse, Oyaziwo

2006-01-01

132

Contextual Effects on Kindergarten Teachers' Intention to Report Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is underreported for children with socioeconomic inequalities. The impact of geographic location combined with sociocultural characteristics on teachers' reports of child abuse remains unclear. A national survey of 572 kindergarten teachers from 79 schools in Taiwan used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the contribution of…

Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B.; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Hsin-Yi

2012-01-01

133

Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

2011-01-01

134

45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act, the requirements of section 106(b) (1) and (2) of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, as amended, are...

2010-10-01

135

The Police Perspective in Child Abuse and Neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

The training manual defines the police role in investigation and intervention in child abuse cases. Information is categorized according to the following seven topic areas (subtopics in parentheses): defining child abuse and neglect (physical and behavioral indicators), legal aspects (trends in reporting laws and major points in state reporting…

International Association of Chiefs of Police, Inc., Washington, DC.

136

Maternal Protectiveness Following the Disclosure of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the proportion of mothers who act protectively following disclosure of child sexual abuse and what factors are associated with maternal nonprotectiveness. In a sample of 118 cases of intrafamilial child sexual abuse it was found that 57% of mothers separated from the perpetrators, two-thirds were supportive of their children, and 52% did…

Heriot, Jessica

1996-01-01

137

Epidemiologic differences between sexual and physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual and physical child abuse are assumed to differ; however, these differences have not been well characterized epidemiologically. Furthermore, despite assumed differences, these types of abuse are often analyzed as one entity. This can have significant effects on assessment of risk and recommendations for intervention. We compared 735 cases of sexual abuse and 3,486 cases of nonsexual physical abuse confirmed by the Georgia Department of Protective Services. Sexual and physical child abuse cases differed in age, sex, and relationship of perpetrators and victims; demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of families at risk; and morbidity and mortality caused by the event. The most important recommendation based on these findings is that epidemiologically distinct forms of child abuse must be analyzed separately before intervention measures are proposed. PMID:7087078

Jason, J; Williams, S L; Burton, A; Rochat, R

1982-06-25

138

Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies Mental Health Rural Child Welfare Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse Youth Search A to Z Services & ...

139

Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies Mental Health Rural Child Welfare Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse Youth Search A to Z Services & ...

140

Odds of abuse associated with retinal hemorrhages in children suspected of child abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To describe the prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in children being evaluated for abusive head trauma and quantify the association between the likelihood of abuse and the presence and severity of retinal hemorrhages. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional study of 110 children aged 15 months or younger who were evaluated for abusive head trauma and received an ophthalmological examination. The child abuse specialist's diagnosis was categorized as definite accident, probable accident, probable abuse, or definite abuse, according to an algorithm that excluded eye findings. Retinal hemorrhage severity was scored on a 12-point scale (6 points per eye) based on type, size, location, and extent. Higher scores indicated greater severity of eye findings. Results Seventy-four percent of children were under 6 months old. Forty-five percent of cases were definite-abuse and 37% were definite-accident. The prevalence of retinal hemorrhages was 32%. Across all subjects, the presence of retinal hemorrhage was highly associated with definite or probable abuse versus definite or probable accident (age-adjusted odds ratio 5.4 [95% CI, 2.1-13.6]). The odds ratio in children under age 6 months (n = 81) was 11.7 (95% CI, 2.9-66.8). Retinal hemorrhage severity was higher in abuse versus accident (p < 0.0001) and correlated positively with abuse (Spearman r = 0.406, p < 0.0001). Scores above 8 (n = 13) were only present in abused children Conclusions Retinal hemorrhages are highly associated with abusive head trauma, particularly in children under age 6 months. Increasing retinal hemorrhage severity is correlated with increasing likelihood of abuse. PMID:19541267

Binenbaum, Gil; Mirza-George, Naureen; Christian, Cindy W.; Forbes, Brian J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Measuring Japanese mothers' perception of child abuse: development of a Japanese version of the child abuse blame scale – physical abuse (CABS-PA-J)  

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Abstract Background The Child Abuse Blame Scale – Physical Abuse (CABS-PA) was translated into Japanese and its subscale items modified by the authors according to the Japanese cultural context. The aim of the current study was to investigate the appropriateness, reliability, and clinical applicability of the CABS-PA Japanese version (CABS-PA-J). Modifications were made to enable the determination of child abuse recognition in a Japanese cultural setting and early clinical ...

Okawa Hiroji; Nakayama Takeo; Hirose Taiko; Fujimoto Masaki; Takigawa Itsurou

2007-01-01

142

The New Untouchables: Risk Management of Child Abuse in Child Care--Policies and Procedures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests procedures that should be established by child care centers pertaining to child abuse or suspected child abuse. Includes policy regarding reporting; response by staff to allegations; physical discipline; joking about or threatening punishment or abuse; physical restraint; follow-up to reports; aid to injured children; personnel screening;…

Strickland, Jim; Reynolds, Stuart

1988-01-01

143

28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING...of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child...

2010-07-01

144

Resilient Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Cognitive Coping and Illusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…

Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.

1996-01-01

145

Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

2011-01-01

146

The cutaneous manifestations and common mimickers of physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cutaneous manifestations of physical child abuse are some of the most common and easily recognized forms of injury. To make an accurate assessment and diagnosis, it is important to differentiate between inflicted cutaneous injuries and mimickers of physical abuse. Likewise, an understanding of reporting guidelines helps guide practitioners in their decision making. PMID:15129212

Mudd, Shawna S; Findlay, Jeanne S

2004-01-01

147

Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

Offiah, Amaka [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-05-15

148

A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

Sikes, April

2008-01-01

149

Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

150

Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

151

Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

1998-03-01

152

SOSIALISASI NILAI-NILAI ANAK SEBAGAI UPAYA PREVENTIF CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstrakAngka  child abuse  (kekerasan terhadap anak kian hari kian meningkat.Meskipun telah ada perangkat hukum yang mengatur perlindungan anak, seperti UU Nomor23 tahun 2002, nampaknya kesadaran masyarakat terhadap pentingnya perlindungan anakmasih kurang. Psikologi sebagai bidang ilmu yang diharapkan kontribusinya terhadappermasalahan sosial berupaya menangani permasalahan  child abuse  ini. Salah satupendekatan dalam psikologi komunitas berorientasi preventif, dengan level pertama berupaprevensi primer. Tulisan ini bermaksud menjelaskan pentingnya pengembangan nilai-nilaianak sebagai bentuk prevensi primer terhadap permasalahan child abuse . Nilai-nilai anaktampaknya mulai mengalami pergeseran. Orangtua yang menyadari pentingnya kehadirananak dalam keluarga diharapkan mampu memberikan perlindungan kepada anak, dan bukansebaliknya justru menjadikan anak sebagai obyek kekerasan.

Nurul Hidayah

2012-11-01

153

A social work study on family patterns and child abuse  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between different family characteristics and child abuse in city of Jarghooye located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 50 people and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, family educational background and family size on child abuse. The results indicate that while there were some meaningful relationships between family income and family educational background, there was not any statistical evidence to believe on such relationship between family size and child abuse.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2014-06-01

154

Child maltreatment and substance abuse among U.S. Army soldiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although substance abuse has consistently been linked to child maltreatment, no study to date has described the extent of substance abuse among child maltreatment offenders within the military. Analysis of U.S. Army data on all substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment committed between 2000 and 2004 by active duty soldiers found that 13% of offenders were noted to have been abusing alcohol or illicit drugs at the time of their child maltreatment incident. The odds of substance abuse were increased for offenders who committed child neglect or emotional abuse, but were reduced for child physical abuse. The odds of offender substance abuse nearly tripled in child maltreatment incidents that also involved co-occurring spouse abuse. Findings include a lack of association between offender substance abuse and child maltreatment recurrence, possibly because of the increased likelihood of removal of offenders from the home when either substance abuse or spouse abuse were documented. PMID:18344494

Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Hardison, Jennifer

2008-08-01

155

Predicting Severity of Child Abuse Injury with Ordinal Probit Regression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined reports of one physically abused child from each of 789 families. Results of ordinal probit regression analysis identified that model with four predictors (perpetrator identity, reporter identity, severity of allegations, and season report was made) and two interaction terms (child's age by mother's age and child's age by child's gender)…

Zuravin, Susan J.; And Others

1994-01-01

156

The End of Innocence: Child Sexual Abuse in Ireland  

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The past decade (1990s) in Ireland has witnessed numerous high profile child abuse scandals, some involving members of the clergy and others occurring in institutions for children in care. A problem that was once seldom or never discussed is now very much in the public arena. The End of Innocence describes the background to the scandals uncovered during the 1990s and the reactions to them, and then provides a thorough understanding of all the issues surrounding child sexual abuse. Leading pra...

Lalor, Kevin

2001-01-01

157

Is Dental Neglect a Child Abuse? A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect (maltreatment is a widespread problem that permeates all ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic segments of our society. All health professionals are legally mandated to report suspected cases of child maltreatment to the proper authorities, consistent with the laws of the jurisdiction in which they practice. But dentists, as a group, have been fairly inactive participants in recognizing and reporting child maltreatment when compared to other health professionals. Dental health professionals continue to under-report child abuse, despite growing awareness of their potential role in detecting this crime. This article presents an overview of dental neglect that may alert dental professionals to possible maltreatment of child patients.

Pushpalatha C.

2013-07-01

158

Fathers and maternal risk for physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother-father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse risk. At the bivariate level, mothers married to fathers were at lower risk for most indicators of maternal physical child abuse. However, after accounting for specific fathering factors and controlling for background variables, multivariate analyses indicated that marriage washed out as a protective factor, and on two of three indicators was linked with greater maternal physical abuse risk. Regarding fathering factors linked with risk, fathers' higher educational attainment and their positive involvement with their children most discernibly predicted lower maternal physical child abuse risk. Fathers' economic factors played no observable role in mothers' risk for physical child maltreatment. Such multivariate findings suggest that marriage per se does not appear to be a protective factor for maternal physical child abuse and rather it may serve as a proxy for other father-related protective factors. PMID:19581432

Guterman, Neil B; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J

2009-08-01

159

Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse risk. At the bivariate level, mothers married to fathers were at lower risk for most indicators of maternal physical child abuse. However, after accounting for specific fathering factors and controlling for background variables, multivariate analyses indicated that marriage washed out as a protective factor, and on two of three indicators was linked with greater maternal physical abuse risk. Regarding fathering factors linked with risk, fathers’ higher educational attainment and their positive involvement with their children most discernibly predicted lower maternal physical child abuse risk. Fathers’ economic factors played no observable role in mothers’ risk for physical child maltreatment. Such multivariate findings suggest that marriage per se does not appear to be a protective factor for maternal physical child abuse and rather it may serve as a proxy for other father-related protective factors. PMID:19581432

Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.

2010-01-01

160

A Criminological Perspective on the Prenatal Abuse of Substances during Pregnancy and the Link to Child Abuse in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in drug abuse in South Africa has had major social implications in the country. Problems associated with drug dependency are poverty, unemployment, a heavier burden on the health care system, the disintegration of family systems and drug-related crimes. Another area of concern is the link between drug abuse and child abuse. While…

Ovens, Michelle

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Roll of the orthopedist in the child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child abuse is an old at the humanity. In agreement with The World Health Organization reports that child abuse is a problem of public health and about 40'000.000 young between 0-14 years old are victims. In Colombia the statistics report battered children in 36% of the homes. The injuries of the osseous system, muscles and soft tissue are often the most evident key therefore we must consider some important signs at the time of evaluating a boy who makes suspect us this suffering. The different studies have reported that the fractures are the second more frequent form of presentation of child abuse. We must worry about this information and opportune way in the early detection of the cases of infantile abuse

162

Countertransference reactions to families where child abuse has occurred  

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In this paper five countertransference reactions, which may be experienced by workers on child abuse management teams, are described. Karpman's Drama Triangle is used as a framework within which to define these reactions. The reactions are: (1) rescuing the child; (2) rescuing the parents; (3) rescuing the mother and child while persecuting the father, (4) rescuing the father; and (5) persecuting the family.

Carr, Alan

1989-01-01

163

Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

2012-01-01

164

Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934

Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

2012-01-01

165

48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...psychologists, psychiatrists, mental health professionals, child care workers and administrators...Act defines the term “child abuse” as the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or...negligent treatment of a child. (c)...

2010-10-01

166

Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:437–439.

Richard Lichenstein

2013-09-01

167

Stricture of the duodenum and jejunum in an abused child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of abdominal injury secondary to child abuse in which the child had both a duodenal hematoma and contained perforations of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. These injuries were evaluated by both CT scan and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series. The child's nausea and vomiting persisted despite conservative treatment; after 3 weeks a repeat upper GI series demonstrated high-grade duodenal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and a calcified, fibrotic mesentery and strictures in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum were found. To our knowledge, his unusual complication of blunt abdominal trauma has not been described in association with child abuse. (orig.)

168

Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Health Organisation defines child sexual abuse as the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse is evidenced by this activity between a child and an adult or another child who by age or development is in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power, the activity being intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. It is estimated that in the world on average one in 3-4 women and one in 6-10 men were victims of sexual abuse in childhood. In Poland, according to the estimates of the Child's Rights Protection Committee, approximately 20% of girls and 5-6% of boys under the age of 15 years has suffered sexual abuse. In 2007 there was an increase in violence victims in all age categories, but the most alarming data concerned minors under 13 years. Girls fall victim to sexual abuse three times more frequently than boys. Sexual abuse of boys frequently involves violence. Data show that there are fewer women than men who execute such actions against a minor. Most victims (49-84%) know the perpetrator, and approximately 14-20% of acts of violence take place within the family. This article presents recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning procedures in cases of suspected sexual abuse of children. PMID:21061918

Skrzypulec, Violetta; Kotarski, Jan; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Radowicki, Stanislaw

2010-01-01

169

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis - an uncommon manifestation of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis (FL) is an uncommon manifestation of child abuse (increasingly known as nonaccidental trauma), with only six prior reports in the literature. This article seeks to call attention to FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children and infants. We reviewed plain films, CT and MR images in seven new cases of FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children ages 6 months to 7 years, two of whom became paraplegic from their injuries. Findings varied from subtle listhesis of one vertebra on another to frank vertebral dislocation, most commonly at L1/2. Paravertebral calcification was present in all but one case. In two children, thoracolumbar FL was the only radiographic sign of abuse. Radiographic findings of FL of the thoracolumbar spine may be subtle and may be erroneously interpreted as due to a congenital or neoplastic cause. While other signs of child abuse should be sought, spinal injury may be the sole sign of abuse. Recognition of this entity is important to pursue the diagnosis of abuse. (orig.)

170

Prediction of Child Abuse Risk from Emergency Department Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To examine whether pre-abuse rates and patterns of emergency department (ED) visits between children with supported child abuse and age-matched controls are useful markers for abuse risk. Study design A population-based case-control study using probabilistic linkage of four statewide data sets. Cases were abused children <13 years, identified between 1/1/01–12/31/02. For each case, a birth date matched population-based control was obtained. Outcome measures were rate ratios of ED visits in cases compared with controls. Results 9795 cases and 9795 controls met inclusion criteria. 4574 cases (47%) had an ED visit; thus linked to the ED database versus 2647 controls (27%). The crude ED visit rate per 10 000 person-days of exposure was 8.2 visits for cases compared with 3.9 visits for controls. Cases were almost twice as likely as controls (adjusted rate ratio = 1.8, 95% CI:1.5, 1.8) to have had a prior ED visit. Leading ED discharge diagnoses were similar for both groups. Conclusions Children with supported child abuse have higher ED use prior to abuse diagnosis, when compared with the general pediatric population. However, neither the rate of ED use nor the pattern of diagnoses offers sufficient specificity to be useful markers of risk for abuse. PMID:18822431

Guenther, Elisabeth; Knight, Stacey; Olson, Lenora M.; Dean, J. Michael; Keenan, Heather T.

2009-01-01

171

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis - an uncommon manifestation of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis (FL) is an uncommon manifestation of child abuse (increasingly known as nonaccidental trauma), with only six prior reports in the literature. This article seeks to call attention to FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children and infants. We reviewed plain films, CT and MR images in seven new cases of FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children ages 6 months to 7 years, two of whom became paraplegic from their injuries. Findings varied from subtle listhesis of one vertebra on another to frank vertebral dislocation, most commonly at L1/2. Paravertebral calcification was present in all but one case. In two children, thoracolumbar FL was the only radiographic sign of abuse. Radiographic findings of FL of the thoracolumbar spine may be subtle and may be erroneously interpreted as due to a congenital or neoplastic cause. While other signs of child abuse should be sought, spinal injury may be the sole sign of abuse. Recognition of this entity is important to pursue the diagnosis of abuse. (orig.)

Levin, Terry L.; Blitman, Netta M. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, 111 E. 210th Street, Bronx, New York, NY 10467-2490 (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [Department of Radiology, Babies Hospital, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York (United States); Cassell, Ian [Department of Radiology, Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

2003-05-01

172

Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

2014-05-01

173

Occurrence of Child and Adolescent Abuse in Caruaru-PE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Verify the occurrence of child and adolescent abuse referred to Caruaru Tutelary Council between 2002 and 2004. Method: To this end, data on the complaints lodged in the period concerned was requested from the Tutelary Council. Results: From a total of 798 cases reported the most common was neglect (49.24% followed by psychological violence (28.94%. Physical and sexual abuse represented 17.6% and 4.66% of the total of the sample, respectively. As to sex, males represented 55.3% of the cases reported. Conclusion: According to literature, lesions are most frequent on the orofacial area. The awareness of such a piece of information makes a high demand for dental surgeons´ ethical and legal responsibility. Besides reporting suspect child abuse to authorities, there is now a call for creating protective mechanisms for the abused in addition to preventive educational campaigns with focus on the need for denouncing and avoiding all kinds of maltreatment.

Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA

2006-04-01

174

Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features ''PRO'' raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings ''CON'' suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.)

175

Abuse in the investigation and treatment of intrafamilial child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the effects of current practice in the investigation and treatment of documented incest abusers on the offenders and families involved. Fifteen offenders attending the Utah Parents United group completed a questionnaire on the sequence of events in the investigation and prosecution of their cases and the concomitant results of the investigation on their job status, living and financial situations, family and social relationships, and media reporting of the abuse. Results indicate that there is great variability in the investigation and prosecution of incest cases and the public announcement of abuse convictions. The consequences of the abuse investigation are devastating for offender and his family in terms of job loss; need for public assistance; family disbandonment through removal of the offender, victim, or both from the family, marital separation, and foster care for nonabused siblings; changes of residence, and the public announcement of the abuse in the media. Results also show that offenders receive little, if any, social support from family or friends. Changes in the current approach to the investigation and prosecution of incest offenders are proposed and include the following: banning the publication of convictions for child abuse; streamlining the legal process so that it is consistent from case to case; and developing diversion programs as alternatives to prison for offenders. Suggested are self-help, court-ordered therapeutic programs, such as Parents United, that are designed for the treatment of families involved in child sexual abuse and incest. The desired outcomes of such a diversion program are low offender recidivism, avoidance of the offender's family being placed on welfare, less reliance on foster care placement for the offender's children, involvement of the offender's family in moving toward reunion when feasible, and the use of existing half-way houses in lieu of incarceration when necessary. PMID:6539151

Tyler, A H

1984-01-01

176

Is the Diagnosis of Physical Abuse Changed when Child Protective Services Consults a Child Abuse Pediatrics Subspecialty Group as a Second Opinion?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…

Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung

2009-01-01

177

Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

2009-01-01

178

Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

2012-01-01

179

NATIONAL CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT DATA SYSTEM (NCANDS)  

Science.gov (United States)

NCANDS collects data on child maltreatment from the States. It was developed in response to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (Public Law 93-247), as amended, which called for the creation of a coordinated national data collection and analysis program, both universal a...

180

Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12% were caused by child battering and 13 (7% by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent and often substance dependence (31%. None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.

Juhani Merikanto

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Prevalence and Demographic Distribution of Adult Survivors of Child Abuse in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted with a national epidemiological survey to investigate the prevalence and demographic distribution of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure the history of child abuse and the demographic characteristics. The participants reported the following 4 types of child abuse: physical abuse (3%), sexual abuse (0.6%), neglect (0.8%), and psychological abuse (4%). Significant unequal distribution of child abuse was found to be associated with sex, living region, marital status, job status, and educational status. We determined the prevalence of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan and found that their demographic characteristics were unequally distributed. Policy makers and public health providers should take these demographic disparities into account in considering effective public health interventions for survivors of child abuse. PMID:23687257

Tsuboi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Honami; Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamura, Kunio

2013-05-16

182

Nurses' diagnostic work on possible physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of diagnostic work (A. Strauss, S. Fagerhaugh, B. Suczek, & C. Wiener, 1985) is used to explore nurses' responses to potential child abuse. A total of 1,036 nurses (response rate of 67%) completed a mailed questionnaire that included open-ended qualitative-type questions about a hypothetical situation involving possible child abuse. We report their judgments regarding information presented in the hypothetical situation and additional information they requested to make the diagnosis. Nurses focused primarily on the child's injuries and behavior and wanted more information about the abuse event. Diagnostic work was then analyzed by specialty group: community health, school health, emergency, and pediatric nursing. Nurses' specialization influenced the choice of information that was determined to be decisive and the additional information desired to make a diagnosis. PMID:8918174

O'Toole, A W; O'Toole, R; Webster, S W; Lucal, B

1996-10-01

183

Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A Guide for Foster and Adoptive Parents  

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... Foster and Adoptive Parents Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A Guide for Foster and ... children and families in which child sexual abuse has occurred as well as children with sexual behavior ...

184

The prevalence of different kinds of child abuse and the characteristics that differentiate abused from nonabused male adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse has proved to be one of the most important social challenges. The present study attempts (a) to determine the prevalence of child abuse in an urban area in Iran and (b) to differentiate abused from non-abused adolescent boys using parental and child characteristics. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of different types of child abuse. The prevalence sample comprised 2,100 students selected through a multistage random sampling procedure. Data were collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Depression Inventory, II (BDI-II), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), modified Hazan & Shaver Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90-R). Descriptive statistics and discriminant function analysis were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 14.85% of the subjects were exposed to child abuse, with emotional abuse being most prevalent (52.09%). Also, it appeared that variables such as parental depression and anxiety and children's attachment styles, anxiety, and aggression can help discriminate abused boys from their non-abused counterparts. PMID:23071081

Mikaeili, Niloofar; Barahmand, Usha; Abdi, Reza

2013-03-01

185

The effects of beer taxes on physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the positive relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, and the negative relationship between consumption and price, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of illegal drug prices and alcohol availability on the incidence of child abuse. Equations are estimated separately for mothers and fathers, and include state fixed effects. Results indicate that increases in the beer tax may decrease the incidence of violence committed by females but not by males. PMID:10947580

Markowitz, S; Grossman, M

2000-03-01

186

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. PMID:18504566

Drubach, Laura A; Sapp, Mark V; Laffin, Stephen; Kleinman, Paul K

2008-07-01

187

Physical Child Abuse: What Are the External Factors?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children are an integral asset for future development of a nation. In lieu with this notion, countries pay much attention to their development and well being. In recent times, child abuse has been rampant. This issue is constantly making headlines in national newspapers in Malaysia. The alarming effect of this phenomenon is its inevitable implication on the family institution and the nation’s aspiration to create a better tomorrow. This current study is an attempt to discover the contributory factors of physical child abuse in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to identify the background and demography of abuser and to identify the external factors that cause a parent to abuse their child. This case study was conducted in Selangor amongst eight Malay respondents using an in-depth interview session. This study found that external factors as the major contributory factor to physical child abuse. The factors are financial constraints, family crisis, character and disobedience of the children or so called ‘deviant children’, surroundings of the home, conflict with neighbours or lack of social support, parent’s mental illness and and influence of alcohol. Hence these factors are articulated and interpreted by the researcher. Implications of this research, profession who work with children such as social worker, psycologist and counselor should look into the external factors that contribute to the physical child abuse in designing intervention, cure and effective strategies to overcome this problem. In future, protecting children needs collective effort from policy maker, authority body, non-government organization and member of society.

Noremy M. A.

2012-06-01

188

Are Teachers Prepared? Predictors of Teachers' Readiness to Serve as Mandated Reporters of Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (1974) requires that states receiving U.S. federal funds directed at child abuse implement mandated reporting laws. As a result, all states have adopted legislation requiring teachers and other professionals who deal with children to report suspicions of child abuse. The federal mandate for such…

Greytak, Emily A.

2009-01-01

189

Information on Child Abuse: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…

Dodge, Timothy

190

25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?  

Science.gov (United States)

...516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation...handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation...Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act of...children and victims of domestic violence. This includes developing...collection of child abuse, neglect and...

2010-04-01

191

Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended.

Merten, D.F.; Osborne, D.R.S.; Radkowski, M.A.; Leonidas, J.C.

1984-07-01

192

Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended. (orig.)

193

The emerging problem of physical child abuse in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

South Korea has had remarkably high incidence and prevalence rates of physical violence against children, yet the problem has received only limited public and professional attention until very recently. This article represents the first attempt in English to systematically analyze South Korea's recent epidemiological studies on child maltreatment. Discussed are sociocultural factors that have contributed both to delays in child protection laws and a low public awareness of the problem of child abuse. The article highlights methodological issues concerning the definition of physical abuse in South Korea and the complex attitudes toward violence. It also examines the role of the Korean women's movement in the reform of family laws and the recent establishment of new child protection legislation. Suggestions for future directions for the problem of child maltreatment within South Korea are presented. PMID:16705792

Hahm, H C; Guterman, N B

2001-05-01

194

Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome, indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc. with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse of children is one of the most heinous crimes imaginable.

Prof. Sidhartha B. Sawant

2012-04-01

195

MIHAELA PU?CA?, Child Abuse. Forms, Motivation, Consequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mass-media frequently bring before the public cases in which parents abuse their own children. Each time the reactions of citizens are intense and unanimous:anger, revolt, requests for extreme punishment, the right to complain against aggressive behavior occurring in their vicinity. Modern research on family revealed a world loaded with tensions and conflicts in which abuse is often presented disguised as love for children and the wish to provide a good education. This article approaches the psychological aspects of the various forms of child abuse, as these are treated in the specialized literature, trying to offer answers to legitimate questions: are these isolated cases or are we dealing with a real phenomenon; how spread is this phenomenon; do people today love their children less than before; is there a social environment which favors such behavior; how can abuse situations which are spread over years be explained; which are the visible signs that a child is being abused by his/her parents; what are the consequences on the development of personality; are there statistics for a larger period of time to help knowing whether the phenomenon is increasing or decreasing?

GHEORGHE FLORIAN

2008-03-01

196

Social Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures: A Critical Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have examined disclosure of child sexual abuse to determine the correlates and consequences of telling others about this form of victimization. The present article reviews the current empirical literature on disclosure and reactions to adult survivors to assess what is known about the process of disclosure and whether telling others…

Ullman, Sarah E.

2003-01-01

197

Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

2010-01-01

198

Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

2007-01-01

199

School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

Usakli, Hakan

2012-01-01

200

Mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa: Legislation explored.  

Science.gov (United States)

Legislation concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa has been in effect since 2010, with the promulgation of amendment 41 of 2007 to the Children's Act of 2005. This article explores mandatory reporting legislation in an attempt to improve the reporting practices of healthcare professionals in South Africa. PMID:25213842

Hendricks, Melany Leonie

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Child Abuse and Depression in Iranian Students: An Empirical Investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect (CA&N), as a social and psychological phenomenon, represents a major area of concern internationally. This study examined the prevalence and self-reported effects of CA&N in Iran through a descriptive investigation of high school students' experiences. A sample consisting of 2,240 high school students representing 5…

Mousavi, Mahnaz Nowroozi; Rogers, James R.

202

Mandatory reporting of child physical and sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article prepared by family law specialists outlines the implications for the medical profession of the mandatory reporting of child physical and sexual abuse. Although focused on recent Victorian Government legislation, the context is relevant to all doctors in Australia subject to mandatory reporting legislation. PMID:8053843

Schepis, J P; Edney, D A

1994-06-01

203

Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…

Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

2011-01-01

204

Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts) The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal cen...

Dastjerdi, G.; Ahmadi, N.; Bashardoost, N.; Kholasezadeh, G.

2010-01-01

205

Child abuse: A classic case report with literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect are serious global problems and can be in the form of physical, sexual, emotional or just neglect in providing for the child's needs. These factors can leave the child with serious, long-lasting psychological damage. In the present case report, a 12-year-old orphaned boy was physically abused by a close relative who caused actual bodily and emotional trauma to the boy. After satisfactorily managing the trauma and emotional effects to the patient, in addition to the counseling services provided to the caregiver, the patient made a steady recovery. He was also referred to a child support group for social support, and prepare him together with his siblings for placement in a children's home in view of the hostile environment in which they were living. PMID:24963259

Kemoli, Arthur M; Mavindu, Mildred

2014-04-01

206

Fathers, physical child abuse, and neglect: advancing the knowledge base.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fathers are overrepresented as perpetrators of physical child maltreatment, particularly in its most severe forms. Despite this, the research literature continues to lack specificity regarding the role fathers play in risk for physical child abuse or neglect (PCAN). Furthermore, although fathers have received more attention with respect to child sexual abuse and its treatment, their influence has been largely disregarded in many intervention efforts to reduce PCAN. Inadequate attention to the role of fathers, both in research and practice, has numerous problematic implications for the prevention of child maltreatment. The goal of this special issue is to disseminate new research that examines fathers' roles by focusing on multiple fathering factors that may directly and indirectly shape both maternal and paternal risk of engaging in PCAN. In the introduction to the special issue, we highlight key questions in the research literature and present our perspective on how the articles included in this special issue address some of these gaps. PMID:19581429

Lee, Shawna J; Bellamy, Jennifer L; Guterman, Neil B

2009-08-01

207

Children as witnesses in child sexual abuse trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

When alleged child sexual abusers are prosecuted and brought to trial, child witnesses are often exposed to procedural requirements of the criminal justice system that may cause further psychologic trauma. These procedures are driven by the dual interests of pursuing the truth and protecting the constitutional rights of the accused to a fair trial with a presumption of innocence. Proposals for judicial reforms designed to balance both interests while shielding children from potential adverse effects of the process are discussed. PMID:3309865

Landwirth, J

1987-10-01

208

Child sexual abuse prevention policy: an analysis of Erin's law.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse affects thousands of children in the United States and is vastly underreported. Tertiary prevention policies, primarily in the form of sex offender registries and community notification programs, have received the most attention and funding. Few policies have focused on school-based prevention. One recently passed law in Illinois mandates all K-5 public schools to implement sexual abuse prevention programs. The law was championed by a young social worker, Erin Merryn. Through the multiple streams framework, this article examines the unique set of political circumstances, united with Merryn's advocacy, which created the opportunity for the law to pass. PMID:24802215

Anderson, Gwendolyn D

2014-01-01

209

Professionals' criteria for detecting and reporting child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported. PMID:23156936

González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

2012-11-01

210

Measuring Japanese mothers' perception of child abuse: development of a Japanese version of the child abuse blame scale – physical abuse (CABS-PA-J  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Child Abuse Blame Scale – Physical Abuse (CABS-PA was translated into Japanese and its subscale items modified by the authors according to the Japanese cultural context. The aim of the current study was to investigate the appropriateness, reliability, and clinical applicability of the CABS-PA Japanese version (CABS-PA-J. Modifications were made to enable the determination of child abuse recognition in a Japanese cultural setting and early clinical intervention in child abuse cases. Methods The CABS-PA text was translated into Japanese, then back translated. The appropriateness of scale item translations was verified based on e-mail discussions with the original CABS-PA author. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the validity of CABS-PA-J responses and to confirm the validity of factor structure. Criterion-related validity was also confirmed. The Japanese scale was used to examine the characteristic differences between mothers of premature infants ( Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses found the factor structure to be similar between the original scale and the translated CABS-PA-J, suggesting adequate factor validity. There was a statistically significant correlation between social support from a spouse or third party and the abuse score on a subscale, partially demonstrating criterion-referenced validity. Similarities and differences were found in the stress reactions of the mothers of premature infants ( Conclusion CABS-PA-J was shown to be appropriate and reliable. It is an effective tool for determining the recognition of child abuse among Japanese mothers.

Okawa Hiroji

2007-07-01

211

Measuring Japanese mothers' perception of child abuse: development of a Japanese version of the child abuse blame scale - physical abuse (CABS-PA-J)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The Child Abuse Blame Scale – Physical Abuse (CABS-PA) was translated into Japanese and its subscale items modified by the authors according to the Japanese cultural context. The aim of the current study was to investigate the appropriateness, reliability, and clinical applicability of the CABS-PA Japanese version (CABS-PA-J). Modifications were made to enable the determination of child abuse recognition in a Japanese cultural setting and early clinical intervention in child abuse cases. Methods The CABS-PA text was translated into Japanese, then back translated. The appropriateness of scale item translations was verified based on e-mail discussions with the original CABS-PA author. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the validity of CABS-PA-J responses and to confirm the validity of factor structure. Criterion-related validity was also confirmed. The Japanese scale was used to examine the characteristic differences between mothers of premature infants (< 1500 g) and those of other infants (? 1500 g). Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses found the factor structure to be similar between the original scale and the translated CABS-PA-J, suggesting adequate factor validity. There was a statistically significant correlation between social support from a spouse or third party and the abuse score on a subscale, partially demonstrating criterion-referenced validity. Similarities and differences were found in the stress reactions of the mothers of premature infants (< 1500 g) and those of other infants (? 1500 g). Conclusion CABS-PA-J was shown to be appropriate and reliable. It is an effective tool for determining the recognition of child abuse among Japanese mothers. PMID:17623078

Fujimoto, Masaki; Hirose, Taiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Okawa, Hiroji; Takigawa, Itsurou

2007-01-01

212

Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

2010-01-01

213

The Role of Disclosing Child Sexual Abuse on Adolescent Adjustment and Revictimization  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of disclosing child sexual abuse on adolescent survivors' symptomology and the presence of additional unwanted sexual experiences was investigated in a subsample of 111 adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents who reported child sexual abuse. Results indicated that prompt disclosure of sexual abuse to an adult moderated the…

Kogan, Steven M.

2005-01-01

214

Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

215

Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

Mathews, Ben

2011-01-01

216

Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages  

Science.gov (United States)

Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

2012-01-01

217

Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…

Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael

2007-01-01

218

Child Abuse Prevention: A Job Half Done. Chapin Hall Issue Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief discusses the findings of the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment (NIS 4), which reports a significant reduction in the overall rate of child maltreatment since the 1993 NIS. The study reflects substantial drops in the rates of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse. However, no significant changes…

Daro, Deborah

2010-01-01

219

Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

2011-01-01

220

MR imaging evaluation of subdural hematomas in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR imaging is the most accurate modality for determining the presence, number, and aging of subdural hematomas. Based on seven patients studied with CT and MR imaging, MR imaging should be the gold standard in child abuse evaluations. Since the history of child abuse is often ambiguous, MR imaging can assist in dating when the injury occurred. MR imaging in two perpendicular planes is needed, with one plane having both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Chronic subdural hematomas on CT often have the same density as cerebrospinal fluid and may be misdiagnosed as atrophy or unrecognized. Therefore, the child may be returned into a dangerous situation and subjected to recurrent episodes of battering

 
 
 
 
221

Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

Hobbs, Christopher J. [St James' s University Hospital, Department of Community Paediatrics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bilo, Robert A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, The Hague (Netherlands)

2009-05-15

222

Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

223

Prevention of physical child abuse: concept, evidence and practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given a lack of standardised procedures for preventing child abuse, what can be done in terms of thinking and action about the prevention of physical child abuse in health visiting and community practice? This paper reflects on knowledge gained while undertaking case series research into non-accidental head injury (NAHI), qualitative research with health visitors and mothers and fathers into the feasibility of preventing NAHI, and work as a team member of the Welsh Child Protection Systematic Review Group. Prevention is an abstract term, with dimensions of an ethical nature, and requires prompt and timely action. To identify when preventive action is required, an understanding is needed of where there is risk, and what benefit or outcome may follow interventions. However, the knowledge in this field is limited, which means that it is wise to be cautious in claiming effectiveness of prevention activity. Nonetheless, if prevention is not seen to be practised, the development of skills and the means to evaluate interventions will not become embedded in the routine care of families with small children, and physical child abuse will not be prevented. PMID:18672856

Coles, Lisa

2008-06-01

224

The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

Sinanan, Allison N.

2011-01-01

225

Physical Child Abuse and Social Change. Judicial Intervention in Families in the Netherlands, 1960-1995.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated juvenile judges' and child protection workers' dealings with child abuse from 1960-1995 in the Netherlands. A review of 182 cases found prevalence of very severe physical violence has decreased, however, judicial child protection workers intervened less harshly in recent cases of child abuse than in the 1960's. (Contains…

Komen, Mieke

2003-01-01

226

Imaging characteristics in legally founded cases of assaultive child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on this study performed to document the imaging findings associated with assaultive child abuse as confirmed by an independent criterion. At least one of the authors acted as a consultant in 105 alleged cases of child abuse owing to physical assault between 1987 and 1989. Seventy-six cases were founded by the Department of Human Services. 57/76 of founded cases had fractures. Most commonly only one fracture was noted (32 cases), but up to seven fractures were present in a patient. The tibia was the most commonly fractured bone (23 cases) followed in frequency by the femur (22), skull (15), and humerus (14). Multiple rib fractures were seen in 10 cases

227

Prevention of child sexual abuse. Myth or reality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Programs to prevent child sexual abuse have proliferated as a result of increased public awareness and professional documentation of its incidence. We describe the content and format of these prevention programs in general and examine selected programs for effectiveness. Although there is limited evidence for an increase in knowledge for program participants, most evaluations suffer from basic design problems and present few results indicative of either primary prevention or detection. Overall, we argue that self-protection against sexual abuse is a very complex process for any child and that few, if any, prevention programs are comprehensive enough to have a meaningful impact on this process. Finally, we discuss several untested assumptions that guide these programs. We conclude that it is unclear whether prevention programs are working or even that they are more beneficial than harmful. PMID:2679254

Reppucci, N D; Haugaard, J J

1989-10-01

228

The notion and consequences of emotional abuse of a child in the family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper considers the notion of emotional abuse of a child in the family as one of the most serious forms of family pathology. Emotional abuse is defined as parent’s or guardian’s acting or non acting, such as rejection insult, isolation, terror, verbal attack etc. that might cause serious and permanent disorders in child’s emotional development. Due to that, very complicated consequences of this serious form of abuse are particularly analyzed. In this paper, the author is standing up for the opinion that sexual and physical abuse are always in connection with the emotional, while emotional abuse could appear as a separate phenomenon.

Ljubojev Nadežda

2004-01-01

229

Child abuse: perception and management of the Brazilian endodontists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, dentists have a legal, moral, and ethical obligation to notify competent authorities of suspected cases of maltreatment. Studies conducted in several countries reported the difficulties of dentists in the diagnosis, documentation, and reporting of suspected abuse cases to authorities. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the perception, diagnosis and attitudes of Brazilian endodontists towards child abuse. Material and methods: Data were collected from 56 questionnaires, considering a total of 248 sent by mail (response rate = 23% to the endodontists (female = 73%. Results: Forty-one percent (n = 23 of the professionals answered that they were able to identify cases of abuse, while 59% (n = 33 answered that they were unable. Considering their graduation years, 93% (n = 52 stated that they had received little information on this issue, and only 5% (n = 3 attended seminars on this subject during the year before the questionnaire’s application. Although 61% (n = 34 of the professionals affirmed that suspicious cases must be reported, only 30% (n = 17 knew to whom. Eighteen percent (n = 10 of the endodontists reported they had already treated suspicious cases, although only 3.5% (n = 2 reported the case to the authorities. The most cited signs of abuse were: body bruises (48%; n = 27, change in behavior (48%; n = 27 and burn marks (12.5%; n = 7. Lesions presented in the face, mouth, and teeth were reported by 27% (n = 15 of the professionals. There were no statistically differences regarding the number of notifications in relation to either the number of years since graduation or the workplace. Conclusion: It was concluded that it is necessary to improve endodontists’ formation concerning to child abuse identification, in order to modify their behavior, therefore, increasing the number of suspicious cases’ notifications.

Estela Maris Losso

2012-01-01

230

Multiple fractures due to osteogenesis imperfecta mistaken as child abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

A 15-month-old African–American boy receiving chemotherapy for Wilms tumour was diagnosed to have a fracture of left femur at the emergency department (ED) of our hospital. A month earlier, the patient had been seen at the same ED for a fracture of right femur. The skeletal survey this time also showed an old posterior rib fracture. Child abuse was suspected. The child’s custody was transferred to the maternal grandparents. However, 2 months later while with the grandparents, he sustained a fracture of the left distal tibia. This led to an investigation for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The child was found to have a collagen mutation, COL1A1, strongly suggesting that the child’s multiple fractures were most likely due to OI. The child had no physical stigmata of classical OI except for blue sclera. Multiple bone fractures alone without other physical signs of abuse should always raise a possibility of OI. Trial registration number: POG9440 PMID:21686734

Lamptey, Philip; Onwuzurike, Nkechi; Inoue, Susumu

2009-01-01

231

Mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa: Legislation explored  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT Legislation concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa has been in effect since 2010, with the promulgation of amendment 41 of 2007 to the Children's Act of 2005. This article explores mandatory reporting legislation in an attempt to improve the reporting practices of hea [...] lthcare professionals in South Africa.

M L, Hendricks.

232

Mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa: Legislation explored  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT Legislation concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa has been in effect since 2010, with the promulgation of amendment 41 of 2007 to the Children's Act of 2005. This article explores mandatory reporting legislation in an attempt to improve the reporting practices of hea [...] lthcare professionals in South Africa.

M L, Hendricks.

2014-08-01

233

[What is the dentist's role in the recognition of child abuse?].  

Science.gov (United States)

For a Dutch dentist, the chance to recognise a physical abused child with injuries in the head-neck region, is less than once every 18 months. But child abuse is difficult to recognize. In spite of all this, it's still important for dentists to know how to recognise child abuse, since the effects on a child can be harmful. Child abuse finds its expression in, for example bruises, burns, laceration of the labial frenulum or avulsed teeth. There are also often behavioural problems. Clothes can mask lesions. The fact that child abuse can't be reported anonymously is a misconception. Professionals can report a case of child abuse anonymously to the "Advies en Meldpunten Kindermishandeling", although a not anonymous report is favoured. PMID:12148250

Derks, A; Frankenmolen, F W A; Meurs, J M

2002-07-01

234

Child Abuse: Knowledge and Attitudes Among Pedodontics in Uberlandia e Araguari, Minas Gerais  

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Full Text Available Objective: To identify from pediatric dentistry educational experiences and knowledge concerning child abuse/neglect, numbers of suspected cases of child abuse and knowledge of local child protection. Method: A survey with 26 pedodontics in Araguari and Uberlandia (Minas Gerais, Brazil was done and they were sent a postal questionnaire, 17 responded, giving a 65.4 percent response rate. The survey requested demographic details, responses to possible physical abuse or neglect, and details of suspected child abuse reporting behavior. Results: In their working lives 52.9 percent said that they had seen a suspicious child physical abuse case; however, only 14.3 percent had reported a suspicious case to the authorities. Twenty-nine percent of dentists did not know their legal responsibility concerning reporting child abuse; and 61 percent did know where to report child abuse. Conclusion: Due to lack of training, most practitioners were unsure what to do in the event of a suspicion of child abuse. There is need for continuing education of dentistry practitioners regarding symptoms and signs of physical abuse and the role of dental team in the multidisciplinary management of child abuse. Dental curricula should be revisited to ensure that students are adequately prepared for this professional task.

Janaína Fernandes SANTOS

2006-09-01

235

Psychological Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychological Abuse Psychological abuse is the willful infliction of mental or emotional anguish by threat, humiliation, or other verbal or nonverbal ... and expectations play a significant role in how psychological abuse is manifested and how it affects its ...

236

Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

Lalor, Kevin; Mcelvaney, Rosaleen

2010-01-01

237

Hemophilia and child abuse as possible causes of epidural hematoma: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Head trauma is an important consequence of child abuse. Specific pathophysiological mechanisms in child abuse are responsible for the ''whiplash shaken-baby syndrome'', which would favour the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhages. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a child who developed epidural hematoma following minor-intensity head trauma. Initial diagnosis of child abuse was made, but subsequent investigation led to the diagnosis of hemophilia A. CONCLUSION: Even though epidural hematoma is not closely associated with child abuse, this aethiology must always be considered when the reported trauma mechanism is out of proportion to the magnitude of the encountered lesions.

Pinto Fernando Campos Gomes

2003-01-01

238

Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members. The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs.

Louwers Eveline CFM

2012-10-01

239

Behind the cycle of violence, beyond abuse history: a brief report on the association of parental attachment to physical child abuse potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the concept of a cycle of violence presumes that the transmission of violence is expressed directly across generations, the role of the overall quality of the parent-child relationship may ultimately be more influential in later parenting behavior. This study investigated whether mothers' poorer attachment to their parents was associated with their current increased child abuse potential and dysfunctional disciplinary style independent of a personal history of child abuse. A sample of 73 at-risk mothers raising children with behavior problems reported on their parental attachment, abuse potential, dysfunctional parenting style, and personal abuse history. An at-risk sample, rather than a sample of identified abuse victims or perpetrators, was studied to better examine the potential continuity or discontinuity from history of abuse to current abuse risk, allowing consideration of those who may break the cycle versus those who potentially initiate abuse in the absence of a personal history. Findings indicate that poor attachment significantly predicted both dysfunctional parenting practices and elevated child abuse potential, controlling for personal child abuse history. Such results highlight the importance of the overall quality of the relationship between the parent and child in potentially shaping future abuse risk. Findings are discussed in terms of continuity or discontinuity in the cycle of violence and future directions for research on attachment in relation to the development of later child abuse risk. PMID:21780538

Rodriguez, Christina M; Tucker, Meagan C

2011-01-01

240

Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

Rodriguez, Christina M

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse--A Study of a Random Sample of Norwegian Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a survey of 510 female and 486 male Norwegian college students, almost 12% reported child sexual abuse. Abuse was associated with health problems such as genital pain/infections and headache/abdominal/muscular pain as well as psychological disorders such as anxiety and suicidal ideation. A relationship was demonstrated between abuse severity…

Bendixen, Mons; And Others

1994-01-01

242

Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

Lampert, Jo

2012-01-01

243

Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

2009-01-01

244

[Perforation of the eardrum caused by child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a complex, multifaceted form of child abuse that presents a challenge to all health-care providers. Diagnosis is difficult in cases of MSBP, and it is imperative to recognise the clinical features of MSBP in both the child and the perpetrator. All members of the health-care team must stay objective in the interactions with families where MSBP is suspected and make referrals to the proper agencies. A case is presented to explain the medical and social complexities associated with nursing and diagnosing MSBP. This article also provides a brief review of the definition of MSBP. PMID:21958485

Gindesgaard, Christian Banner; Møller, Troels Reinholdt

2011-09-26

245

Pediatric child abuse victim with posttraumatic inferior vena cava thrombosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posttraumatic inferior vena cava thrombosis (IVCT) is very rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. While thromboembolism as a result of trauma is common in adult patients, it is very rare in young children and seldom involves the inferior vena cava. We report the youngest patient to date with IVCT and the only child reported whose findings are the result of child physical abuse. The diagnosis can be challenging both clinically and radiographically. Additionally, the risks of morbidity and even mortality associated with an IVCT if untreated are significant. PMID:24578163

Goodpasture, Meggan L; Zeller, Kristen A; Petty, John K

2014-05-01

246

Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

247

3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

...emotionally. Child neglect, another form of child maltreatment, may occur physically and emotionally. Understanding the forms of child abuse is critical to preventing and responding to maltreatment. A well-informed and strong...

2010-01-01

248

Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

2011-01-01

249

Ethical Dilemmas of Child Abuse Reporting: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…

MacNair, Rebecca R.

1992-01-01

250

Child provocativeness and gender as factors contributing to the blaming of victims of physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was an investigation of factors contributing to blame attributions directed toward victims of physical child abuse. The total sample consisted of 897 college undergraduates. Subjects read eight vignettes describing physically abusive parent-child interactions, and indicated their attributions of responsibility toward parent and child. We predicted that: (a) aggressively provocative children (compared to nonprovocative) would be ascribed greater blame; (b) male subjects would be more likely to blame the child; (c) in situations in which the abusive parent is male (compared to female), the child would be blamed more; and (d) male children (compared to females) would receive greater blame. The results supported all hypotheses. The data also suggested several interaction effects. Significance tests were supplemented with effect size analyses. PMID:8472177

Muller, R T; Caldwell, R A; Hunter, J E

1993-01-01

251

CHILD ABUSE IN INDIA A SOCIAL PROBLEM : A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON CHILD LABOUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child labour coupled with child abuse has today become one of the greatest maladies that have spread across the world. Each year statistics show increasing numbers of child abuse, more so in the case of the girl child. When a girl is probably abused by someone at home, to hide this fact she is sold to an employer from a city as domestic help, or then as a bride to an old man. Though eradicating the menace seems like a difficult and nearly impossible task, immense efforts have to be made in this direction. The first step would be to become aware of the causes of child labour. The leading reason is that children are employed because they are easier to exploit. On the other hand, people sell their children as commodities to exploitive employers to have additional sources of income

Chandrashekhar Basappa

2014-08-01

252

A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

Tu?ba AYAZ

2013-07-01

253

Ten-year research update review: child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To provide clinicians with current information on prevalence, risk factors, outcomes, treatment, and prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). To examine the best-documented examples of psychopathology attributable to CSA. METHOD Computer literature searches of and for key words. All English-language articles published after 1989 containing empirical data pertaining to CSA were reviewed. RESULTS CSA constitutes approximately 10% of officially substantiated child maltreatment cases, numbering approximately 88,000 in 2000. Adjusted prevalence rates are 16.8% and 7.9% for adult women and men, respectively. Risk factors include gender, age, disabilities, and parental dysfunction. A range of symptoms and disorders has been associated with CSA, but depression in adults and sexualized behaviors in children are the best-documented outcomes. To date, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) of the child and a nonoffending parent is the most effective treatment. Prevention efforts have focused on child education to increase awareness and home visitation to decrease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS CSA is a significant risk factor for psychopathology, especially depression and substance abuse. Preliminary research indicates that CBT is effective for some symptoms, but longitudinal follow-up and large-scale "effectiveness" studies are needed. Prevention programs have promise, but evaluations to date are limited. PMID:12595779

Putnam, Frank W

2003-03-01

254

Case of child abuse by radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 2 May 1974, a father was convicted of castrating his 13-year-old son by exposing him to a 1-curie source of 137Cs to be used for oil gas well logging. The child was subjected to perhaps eight exposures or attempted exposures over a six-month period. A brief discussion of the medical descriptions of the radiation effects upon the skin and testes and the chromosomal system is included

255

28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports of child abuse required by 42 U.S.C. 13031 shall be made to the local law enforcement agency or local child protective services agency that has jurisdiction to investigate reports of child abuse or to protect child abuse victims in the land area or facility in...

2010-07-01

256

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

257

Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members. PMID:23899534

Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong

2013-11-01

258

"It's Going to Stop in This Generation": Women with a History of Child Abuse Resolving to Raise Their Children without Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…

Hall, Sioux

2011-01-01

259

Child Abuse, Child Protection, and Defensive "Touch" in PE Teaching and Sports Coaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…

Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill

2013-01-01

260

Primary identification of an abused child in dental office: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the injuries of child abuse are many and varied, several types of injuries are common to abuse. Many of these injuries are within the scope of dentistry or easily observed by the dental professional in the course of routine dental treatment. The authors present a case of child abuse with multiple bruises. The child had been spanked in the previous night and the morning of the attendance by his mother. This case emphasized that all practitioners should be vigilant when patients present with abnormal injuries which may be the result of abuse and further investigation should be instigated.

Santos J

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was s...

Manoochehr Mahram; Zahra Hoseinkhani; Saharnaz Nedjat; Ali Aflatouni

2013-01-01

262

Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan: Coin-Operated-Locker Babies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews Japan's child abuse/neglect history, including the incidence of "coin-operated-locker babies," where murdered infants are hidden in railway and airport lockers, and actions taken to reduce this problem. The incidence of child abuse in Japan and the United States is compared, and social influences on the number of reported cases…

Kouno, Akihisa; Johnson, Charles F.

1995-01-01

263

Trauma History and Personal Narratives: Some Clues to Coping among Survivors of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Narrative features of the life stories of child abuse survivors (n=23) and nonvictimized college student respondents (n=23) were compared. Narratives of survivors differed from the comparison group in both relative emphasis on the past versus present/future and on others rather than self. An emphasis on others by child abuse survivors emerged as…

Klein, Ilene; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

1996-01-01

264

The Process of Coping following Child Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Study  

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This research employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches to studying the immediate and long-term coping strategies adopted by survivors of child sexual abuse, focusing on how strategies evolve over time. Qualitative findings showed that coping with child sexual abuse is not static, but changes over time. The narratives of these…

Oaksford, Karen; Frude, Neil

2003-01-01

265

Beyond Maternal Blame: Physical Child Abuse as a Phenomenon of Gender.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines why men have been omitted from physical child abuse research. Focuses on motivational processes and social structures that differentiate men's physical child abuse from women's. Argues that widespread gender imbalances in power, men's lack of role models and rewards for nurturant activity, and their socialization to violence bear direct…

Margolin, Leslie

1992-01-01

266

The Therapeutic Treatment Provided in Cases Involving Physical Child Abuse: A Description of Current Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of responses of 254 mental health workers in Kentucky to a questionnaire concerning therapeutic treatment in cases of physical child abuse found that the family was usually seen as the primary client, with the goal being provision of a safe environment for the child. Abused children received only 7 of the 23 sessions generally provided in…

Greenwalt, Bill C.; Sklare, Gerald; Portes, Pedro

1998-01-01

267

School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

2013-01-01

268

Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…

Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia

2011-01-01

269

A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

2013-01-01

270

Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

2011-01-01

271

An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

2012-01-01

272

Intervening with New Parents: An Effective Way To Prevent Child Abuse.  

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The purpose of this paper is to summarize current trends in child abuse prevention and to provide program administrators and policymakers with guidelines for implementing successful new parent programs in their communities. Contents address: (1) the scope of the child abuse problem; (2) a theoretical framework or conceptual model for use in…

Daro, Deborah

273

The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

Hyman, Batya

2000-01-01

274

Dispositional Empathy in Neglectful Mothers and Mothers at High Risk for Child Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…

de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia

2008-01-01

275

Child abuse: validation of a questionnaire translated into Brazilian Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study sought to validate the Portuguese translation of a questionnaire on maltreatment of children and adolescents, developed by Russell et al. and to test its psychometric properties for use in Brazil. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese using a standardized forward-backward linguistic translation method. Both face and content validity were tested in a small pilot study (n = 8. In the main study, a convenience sample of 80 graduate dentistry students with different specialties, from Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were invited to complete the final Brazilian version of the questionnaire. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the results obtained from the questionnaire for different specialties (pediatric dentistry, for example. The respondents completed the questionnaire again after 4 weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability. The comparison of test versus retest questionnaire answers showed good agreement (kappa > 0.53, intraclass correlation > 0.84 for most questions. In regard to discriminant validity, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the experience and interest domains, in which pediatric dentists showed more experience with and interest in child abuse compared with dentists of other specialties (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05. The Brazilian version of the questionnaire was valid and reliable for assessing knowledge regarding child abuse by Portuguese-speaking dentists.

Glaucia Marengo

2013-04-01

276

A criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers.  

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We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group. PMID:24088813

Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

2014-12-01

277

Child abuse and dentistry: a study of knowledge and attitudes among dentists in Victoria, Australia.  

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Child abuse is a disturbingly common finding in society today. In view of the high proportion of orofacial injuries seen in victims of child abuse, dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report suspected cases. The present study of 347 dentists in Victoria, Australia, assessed the level of knowledge and attitudes among dental professionals on the important issue of child abuse. While a high level of interest was shown by the participants towards this issue, a need for further information and training in the recognition and reporting of child abuse was seen in the survey findings. While dentists at present are not legally mandated in all states of Australia to report suspected cases of child abuse, the dental profession is in a key position to play an active role in the identification and reporting of this substantial community problem. PMID:10687235

John, V; Messer, L B; Arora, R; Fung, S; Hatzis, E; Nguyen, T; San, A; Thomas, K

1999-12-01

278

Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse:Summary of State Laws  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies Mental Health Rural Child Welfare Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse Youth Search A to Z Services & ...

279

Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect:Summary of State Laws  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies Mental Health Rural Child Welfare Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse Youth Search A to Z Services & ...

280

About the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA): A Legislative History  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies Mental Health Rural Child Welfare Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse Youth Search A to Z Services & ...

 
 
 
 
281

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

Evrim Aktepe

2009-01-01

282

Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001  

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Full Text Available All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguard children from abuse, neglect and violence such as incest which has been criminalized by the Penal Code and the Domestic Violence Act which protects the child against violence within family. This Act was introduced to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the care, protection and rehabilitation of children. With the Act beforehand, numbers of child abuse cases are still alarming. Therefore, this article is an attempt to give an overview of care and protection provided under the Child Act 2001 towards children who are being the victims of abuse. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the extent of the protection and care given under the Act to safeguard the children in the social justice system in Malaysia. At the end of the paper some areas are identified for further improvement and future amendment.

Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda

2011-12-01

283

Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.  

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Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

2014-07-01

284

Detection of child abuse in emergency departments: a multi-centre study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This study examines the detection rates of suspected child abuse in the emergency departments of seven Dutch hospitals complying and not complying with screening guidelines for child abuse. Design Data on demographics, diagnosis and suspected child abuse were collected for all children aged ?18 years who visited the emergency departments over a 6-month period. The completion of a checklist of warning signs of child abuse in at least 10% of the emergency department visits was considered to be compliance with screening guidelines. Results A total of 24 472 visits were analysed, 54% of which took place in an emergency department complying with screening guidelines. Child abuse was suspected in 52 children (0.2%). In 40 (77%) of these 52 cases, a checklist of warning signs had been completed compared with a completion rate of 19% in the total sample. In hospitals complying with screening guidelines for child abuse, the detection rate was higher (0.3%) than in those not complying (0.1%, p<0.001). Conclusion During a 6-month period, emergency department staff suspected child abuse in 0.2% of all children visiting the emergency department of seven Dutch hospitals. The numbers of suspected abuse cases detected were low, but an increase is likely if uniform screening guidelines are widely implemented. PMID:21278429

Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Scheewe, Dop J H; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Vooijs-Moulaert, Francoise A F S R; Woltering, Claire M C; Jongejan, Mieke H T M; Ruige, Madelon; Moll, Henriette A; De Koning, Harry J

2011-01-01

285

The dentist's role in identifying child abuse: an evaluation about experiences, attitudes, and knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to investigate dentists' experiences, attitudes, and knowledge in recognizing and reporting suspected cases of child abuse. It was designed as a cross-sectional study across dental practices. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, which was distributed randomly to 500 dentists. The questionnaire investigated characteristics of the population, education concerning child abuse, experience and attitudes in reporting suspected cases, and the ability to recognize signs of abuse. Approximately 60% of the dentists responded to the survey. Among the dentists who participated in the survey, 87% believed that recognizing child abuse is important, however, 63.2% reported that they did not know how to act in such situations, and 44.2% were unaware of the proper child protection authorities to contact. Among the dentists surveyed, 94.7% reported they did not receive enough education concerning child abuse in their undergraduate studies. While 31.3% of dentists suspected child abuse among their patients, 84% reported their suspicions to the proper authorities. The reason cited most often (33.3%) for not reporting suspected abuse was the fear of litigation and its potential impact on their practice. Only 34.2% of dentists demonstrated knowledge about the potential signs of child abuse. PMID:24401353

da Silva, Rubenice Amaral; Goncalves, Leticia Machado; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Alves; da Cruz, Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira da

2014-01-01

286

Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

G Dastjerdi

2010-09-01

287

Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

2010-01-01

288

Children's Rights Regarding Physical Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sees children's rights as important arena in struggle for human dignity. Asserts that flagrant violation of rights of the child occurs when he or she is abused by a parent or caretaker. Explains children's rights with regard to physical abuse, outlines various definitions of abuse, and discusses the incidence and consequences of child abuse.…

Saidla, Debie D.

1992-01-01

289

Drug abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... become popular and available in recent years, including: Ketamine, a substance related to PCP, commonly called "Special ... information on drug abuse If you are seeking treatment of drug abuse for yourself or a family ...

290

Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse is any form of non-consensual physical contact. It includes rape, molestation, or any sexual conduct with a ... exercise consent. Who are the perpetrators? Perpetrators of sexual abuse include attendants, employees of care facilities, family members ( ...

291

Physical child abuse: a review of all cases seen at Sacramento Medical Center in 1975.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents physical, socioeconomic, demographic and follow-up information on all 18 cases of physical child abuse seen at the Sacramento Medical Center in 1975. Of the 18 abused children, 16 were initially discharged to Children's Protective Service; 13 were placed in foster homes. There were 17 alleged abusers; all were arrested; 12 came to trial; 8 were convicted. Preventive programs offer a less expensive approach and deserve the highest priority. PMID:735043

Gray, D R; Leaverton, D R

1978-12-01

292

Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to ... influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse, however, is not fully understood. ...

293

Mandatory reporting by nurses of child abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most Australian jurisdictions have mandatory reporting legislation to compel members of selected professional groups, including nurses, to report suspicions that a child has been or is likely to be subjected to abuse or neglect. This article details the legal obligations of nurses in each jurisdiction, and highlights differences between jurisdictions. Problematic features of the laws are identified, including the use of ambiguous concepts like "reasonable" suspicion and "significant" harm. Literature is reviewed to identify what is known about nurses' legal knowledge, actual reporting practice, and the practical problems that arise for nurses in this context. It is concluded that empirical research needs to be conducted, because it is not known if the laws are practically effective, whether nurses have sufficient training in, and knowledge of, their reporting duties, or what factors influence sound reporting. Such research can inform both the development of sound training systems and recommendations for legal reform. PMID:16756219

Mathews, Ben; Walsh, Kerryann; Fraser, Jennifer A

2006-05-01

294

Misdiagnosis of Child Abuse Related to Delay in Diagnosing a Paediatric Brain Tumour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conflicting opinion regarding the relative weight that should be allocated to the investigation of organic causes of child illness, compared to the pursuit of suspicions of child abuse, has generated considerable public debate. The discourse of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness is at the centre of contention. In particular, concern has arisen that children’s medical needs are being neglected when their conditions are misdiagnosed as child abuse. This paper document...

Lynne Wrennall

2008-01-01

295

Child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania : possibilities and barriers for prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Child sexual abuse is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite beinga crime in most countries, and with well-known physical and mental health consequences, the majority of sexual offences are not reported. Child sexual abuse is a maltreatment form characterized by contact or non-contact acts perpetrated by adults or older children toward younger children who have little power to resist. This thesis aims to understand the social context of child sexualabuse, and the...

Kisanga, Felix

2012-01-01

296

Family responses to extrafamilial child sexual abuse: an overview and an experiential perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extrafamilial child sexual abuse, and the resultant responses that occur, can dramatically affect the lives of young children and their families. As many as four out of 10 children are sexually abused each year (6), which suggests that significant numbers of children are sexually abused. Many nurses have little awareness of the issues of extrafamilial child sexual abuse and the traumatic impact on the family. Although this article is not a scientific study of family responses, the author employed a theoretical approach in her presentation of her own family's responses to her son's sexual victimization. An overview of child sexual abuse is presented. Family-centered nursing implications in caring for these children and their families are included. PMID:2090650

Reyman, M B

1990-01-01

297

Child Sexual Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects of 101 Cases Seen in an Urban Malaysian Setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of 101 cases of child sexual abuse in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) found overrepresentation of the Indian ethnic group and a mean age of children involved of 6 to 8 years. Associated psychosocial factors included the absence of a protective adult at home, unemployment, and history of perpetrator drug abuse. (DB)

Kassim, Kasmini; Kasim, Mohd. Sham

1995-01-01

298

Understanding Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests from a Situational Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…

Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.

2012-01-01

299

Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

2010-01-01

300

Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive

Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

2008-01-01

302

The Trial of the Expert Witness: Negotiating Credibility in Child Abuse Correspondence  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on forensic letters written by physicians specializing in identifying children who have experienced maltreatment. These writers face an extraordinary exigence in that they must provide an opinion as to whether a child has experienced abuse without specifically diagnosing abuse and thus crossing into a legal domain. Their…

Schryer, Catherine F.; Afros, Elena; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee; Lingard, Lorelei

2009-01-01

303

Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

2009-01-01

304

Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: The Roles of Sadism and Sexuality.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hypothesis, based on concepts of narcissism and perversion, is presented of the mental functioning of the physically and sexually abusive parent. The concept also gives insight into the structuring of the personality of the child-victim, who undergoes the risk of himself becoming a physically and/or sexually abusive parent. (DB)

Criville, Albert

1990-01-01

305

A Study of the Relationship between Child Abuse and Drug Addiction in 178 Patients: Preliminary Results.  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire on family intactness, parental and sibling relationships, and personal physical/sexual abuse histories was completed by 178 adults in treatment for drug/alcohol addiction. Results revealed that 84 percent of the sample reported a history of child abuse/neglect. (Author/CL)

Cohen, Frederick S.; Densen-Gerber, Judianne

1982-01-01

306

The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of child sexual abuse perpetrated by women against minors, mainly against teenagers.

SORIN M. R?DULESCU

2010-04-01

307

Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen  

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Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

2012-06-15

308

Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

Harder, Jeanette

2005-01-01

309

What Does It Mean to Forget Child Sexual Abuse? A Reply to Loftus, Garry and Feldman (1994).  

Science.gov (United States)

Forgetting can take place even when the abuse occurred when the child was older, had experienced dramatic events surrounding the abuse, or had suffered repeated molestation. It is argued here that research suggests that memory of child sexual abuse may be influenced by more than the "simple forgetting" that E. Loftus et al. suggested. (BF)

Williams, Linda Meyer

1994-01-01

310

Histological demonstration of haemosiderin deposits in lungs and liver from victims of chronic physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the context of chronic physical child abuse, two entities have been described based on macroscopical and radiological criteria: the battered baby syndrome and the shaken baby syndrome. However, in some autopsy cases, clinico-radiological information may not be available. In these cases, histological examinations are necessary to look for sequelae of repeated haemorrhages, particularly in organs likely to have suffered traumatisms such as the lungs, or in organs belonging to the mononucleated macrophage resorption system, such as the liver and the spleen. We examined a series of 15 young children who died from proven chronic child abuse and compared them with 15 sex and age-matched control subjects who died from natural causes with no history of child abuse. Using Perl's stain for iron, we identified haemosiderin deposits in pulmonary, hepatic and splenic samples and the deposits were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Haemosiderin deposits were significantly (P < 0.001) more abundant in the lungs and liver of the chronic abuse victims than in those of the control subjects. However, they were not significantly more abundant in the spleens of child abuse victims than in controls. We conclude that haemosiderin deposits in lungs and liver could be proposed as a marker for chronic physical child abuse. This study stresses the importance of systematic histological examination to look for pulmonary and hepatic haemosiderin deposits in cases in which chronic child abuse is suspected. PMID:10460417

Dorandeu, A; Perie, G; Jouan, H; Leroy, B; Gray, F; Durigon, M

1999-01-01

311

Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Findings Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5%) boys and 488 (47.5%) girls 679 (66.05%) cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%), 360 (35%) and 394 (38.3%) respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence. Conclusion Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended. PMID:23724176

Mahram, Manoochehr; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aflatouni, Ali

2013-01-01

312

The management of child abuse and neglect cases in schools: the Toronto model.  

Science.gov (United States)

School staffs have a major role in the prevention, identification and referral of cases of child abuse and neglect. School administrators, teachers and school support staffs require knowledge about abuse and neglect, as well as a clear set of guidelines and procedures for dealing with it if they are to carry out these responsibilities effectively. The Toronto Board of Education has developed a program that has involved superintendents, principals, teachers, pupil personnel staff, caretakers, secretaries and community resources in an educational program oriented to the management of child abuse cases in their schools. The Board's Child Abuse Committee has developed a document which outlines employees' responsibilities under the legislation, provides assistance in the identification of child abuse and neglect cases, and outlines procedures for referral both internally and to the community. The document was used as the base for an extensive staff development program during the school year 1979-80, in which all of the system's 6,000 school based employees participated. The Toronto Board's Child Abuse Program incorporated the establishment of the position "Resource Person, Child Abuse" for the purpose of consultation with school staffs, as well as the ongoing provision of resource material and staff training. The paper outlines the development of the program, includes guidelines and procedures for school staffs, the legislation under which it operates, the content of the training program, and an evaluation of the program with suggestions for replication. PMID:6684980

McClare, G

1983-01-01

313

Child Abuse and Neglect, MAOA, and Mental Health Outcomes: A Prospective Examination  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Studies have examined the interaction of MAOA genotype with childhood maltreatment in relation to depressive symptomatology and alcohol abuse with conflicting findings. Both high and low activity allele combinations have been shown to be protective for maltreated children with direction of findings varying by study methodology and participant’s sex. Methods Participants in a prospective cohort design study involving court substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group were followed up into adulthood and interviewed (N = 802). Eighty-two percent consented to provide blood, 631 gave permission for DNA extraction and analyses, and 575 were included in the final sample. This sample included male, female, White, and Non-White (primarily Black) participants. Symptoms of dysthymia, major depression and alcohol abuse were assessed using the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule-III-R. Results Significant three-way interactions, MAOA genotype by abuse by sex, predicted dysthymic symptoms. Low-activity MAOA genotype buffered against symptoms of dysthymia in physically abused and multiply maltreated women. Significant three-way interactions, MAOA genotype by sexual abuse by race, predicted all outcomes. Low-activity MAOA genotype buffered against symptoms of dysthymia, major depressive disorder and alcohol abuse for sexually abused White participants. The high-activity genotype was protective in the Non-White sexually abused group. Conclusions This prospective study provides evidence that MAOA interacts with child maltreatment to predict mental health outcomes. Reasons for sex differences and race findings are discussed. PMID:22030358

Widom, Cathy Spatz; Brzustowicz, Linda M.

2012-01-01

314

Implementation of Nuclear Medicine Methods for Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglec  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect are detrimental to a child’s health, physical and psychosocial development and result from inappropriate behavior or inattention on the part of those responsible for the child’s care and protection. Child abuse/neglect is a serious public problem encompassing medical, ethical and legal aspects. Imaging methods play an important role in investigating and documenting child abuse and neglect. Radiological imaging methods have particular priority. X-rays of the whole skeletal system are obtained for evaluation of the bone structure. Computerized tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and ultrasonography (US are used for the detection of cranial and internal organ damage. Due to the rapid developments in technology, diagnostic methods using nuclear medicine have also been initiated for use in identifying abuse and neglect. Detection of abuse and neglect carries ethical, judicial and moral liabilities as well as a responsibility for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Implementation of diagnostic methods of nuclear medicine in determining child abuse and neglect might contribute significantly in resolving court cases by providing objective evidence in medicolegal cases for realization of fair trials and in facilitating substantial conclusions. It is hoped that nuclear medicine methods will be helpful in terms of providing objective evidence for the experts. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 30-5

Eser Kaya

2010-05-01

315

Peer abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a is intended to cause harm or distress, (b occurs repeatedly over time, and (c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4

Müjgan

2011-03-01

316

[School-detected child abuse in Geneva: outlook on the past 10 years].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Child and youth health service of the Canton of Geneva is an important actor in support of abused children attending school. Incidence of child abuse is stable at around 3.5 per 1,000 school children. Physical, psychological abuse and neglect are the types most frequently encountered. The main risk factors for abuse are precarious socio-economic situations, parenting issues and finally issues related to young people themselves. Although the incidence of abuse is stable in recent years, with respect to the growing number of children attending school, we can conclude that the absolute number of children at risk increases, confirming the need to develop and maintain common policies and prevention actions in this area. PMID:25199228

Maneff, Christina; Jeannot, Emilien; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Lazarevic, Claire Anne Wyler; Chastonay, Philippe

2014-08-13

317

Child Sexual Abuse Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Policy Concerns and Implications for Program Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines public opinion regarding intervention options for intrafamilial child sexual abuse offenders, victims, and families. Investigates the public's willingness to support strategies of victim protection, offender control, and treatment services. Respondents generally supported established, adversarial intervention strategies, and had mixed…

Esser-Stuart, Joan E.; Skibinski, Gregory J.

1998-01-01

318

Literature and Resource Review, Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Bibliography of Scholarly References.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lists articles published in 1992-93 focusing on current clinical and research activities on child and adolescent substance abuse. Categorizes articles as either discussion and review papers, assessment, epidemiology, intervention, or prevention. List includes 123 articles. (Author/CRR)

De Piano, Frank; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

1994-01-01

319

Relationships between Maternal Adult Attachment Security, Child Perceptions of Maternal Support, and Maternal Perceptions of Child Responses to Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…

Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.

2002-01-01

320

Abuses of the girl child in some African societies: implications for nurse practitioners.  

Science.gov (United States)

The definition of a child in African societies varies. From the moment the girl child can talk and walk, she is allocated responsibilities within the family. Westernized cultures view such responsibilities as forms of abuse. Thus, various reports had been written about girl children and had been critical of African societies without acknowledging that Africa is a very large continent. This paper sets out to identify, explore, and present potential areas of abuse of the girl child, for example, female circumcision, child slaves, rape survivors, child soldiers, child prostitution, teenage pregnancy, and arranged marriages. This paper suggests strategies that healthcare professionals could initiate in situations where a girl child is being abused. PMID:16512869

Khalil, Doris Deedei

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

322

Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

2002-03-01

323

Evidence for distinct biological perturbations in PTSD with severe child abuse: implications for PTSD biomarkers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rationale/statement of the problem : Evidence for distinct biological perturbations in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with severe child abuse versus no child abuse: consequences for robust biomarkers for PTSD. The identification of biomarkers for PTSD has been difficult, likely due to inter-individual differences in genetic risk factors and environmental exposures. The aim of the current study was to interrogate the influences of the environment on gene expression profiles by characteri...

Divya Mehta

2012-01-01

324

Has this child been abused? Exploring uncertainty in the diagnosis of maltreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uncertainty in the diagnosis of abuse can have profound implications for the health and safety of the child, the emotional burden of a family, and investigative and criminal proceedings. A logical algorithm for addressing physical and sexual abuse cases that details aspects contributing to the uncertainty may aid the clinician in making a diagnosis and in communicating the crucial details to the relevant investigative agencies. This article defines and discusses uncertainty in the realms of physical and sexual abuse, and suggests an approach to managing uncertainty while still providing valuable information for the medical and child protective service systems. PMID:25242713

Moles, Rebecca L; Asnes, Andrea G

2014-10-01

325

Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguar...

Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda; Engku Ahmad Zaki bin Engku Alwi

2011-01-01

326

Evaluation of suspected child abuse at the ED; implementation of American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines in the Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergency departments (EDs) are important to detect child physical abuse. A structured approach will contribute to an adequate detection of abused children at the ED. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) provided guidance in the clinical approach to the evaluation of suspected physical abuse in children. In the Netherlands, these American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines have been adopted for the clinical process of child abuse detection. Here, we describe the outcome of the clinical process in the year 2010 with 65 cases of suspected child abuse out of 3660 children presenting at an ED, and we discuss the strengths and pitfalls of this current clinical approach. PMID:24099714

Sittig, Judith S; Post, Erica D M; Russel, Ingrid M B; van Dijk, Ingrid A G; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; van de Putte, Elise M

2014-01-01

327

Human and animal research into sex-specific effects of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is the most potent experiential risk factor for developing a mood disorder later in life. The effects of child abuse are also more severe in girls and women than in men. In this review, we explore the origins of this epidemiological sex difference. We begin by offering the hypothesis that a sex-specific risk factor that influences how social cues are perceived and remembered makes girls more susceptible to the effects of child abuse. We then discuss the neural systems that mediate emotion and stress, and, how child abuse and/or mood disorders like anxiety and depression affect them. Drawing upon human and animal research, several candidates for such a risk factor are discussed. They include glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and corticotropin releasing factor receptor binding and signaling. Our own research shows that the morphometry of the prepubertal amygdala is sexually dimorphic, and could contribute to a sex difference in stimulus appraisal. We have also found that the brain of juvenile female rats is less selective than males' for threatening social stimuli. Thus, one way that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of child abuse is that they are more likely to perceive objectively benign stimuli as threatening. This bias in perception could compound with the genuinely traumatic memories caused by child abuse; the burden of traumatic memories and the increasingly reactive stress response systems could then dispose more women than men to develop depression and/or anxiety. PMID:24657521

Cooke, Bradley M; Weathington, Jill M

2014-04-01

328

Linkages Between Child Abuse and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls: Behavioral and Social Correlates  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and a matched comparison sample of girls without ADHD (n = 88), all aged 6-12 years. A thorough chart review reliably established documented rates of physical and sexual abuse in both samples. Results: There were significantly higher rates of abuse for girls with ADHD (14.3%) than for the comparison sample (4.5%), with most of the abuse found in girls with the Combined as opposed to the Inattentive type. Higher rates of externalizing behaviors (including objective observations in a research summer camp) and peer rejection (indexed through peer sociometric nominations) characterized the subgroup of girls with ADHD with abuse histories compared to the subgroup without such histories, with moderate to large effect sizes. Subgroup differences regarding internalizing problems and cognitive deficits did not emerge. Findings regarding peer rejection were explained, in part, by higher rates of observed aggressive behavior in the abused subgroup. Conclusions: The findings raise important questions about the possible etiologic and/or exacerbating role of abusive trauma in a subgroup of children with ADHD. PMID:17097140

Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

329

Exploring the Relations among the Nature of the Abuse, Perceived Parental Support, and Child's Self-Concept and Trauma Symptoms among Sexually Abused Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined two resiliency factors: self-concept and perceived parental support, in conjunction with abuse factors that impact psychological functioning. Data were collected on 61 sexually abused children prior to treatment. Findings indicate that a child's self-concept was associated with all the trauma symptoms except sexual concerns and…

Reyes, Carla J.

2008-01-01

330

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in 'battered child syndrome' and brain injuries in 'shaken baby syndrome'. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [German] In der Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung ist die Bildgebung ein wesentlicher Faktor. Trotz scheinbar leerer Anamnese gelingt es, typische Verletzungsmuster als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen, sowohl im Bereich des Skeletts, der Weichteile, des Abdomens ('battered child syndrome', heute: 'non accidental injury', NAI) als auch im ZNS ('shaken baby syndrome'). Den klinischen Symptomen entsprechend, wird im Verdachtsfall ein adaequates diagnostisches Verfahren eingesetzt, das erwartete charakteristische Befunde nachweist, den Mechanismus der Verletzung aufzeigt und das Alter der Laesionen annaehernd festlegt. Radiologische Skelettbefunde werden hinsichtlich ihrer Spezifitaet fuer eine Misshandlung bewertet. Alle Resultate der Bildgebung sind zusammen mit Anamnese und klinischen Befunden zu deuten. Bei schwerer Misshandlung ohne aeussere Verletzungszeichen ist das rechtzeitige Erfassen einer ZNS-Verletzung prognostisch bedeutsam. Initial wird bei diesem Verdacht die CT eingesetzt, um Blutung und Oedem darzustellen, im Verlauf werden mittels MRT Blutungsreste sowie residuelle parenchymatoese Laesionen erfasst. Alle Befunde sind auf ihre Differenzialdiagnosen hin zu pruefen, bevor der Misshandlungsverdacht geaeussert wird. (orig.)

Stoever, B. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, CC6, Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

2007-11-15

331

Comparative needs in child abuse education and resources: perceptions from three medical specialties  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Improvement in child abuse and neglect education has been previously identified as a significant need among physicians. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand specific comparative educational needs regarding child abuse diagnosis and management among physicians from differing specialties and practice types. Methods A total of 22 physicians participated in focus groups (one family practice (FP), one emergency medicine (EM), and one pediatrician group) facilitated by a professional moderator using a semi-structured interview guide. Five specific domains of child abuse education needs were identified from previously published literature. Child abuse education needs were explored across one general and five specific domains, including (1) general impressions of evaluating child abuse, (2) identification and management, (3) education/resource formats, (4) child/caregiver interviews, (5) medical evaluations, and (6) court testimony. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, then analyzed for common themes and differences among the three groups. Results Participants identified common areas of educational need but the specifics of those needs varied among the groups. Neglect, interviewing, court testimony, and subtle findings of abuse were educational needs for all groups. EM and FP physicians expressed a need for easily accessible education and management tools, with less support for intermittent lectures. All groups may benefit from specialty specific education regarding appropriate medical evaluations of potential cases of abuse/neglect. Conclusions Significant educational needs exist regarding child abuse/neglect, and educational needs vary based on physician training and practice type. Educational program design may benefit from tailoring to specific physician specialty. Further studies are needed to more clearly identify and evaluate specialty specific educational needs and resources. PMID:20661314

Anderst, Jim; Denise Dowd, M.

2010-01-01

332

The neurobiological toll of child abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to interpersonal violence or abuse affects the physical and emotional well-being of affected individuals. In particular, exposure to trauma during development increases the risk of psychiatric and other medical disorders beyond the risks associated with adult violence exposure. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a major mediating pathway of the stress response, contribute to the long-standing effects of early life trauma. Although early life trauma elevates the risk of psychiatric and medical disease, not all exposed individuals demonstrate altered HPA axis physiology, suggesting that genetic variation influences the consequences of trauma exposure. In addition, the effects of abuse may extend beyond the immediate victim into subsequent generations as a consequence of epigenetic effects transmitted directly to offspring and/or behavioral changes in affected individuals. Recognition of the biological consequences and transgenerational impact of violence and abuse has critical importance for both disease research and public health policy. PMID:19661133

Neigh, Gretchen N; Gillespie, Charles F; Nemeroff, Charles B

2009-10-01

333

Do Child Abuse and Maltreatment Increase Risk of Schizophrenia?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction IntroductionaaAlthough childhood abuse is a recognised risk factor for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance misuse, its role in the aetiology of psychotic disorder remained controversial. This is in part because the putative effect of childhood trauma on psychosis has been mostly evaluated by small, cross sectional, uncontrolled studies that raised methodological issues. Methods Papers concerning the association between childhood trauma and psychotic disorders (to November, 2011) were identified using a comprehensive search of PubMed, Psychinfo, and Scopus and analysing reference list of relevant papers. A narrative synthesis was used to summarise results. Results An association between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms was consistently reported by large cross sectional surveys with an effect ranging from 1.7 to 15. However, we cannot conclude that the relationship is causal as lack of longitudinal studies prevent us from fully excluding alternative explanations such as reverse causality. Gender, cannabis use, and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms appear to moderate the effect of childhood trauma on psychotic disorders. However, specificity of childhood abuse in psychotic disorders and, particularly, in schizophrenia has not been demonstrated. Conclusion Although the association between childhood abuse and psychosis has been replicated, the etiological role of such early adversity has yet to be fully clarified. So far none of the studies reported support the hypothesis that childhood abuse is either sufficient or necessary to develop a psychotic disorder. It seems likely that any effect of childhood abuse on schizophrenia needs to be understood in terms of genetic susceptibility and interaction with other environmental risk factors. PMID:22707958

Sideli, Lucia; Mule, Alice; La Barbera, Daniele

2012-01-01

334

Child Abuse and Neglect: Public Education's Role In Identification and Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

When there is evidence of severe child abuse or neglect, the school must be the child's advocate and defender. Basically, child advocacy is concerned with identifying and correcting ongoing practices and policies that violate legal and human rights or that are seriously harmful to children. The main targets are the institutional barriers that…

Belnap, W. Dean

335

Does Accessibility of Positive and Negative Schema Vary by Child Physical Abuse Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child

Crouch, Julie L.; Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Farc, Magdalena M.; Irwin, Lauren M.

2010-01-01

336

Parental Depression and Child Outcomes: The Mediating Effects of Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…

Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

337

25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?  

Science.gov (United States)

...ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation...be handled in accordance with the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act of 1990, Public Law 101-630, 25...

2010-04-01

338

Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2009-01-01

339

Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

2010-01-01

340

The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: Dreaming of Child Safe Organisations?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 12 November 2012 the then Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard announced she was recommending to the Governor General the establishment of a Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Following inquiries in Australia and elsewhere much is already known about institutional and inter-institutional child protection failures and what is required to address them. That Australia’s national government has pursued another abuse inquiry with terms of reference limited to institution-based (excluding the family sexual abuse is of interest given the lack of political will to enact previous findings and recommendations. This article examines the background to the Government’s announcement, the Commission’s terms of reference and some of its settings, and literature on the nature of royal commissions across time and place. After the lack of success in implementing the recommendations of previous inquiries into how to better protect Australia’s children, the question is: how will this Royal Commission contribute to Australian child protection and safety? Will the overwhelming public support generated by “truth speaking to power” in calling for this inquiry translate into action?

William Budiselik

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Fetal Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

Kent, Lindsey; And Others

1997-01-01

342

Child abuse: validation of a questionnaire translated into Brazilian Portuguese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study sought to validate the Portuguese translation of a questionnaire on maltreatment of children and adolescents, developed by Russell et al. and to test its psychometric properties for use in Brazil. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese using a standardized forward-backw [...] ard linguistic translation method. Both face and content validity were tested in a small pilot study (n = 8). In the main study, a convenience sample of 80 graduate dentistry students with different specialties, from Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were invited to complete the final Brazilian version of the questionnaire. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the results obtained from the questionnaire for different specialties (pediatric dentistry, for example). The respondents completed the questionnaire again after 4 weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability. The comparison of test versus retest questionnaire answers showed good agreement (kappa > 0.53, intraclass correlation > 0.84) for most questions. In regard to discriminant validity, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the experience and interest domains, in which pediatric dentists showed more experience with and interest in child abuse compared with dentists of other specialties (Mann-Whitney test, p

Glaucia, Marengo; Ana Paula Borges de, Paola; Fernanda Morais, Ferreira; Eduardo, Pizzatto; Gisele Maria, Correr; Estela Maris, Losso.

2013-04-01

343

Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: A pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30 minutes after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at 3 times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale. Twenty-one percent (N=9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N=18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse, and 34% (N=14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history. PMID:23863127

Bublitz, Margaret H.; Stroud, Laura R.

2014-01-01

344

Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.  

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Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices. PMID:25116864

Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

2014-01-01

345

Developmental retardation in infants as a concomitant of physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of child abuse on the developmental functioning of infants was investigated. Thirty verified cases of physically abused children were compared to a reference group of 30 nonabused children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Abused children scored significantly lower in terms of cognitive and motor development as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Development delays on three of the four sectors of the Denver Developmental Screening Test, personal-social, language, and gross motor, were also found in the abused children. There were, however, relatively few item differences between the two groups on the 30 more general behavioral variables constituting the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. Results appear to confirm clinical observation of abused children as developmentally retarded with specific delays in the language and gross motor areas. Although methodologically complex, longitudinal studies are clearly indicated to assess the stability and/or reversibility of the present findings. PMID:75219

Appelbaum, A S

1977-12-01

346

Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).  

Science.gov (United States)

"Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

1992-01-01

347

The Use of Transpersonal Empathy with Child Abuse Survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult survivors of childhood abuse are some of the more difficult and challenging patients in psychotherapy. This paper applies a transpersonal model of empathy to therapeutic work with these individuals. The transpersonal model of empathy extends traditional humanistic models which strive towards "advanced accurate empathy" to the level at which,…

Gilewski, Michael J.

348

Penetrating Pencil Injury: An Unusual Case of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a penetrating pencil injury in a four-year-old boy that turned out to be a case of physical abuse. While the mother claimed he had injured himself during a fall, the injury was inflicted because he failed to complete homework. Discusses the possibility of nonaccidental pencil injuries (Author/CR)

Lee, Anselm C. W.; So, K. T.; Wong, H. L.; Lau, Shirley

1998-01-01

349

Definitions, Scope, and Effects of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... when the interviewer and interviewee are matched on sex and race, and multiple questions about sexual abuse may result ... rights, specifically their right to control their own bodies and their sexual freedom, by making sex between children and adults unacceptable and illegal. How ...

350

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parent Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1993, the Community Research Group (CRG) at the University of Virginia was provided the opportunity to gather systematic information on parent education and family support programs for the prevention of abuse and neglect throughout Virginia. Based on the group's research into 25 distinct parenting programs, this book outlines an empowering…

Reppucci, N. Dickon; Britner, Preston A.; Woolard, Jennifer L.

351

Learning Lessons from the Past: Legal Issues Arising from Ireland's Child Abuse Reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inquiries have played an important role in telling the stories of children abused and neglected in Ireland in situations of family abuse, clerical abuse and institutional abuse. The inquiries – associated with the name of the chairperson (Ryan or by their geographical remit (Dublin, Ferns, Cloyne, Kilkenny and Roscommon – serve to vindicate the rights of the children affected and to identify the failure of the authorities to protect children from harm. They also make numerous recommendations as to how children’s treatment can be improved. Although each inquiry had varying terms of reference, scope and status, together they address a wide range of issues of both specific and general significance to the issue of child protection. Focus is clearly placed on how child protection practice can be improved but many of the inquiries also comment on the legal framework and make recommendations for the reform of various aspects of child protection law and policy. This paper argues that the legal implications of these inquiries can be reduced to three overarching issues: the legislative provision for the mandatory reporting of child abuse; the need for robust and effective inspection mechanisms to ensure the protection of children, and the issue of constitutional law reform. The analysis shows that these measures are neither straightforward nor a panacea to the intractable problem of providing effective protection to children from abuse. However, taken with the other recommendations identified in the child abuse reports, they represent the beginning of a lasting legacy for the victims of abuse so tragically failed by their families, by the state and by society at large.

Ursula Kilkelly

2012-01-01

352

Public health strategies to minimize the global incidence of child abuse  

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Full Text Available Child abuse is an extremely complicated and a multi-faceted public health concern, significantly influenced by the victim's age, the settings in which the abuse occurs, and the relationship between the victim and perpetrator. The global estimates are just the tip of the iceberg as most of it takes place in the privacy of domestic life and often goes unreported and undetected. In fact, occurrence of child abuse can be best explained by exploring the complex interaction among multiple factors at different levels. In order to counter this menace there is a definite need to involve all the stakeholders and ensure mandatory reporting of child abuse with the help of a surveillance system. To conclude, comprehensive and integrated package of services is desired to minimize the incidence of child abuse and neglect, supplemented with community-based initiatives to facilitate early detection and prolonged follow-up of victims of the abuse. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 955-958

Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

2014-08-01

353

Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C  

Science.gov (United States)

Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

2012-01-01

354

How to Handle Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... the right way to behave, and encourage the good things that kids do. Most adults treat kids well. But some adults hurt kids rather than help them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds ...

355

"How Did You Feel?": Increasing Child Sexual Abuse Witnesses' Production of Evaluative Information  

Science.gov (United States)

In child sexual abuse cases, the victim’s testimony is essential, because the victim and the perpetrator tend to be the only eyewitnesses to the crime. A potentially important component of an abuse report is the child’s subjective reactions to the abuse. Attorneys may ask suggestive questions or avoid questioning children about their reactions, assuming that children, given their immaturity and reluctance, are incapable of articulation. We hypothesized that How questions referencing reactions to abuse (e.g., “how did you feel”) would increase the productivity of children’s descriptions of abuse reactions. Two studies compared the extent to which children provided evaluative content, defined as descriptions of emotional, cognitive, and physical reactions, in response to different question-types, including How questions, Wh-questions, Option-posing questions (yes–no or forced-choice), and Suggestive questions. The first study examined children’s testimony (ages 5–18) in 80 felony child sexual abuse cases. How questions were more productive yet the least prevalent, and Option-posing and Suggestive questions were less productive but the most common. The second study examined interview transcripts of 61 children (ages 6 –12) suspected of being abused, in which children were systematically asked How questions regarding their reactions to abuse, thus controlling for the possibility that in the first study, attorneys selectively asked How questions of more articulate children. Again, How questions were most productive in eliciting evaluative content. The results suggest that interviewers and attorneys interested in eliciting evaluative reactions should ask children “how did you feel?” rather than more direct or suggestive questions. PMID:22309936

Lyon, Thomas D.; Scurich, Nicholas; Choi, Karen; Handmaker, Sally; Blank, Rebecca

2014-01-01

356

Cognitive emotion regulation, proactive coping and resilience in adult survivors of child sexual abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Researchers have not been able to ascertain how survivors of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, develop resilience. To explore resilience and what influences its development, this mixed-method study investigated the roles of cognitive emotion regulation and proactive coping by using a critical-realist ontology. The data was collected from eight women (between ages 25 and 56) who considered themselves to be resilient survivors of severe child sexual abuse. Harveys (20...

Buckley-willemse, Beverley

2012-01-01

357

Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

2011-12-15

358

Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province Iran  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Findings: Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5% boys and 488 (47.5% girls 679 (66.05% cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%, 360 (35% and 394 (38.3% respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence.Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended.

Manoochehr Mahram

2013-04-01

359

Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

2014-04-01

360

The development of hemorrhagic shock encephalopathy syndrome due to child abuse-a case report  

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Full Text Available Child abuse/neglect is a very important problem in our country as it is in the world. It may be as physical, sexual, psychological abuse and child neglect. A previously healthy baby at the age of 2.5 months was brought to the emergency service with complaints of not breathing and cyanosis. Evaluation of the patient and the history obtained suggested a diagnosis of hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome. During the following period, problems of spasticity and vision impairment appeared. The family history of the patient revealed a case of child abuse/neglect and consultation with the social service resulted in a committee decision of transfer of the custody of the baby to the child protection department. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44: 143-5

Zahide Yalaki

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Prevalence of Child Abuse in 15-17 year old Students  

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Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a common phenomenon accompanies with unfavorable short and long term personal and social consequences. With changes in environment which child taken care, negative long term consequences could decreased. This study designed to determine the prevalence of all types of maltreatments in 15-17 year-old students in Kerman. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional- descriptive study, a sample of 360 students (184 boys/196 girls selected by cluster method from all boy and girls high school students of educational area one and two of Kerman and was evaluated. Maltreatment assessment instrument was a 48-questions standard self-report questionnaire which previously recorded. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests. Results: The average of child abuse among samples was 27.6%. The students have experienced physical, neglect and emotional abuse, 9.67%, 23.6% and 17.9% respectively in their history. Conclusion: Despite the lower frequency of child abuse types in comparison with other studies, it seems the early diagnosis and protective educational interventions could have critical roles in diminishing the prevalence and harmful consequences of child abuse.

Laya Sabzevari

2014-05-01

362

Child abuse and osteogenesis imperfecta: how can they be still misdiagnosed? A case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease caused by mutations in genes coding for type I collagen, resulting in bone fragility. In literature are described forms lethal in perinatal period, forms which are moderate and slight forms where the only sign of disease is osteopenia. Child abuse is an important social and medical problem. Fractures are the second most common presentation after skin lesions and may present specific patterns. The differential diagnosis between slight-moderate forms of OI and child abuse could be very challenging especially when other signs typical of abuse are absent, since both could present with multiple fractures without reasonable explanations. We report a 20 months-old female with a history of 4 fractures occurred between the age of three and eighteen months, brought to authorities’ attention as a suspected child abuse. However when she came to our department physical examination, biochemical tests, total body X-ray and a molecular analysis of DNA led the diagnosis of OI. Thus, a treatment with bisphosphonate and a physical rehabilitation process, according to Vojta method, were started with improvement in bony mineralization, gross motor skills and absence of new fracture. In conclusion our case demonstrates how in any child presenting fractures efforts should be made to consider, besides child abuse, all the other hypothesis even the rarest as OI. PMID:23289038

D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Palombaro, Marta; Lodato, Valentina; Zambrano, Anna; Celli, Mauro; Persiani, Pietro; De Bari, Maria Pia; Sangiorgi, Luca

2012-01-01

363

Child abuse registration, fetal growth, and preterm birth: a population based study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To study the relation of intra?uterine growth and gestational age with child protection registration in a 20 year whole population birth cohort. Setting West Sussex area of England. Study design Retrospective whole population birth cohort. Outcomes Child protection registration; individual categories of registration—sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. Population and participants 119?771 infants born in West Sussex between January 1983 and December 2001 with complete data including birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, and postcode. Results In all categories of registration a linear trend was noted such that the lower the birth weight z score the higher the likelihood of child protection registration. Similar trends were noted for gestational age. All these trends were robust to adjustment for maternal age and socioeconomic status. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that lower levels of fetal growth and shorter gestational duration are associated with increased likelihood of child protection registration in all categories including sexual abuse independent of maternal age or socioeconomic status. This study does not permit comment on whether poor fetal growth or preterm birth predispose to child abuse and neglect or the association arises because they share a common pathway. PMID:16537351

Spencer, Nick; Wallace, Ann; Sundrum, Ratna; Bacchus, Claire; Logan, Stuart

2006-01-01

364

Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports  

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Full Text Available Mandatory reporting laws have been created in many jurisdictions as a way of identifying cases of severe child maltreatment on the basis that cases will otherwise remain hidden. These laws usually apply to all four maltreatment types. Other jurisdictions have narrower approaches supplemented by differential response systems, and others still have chosen not to enact mandatory reporting laws for any type of maltreatment. In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment—physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect—are often grouped together as if they are homogenous in nature, cause, and consequence. Yet, the heterogeneity of maltreatment types, and different reporting practices regarding them, must be acknowledged and explored when considering what legal and policy frameworks are best suited to identify and respond to cases. A related question which is often conjectured upon but seldom empirically explored, is whether reporting laws make a difference in case identification. This article first considers different types of child abuse and neglect, before exploring the nature and operation of mandatory reporting laws in different contexts. It then posits a differentiation thesis, arguing that different patterns of reporting between both reporter groups and maltreatment types must be acknowledged and analysed, and should inform discussions and assessments of optimal approaches in law, policy and practice. Finally, to contribute to the evidence base required to inform discussion, this article conducts an empirical cross-jurisdictional comparison of the reporting and identification of child sexual abuse in jurisdictions with and without mandatory reporting, and concludes that mandatory reporting laws appear to be associated with better case identification.

Ben Mathews

2014-08-01

365

[Medical evaluation of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual abuse is a form of abuse. Children often have difficulty making the story and behavioral disorders are a common mode of revelation. Aggression of less than 3 days is a medical and forensic emergency. The examination should include a general physical examination and pelvic examination for traumatic injuries. Samples are oriented depending on the context, the type of attack and delay. In most cases, the examination is normal, which does not exclude the reality of sexual assault. Prescription of levonorgestrel and anti-HIV combination therapy should be discussed, as well as prevention of seroconversion to hepatitis B. The indication for hospitalization is assessed on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24612562

Rey-Salmon, C

2014-05-01

366

Drug abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

367

Abusive Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust When Brian and Sarah began dating, her friends were envious. Brian was smart, sensitive, funny, ... harmed by another person. Continue Signs of Abusive Relationships Important warning signs that you may be involved ...

368

Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing"  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex offenders for…

Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric

2011-01-01

369

Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

2008-01-01

370

Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

Wiley, Tisha R. A.

2009-01-01

371

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

2007-01-01

372

Perspectives on Child Abuse and Labour: Global Ethical Ideals Versus African Cultural Realities  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the global and African postures on the issues of child abuse and child labour. The global ethical ideals of the issues are characterized within their various theoretical perspectives while the African cultural realities are explored through the use of focus group discussion sessions, which were organized in six rural…

Ajayi, A. O.; Torimiro, D. O.

2004-01-01

373

El maltrato infantil: mecanismos subyacentes / Child abuse: underlying mechanisms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La exposición durante la infancia a estrés traumático, en la forma de abuso o negligencia, está asociada con una mayor vulnerabilidad, la cual resulta en el desarrollo de diversas psicopatologías, relación que ha sido confirmada una y otra vez en estudios epidemiológicos; sin embargo, aún se descono [...] cen los mecanismos neurales que subyacen dichas alteraciones y solo recientemente se han empezado a estudiar los cambios neurobiológicos subyacentes en padres y madres maltratadores. En esta revisión se resumen investigaciones en que se ha abordado esta temática y se presentan algunos de los modelos animales usados para su estudio. Abstract in english Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confirmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are [...] still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I review some of the studies using animal models of early adverse trauma and present some of the data on neural changes. Further studies of brain abnormalities in abusive parents are still needed.

Gladys S., Martínez.

2008-12-01

374

El maltrato infantil: mecanismos subyacentes / Child abuse: underlying mechanisms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La exposición durante la infancia a estrés traumático, en la forma de abuso o negligencia, está asociada con una mayor vulnerabilidad, la cual resulta en el desarrollo de diversas psicopatologías, relación que ha sido confirmada una y otra vez en estudios epidemiológicos; sin embargo, aún se descono [...] cen los mecanismos neurales que subyacen dichas alteraciones y solo recientemente se han empezado a estudiar los cambios neurobiológicos subyacentes en padres y madres maltratadores. En esta revisión se resumen investigaciones en que se ha abordado esta temática y se presentan algunos de los modelos animales usados para su estudio. Abstract in english Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confirmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are [...] still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I review some of the studies using animal models of early adverse trauma and present some of the data on neural changes. Further studies of brain abnormalities in abusive parents are still needed.

Gladys S., Martínez.

375

Parent gender, victim gender, and family socioeconomic level influences on the potential reporting by nurses of physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1974, the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act required reporting of child abuse in all states. Although nurses have since this time been designated as mandated reporters of abuse, only recently have nurses begun to hold positions where they are directly responsible for abuse reporting. This study investigated whether the gender of the victim, the gender of the abusing parent, or the family's socioeconomic level influences the potential reporting of child abuse by nurses. Participants were shown three vignettes of children being admitted to an emergency room with symptoms of possible abuse. When asked if they would or would not report the incident as child abuse, participants indicated they were significantly less apt to report abuse when the victim was female rather than male, and when the family was perceived as being from a middle rather than a low or high socioeconomic background. The implication of this finding is that female children from middle-class backgrounds may be left less protected than others as nurses become more actively involved in child abuse reporting. PMID:1340873

Pillitteri, A; Seidl, A; Smith, C; Stanton, M

1992-01-01

376

Abuse during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... put you in touch with a crisis hotline, domestic violence program, legal-aid service, or a shelter or ... information Georgetown University's Maternal and Child Health Library - domestic violence and abuse information. National domestic violence hotline: (800) ...

377

Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

Rosvold Elin

2007-11-01

378

The effects of perpetrator age and abuse disclosure on the relationship between feelings provoked by child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the relationship between feelings provoked by child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom scores in a sample of 163 female survivors of CSA. Finkelhor and Browne's traumagenic dynamics model was applied. The interactive effects of provoked feelings with perpetrator age and the existence of abuse disclosure were also studied. Results showed an overall relationship between feelings provoked by CSA and PTSD symptom scores. Feelings of stigma, betrayal, and powerlessness as a result of CSA were associated with PTSD symptom score when the entire group of CSA victims was analyzed. The role of traumatic sexualization was relevant only when analyzed in interaction with the age of the perpetrator and disclosure. The relationship between traumatic sexualization and PTSD symptom scores was only significant when the abuse was committed by an adult perpetrator and when a disclosure was made during the time of abuse, or a short time after the abuse had occurred. PMID:20936545

Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José; Justicia, Fernando

2011-07-01

379

The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain  

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Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

Mohammad Narimani

2012-10-01

380

Child care in outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities for women: findings from the 2008 National Survey of substance Abuse Treatment Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mothers with substance use disorders who lack access to child care are often unable to enter or remain in substance abuse treatment. This study examined the availability of child care in outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities and whether or not certain facility characteristics were associated with the availability of child care. Using data from the 2008 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services, 6.5% of outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities that served women provided child care. The results of multivariate logistic regression found that child care was more common among facilities that were located in metropolitan areas, were operated by non-profit or government agencies, received public funding, or provided free services or other ancillary services including case management, domestic violence counseling, and transportation assistance. Facilities that served only women had more than three times higher odds of providing child care compared with mixed-gender facilities. Further research is needed to identify strategies for expanding child care in outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities. PMID:21293975

Brown, Jonathan David; Vartivarian, Sonya; Alderks, Cathie E

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Use of a computer simulation to evaluate a seminar on child abuse.  

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A computerized patient simulation was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a seminar on child abuse in changing students' behavior in assessing the problem and developing a treatment plan. The CAMPS system (DACIS Software) was selected because it allows students freedom to follow any pathway in selecting over 500 items of history, physical examination, laboratory, and treatments. In interacting with this simulation, students demonstrated how they integrate their knowledge into a clinical setting. The three-hour seminar covered the topics of physical and sexual abuse, patient neglect, and utilization of community resources for treatment. The control (n = 43) and experimental (n = 38) groups, enrolled in an introductory course in pediatrics, were given references to read about child abuse as part of the core curriculum, but they may or may not have had exposure to patients in their clinical work. Only the experimental group attended the seminar. As part of the course evaluation program, both groups interacted with eight computer simulations, two of which involved cases of child abuse. In the classic case of child abuse, the control and experimental groups had similar results. In the more difficult diagnostic problem (shaken baby), the groups differed significantly in total score, cost of the evaluation, and percentage of correct diagnosis. PMID:2608551

Kost, S; Schwartz, W

1989-09-01

382

Child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting intervention preservice content preferred by student teachers.  

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The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers. PMID:24393087

Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter

2014-01-01

383

Child is father of the man: Child abuse and development of future psychopathology.  

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Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually escalates to violence. According to one theory, there may be a degree of transgenerational transmission of these communication patterns in children who have been victims of violence, thus propagating the conditions for violence, this time perpetrated by the victims themselves. Therefore there is a pressing need for prevention, perhaps through psychoeducation for parents or through early detection and treatment of traumatized children and adolescents, in the hope that the transgenerational vicious cycle of violence may be broken. PMID:25367662

Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

2014-01-01

384

Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

385

Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

Bilo, Rob A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands). Department of Pathology and Toxicology; Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Childrens' s Hospital/Academic, Medical Center Amsterdam (Netherlands). Department of Radiology; Robben, Simon G.F. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

2010-07-01

386

Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex. PMID:22292995

Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

2012-02-01

387

Extended evaluations in cases of child sexual abuse: how many sessions are sufficient?  

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This article provides new findings from a national study involving 18 forensic interview sites of 137 children who were randomly assigned to a four or eight session extended evaluation. Cases assigned to the eight session protocol were significantly more likely to be classified "credible disclosure" of sexual abuse (56.6%) than cases assigned to the four session protocol (29.5%) and significantly less likely to be classified "credible nondisclosure" of sexual abuse (9.2%) than cases in the four session protocol (24.6%). When four versus eight sessions, demographic variables, and case characteristics were entered into a regression, variables that predicted likelihood of sexual abuse were eight session protocol, older victim age, and caretaker belief the child had been sexually abused. When new disclosures were examined by session in the eight session protocol, 95% of new disclosures occurred by the sixth session. PMID:21113833

Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

2010-11-01

388

Child protection: legal and ethical obligation regarding the report of child abuse in four different countries.  

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Child protection is the duty of every single member of the society. Health professionals who work with children, such as members of dental team, are in the unique position to recognize signs of physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as (dental) neglect. They should report any suspected case where a child is or may be in need of welfare. The professional responsibility is regulated by legal and ethical obligations. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the legal and ethical Acts, and the similarities vs. differences in obligations regarding reporting child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases in four countries: Croatia, United Kingdom, Italy and Canada. In all four countries all health professionals have a duty to report their suspicion if a child is in a harmful situation. All of them who fail to report, or even neglect or delay to report a suspicion, are liable on conviction to a pecuniary fine which varies from country to country. Depending on the country, if a professional has reasonable grounds to suspect that a child is or may be in need of protection, must report to: CAS (children's aid society), to CSS (center for social services), to police, to a Juvenile Court, or to the ombudsman. In all four countries, dentists are not asked to diagnose 'child maltreatment', but simply report the suspicion with supportive evidence. Ethical obligation comes from medical and dental ethical codes regulated by the Chamber or Council of Dentists. In all four countries legal and ethical obligations in reporting CAN are similar. Differences are related mostly to fines for nonreporting or a delay in reporting. Expanded investigation through other European countries and standard operational procedures is needed, in order to harmonize policies and guidelines for reporting CAN and maximize children protection. PMID:24776437

Cukovic-Bagic, Ivana; Welbury, Richard R; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Hatibovic-Kofman, Sahza; Nuzzolese, Emilio

2013-12-01

389

Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The Alaska Native (AN) population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH) program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today's children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusion The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children, supporting child victims in healing and to holding offenders accountable. PMID:23984282

Payne, Diane; Olson, Kimber; Parrish, Jared W.

2013-01-01

390

Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse  

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Full Text Available Background. The Alaska Native (AN population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design. PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today’s children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results. Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusions. The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children, supporting child victims in healing and to holding offenders accountable.

Diane Payne

2013-08-01

391

Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors  

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This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse

Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

2009-01-01

392

Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization  

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Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2012-01-01

393

Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors  

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Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

2004-01-01

394

Response to Cross and Saxe's "A Critique of the Validity of Polygraph Testing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases."  

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Responds to an article (1992) in which Cross and Saxe assert that polygraph testing is inaccurate and inappropriate in the area of child sexual abuse. Presents a summary of recent polygraph validity and reliability studies to refute their claims, and discusses current uses of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases. (JPS)

Williams, Vergil L.

1995-01-01

395

Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

2008-01-01

396

Combating Violence against Children: Jordanian Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions towards Child Abuse and Neglect  

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Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…

Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif

2014-01-01

397

Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

2011-01-01

398

Sexual child abuse in a defined Swedish area 1993-97: a population-based survey.  

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Attempting to avoid some of the most common methodological problems involved in research on sexual child abuse, we collected data on crimes, perpetrators, and sanctions in all convicted cases of sexual child abuse in a defined population during a 5-year period. This approach provided amply documented and ascertained cases with precise definitions and descriptions of the crimes involved, no clinical referral bias, and minimal dependence on memory effects. The results are valid for the small proportion of cases that lead to conviction in the context of Swedish legislation. Structured data were collected from the court dossiers in all cases of sexual crimes against minors (less than 15 years of age) tried and sentenced at the courts in the Västra Götaland region of Sweden between 1993 and 1997. The total number of 496 sentences for sexual crimes during the study period included 203 cases of sexual child abuse (40.8%) with 283 victims and 196 perpetrators, all men. Girls were victims in 85% of the cases, boys in 12%, and boys as well as girls in 3%. Sexual penetration had occurred in 54.5% of cases and the total proportion of hands-on crimes was 83%. Most perpetrators, 72%, were well known to the child. The most severe offenses took place within the family. A wide range of acts were classified as sexual child abuse, but most common was sexual penetration of a female child by her biological father or a family friend. PMID:11501297

Carlstedt, A; Forsman, A; Soderstrom, H

2001-10-01

399

Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in China: Regulation the Child Abuse in Schools  

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Full Text Available Child abuse occurring outside the home in China is inflicted on school-age children and can result in serious physical and mental harm. China is a developing country with a population of over 1.2 billion, of whom over 300 million are children under the age of 16. Making a commitment to respect the rights of children has profound implications for the status of children in China. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter CRC requires that State Parties take all appropriate measures to protect child from abuse. China has ratified the CRC at domestic level and taken legislative, judicial and other measures to prevent children from abuse. Examination of the child abuse statutes and judicial practice of China reveals that China's domestic law has failed to provide adequate protection for children. Chinese traditional Confucian culture and deficiency of CRC both contribute to the soaring number of incidents of child abuse in schools. It is suggested that China review its legislation, establish the independent human rights commission, raise awareness of children's rights and improve cooperation with NGOs to ensure that it conforms fully with the requirements of the CRC.

Peng Xu

2014-03-01

400

Child abuse inventory at emergency rooms: CHAIN-ER rationale and design  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the injured children attending the emergency room, the consequences of both missed child abuse cases and wrong suspicions are substantial. Therefore, the accuracy of ongoing detection at emergency rooms by health care professionals is highly important. Internationally, several diagnostic instruments or strategies for child abuse detection are used at emergency rooms, but their diagnostic value is still unknown. The aim of the study 'Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms' (CHAIN-ER is to assess if active structured inquiry by emergency room staff can accurately detect physical maltreatment in children presenting at emergency rooms with physical injury. Methods/design CHAIN-ER is a multi-centre, cross-sectional study with 6 months diagnostic follow-up. Five thousand children aged 0-7 presenting with injury at an emergency room will be included. The index test - the SPUTOVAMO-R questionnaire- is to be tested for its diagnostic value against the decision of an expert panel. All SPUTOVAMO-R positives and a 15% random sample of the SPUTOVAMO-R negatives will undergo the same systematic diagnostic work up, which consists of an adequate history being taken by a pediatrician, inquiry with other health care providers by structured questionnaires in order to obtain child abuse predictors, and by additional follow-up information. Eventually, an expert panel (reference test determines the true presence or absence of child abuse. Discussion CHAIN-ER will determine both positive and negative predictive value of a child abuse detection instrument used in the emergency room. We mention a benefit of the use of an expert panel and of the use of complete data. Conducting a diagnostic accuracy study on a child abuse detection instrument is also accompanied by scientific hurdles, such as the lack of an accepted reference standard and potential (non- response. Notwithstanding these scientific challenges, CHAIN-ER will provide accurate data on the predictive value of SPUTOVAMO-R.

Nieuwenhuis Edward ES

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
401

Child abuse inventory at emergency rooms: CHAIN-ER rationale and design  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the injured children attending the emergency room, the consequences of both missed child abuse cases and wrong suspicions are substantial. Therefore, the accuracy of ongoing detection at emergency rooms by health care professionals is highly important. Internationally, several diagnostic instruments or strategies for child abuse detection are used at emergency rooms, but their diagnostic value is still unknown. The aim of the study 'Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms' (CHAIN-ER) is to assess if active structured inquiry by emergency room staff can accurately detect physical maltreatment in children presenting at emergency rooms with physical injury. Methods/design CHAIN-ER is a multi-centre, cross-sectional study with 6 months diagnostic follow-up. Five thousand children aged 0-7 presenting with injury at an emergency room will be included. The index test - the SPUTOVAMO-R questionnaire- is to be tested for its diagnostic value against the decision of an expert panel. All SPUTOVAMO-R positives and a 15% random sample of the SPUTOVAMO-R negatives will undergo the same systematic diagnostic work up, which consists of an adequate history being taken by a pediatrician, inquiry with other health care providers by structured questionnaires in order to obtain child abuse predictors, and by additional follow-up information. Eventually, an expert panel (reference test) determines the true presence or absence of child abuse. Discussion CHAIN-ER will determine both positive and negative predictive value of a child abuse detection instrument used in the emergency room. We mention a benefit of the use of an expert panel and of the use of complete data. Conducting a diagnostic accuracy study on a child abuse detection instrument is also accompanied by scientific hurdles, such as the lack of an accepted reference standard and potential (non-) response. Notwithstanding these scientific challenges, CHAIN-ER will provide accurate data on the predictive value of SPUTOVAMO-R. PMID:22008625

2011-01-01

402

The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

Putnam, Frank W.

1991-01-01

403

Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child

Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

2011-01-01

404

Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

Kapur, P

1995-01-01

405

Breaking the silence of child sexual abuse in the Caribbean: a community-based action research intervention model.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Trinidad and Tobago, little data exists on child sexual abuse, although there are many anecdotal reports of high prevalence. The Breaking the Silence Gender and Community Empowerment Model is a multidisciplinary intervention to prevent and respond to child sexual abuse in Trinidad and Tobago. It is an innovative, gender-sensitive intervention that uses a community based action research methodology anchored in a national framework. Preliminary evaluation of the Breaking the Silence model shows increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, increased willingness to discuss child sexual abuse, and an impact that goes beyond the target communities. This model can be replicated in communities to prevent and respond to child sexual abuse and adapted to address other sensitive social issues in the Caribbean. PMID:24745546

Reid, Sandra D; Reddock, Rhoda; Nickenig, Tisha

2014-01-01

406

Interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy in child sexual abusers: evidence from a pilot study sample of italian offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been demonstrated that psychopathy is a crucial construct for the understanding of criminal and violent behavior. However, research on psychopathic traits among child sexual abusers is still scant. In this study, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised was used to assess psychopathy in a group of 87 Italian, male inmates who were convicted of violent crimes. Child sexual abusers (N = 23) scored higher on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised interpersonal-affective factor compared to participants who did not perpetrate child sexual abuse. Notably, child sexual abusers showed a very high average score on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised affective dimension; furthermore, they showed high scores on the two Psychopathy Checklist-Revised items excluded from its two factors-four facets structure (i.e., the items denoting devaluation of intimate relationships). The results of this study may positively inform the development of treatment strategies for child sexual abusers. PMID:25010088

Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Caretti, Vincenzo

2014-10-01

407

Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future. PMID:10611766

Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B

1999-10-01

408

Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipline and constitute child physical abuse. Biased or subjective decisions may be made if certain case-specific characteristics or CPT professionals' personal characteristics are used in making physical abuse determinations. Case vignettes with visual depictions of inflicted injuries were sent to CPT professionals in Florida and their substantiation decisions, personal beliefs about corporal discipline, and coercive discipline were collected. Results of the study demonstrated relatively high agreement among professionals across vignettes about what constitutes physical abuse. Further, CPT professionals strongly considered their perceptions of the severity of inflicted injuries in substantiation decisions. Although case specific characteristics did not bias decisions in a systematic way, some CPT professional characteristics influenced the substantiation of physical abuse. Practice implications and future directions of research are discussed. PMID:21804681

Jent, Jason F; Eaton, Cyd K; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F; Merrick, Melissa T; Dandes, Susan K

2011-09-01

409

The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ...

Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

2010-01-01

410

Child sexual abuse and subsequent relational and personal functioning: the role of parental support.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the role of nonoffending parental support in the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and later romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and couple adjustment. Of 348 adults engaged in stable romantic relationship, 59 (17%) reported sexual abuse. In this subgroup, 14% (n=8) reported parental intervention after the abuse was disclosed (i.e., support), 15% (n=9) reported a lack of parental intervention after abuse disclosure (i.e., nonsupport), and 71% (n=42) reported that their nonabusive parent(s) was(were) unaware of their abuse. Results indicated that, compared to other groups, CSA survivors with nonsupportive parents reported higher levels of anxious attachment, psychological symptoms, and dyadic maladjustment. In contrast, CSA survivors with supportive parent(s) expressed psychological and couple adjustment equivalent to non-abused participants, and lower attachment avoidance, relative to all other groups. Path analysis revealed that insecure attachment completely mediated the relationship between perceived parental support after CSA and later psychosocial outcomes. An actor-partner interdependence model showed different patterns for men and women and highlighted the importance of considering relational dynamics in dyads of CSA survivors. Overall, the results suggest that perceived parental support serves as a protective factor among those exposed to CSA. PMID:24199753

Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan

2014-02-01

411

Analysis of Male and Female Experiences with Abuse in Family of Origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty female and 51 male young adults completed a questionnaire concerning abuse in family of origin, focusing on child abuse before age 10, child abuse between ages 10 and 17, adult-to-adult abuse, and child sexual abuse. Men and women reported different experiences with all types of family abuse except extreme child abuse. (Author/JDD)

Murray, Joan; And Others

1992-01-01

412

Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child

Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

2012-01-01

413

Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated. (orig.)

414

Relationship to Perpetrator, Disclosure, Social Reactions, and PTSD Symptoms in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examined victim relationship to the perpetrator, disclosure characteristics, social reactions, and PTSD in adult survivors' of child sexual abuse (CSA) identified in a convenience sample of 733 college students. Results indicated that relationship to the perpetrator was related to CSA characteristics and outcomes. More negative…

Ullman, Sarah E.

2007-01-01

415

Therapists' Affective Reactions to Working with Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse: An Exploratory Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of therapists' affective reactions to working with adult survivors of child sexual abuse found that the most common responses were feelings of being overwhelmed by the work, vulnerability in personal relationships, rage, sadness, and horror. Affective reactions varied by several characteristics associated with the survivors and their…

Knight, Carolyn

1997-01-01

416

Reliability of Professional Judgments in Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Unsettled or Unsettling Science?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009) argument…

Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel; Berson, Nancy; Crowson, Mary; Robinson, Harriet

2012-01-01

417

The Effect of Intra- Versus Post-Interview Feedback during Simulated Practice Interviews about Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two types of instructor feedback (relative to no feedback) on investigative interviewers' ability to adhere to open-ended questions in simulated practice interviews about child abuse. Method: In one condition, feedback was provided at the end of each practice interview. In the other, the…

Powell, Martine B.; Fisher, Ronald P.; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H.

2008-01-01

418

Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

Briggs, Freda

2014-01-01

419

Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

2014-01-01

420

Healthy Families New York (HFNY) Randomized Trial: Effects on Early Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate the effects of a home visiting program modeled after Healthy Families America on parenting behaviors in the first 2 years of life. Methods: A sample of 1173 families at risk for child abuse and neglect who met the criteria for Healthy Families New York (HFNY) was randomly assigned to either an intervention group that was…

DuMont, Kimberly; Mitchell-Herzfeld, Susan; Greene, Rose; Lee, Eunju; Lowenfels, Ann; Rodriguez, Monica; Dorabawila, Vajeera

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Introduction to the Development of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

The "World Report on Children and Violence", (Pinheiro, 2006) was produced at the request of the UN Secretary General and the UN General Assembly. This report recommended improvement in research on child abuse. ISPCAN representatives took this charge and developed 3 new instruments. We describe this background and introduce three new measures…

Runyan, Desmond K.; Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.

2009-01-01

422

Experiences of School Counselors during and after Making Suspected Child Abuse Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during and after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. A total of 847 school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) participated in this study. Results showed that professional school counselors encountered some…

Sikes, April; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Hays, Danica G.

2010-01-01

423

The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

2010-01-01

424

Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Crafting a Positive Process for Health Professionals and Caregivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…

Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne

2013-01-01

425

Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

Benedetti, Genevieve

2012-01-01

426

Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated.

Smith, F.W.; Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.; Green, M.D.

1980-01-01

427

Role Perceptions of Attorneys and Caseworkers in Child Abuse Cases in Juvenile Court.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines results of a four-county Indiana survey in which approximately 90% of attorneys and public agency caseworkers involved in court actions on child abuse cases revealed considerable conflict over each other's role. Suggests ways to clarify roles and ameliorate similar problems in other localities. (RWB)

Russel, Robin

1988-01-01

428

Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

2013-01-01

429

Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Processes, Stress, Personal Control, and Risk for Physical Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. Methods: In-home and phone interview data…

Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

2009-01-01

430

A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

2014-01-01

431

Severity of Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization: The Mediating Role of Coping and Trauma Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) has consistently been associated with the use of avoidant coping; these coping methods have been associated with increased trauma symptoms, which have, in turn, been linked to increased risk for adult sexual revictimization. Given these previous findings, the purpose of the current study was to test a model that…

Fortier, Michelle A.; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Peugh, James; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.

2009-01-01

432

Experiential Avoidance and High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of experiential avoidance has been proposed to account for many of the correlates of child sexual abuse (CSA). Explores variables related to two of the long-term correlates of CSA, general psychological distress and high risk sexual behavior. Results indicate that CSA survivors report higher levels of experiential avoidance and…

Batten, Sonja V.; Follette, Victoria M.; Aban, Inmaculada B.

2001-01-01

433

The Sexual Well-Being of Women Who Have Experienced Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and a range of positive and negative aspects of women's sexual well-being. We also investigated the extent to which women's cognitive-affective sexual appraisals mediated these relationships. Participants were 272 female community college and university students. CSA…

Lemieux, Suzanne R.; Byers, E. Sandra

2008-01-01

434

Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

2006-01-01

435

An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

2010-01-01

436

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

437

Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

2011-01-01

438

Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Assessing Subjectivity and Bias in Professional Judgements  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Evaluators examining the same evidence often arrive at substantially different conclusions in forensic assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study attempts to identify and quantify subjective factors that contribute to such disagreements so that interventions can be devised to improve the reliability of case decisions. Methods:…

Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel

2011-01-01

439

Prisoners of Childhood? Child Abuse and the Development of Heroes and Monsters in "Ender's Game"  

Science.gov (United States)

Alice Miller's work provides a theoretical framework to assess the effects of child abuse and its relationship to the development of creativity, hatred, and violence in the novel "Ender's Game." Analysis focuses on the extent to which children are manipulated in order to meet the needs of adults, the presence of behaviors such as the repression of…

Gross, Melissa

2007-01-01

440

Unusual infant death: dog attack or postmortem mutilation after child abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

An unusual form of fatal child abuse is reported in which investigations by the police and the medical examiner were able to distinguish blunt force head trauma followed by postmortem dismemberment from a fatal dog attack. A discussion of the approaches used to ascertain the correct diagnosis is presented, as well as an overview of dog attacks on humans. PMID:11111804

Boglioli, L R; Taff, M L; Turkel, S J; Taylor, J V; Peterson, C D

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
441

Factors Associated with Nurses' Intention to Report Child Abuse: A National Survey of Taiwanese Nurses  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective:The objectives were to determine the experiences of Taiwanese nurses with a new child abuse reporting law and to assess attitudinal correlates of nurses' intention to report. Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to select registered nurses working in pediatric, psychiatric and emergency care units in Taiwan. A total of…

Feng, J.Y.; Levine, M.

2005-01-01

442

Progress Report on the Development of Child Abuse Prevention, Identification, and Treatment Systems in Eastern Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem: After the Soviet Union dissolved in 1989, it became apparent that there was little recognition of the problems of child abuse and neglect, professionally, legally, or societally. There were no effective systems or laws in place to deal with these problems. Method: Beginning in 1995 the Children's Mental Health Alliance, in conjunction…

Lewis, Owen; Sargent, John; Chaffin, Mark; Friedrich, William N.; Cunningham, Nicholas; Cantor, Pamela; Coffey, Pamela Sumner; Villani, Susan; Beard, Philip R.; Clifft, Mary Ann; Greenspun, David

2004-01-01

443

Dispositional Empathy in High- and Low-Risk Parents for Child Physical Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents identified as either at high risk (n=36) or low-risk (n=38) for child physical abuse were assessed for dispositional empathy. High-risk parents showed lower total scores on the Hogan Empathy Scale and the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy. They also scored higher on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index "personal distress" dimension.…

Perez-Albeniz, A.; de Paul, Joaquin

2003-01-01

444

Health hazards and risks for abuse among child labor in Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon of child labor has become the main concern of developing countries. The literature related to child labor discusses the causes and socioeconomic factors contributing to child labor but few studies examined risks for physical, emotional, and sexual abuse among child labor. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the characteristics of working children as well as identify health risks and risks for abuse associated with child labor. A convenience sample of 41 children working in the industrial city of Irbid were interviewed by using a semistructured interview guide. Findings revealed that children who were engaged in child labor were poor and dropped out of school to assist their families financially. The findings also showed that children were exposed to health hazards such as inhaling chemicals and physical injuries. Physical, verbal, and sexual abuse also were present among these children. The findings from this study concluded that child labor creates an unhealthy environment for socially disadvantaged children. Health professionals, including pediatric and community health care providers, have an instrumental role that needs to be focused on protecting children, enforcing policies, and implementing strategies to help socially and economically disadvantaged children. PMID:12720212

Gharaibeh, Muntaha; Hoeman, Shirley

2003-04-01

445

Cultural-geographical differences in the occurrence of child physical abuse? A meta-analysis of global prevalence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our comprehensive meta-analysis combined prevalence figures of child physical abuse reported in 111 studies, including 168 independent samples with a total of 9,698,801 participants. The overall estimated prevalence was 3/1000 for studies using informants and 226/1000 for studies using self-report measures of child physical abuse, with no apparent gender differences. Methodological factors partly explained the vast variation of self-reported prevalence rates in individual studies. The highest prevalence rates were found for studies using a broad definition of child physical abuse, studies measuring physical abuse over the longest period of 0-18 years, studies using college samples, studies in which adults served as respondents, and studies using more questions on physical abuse. Cultural-geographical factors did not seem to affect prevalence rates of physical abuse, which may be partly due to procedural factors. More crosscultural research on physical abuse is badly needed, especially in Africa and South America. We conclude that child physical abuse is a widespread, global phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world, which is in sharp contrast with the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the