WorldWideScience
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Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... link below to find out how!. Apply Now Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse If you are in an ... Relationships Transitional Compensation: Help for Victims of Abuse Child Abuse 8 Tips for Coping With a Crying Baby ...

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Child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

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Child neglect and psychological abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... also called psychological abuse) is a form of child abuse that occurs when someone intentionally does not provide ... disregard for the child's well being See also: Child abuse - physical Child abuse - sexual

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Child Abuse and Neglect  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

Ya?ar T?ra?ç?; Süleyman Gören

2007-01-01

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Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

Ya?ar T?ra?ç?

2007-01-01

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Who Owns Child Abuse?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

Gerald Cradock

2014-11-01

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Who Owns Child Abuse?  

OpenAIRE

Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

Gerald Cradock

2014-01-01

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Causes of Child Abuse  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 396-405

Erhan Deveci, S.; Yasemin Acik

2003-01-01

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Causes of Child Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

S. Erhan Deveci

2003-08-01

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Skin manifestations of child abuse  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

2010-01-01

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Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises  

Science.gov (United States)

... version of this document . The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

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Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

Ermertcan Aylin

2010-01-01

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Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... When sexual abuse occurs within the family, the child may fear the anger, jealousy or shame of other family members, or be ... make the child extremely fearful of telling, and only when a special effort has helped the child to feel safe, can the child talk freely. ...

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Child abuse - sexual  

Science.gov (United States)

... minor children to sexual activity. This means a child is forced or talked into sex or sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling)

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Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

2013-01-01

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Child Abuse Potential: How Persistent?  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares mothers whose children had been under supervision of Child Protective Services (CPS) with comparison mothers for child abuse potential using Millner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory. CPS mothers scored significantly higher than the comparison mothers, indicating their persistent elevated child abuse potential; there was no significant…

Haapasalo, Jaana; Aaltonen, Terhi

1999-01-01

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Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... more basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any ... and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

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Child sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive resand Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

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What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs ... two previous factsheets from Child Welfare Information Gateway: What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? and Recognizing Child ...

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Child sexual abuse  

OpenAIRE

The diploma thesis deals with sexual exploitation of children. The topic itself causes great discomfort, a kind of insight that our knowledge as well as various strategies of prevention child sexual abuse are still extremely weak and insufficient. The introductory part of the thesis discusses the historical review of sexual exploitation of children, sundry definitions of exploitation are described along with exploitation of children for the purposes of pornography and prosti...

Miklavz?ina, Andreja

2010-01-01

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Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

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Skeletal trauma in child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries. PMID:24168118

Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W

2013-11-01

23

Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

Shepard, Melanie

1992-01-01

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Child physical abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

2014-04-01

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Early Detection of Child Abuse  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

Shearman, J. K.

1987-01-01

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Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

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GIRL CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

G.S. VENUMADHAVA

2013-03-01

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Child abuse, a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

Andri M.T. Lubis

2004-02-01

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Q & A on Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

As an advocate for all students, educators have a legal, moral, and ethical responsibility for identifying and reporting child abuse. One of the most difficult tasks a teacher may face is also one of the most important a teacher can do. If a teacher knows what to look for and what to do, he or she can help a child heal physically and emotionally.…

Kirk, Rea

2007-01-01

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Child abuse in panic disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

Bonevski Dimitar

2008-01-01

31

Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Current Through July 2012 Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse To find statute information for a particular State, ... to illegal drug activity. Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse http://www.childwelfare.gov 2 This material may ...

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Child physical abuse : Reports and interventions  

OpenAIRE

This thesis was begun in 1998 at a time when increased numbers of police reports regarding child physical abuse was presented. The increase had been overshadowed by the research on the sexual abuse of children and showed that child physical abuse in Sweden had only been scarcely investigated since the institution of the Swedish anti spanking law in 1979. The aim of this thesis was to investigate child physical abuse from a judicial, social, child- and adolescent psychiatric and a user perspec...

Lindell, Charlotta

2005-01-01

33

What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

2006-01-01

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Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports  

Science.gov (United States)

When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

Hartill, Mike

2013-01-01

35

Domestic Abuse and Child Health  

OpenAIRE

We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

2014-01-01

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Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

Intima Alrimawi

2014-01-01

37

Cranial imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

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Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

Bengü Pala

2011-03-01

39

Child Abuse Law and School Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the following aspects of child abuse laws and the policies derived from them: (1) vagueness of the laws; (2) implications for school policy and liability; (3) staff training requirements; (4) confidentiality; (5) protection teams; (6) abuse by school staff; (7) corporal punishment as abuse; and (8) prevention programing. (JS)

McEvoy, Alan W.

1990-01-01

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A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

Murat TOPBAS

2004-08-01

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A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000): 76-80

Topbas, Murat

2004-01-01

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Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child?s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

Subramanian E; Subhagya B; Muthu M; Sivakumar N

2005-01-01

43

Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

2006-01-01

44

Child abuse - physical  

Science.gov (United States)

... health care provider, Child Protective Services, or local police if you suspect or know that someone is ... BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 36. Berkowitz CD, ...

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76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

...8645 of March 31, 2011 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the...responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect by promoting...

2011-04-06

46

77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

...8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the...young Americans. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our...unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and parents and caregivers...

2012-04-05

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78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

...8949 of March 29, 2013 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 By the...tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse Prevention Month is a time to make...Administration has made addressing child abuse a priority. Since I took...

2013-04-04

48

Financial burden of hospitalisation for child abuse in Hong Kong  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse is a well-known child care problem. Classically, there are four main types of abuse: physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. The incidence is often underestimated because a number of cases are not severe enough for caregivers to seek medical help. However, the more severe forms of child abuse can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. Many studies have addressed the characteristics and outcomes of child abuse. However, the financial burden of child abuse that...

Tsang, Man-ching; ???

2013-01-01

49

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.)

50

Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the light of the latest information. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 591-614

Selen Acehan

2013-08-01

51

ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.  

OpenAIRE

In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

Nicol, A. R.

1989-01-01

52

Dinamika Forgiveness Pada Orang Dewasa Yang Pernah Mengalami Child Abuse  

OpenAIRE

Peristiwa penganiayaan anak biasa dikenal dengan istilah child abuse atau child maltreatment. Child abuse atau child maltreatment meliputi dua perilaku yaitu abuse dan neglect. Abuse mengarah pada tindakan yang menimbulkan kerusakan pada anak, sedangkan neglect mengarah pada tidak ada tindakan sama sekali, yaitu pengabaian yang merusak anak. Perilaku abuse dan neglect ini memiliki empat tipe. Pertama, physical abuse, yaitu kekerasan terhadap fisik anak yang dapat berupa puku...

Hayati, Reinidar Devirasari Nirmala

2011-01-01

53

The effects of child sexual abuse  

OpenAIRE

A substantial body of empirical evidence now shows that child sexual abuse has profound effects on the psychological adjustment of children (Kendall-Tackett, Williams & Finkelhor, 1993) and these effects in some instances continue on into adulthood (Beitchman, Zucker, Hood, Da Costa & Akman, 1991). A wide range of factors mediate the impact of abuse on adjustment (Spacarelli, 1994). In this chapter the impact of sexual abuse on children and adults will be addressed with refe...

Macintyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan

1999-01-01

54

Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

2010-01-01

55

Brain MR imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

56

Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

57

School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

2015-01-01

58

Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child

Chan, Ko Ling

2012-01-01

59

Child abuse as a stressor of pediatricians.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of: 1) sources of perceived stress, 2) stress management, and 3) burnout among members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Sections on Child Abuse and Emergency Medicine indicates that child abuse physicians are stressed by the history, physical examination, and court appearances in abuse cases. Rarely did physicians indicate that this stress adversely affected their sexual life or family life. Both groups considered courtroom appearances most stressful. Both groups claimed to recognize their stressors and use a variety of approaches to decrease stress. Formal training in child maltreatment was unusual among Abuse Section members, whereas Emergency Section members tended to receive this training in Fellowships. Emergency Medicine Section members reported increased perceived levels of stress. Despite recognition of stress, there was no indicated desire to leave either specialty before an average of 11 to 15 years. Emergency Medicine Section members indicated that 5% of their patients are abused. It is important that emergency medicine residency programs include child abuse education. Formal training programs for individuals who wish to limit their practice to child abuse are needed. Stressors need to be recognized and appropriately managed. Stress recognition and management techniques that have been shown to be effective should be taught and used, beginning in medical school and continuing throughout medical practice. This is necessary if the highest quality of professional personal and patient care is to be maintained. PMID:10220074

Johnson, C F

1999-04-01

60

Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

... Victim assistance professionals or volunteers • Employees of the Crimes Against Children Division of the Department of Arkansas ... the toll-free Child Abuse Hotline telephone system. Disclosure of Reporter Identity Ann. Code § 12-18-909 The ...

61

Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Objective. Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, towards an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods. Contacts were made with academics, government departments, NGOs and UN agencies. This was followed by a field trip in the summer of 2001 where all available reports were examined and a wide range...

Lalor, Kevin

2004-01-01

62

Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually...

Assistant Professor Rama Pande; Prof. Shubhangi Gavhane

2012-01-01

63

The discursive construction of child sexual abuse  

OpenAIRE

Currently in the English speaking world adult/child sex and knowledge about it has become firmly located within a taken-for-granted 'child sexual abuse' discourse. My argument in this thesis is that despite being commonly portrayed as a singularity, the discursive arena of adult/child sex is a site of controversy and conflict, invested with meanings that differ over time and place. Child sexual abuse cannot thus be thought of as something that exists outside of the situated knowledge through ...

Worrell, Marcia Lorraine

2001-01-01

64

Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

2010-01-01

65

Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

2005-01-01

66

Child Abuse and the Handicapped Child. Digest #446.  

Science.gov (United States)

The link between child abuse and handicapping conditions is examined in a brief summary of research studies focusing on mentally retarded, behavior disordered, and physically handicapped children. Although standardized data collection procedures are lacking, isolated studies suggest a disproportionate incidence of child abuse among the population…

Zantal-Wiener, Kathy

67

Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

68

Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

DC Action for Children, 2011

2011-01-01

69

Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

... be considered to be neglectful. Physical discipline, including spanking, performed on a child by a parent, guardian, or custodian in a ... means of discipline, including, but not limited to, spanking, switching, or paddling. A child is not considered abused or neglected for the ...

70

Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

Serhat Nasiroglu

2014-02-01

71

75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

...Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our unwavering...Child Abuse Prevention Month. I call upon all Americans to observe this month with programs and activities...our Lord two thousand ten, and of the Independence of the United...

2010-04-07

72

Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

2007-10-01

73

Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

2007-10-01

74

Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

Nguyen, Pamela H.; Burrowes, Delilah M.; Ali, Saad; Shaibani, Ali [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bowman, Robin M. [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

2007-06-15

75

Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

76

Child Abuse in the Eyes of the Beholder: Lay Perceptions of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose was to explore the effects of victim and perpetrator gender, type of abuse, and victim-perpetrator relationship on university students' and non-students' perceptions of different kinds of child abuse. Method: One hundred and ninety-nine participants (including university students and non-student adults) evaluated each of 24…

Bornstein, Brian H.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Perry, Andrea R.

2007-01-01

77

45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357...TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State...assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or...

2010-10-01

78

Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child

Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

2010-01-01

79

Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually stimulating acts including masturbation, prostitution, heterosexual or homosexual, forcible or other intercourse – vaginal, oral or anal. A legal definition of sexual abuse includes child molestation, incest and rape in the Indian context, child prostitution rape and child marriage are common forms of sexual abuse.

Assistant Professor Rama Pande

2012-03-01

80

Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.)

81

Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene  

Science.gov (United States)

If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

Pass, Susan

2007-01-01

82

Bridging the Gap of Teacher Education about Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

School personnel, particularly educators and school psychologists, are a first line of defense in protecting children from abuse. Teachers play an important role in the detection and reporting of child abuse. The relationship established between teachers and their students can facilitate the identification of child abuse. By virtue of their work,…

Sinanan, Allison N.

2011-01-01

83

Verbal Abuse on Children: Does It Amount to Child Abuse under the Malaysian Law?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children form an essential component of a society. The role of children has been acknowledged key to the survival, development as well as prosperity of that society. A child’s development stage is the most crucial and warrants serious attention from parents and teachers in order to assure their growth into mature adults, who are able to contribute to the society. One of the factors that may hamper their growth is child abuse. There are basically five main forms of child abuse known to take place in Malaysia namely physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect as well as abandonment. These forms of abuse have been given legal attention and recognition except emotional or psychological abuse. One common type of emotional abuse is verbal abuse, which is a form of abusive behavior involving the use of language. Alternatively known as reviling, it is a pattern of behavior that can seriously interfere with one’s positive emotional development and over time, it can lead to significant detriment to one’s self-esteem, emotional well-being and physical state. Although verbal abuse does not leave any outer mark or proof, a verbally abused victim usually suffers by having lower self-worth and low self-esteem. A child, who suffers verbal abuse may grow up to become a low self-esteem adult. Thus, verbal abuse may be considered as grave and must be given serious attention. Laws are the reflection of the attitude of a particular society. Since the function of law is mainly to maintain societal peace and order, it is through law that we can infer how society regards a particular issue, in this regard, verbal abuse on children. This paper aims to highlight firstly, on verbal abuse as another significant form of child abuse needing to be given serious consideration by the society and secondly, on the parameters of child abuse under the Malaysian Child Act 2001; and finally concludes with whether the provisions under the Malaysian Child Act 2001 are sufficient to protect children from verbal abuse.

Che Hasniza Che Noh

2012-04-01

84

Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

2012-01-01

85

Pediatric radiological diagnostics in suspected child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostics are essential in the case of clinical suspicion of pediatric injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities when there is no case history or when ''battered child syndrome'' is assumed on the basis of inadequate trauma. In particular, the aim of this sophisticated diagnostic procedure is the detection of lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to initiate prompt medical treatment. If diagnostic imaging shows typical findings of child abuse, accurate documented evidence of the diagnostic results is required to prevent further endangerment of the child's welfare. (orig.)

86

Epidemiology and geographical distribution of child abuse in Hong Kong  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The objectives of this study are 1) To study the epidemiology and geographical distribution of child abuse in Hong Kong. 2) To study the district differences in co-morbidities of child abuse. Methods: Children under 19 years old with diagnostic codes for child abuse and child maltreatment from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 were retrieved from Hospital Authority database. Demographics, hospital admission data and co-morbidities diagnosis were retrieved. The data ...

Ho, Po-ki; ???

2013-01-01

87

Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child

de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

2000-01-01

88

Child sexual abuse: prevalence, effects and school based prevention  

OpenAIRE

Child sexual abuse is a complex and serious phenomenon that causes short and long term debilitating effects on individuals and their quality of life and life satisfaction. Last three decades child sexual abuse (prevalence, effects and prevention methods) has been very important multidisciplinary topic in academic field in North American developed countries but In our country, Turkey there are not sufficient studies related to prevalence, effects and prevention of child sexual abuse. In this s...

Ay?e Rezan Çeçen

2007-01-01

89

Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

2012-01-01

90

48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse. 352.237-71 Section 352...Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70...Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child Abuse (January 2006) (a)...

2010-10-01

91

25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases...Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation...

2010-04-01

92

5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders...BENEFITS Court Orders Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability...838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement...

2010-01-01

93

3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

...8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009 8355...2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the...they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides...

2010-01-01

94

Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania. PMID:23829829

Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

2013-01-01

95

The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse: a continuation of Finkelhor  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18 (5), 409417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods: Relevant articles about prevalence of child sexual abuse were identified through searches of computerized databases and a handsearch of Child Abuse & Ne...

Pereda Beltran, Noemi?; Guilera Ferre?, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Go?mez Benito, Juana

2009-01-01

96

Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey sample  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and high according to the socio-economical and cultural levels of the neighborhoods they were located in, and total fifteen schools were selected, three from each area, with characteristics suitable to represent the respective areas. Number of students included in the sample from these schools is 655. Study data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of items directed at determining the socio-demographic characteristics of the students, structures of families, quality of family relationships and presence or absence family violence against the child and relations and factors that might create the potential for violence.Findings: Proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their mothers was found as 54%, and proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their fathers was found as 46%. According to results of the regression analysis performed separately for mothers and fathers with the purpose of finding the variables with the greatest effect on being treated with violence of children by their parents and the level of effect of these variables, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their mothers were educational status of the mother, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the mother against the child, respectively.According to the results of the logistic regression analysis performed in relation with students’ experiences of violence from their fathers (Table 109, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their fathers were gender of the student, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the father against the child, respectively.

Sezer Ayan

2009-06-01

97

[Organ donation after brain death due to child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 40 percent of deaths from child abuse occur among children younger than 5 years. The injury pattern in child abuse is block abuse head trauma which in the most severe cases produces brain death. Organ donation is uncommon in children younger than five years. We describe two cases of child abuse that caused brain death; subsequently they were subsidiary for organ donation. It is very important to establish a good coordination between health, social care and legal assistance teams to obtain organ donation. PMID:25622174

Del Villar-Guerra, Pablo; Rey Galán, Corsino; Vivanco Allende, Ana; Medina Villanueva, Alberto

2015-01-01

98

Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Design and Setting: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary me...

Al-Mahroos Fadheela; Al-Amer Eshraq

2011-01-01

99

The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

2012-01-01

100

Maternal Protectiveness Following the Disclosure of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the proportion of mothers who act protectively following disclosure of child sexual abuse and what factors are associated with maternal nonprotectiveness. In a sample of 118 cases of intrafamilial child sexual abuse it was found that 57% of mothers separated from the perpetrators, two-thirds were supportive of their children, and 52% did…

Heriot, Jessica

1996-01-01

101

School Counselors and Child Abuse Reporting: A National Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…

Bryant, Jill K.

2009-01-01

102

Contextual Effects on Kindergarten Teachers' Intention to Report Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is underreported for children with socioeconomic inequalities. The impact of geographic location combined with sociocultural characteristics on teachers' reports of child abuse remains unclear. A national survey of 572 kindergarten teachers from 79 schools in Taiwan used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the contribution of…

Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B.; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Hsin-Yi

2012-01-01

103

Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

2013-01-01

104

A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

2012-01-01

105

Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

2010-01-01

106

National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect acquires, preserves and disseminates high quality datasets relevant to the study of child abuse and neglect. The Archive facilitates secondary analysis by distributing data in ready-to-use formats for microcomputers and mainframes, providing technical support to data users, and sponsoring training programs for researchers.

1995-01-01

107

Bullying in Schools: A Form of Child Abuse in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its prevalence,…

Aluedse, Oyaziwo

2006-01-01

108

Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

2011-01-01

109

SOSIALISASI NILAI-NILAI ANAK SEBAGAI UPAYA PREVENTIF CHILD ABUSE  

OpenAIRE

AbstrakAngka  child abuse  (kekerasan terhadap anak) kian hari kian meningkat.Meskipun telah ada perangkat hukum yang mengatur perlindungan anak, seperti UU Nomor23 tahun 2002, nampaknya kesadaran masyarakat terhadap pentingnya perlindungan anakmasih kurang. Psikologi sebagai bidang ilmu yang diharapkan kontribusinya terhadappermasalahan sosial berupaya menangani permasalahan  child abuse  ini. Salah satupendekatan dalam psikologi komunitas berorientasi...

Nurul Hidayah

2012-01-01

110

The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

Cooper, Sharon W.

2011-01-01

111

Evaluation of the North West Province educational programme for the primary prevention of child sexual abuse  

OpenAIRE

Child sexual abuse is a widespread problem nationally and internationally. Sexual abuse is traumatic for the child victim. Usually the adult abuser takes advantage of the childs innocence and trust in adults. In many cases, the abuser threatens or bribes the child to keep silent. Because of t he threats, fear and embarrassment, most children do not tell anyone about the abuse. Keeping the secret of abuse only causes more emotional stress for the child and the family. Because of t...

Moiloe, Sengwe Deborah

2008-01-01

112

Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

Slan, Beverly

1984-01-01

113

Child sexual abuse--the interface with genitourinary medicine.  

OpenAIRE

Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose.

Rogers, D. J.; Roberts, R. E.

1995-01-01

114

Measuring Japanese mothers' perception of child abuse: development of a Japanese version of the child abuse blame scale – physical abuse (CABS-PA-J)  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The Child Abuse Blame Scale – Physical Abuse (CABS-PA) was translated into Japanese and its subscale items modified by the authors according to the Japanese cultural context. The aim of the current study was to investigate the appropriateness, reliability, and clinical applicability of the CABS-PA Japanese version (CABS-PA-J). Modifications were made to enable the determination of child abuse recognition in a Japanese cultural setting and early clinical ...

Okawa Hiroji; Nakayama Takeo; Hirose Taiko; Fujimoto Masaki; Takigawa Itsurou

2007-01-01

115

Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

2014-01-01

116

Bruising and Hemophilia: Accident or Child Abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…

Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

117

3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

...projects, and enforce child abuse laws. As we recognize that we all suffer when our children are abused, that we...the Constitution and laws of the United States...April 2009, as National Child Abuse Prevention Month....

2010-01-01

118

Treatment of child abuse: a review of the behavioral interventions.  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse....

Isaacs, C. D.

1982-01-01

119

The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana

2009-01-01

120

Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September  

OpenAIRE

Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc.) with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse o...

Sawant, Prof Sidhartha B.

2012-01-01

121

28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING...of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child...

2010-07-01

122

Public attitudes toward child sexual abuse in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bringing public attention to the topic of sexual harrassment of children in Serbia during 2010 as well as the series of arrests of persons suspected of “peadophilia“, encouraged authors to conduct a study which will analyze the public opinion about sexual child abuse. The study is conducted using a sample of 804 people in three comparative categories, laymans, professionals who work with potential victims and sexual abusers, and students of the Belgrade university. Besides assessing how well the persons in question are informed and assessing their concrete knowledge, the authors will evaluate standpoints in five dimensions questioning the perception of the term child, the term abuser and cause often abusing, stands regarding punative measures for sexual delinquents, stands regarding victimization of children with developmental disorders and finally the perception of the child regarding the abuse.

Petkovi? Nikola

2010-01-01

123

Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

124

Child sexual abuse: a review of the recent literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research of child sexual abuse has considerably evolved and continues to evolve exponentially. Professionals in various fields are required to be updated in the latest guidelines in practice, as well as in research. The present paper summarizes the most recent scientific literature on child sexual abuse, mainly systematic reviews and meta-analyses, focusing on central issues, namely, the international prevalence of the phenomenon, its negative consequences, and the offender's characteristics; referring to the potential victim's profile. Finally, the paper summarizes the recent recommendations and implications for practice and research in child sexual abuse. PMID:25243505

Ben Natan, M

2015-03-01

125

SOSIALISASI NILAI-NILAI ANAK SEBAGAI UPAYA PREVENTIF CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstrakAngka  child abuse  (kekerasan terhadap anak kian hari kian meningkat.Meskipun telah ada perangkat hukum yang mengatur perlindungan anak, seperti UU Nomor23 tahun 2002, nampaknya kesadaran masyarakat terhadap pentingnya perlindungan anakmasih kurang. Psikologi sebagai bidang ilmu yang diharapkan kontribusinya terhadappermasalahan sosial berupaya menangani permasalahan  child abuse  ini. Salah satupendekatan dalam psikologi komunitas berorientasi preventif, dengan level pertama berupaprevensi primer. Tulisan ini bermaksud menjelaskan pentingnya pengembangan nilai-nilaianak sebagai bentuk prevensi primer terhadap permasalahan child abuse . Nilai-nilai anaktampaknya mulai mengalami pergeseran. Orangtua yang menyadari pentingnya kehadirananak dalam keluarga diharapkan mampu memberikan perlindungan kepada anak, dan bukansebaliknya justru menjadikan anak sebagai obyek kekerasan.

Nurul Hidayah

2012-11-01

126

Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

2011-01-01

127

Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

128

A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

Sikes, April

2008-01-01

129

Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse. (orig.)

Offiah, Amaka [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-05-15

130

What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

... incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials. Sexual abuse ... caretaker or inter-familial relationships, statutory rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation of children, ...

131

Child Sexual Abuse: Fracturing Family Life  

OpenAIRE

Research has shown that childhood sexual abuse can have damaging long-term effects on family life and relationships. Some effects have been widely recognised such as feelings of betrayal and confusion when fathers abuse, or bitterness at mothers who cannot protect. A new qualitative research study with a group of women survivors in Edinburgh, recruited because of their contact with mental health services, has found wide-ranging and subtle effects on family life that endure over the lifecourse...

Nelson, Sarah

2002-01-01

132

Child sexual abuse, attachment style, and depression: the role of the characteristics of abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. PMID:24958133

Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José

2015-02-01

133

The medical evaluation of the sexually abused child.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis of suspected sexual abuse is nearly always based on a description of abuse provided by the child. The physician should invite a child to describe his or her sexual victimization in detail if such a "disclosure" interview has not already occurred, if the child seems ready to describe the abuse, and if a child protective services worker has not yet been notified of the suspected abuse. If an allegedly abused child has already been carefully interviewed, however, the physician should instead obtain information from the child's parents or other appropriate adults to determine how best to address the questions being raised. Nonspecific behavioral or somatic complaints unaccompanied by a specific description of sexual abuse should generate a differential diagnosis for further investigation. The goals of the physical examination of the sexually abused child are to identify abnormalities that warrant further diagnostic efforts or treatment, to obtain specimens to screen the patient for sexually transmitted infections, and to make observations and take specimens that may corroborate the patient's history of victimization. These goals should be met in the context of a standard, complete physical examination. The advisability of postcoital contraception should be discussed with every postmenarcheal victim seen within 72 hours after a rape. Because gonorrhea and chlamydial infections are the most prevalent STDs seen after sexual abuse and are often asymptomatic, universal screening for these infections is recommended. Parents of all abused children should be given an opportunity to make an informed choice about HIV screening. Because the risk of acquiring STDs is low, routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for sexually abused children. Physicians must report all cases of suspected sexual abuse to states' child protective services agencies. Failure to do so can incur legal penalties. Reporting sexual assaults of children to local law enforcement officials is strongly advised. The long-term impact of sexual abuse on children's psychological adjustment is unpredictable. In the short term, children's circumstances vary widely. Some show no evidence of psychological distress. Others have severe, pervasive difficulty. Office counseling by the empathetic and knowledgeable primary care physician, short-term crisis counseling, a more formal psychological evaluation, and longer-term psychotherapy may be recommended for individual children, depending on the nature and severity of each child's symptoms, his or her parents' preference, and the availability of services in the child's community. PMID:2199918

Paradise, J E

1990-08-01

134

Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

Kelley, Susan J.

2003-01-01

135

Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Service Effectiveness Funding Information Systems & Data Supervising Child Welfare Services System Reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Laws & Policies Mental Health Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse ...

136

Physical child abuse: A comprehensive family based approach to treatment  

OpenAIRE

Physical abuse within the family may be conceptualized as the outcome of a complex process in which a child with particular characteristics which rendered him or her vulnerable to abuse, is injured by a parent involved in an ongoing problematic behaviour pattern, subserved by particular belief systems and constrained by historical, contextual and constitutional predisposing factors. When families are referred by statutory child protection agencies to therapy services for treatment...

Carr, Alan

2000-01-01

137

Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse  

OpenAIRE

This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse r...

Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.

2009-01-01

138

Child Abuse in the Family: An Analytical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of child abuse in the world is 47 per 1000. According to the Child Protective Service agency (CPS more than 3 million children were abused in the USA in 1998. There was 1.7% increase in comparison with 1996. The prevalence of child abuse in the USA is 15 per 1000. A crosssectional study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, and influential factors on child abuse among families in Tehran. A sample of 420 students was selected from secondary school girls in Tehran in 1999. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and the collected data were analysed through statistical tests such as X2 and other forms of descriptive tests. The findings of research showed that in terms of abnormal (unexpectedly bad behaviour, 28% of the sample were faced quarrelsome and bitted by their fathers. The mothers' reactions for similar behaviour were more or less the same: 34.9% quarrelsome and 7% bitting. Child abuse, physically and emotionally, has had significant relation with socioeconomic status of families as well as having interaction with mentally ill or addicted person(s among families. Mothers' employment, religious beliefs, and parents' educational attainments also demonstrated significant relations with child abuse. A statistically significant relationship has also been found between mothers' employment, addicted or mentally ill person among family members, and doubtful child sexual abuse.To prevent child abuse the following actions should be taken: Education of parents about children rights and how to treat their children. Establishment of centers to protect the children at risk. Education of young couples to take more reponsibility of having children.

D Shojaeizadeh

2001-07-01

139

Is Dental Neglect a Child Abuse? A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect (maltreatment is a widespread problem that permeates all ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic segments of our society. All health professionals are legally mandated to report suspected cases of child maltreatment to the proper authorities, consistent with the laws of the jurisdiction in which they practice. But dentists, as a group, have been fairly inactive participants in recognizing and reporting child maltreatment when compared to other health professionals. Dental health professionals continue to under-report child abuse, despite growing awareness of their potential role in detecting this crime. This article presents an overview of dental neglect that may alert dental professionals to possible maltreatment of child patients.

Pushpalatha C.

2013-07-01

140

Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

2013-01-01

141

28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required by 42 U.S.C...shall be made to the local law enforcement agency or local child protective services agency...investigate reports of child abuse or to protect...

2010-07-01

142

28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2...reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required...

2010-07-01

143

Countertransference reactions to families where child abuse has occurred  

OpenAIRE

In this paper five countertransference reactions, which may be experienced by workers on child abuse management teams, are described. Karpman's Drama Triangle is used as a framework within which to define these reactions. The reactions are: (1) rescuing the child; (2) rescuing the parents; (3) rescuing the mother and child while persecuting the father, (4) rescuing the father; and (5) persecuting the family.

Carr, Alan

1989-01-01

144

Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

2012-01-01

145

Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934

Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

2012-01-01

146

Roll of the orthopedist in the child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child abuse is an old at the humanity. In agreement with The World Health Organization reports that child abuse is a problem of public health and about 40'000.000 young between 0-14 years old are victims. In Colombia the statistics report battered children in 36% of the homes. The injuries of the osseous system, muscles and soft tissue are often the most evident key therefore we must consider some important signs at the time of evaluating a boy who makes suspect us this suffering. The different studies have reported that the fractures are the second more frequent form of presentation of child abuse. We must worry about this information and opportune way in the early detection of the cases of infantile abuse

147

A Criminological Perspective on the Prenatal Abuse of Substances during Pregnancy and the Link to Child Abuse in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in drug abuse in South Africa has had major social implications in the country. Problems associated with drug dependency are poverty, unemployment, a heavier burden on the health care system, the disintegration of family systems and drug-related crimes. Another area of concern is the link between drug abuse and child abuse. While…

Ovens, Michelle

2009-01-01

148

Stricture of the duodenum and jejunum in an abused child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of abdominal injury secondary to child abuse in which the child had both a duodenal hematoma and contained perforations of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. These injuries were evaluated by both CT scan and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series. The child's nausea and vomiting persisted despite conservative treatment; after 3 weeks a repeat upper GI series demonstrated high-grade duodenal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and a calcified, fibrotic mesentery and strictures in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum were found. To our knowledge, his unusual complication of blunt abdominal trauma has not been described in association with child abuse. (orig.)

149

Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

2014-05-01

150

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis - an uncommon manifestation of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis (FL) is an uncommon manifestation of child abuse (increasingly known as nonaccidental trauma), with only six prior reports in the literature. This article seeks to call attention to FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children and infants. We reviewed plain films, CT and MR images in seven new cases of FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children ages 6 months to 7 years, two of whom became paraplegic from their injuries. Findings varied from subtle listhesis of one vertebra on another to frank vertebral dislocation, most commonly at L1/2. Paravertebral calcification was present in all but one case. In two children, thoracolumbar FL was the only radiographic sign of abuse. Radiographic findings of FL of the thoracolumbar spine may be subtle and may be erroneously interpreted as due to a congenital or neoplastic cause. While other signs of child abuse should be sought, spinal injury may be the sole sign of abuse. Recognition of this entity is important to pursue the diagnosis of abuse. (orig.)

151

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis - an uncommon manifestation of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thoracolumbar fracture with listhesis (FL) is an uncommon manifestation of child abuse (increasingly known as nonaccidental trauma), with only six prior reports in the literature. This article seeks to call attention to FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children and infants. We reviewed plain films, CT and MR images in seven new cases of FL of the thoracolumbar spine in abused children ages 6 months to 7 years, two of whom became paraplegic from their injuries. Findings varied from subtle listhesis of one vertebra on another to frank vertebral dislocation, most commonly at L1/2. Paravertebral calcification was present in all but one case. In two children, thoracolumbar FL was the only radiographic sign of abuse. Radiographic findings of FL of the thoracolumbar spine may be subtle and may be erroneously interpreted as due to a congenital or neoplastic cause. While other signs of child abuse should be sought, spinal injury may be the sole sign of abuse. Recognition of this entity is important to pursue the diagnosis of abuse. (orig.)

Levin, Terry L.; Blitman, Netta M. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, 111 E. 210th Street, Bronx, New York, NY 10467-2490 (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [Department of Radiology, Babies Hospital, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York (United States); Cassell, Ian [Department of Radiology, Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

2003-05-01

152

Occurrence of Child and Adolescent Abuse in Caruaru-PE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Verify the occurrence of child and adolescent abuse referred to Caruaru Tutelary Council between 2002 and 2004. Method: To this end, data on the complaints lodged in the period concerned was requested from the Tutelary Council. Results: From a total of 798 cases reported the most common was neglect (49.24% followed by psychological violence (28.94%. Physical and sexual abuse represented 17.6% and 4.66% of the total of the sample, respectively. As to sex, males represented 55.3% of the cases reported. Conclusion: According to literature, lesions are most frequent on the orofacial area. The awareness of such a piece of information makes a high demand for dental surgeons´ ethical and legal responsibility. Besides reporting suspect child abuse to authorities, there is now a call for creating protective mechanisms for the abused in addition to preventive educational campaigns with focus on the need for denouncing and avoiding all kinds of maltreatment.

Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA

2006-04-01

153

Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features ''PRO'' raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings ''CON'' suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.)

154

Child abuse, rehabilitation and poverty: a quintet of problems  

OpenAIRE

Available empirical evidence shows that rehabilitation programmes for families at risk for child abuse do not prevent further abuse in the majority of cases. In this paper five problems that may account for this are discussed. These are the problems of denial, co-operation, conformity, role confusion and countertransference. It is argued that this quintet of problems is partially rooted in the way in which risk and rehabilitation have been socially constructed within the dom...

Carr, Alan

1995-01-01

155

Is the Diagnosis of Physical Abuse Changed when Child Protective Services Consults a Child Abuse Pediatrics Subspecialty Group as a Second Opinion?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…

Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung

2009-01-01

156

Prosecuting Child Sexual Abuse: The Importance of Evidence Type  

Science.gov (United States)

Corroborating evidence has been associated with a decrease in children's distress during the court process, yet few studies have empirically examined the impact of evidence type on prosecution rates. This study examined the types of evidence and whether charges were filed in a sample of child sexual abuse cases (n = 329). Cases with a child

Walsh, Wendy A.; Jones, Lisa M.; Cross, Theodore P.; Lippert, Tonya

2010-01-01

157

NATIONAL CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT DATA SYSTEM (NCANDS)  

Science.gov (United States)

NCANDS collects data on child maltreatment from the States. It was developed in response to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (Public Law 93-247), as amended, which called for the creation of a coordinated national data collection and analysis program, both universal a...

158

Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

2009-01-01

159

Child Sexual Abuse: How Young People Tell  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores the theme of disclosing sexual abuse experiences in adolescence. As children develop increasing autonomy and independence they also develop cognitive, social and emotional skills which facilitate the process of disclosing personal experiences they have struggled for in some cases many years to maintain secrecy. Decision making skills which enable the young person to consider alternative consequences to their behaviour, multiple outcomes and an appreciation of the diverse p...

Mcelvaney, Rosaleen

2006-01-01

160

Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376

Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

2015-01-01

161

Sexual Abuse in 8-year-old Child: Where Do We Stand Legally?  

OpenAIRE

We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and “protection of children from sexual offences act” 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences ...

Behere, Prakash Balkrishna; Mulmule, Akshata Nandu

2013-01-01

162

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the use of {sup 18}F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

Drubach, Laura A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Sapp, Mark.V. [School of Osteopathic Medicine, Child Abuse Research Education and Services (CARES) Institute University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey (United States); Laffin, Stephen [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-07-15

163

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

164

Is Dental Neglect a Child Abuse? A review  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse and neglect (maltreatment) is a widespread problem that permeates all ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic segments of our society. All health professionals are legally mandated to report suspected cases of child maltreatment to the proper authorities, consistent with the laws of the jurisdiction in which they practice. But dentists, as a group, have been fairly inactive participants in recognizing and reporting child maltreatment when compared to other health professionals. Dental...

Pushpalatha C.; Tammannavar, Praveen S.; Anand Nimbal; Shrenik Jain

2013-01-01

165

Child abuse followed by fatal systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse has become an increasingly serious diagnostic challenge for physicians. The clinical manifestations include malnutrition and sometimes infection. In fact, stress in children has been reported to increase corticosteroid levels. As a consequence, the thymus begins an involution process, producing a severe impairment in cellular and humoral immunity. Here, we report the case of a 7-year-old child who suffered a prolonged history of abuse and died from a systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An initial local chronic infection propagated to the pelvic lymph nodes in an immunologically weak body and evolved into abscesses/phlegmons of the pelvic tissue, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and finally, death. Abused children have to be considered as potentially immunologically impaired patients; therefore, it is very important to screen them for opportunistic infections. Moreover, a history of unusual or recurring infections may indicate abuse, especially neglect or malnutrition. In these cases, further investigations should be conducted to determine if a protective service case should be opened. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary cooperation to ensure the early identification and prevention of child abuse. PMID:22981176

Senati, Massimo; Polacco, Matteo; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Carbone, Arnaldo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

2013-01-01

166

Physical Child Abuse: What Are the External Factors?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children are an integral asset for future development of a nation. In lieu with this notion, countries pay much attention to their development and well being. In recent times, child abuse has been rampant. This issue is constantly making headlines in national newspapers in Malaysia. The alarming effect of this phenomenon is its inevitable implication on the family institution and the nation’s aspiration to create a better tomorrow. This current study is an attempt to discover the contributory factors of physical child abuse in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to identify the background and demography of abuser and to identify the external factors that cause a parent to abuse their child. This case study was conducted in Selangor amongst eight Malay respondents using an in-depth interview session. This study found that external factors as the major contributory factor to physical child abuse. The factors are financial constraints, family crisis, character and disobedience of the children or so called ‘deviant children’, surroundings of the home, conflict with neighbours or lack of social support, parent’s mental illness and and influence of alcohol. Hence these factors are articulated and interpreted by the researcher. Implications of this research, profession who work with children such as social worker, psycologist and counselor should look into the external factors that contribute to the physical child abuse in designing intervention, cure and effective strategies to overcome this problem. In future, protecting children needs collective effort from policy maker, authority body, non-government organization and member of society.

Noremy M. A.

2012-06-01

167

Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

2011-01-01

168

Are Teachers Prepared? Predictors of Teachers' Readiness to Serve as Mandated Reporters of Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (1974) requires that states receiving U.S. federal funds directed at child abuse implement mandated reporting laws. As a result, all states have adopted legislation requiring teachers and other professionals who deal with children to report suspicions of child abuse. The federal mandate for such…

Greytak, Emily A.

2009-01-01

169

Information on Child Abuse: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…

Dodge, Timothy

170

Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: Radiological observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial and/or ectracranial) was present in 33 of the 47 patients (70%) with intracranial injury. A high incidence of skull fractures (45%) in those children with intracranial lesions suggest a significant role for impact head injuries (''battering'') in the pathogenesis of craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome. Greater emphasis on CT examination in evaluation of the abuse infant and child is recommended. (orig.)

171

Theme of Child sexual abuse in Mahesh Dattani's play 'Thirty Days in September  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome, indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc. with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography. The sexual abuse of children is one of the most heinous crimes imaginable.

Prof. Sidhartha B. Sawant

2012-04-01

172

Pediatric radiological diagnostic procedures in cases of suspected child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostic procedures are essential in cases of clinically diagnosed injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen or extremities of a child, especially if there is no case history or if the reporting of an inadequate trauma suggests battered child syndrome. In particular, these diagnostic procedures should aim at detecting lesions of the central nervous system (CNS, so that the treatment can be immediately initiated. If the diagnostic imaging reveals findings typically associated with child abuse, accurate documentation constituting evidence, which will stand up in court, is required to prevent any further endangerment of the child’s welfare.

U. Schmidt

2010-03-01

173

MIHAELA PU?CA?, Child Abuse. Forms, Motivation, Consequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mass-media frequently bring before the public cases in which parents abuse their own children. Each time the reactions of citizens are intense and unanimous:anger, revolt, requests for extreme punishment, the right to complain against aggressive behavior occurring in their vicinity. Modern research on family revealed a world loaded with tensions and conflicts in which abuse is often presented disguised as love for children and the wish to provide a good education. This article approaches the psychological aspects of the various forms of child abuse, as these are treated in the specialized literature, trying to offer answers to legitimate questions: are these isolated cases or are we dealing with a real phenomenon; how spread is this phenomenon; do people today love their children less than before; is there a social environment which favors such behavior; how can abuse situations which are spread over years be explained; which are the visible signs that a child is being abused by his/her parents; what are the consequences on the development of personality; are there statistics for a larger period of time to help knowing whether the phenomenon is increasing or decreasing?

GHEORGHE FLORIAN

2008-03-01

174

Social Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures: A Critical Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have examined disclosure of child sexual abuse to determine the correlates and consequences of telling others about this form of victimization. The present article reviews the current empirical literature on disclosure and reactions to adult survivors to assess what is known about the process of disclosure and whether telling others…

Ullman, Sarah E.

2003-01-01

175

Federally-Funded Child Abuse and Neglect Projects 1975.  

Science.gov (United States)

Listed are approximately 160 federally supported projects (completed or current) directly related to child abuse and neglect. Provided for each listing are grant number, name of the project, a brief description of the project, a contact name and address, project dates, and the amount of funding. Types of grants and contracts include demonstration…

National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

176

Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

2007-01-01

177

Prenatal Child Abuse Risk Assessment: A Preliminary Validation Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tested the validity of the Brigid Collins Risk Screener (BCRS) to assess child abuse risk in a sample of 49 expectant mothers. Found that at 3 months postpartum, high-risk mothers scored significantly lower on the quality of infants' physical, social, and emotional environments than moderate or low-risk mothers. Concluded that the BCRS appears to…

Weberling, Lara Cady; Forgays, Deborah Kirby; Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; Hyman, Ira

2003-01-01

178

Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

2007-01-01

179

School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

Usakli, Hakan

2012-01-01

180

An Inventory for the Identification of Child Abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the construction of a 60-item inventory for the identification of child abusers. A principal axis factoring with oblique promax rotations was performed to interpret the underlying dimensionality of the predictor items. Four dimensions were found: loneliness, rigidity, problems, and control. (Author/SJL)

Milner, Joel S.; Wimberley, Ronald C.

1979-01-01

181

[Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Child abuse by falsification of symptoms].  

Science.gov (United States)

Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP) is a potentially lethal form of child abuse. Mortality rates around 10 percent have been reported. A knowledge of the characteristics of MSbP is needed in order to reveal the diagnosis and to handle the management correctly. Swedish experience is in accordance with international reports. PMID:11402984

Lundin, B; Croner, S

2001-05-01

182

CHILD ABUSE IN INDIA A SOCIAL PROBLEM : A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON CHILD LABOUR  

OpenAIRE

Child labour coupled with child abuse has today become one of the greatest maladies that have spread across the world. Each year statistics show increasing numbers of child abuse, more so in the case of the girl child. When a girl is probably abused by someone at home, to hide this fact she is sold to an employer from a city as domestic help, or then as a bride to an old man. Though eradicating the menace seems like a difficult and nearly impossible task, immense efforts ha...

Chandrashekhar Basappa

2014-01-01

183

Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse participated in a pilot study comprising an 8-week mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction (MBSR) program and daily home practice of mindfulness skills. Three refresher classes were provided through final follow-up at 24 weeks. Assessments of depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and mindfulness, were conducted at baseline, 4, 8, and 24 weeks. At 8 weeks, depressive symptoms were reduced by 65%. Statistically significant improvements were observed in all outcomes post-MBSR, with effect sizes above 1.0. Improvements were largely sustained until 24 weeks. Of three PTSD symptom criteria, symptoms of avoidance/numbing were most greatly reduced. Compliance to class attendance and home practice was high, with the intervention proving safe and acceptable to participants. These results warrant further investigation of the MBSR approach in a randomized, controlled trial in this patient population. PMID:19998425

Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Magyari, Trish; Langenberg, Patricia; Chesney, Margaret; Berman, Brian

2010-01-01

184

Measuring Japanese mothers' perception of child abuse: development of a Japanese version of the child abuse blame scale – physical abuse (CABS-PA-J  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Child Abuse Blame Scale – Physical Abuse (CABS-PA was translated into Japanese and its subscale items modified by the authors according to the Japanese cultural context. The aim of the current study was to investigate the appropriateness, reliability, and clinical applicability of the CABS-PA Japanese version (CABS-PA-J. Modifications were made to enable the determination of child abuse recognition in a Japanese cultural setting and early clinical intervention in child abuse cases. Methods The CABS-PA text was translated into Japanese, then back translated. The appropriateness of scale item translations was verified based on e-mail discussions with the original CABS-PA author. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the validity of CABS-PA-J responses and to confirm the validity of factor structure. Criterion-related validity was also confirmed. The Japanese scale was used to examine the characteristic differences between mothers of premature infants ( Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses found the factor structure to be similar between the original scale and the translated CABS-PA-J, suggesting adequate factor validity. There was a statistically significant correlation between social support from a spouse or third party and the abuse score on a subscale, partially demonstrating criterion-referenced validity. Similarities and differences were found in the stress reactions of the mothers of premature infants ( Conclusion CABS-PA-J was shown to be appropriate and reliable. It is an effective tool for determining the recognition of child abuse among Japanese mothers.

Okawa Hiroji

2007-07-01

185

Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

2010-01-01

186

Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

187

Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

2011-01-01

188

Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages  

Science.gov (United States)

Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

2012-01-01

189

News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009  

Science.gov (United States)

News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

2012-01-01

190

Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

Mathews, Ben

2011-01-01

191

MR imaging evaluation of subdural hematomas in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR imaging is the most accurate modality for determining the presence, number, and aging of subdural hematomas. Based on seven patients studied with CT and MR imaging, MR imaging should be the gold standard in child abuse evaluations. Since the history of child abuse is often ambiguous, MR imaging can assist in dating when the injury occurred. MR imaging in two perpendicular planes is needed, with one plane having both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Chronic subdural hematomas on CT often have the same density as cerebrospinal fluid and may be misdiagnosed as atrophy or unrecognized. Therefore, the child may be returned into a dangerous situation and subjected to recurrent episodes of battering

192

Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

Hobbs, Christopher J. [St James' s University Hospital, Department of Community Paediatrics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bilo, Robert A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, The Hague (Netherlands)

2009-05-15

193

Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

194

The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

Sinanan, Allison N.

2011-01-01

195

The knowledge of parents in the military regarding child sexual abuse / Henliëtte Holm  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of child sexual abuse in South Africa is alarmingly high. Child protection officials’ task is challenging due to the fact that most cases of child sexual abuse are never reported as a result of the stigma attached to child sexual abuse. This article explains the vulnerable position of the children of uniform members of the military due to the fact that one or both parents are absent from the family due to fragmentation. Two main reasons are causing fragme...

Holm, Henlie?tte

2010-01-01

196

Imaging characteristics in legally founded cases of assaultive child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on this study performed to document the imaging findings associated with assaultive child abuse as confirmed by an independent criterion. At least one of the authors acted as a consultant in 105 alleged cases of child abuse owing to physical assault between 1987 and 1989. Seventy-six cases were founded by the Department of Human Services. 57/76 of founded cases had fractures. Most commonly only one fracture was noted (32 cases), but up to seven fractures were present in a patient. The tibia was the most commonly fractured bone (23 cases) followed in frequency by the femur (22), skull (15), and humerus (14). Multiple rib fractures were seen in 10 cases

197

Child burn: accident, neglect or abuse. A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of a child who has suffered three episodes of burn injuries in a short period of time, probably provoked by neglect or abuse from the parents. This mode of injury is of great importance because of the high mortality, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. The absence of care and attention from the parents or caretakers contribute to the high frequency of this kind of trauma. In these cases, the admission of the child to the hospital is justifiable, regardless of the size or depth of the burn wound. Aspects concerning the epidemiology are discussed in this article, as are comments based on the literature about infant abuse and neglect. PMID:10090388

Leonardi, D F; Vedovato, J W; Werlang, P M; Torres, O M

1999-02-01

198

Guidelines for social workers rendering services concerning child abuse  

OpenAIRE

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2001 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Nkuna SJ, 2001, Guidelines for social workers rendering services concerning child abuse, DPhi...

Nkuna, Situmise Joyce

2001-01-01

199

How Children tell: Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, research on the subject of child sexual abuse disclosures has seen an increase in the use of qualitative methods to explore individual experiences, reflecting an emphasis on understanding diversity rather than typicality. This research study builds on previous work that viewed disclosure as a process that occurs over time, influenced by both anticipated reactions and actual reactions that in turn influence future decisions about disclosing. The study has as its fundamental...

Mcelvaney, Rosaleen

2008-01-01

200

Child Abuse: Knowledge and Attitudes Among Pedodontics in Uberlandia e Araguari, Minas Gerais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify from pediatric dentistry educational experiences and knowledge concerning child abuse/neglect, numbers of suspected cases of child abuse and knowledge of local child protection. Method: A survey with 26 pedodontics in Araguari and Uberlandia (Minas Gerais, Brazil was done and they were sent a postal questionnaire, 17 responded, giving a 65.4 percent response rate. The survey requested demographic details, responses to possible physical abuse or neglect, and details of suspected child abuse reporting behavior. Results: In their working lives 52.9 percent said that they had seen a suspicious child physical abuse case; however, only 14.3 percent had reported a suspicious case to the authorities. Twenty-nine percent of dentists did not know their legal responsibility concerning reporting child abuse; and 61 percent did know where to report child abuse. Conclusion: Due to lack of training, most practitioners were unsure what to do in the event of a suspicion of child abuse. There is need for continuing education of dentistry practitioners regarding symptoms and signs of physical abuse and the role of dental team in the multidisciplinary management of child abuse. Dental curricula should be revisited to ensure that students are adequately prepared for this professional task.

Janaína Fernandes SANTOS

2006-09-01

201

Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

Lalor, Kevin; Mcelvaney, Rosaleen

2010-01-01

202

Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members. The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs.

Louwers Eveline CFM

2012-10-01

203

The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Rosana Norman and colleagues conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes.

Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

2012-01-01

204

Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Design and Setting: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. Patients and Methods: The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. Results: The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years; 222 were males (50.5% and 218 were females (49.5%. There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5% were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. Conclusion: During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.

Al-Mahroos Fadheela

2011-01-01

205

[Perforation of the eardrum caused by child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a complex, multifaceted form of child abuse that presents a challenge to all health-care providers. Diagnosis is difficult in cases of MSBP, and it is imperative to recognise the clinical features of MSBP in both the child and the perpetrator. All members of the health-care team must stay objective in the interactions with families where MSBP is suspected and make referrals to the proper agencies. A case is presented to explain the medical and social complexities associated with nursing and diagnosing MSBP. This article also provides a brief review of the definition of MSBP. PMID:21958485

Gindesgaard, Christian Banner; Møller, Troels Reinholdt

2011-09-26

206

Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

2009-01-01

207

Evaluating the Effects of Child Abuse Training on the Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills of Police Recruits  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of mandatory child abuse training on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward abused children and abusive parents among a sample of police recruits. An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in which 81 participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and 101 to…

Patterson, George T.

2004-01-01

208

Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

Lampert, Jo

2012-01-01

209

Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

Seng, Magnus J.

1989-01-01

210

Child Abuse: Knowledge and Attitudes Among Pedodontics in Uberlandia e Araguari, Minas Gerais  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To identify from pediatric dentistry educational experiences and knowledge concerning child abuse/neglect, numbers of suspected cases of child abuse and knowledge of local child protection. Method: A survey with 26 pedodontics in Araguari and Uberlandia (Minas Gerais, Brazil) was done and they were sent a postal questionnaire, 17 responded, giving a 65.4 percent response rate. The survey requested demographic details, responses to possible physical abuse or neglect, and details of ...

Santos, Janai?na Fernandes; Nunes, Karina Silva; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Silva, Edme?ia Costa E.

2006-01-01

211

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respo...

Gigante Luciana P; Béria Jorge U; Palazzo Lilian S; Bassani Diego G; Cl, Figueiredo Andre?ia; Rgc, Aerts Denise; Cw, Raymann Beatriz

2009-01-01

212

Fatal child abuse in Japan: does a trend exist toward tougher sentencing?  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: It has been pointed out in Japan that criminal punishment in domestic homicide cases, especially in fatal child abuse cases, tends to be more lenient than in public homicide cases that occur outside the home. In recent news accounts of fatal child abuse cases, however, the media has reported that court-imposed sentences have tended to be stricter every year.METHODS: Using the online databases of three major Japanese newspapers, we collected articles about fatal child abuse cases t...

Satoshi Fujiwara; Akiyoshi Nishimura; Shigeru Nishimura; Ayako Nasu; Saori Nambu

2011-01-01

213

Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

214

Studying Child Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in Middle School Social Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses child abuse and using the "What If..." game to help students learn how to create safety for themselves. Notes issues interfering with identification of child abuse, and ways to prepare young babysitters to be in charge of a safe environment. Offers a global perspective on child exploitation, and presents guidelines for teachers regarding…

Berson, Michael J.; Berson, Ilene R.

1999-01-01

215

The Child Abuse Reporting Law. Protecting Children Becomes a Broader Community Responsibility. 2d Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

North Carolina's Child Abuse Reporting Law makes all citizens legally responsible for reporting incidents of child abuse and neglect. Professionals, such as doctors and teachers, must also give their professional opinions as to the nature, extent, and causes of the damaged child's condition. The basic purpose of the law is to identify children at…

Thomas, Mason P., Jr.

216

Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

Goldman, Juliette D. G.

2010-01-01

217

Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

2011-01-01

218

Two Tragic Forms of Child Sexual Abuse: Are They Often Overlooked?  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child

Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis

2002-01-01

219

CHILD ABUSE IN INDIA A SOCIAL PROBLEM : A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON CHILD LABOUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child labour coupled with child abuse has today become one of the greatest maladies that have spread across the world. Each year statistics show increasing numbers of child abuse, more so in the case of the girl child. When a girl is probably abused by someone at home, to hide this fact she is sold to an employer from a city as domestic help, or then as a bride to an old man. Though eradicating the menace seems like a difficult and nearly impossible task, immense efforts have to be made in this direction. The first step would be to become aware of the causes of child labour. The leading reason is that children are employed because they are easier to exploit. On the other hand, people sell their children as commodities to exploitive employers to have additional sources of income

Chandrashekhar Basappa

2014-08-01

220

A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

Tu?ba AYAZ

2013-07-01

221

Knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to successfully curb the problem. PMID:16428016

Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S

2006-02-01

222

Physiological responses to non-child-related stressors in mothers at risk for child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical child abusers and adults at risk for child abuse, relative to comparison subjects, are reported to be more physiologically reactive to child-related stressors. It is not known if the reported physiological reactivity is child specific or if physical child abusers and at-risk parents are also more reactive to other types of stressful stimuli. The present study investigated changes in heart rate and skin conductance in response to four types of non-child-related stressors in at-risk and matched low-risk mothers. The four types of stressful stimuli were: a cold pressor; a stressful film depicting industrial accidents; unsolvable anagrams; and an aversive car horn. At-risk mothers, relative to low-risk mothers, had greater and more prolonged sympathetic activation during presentations of the cold pressor and the stressful film, the stimuli rated as the most stressful. The present data, combined with previous findings, support the view that generalized sympathetic activation to both child and non-child-related stressors may serve as a mediator of physical child abuse. PMID:1544028

Casanova, G M; Domanic, J; McCanne, T R; Milner, J S

1992-01-01

223

Case of child abuse by radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 2 May 1974, a father was convicted of castrating his 13-year-old son by exposing him to a 1-curie source of 137Cs to be used for oil gas well logging. The child was subjected to perhaps eight exposures or attempted exposures over a six-month period. A brief discussion of the medical descriptions of the radiation effects upon the skin and testes and the chromosomal system is included

224

Child Protection and Justice Systems Processing of Serious Child Abuse and Neglect Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…

Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances

2006-01-01

225

Child Abuse, Child Protection, and Defensive "Touch" in PE Teaching and Sports Coaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…

Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill

2013-01-01

226

Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

2011-01-01

227

Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

228

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

229

Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate. If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family. In Southern Denmark approximately 40 children pr. year are examined in four different radiology departments. Until the autumn of 2012 different projections and imaging techniques were used for the skeletal surveys. This proposed difficulties, because all images are subject to second opinion statements. In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University Hospital. A follow-up meeting was arranged in Sept. 2013. The meeting focused on follow-up skeletal surveys in children < 2 years of age Results. Images are acquired at low noise levels. Speed class 100 against normally 200 - 400 is sufficient, demanding higher radiation dose compared to common pediatric examinations. For children < 2 years, images are acquired systematically and consequently. If a follow-up skeletal survey is needed, images of the spine, head and pelvis are not repeated. No cases of unnecessary supplement images or reexaminations have occurred since autumn 2012 indicating successful implementation of the guidelines

Mussmann, Bo

230

Primary identification of an abused child in dental office: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the injuries of child abuse are many and varied, several types of injuries are common to abuse. Many of these injuries are within the scope of dentistry or easily observed by the dental professional in the course of routine dental treatment. The authors present a case of child abuse with multiple bruises. The child had been spanked in the previous night and the morning of the attendance by his mother. This case emphasized that all practitioners should be vigilant when patients present with abnormal injuries which may be the result of abuse and further investigation should be instigated.

Santos J

2007-01-01

231

"It's Going to Stop in This Generation": Women with a History of Child Abuse Resolving to Raise Their Children without Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…

Hall, Sioux

2011-01-01

232

Exploring the phenomenon of resilience with a child survivor of abuse  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this voyage is to explore the phenomenon of resilience with a South African child survivor of abuse. This research may be used to foreground elements in narrative conversations that can be employed to enhance resilience in other child survivors of abuse. The collaborator was identified using a constructivist approach of selection, incorporating the Indigenous Knowledge of the staff involved in the care of abuse survivors in a place of safety. The selection work ses...

Archer, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

233

Child sexual abuse : Disclosure, social support and subjective health in adulthood  

OpenAIRE

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a known risk factor for ill-health. It is assumed that the health consequences are worse if the abuse has been considered severe or if the child has been exposed to cumulative trauma, e.g. physical abuse or other stressful life events. However, symptom development seems to vary widely between individuals. According to developmental theories the dynamic interplay between environmental and individual conditions creates a course toward either healthy...

Jonzon, Eva Mc

2006-01-01

234

Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was s...

Manoochehr Mahram; Zahra Hoseinkhani; Saharnaz Nedjat; Ali Aflatouni

2013-01-01

235

Public health strategies to minimize the global incidence of child abuse  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse is an extremely complicated and a multi-faceted public health concern, significantly influenced by the victim's age, the settings in which the abuse occurs, and the relationship between the victim and perpetrator. The global estimates are just the tip of the iceberg as most of it takes place in the privacy of domestic life and often goes unreported and undetected. In fact, occurrence of child abuse can be best explained by exploring the complex interaction among multiple factors a...

Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava; Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava; Jegadeesh Ramasamy

2014-01-01

236

28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2 Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports...

2010-07-01

237

Forced Suffocation of Infants with Baby Wipes: A Previously Undescribed Form of Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Foreign body aspiration in children is commonly seen in emergency departments and carries a significant mortality. Abusive foreign body suffocation is not well described. Methods: We present a case-series of four infants who presented with aspiration of a baby wipe. Results: Each child was found to be a victim of child physical abuse

Krugman, Scott D.; Lantz, Patrick E.; Sinal, Sara; De Jong, Allan R.; Coffman, Kathryn

2007-01-01

238

The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

Hyman, Batya

2000-01-01

239

Prediction of Attitudes towards Child Sexual Abuse among Three Different Norwegian Samples  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative…

Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

2006-01-01

240

A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

2013-01-01

241

School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

2013-01-01

242

Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…

Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia

2011-01-01

243

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

2013-01-01

244

Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

2011-01-01

245

Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

2012-01-01

246

An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

2012-01-01

247

The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

2009-01-01

248

Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child

Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

1998-01-01

249

Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

2012-01-01

250

Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (Mage = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. PMID:25395225

Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

2014-11-12

251

Preventing Child Abuse in the Harvest: A Handbook for Migrant Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended for educators who work with migrant children, this handbook and resource directory will also be useful for other groups concerned with child abuse and neglect. The handbook aims to promote understanding of reasons migrant children are maltreated by parents and caretakers, to increase sensitivity to factors contributing to child abuse, to…

Dorman, Rebekah, Ed.; Rollo, Karen, Ed.

252

Child abuse: validation of a questionnaire translated into Brazilian Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study sought to validate the Portuguese translation of a questionnaire on maltreatment of children and adolescents, developed by Russell et al. and to test its psychometric properties for use in Brazil. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese using a standardized forward-backward linguistic translation method. Both face and content validity were tested in a small pilot study (n = 8. In the main study, a convenience sample of 80 graduate dentistry students with different specialties, from Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were invited to complete the final Brazilian version of the questionnaire. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the results obtained from the questionnaire for different specialties (pediatric dentistry, for example. The respondents completed the questionnaire again after 4 weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability. The comparison of test versus retest questionnaire answers showed good agreement (kappa > 0.53, intraclass correlation > 0.84 for most questions. In regard to discriminant validity, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the experience and interest domains, in which pediatric dentists showed more experience with and interest in child abuse compared with dentists of other specialties (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05. The Brazilian version of the questionnaire was valid and reliable for assessing knowledge regarding child abuse by Portuguese-speaking dentists.

Glaucia Marengo

2013-04-01

253

25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?  

Science.gov (United States)

...includes developing and maintaining Child Protection Teams in accordance to Public Law 101-630 and collection of child abuse, neglect and exploitation data according to Public Law 99-570. Those cases referred...

2010-04-01

254

Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguard children from abuse, neglect and violence such as incest which has been criminalized by the Penal Code and the Domestic Violence Act which protects the child against violence within family. This Act was introduced to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the care, protection and rehabilitation of children. With the Act beforehand, numbers of child abuse cases are still alarming. Therefore, this article is an attempt to give an overview of care and protection provided under the Child Act 2001 towards children who are being the victims of abuse. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the extent of the protection and care given under the Act to safeguard the children in the social justice system in Malaysia. At the end of the paper some areas are identified for further improvement and future amendment.

Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda

2011-12-01

255

Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

2010-01-01

256

An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in izmir, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252

Karadag, Sevinç Ç?rak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobal?, Nilay

2015-03-01

257

Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

G Dastjerdi

2010-09-01

258

Childhood sexual abuse.  

OpenAIRE

Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

Evrim Aktepe

1993-01-01

259

Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a different kind of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) continues to mystify health care professionals, law enforcement officials and the judicial system. Even though the first cases were described in 1977, it remains puzzling why a parent would want to induce fictitious symptoms and illnesses in a child. Many professionals do not consider MSBP as a diagnosis because the parent, usually the mother, is so convincing that she is a "good" mother, cares about and wants the best for her child. This article is offered to further educate physicians that MSBP exists, can present in the form of anything and should be considered as a diagnosis in cases that do not make medical sense. Case examples are provided, along with common and not so common presentations. MSBP is a form of severe child abuse that must be reported to Child Protection Service when a child is endangered. Physicians play a critical role in identifying these children and recommending the best course of action to the rest of the system. PMID:7594401

Von Burg, M M; Hibbard, R A

1995-01-01

260

Inhalant Abuse: Your Child at Risk! Asian Language Initiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brochure is aimed at helping Asian American and Pacific Islander adults communicate with young people about the consequences of inhalant abuse. The booklet addresses the issue of preventing youth substance abuse as part of balancing traditional values with American culture. Also explained are symptoms of inhalant use, common names and, most…

Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

261

Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying areas and gaps for further research and program development. Material and Methods: Published articles in scientific journals during the years 2007-2012 with free access and online versions of English newspapers (2007-2012 in India were searched using the search engines such as ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google’. The key words used were ‘child abuse in (on, about India. First two researchers independently reviewed the content of articles/newspaper reports and decided the categories emerging from the articles and reports. Later on, the quantification of these categories was done by identifying the number of times it was reported in the reports. Results: The nature and extent of reporting child abuse in scientific journal is different from that of newspapers. In Journals, our search provided us with 9 articles, of which prevalence studies were predominant (4 followed by case reports (3 and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice studies (2. The studies were mostly conducted in the hospital setting. We obtained 38 reports from newspapers. Child abuse was found more among girls. Among type of abuse, sexual abuse was more common (84.2%. About 52.6% of the abusers were members known to the victim. The maximum cases were reported from West India especially in Goa, followed by South region. Most reports reported legal action on accused. Little was reported on what happened to a victim, indicators of abuse and settings of the abuse. The motives and consequences of the abuses were not mentioned explicitly. Conclusions: The articles were more focused on prevalence of child abuse in hospital settings. As per newspaper reports, female child abuse (sexual abuse by a known person to family was reported more. It was found more in West part of India. Recommendations: More research/reporting is required to study the extent of problem in different settings of India, settings of abuse, quality of life of victims, parental/community education on indicators of abuse and development of support program to victim.

Nalini PR

2014-02-01

262

Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical and sexual abuse in health care settings. In L.A. Baumhover & S.C. Beall (Eds.) Abuse, neglect and exploitation of older persons: Strategies for assessment and intervention, ( ...

263

Curiosity and critical thinking: identifying child abuse before it is too late.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. We reviewed medical records to identify factors contributing to not recognizing child abuse in cases where it was subsequently identified. Design/Methods. Eighteen cases of delayed diagnosis of physical abuse were reviewed for qualitative themes. Missed abuse was defined by prior medical encounters that revealed findings concerning for physical abuse that were not recognized. Results. Clinical limitations contributing to a delay in diagnosis included inattention to skin and subconjunctival findings, acceptance of inadequate explanations for injuries, no history obtained from verbal children, insufficient exploration of signs and symptoms, nonadherence to the maltreatment pathway, and incorrect diagnoses from radiologic examinations. System-based limitations included limited medical record access or completeness and admission to less-than-optimal settings. Conclusions. Having a greater index of suspicion for abuse may mitigate missed opportunities. With variability of medical training in child abuse, the factors we identified can be used as learning objectives for continuing medical education. PMID:25200364

Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine P; Halley, Tina; Hinds, Tanya; Rosenthal, Eric; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Goldman, Ellen F

2015-01-01

264

Sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child through cultural practices in Zimbabwe: a human rights perspective  

OpenAIRE

"In Zimbabwe the sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child remains high. Recently the state has acknowledged the problem of sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child and has indicated the willingness to step up campaigns against it. This campaign, however, targets school children in primary and secondary schools. There has also been an increase of sexual abuse of children in schools by the teachers and other staff members. The family as an institution has facilitated child abuse a...

Hanzi, Roselyn

2006-01-01

265

Anal signs of child sexual abuse: a case–control study  

OpenAIRE

Background: There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Methods: Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. Cases: all eligible cases from 1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. Controls: all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible...

Hobbs, Christopher J.; Wright, Charlotte M.

2014-01-01

266

Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Literature Review  

OpenAIRE

Objective. This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Method. English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are examined. Reports from international and local NGOs and UN agencies are also examined. Results. Few published studies on the sexual abuse of chil...

Lalor, Kevin

2004-01-01

267

Integrated Substance Abuse and Child Welfare Services for Women: A Progress Review  

OpenAIRE

A review of empirical literature reveals improvements in service utilization and outcomes for women when substance abuse and child welfare services are integrated. The increased use of substances by women involved in the child welfare system has resulted in a call for integrated, coordinated, evidence-based practices. Since the late 1990s, specific system- and service-level strategies have been developed to coordinate and integrate the provision of substance abuse and child welfare services s...

Marsh, Jeanne C.; Smith, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

268

Characteristic Features of Severe Child Physical Abuse-A Multi-informant Approach  

OpenAIRE

Minor child physical abuse has decreased in Sweden since 1979, when a law banning corporal punishment of children was passed, but more serious forms have not decreased. The aim of this study was to examine risk and background factors in cases of severe child abuse reported to the police. Files from different agencies (e.g., Social services, Adult and Child psychiatry and Pediatric clinic) for 20 children and 34 caretakers were studied. An accumulation of risk factors was found. It is conclude...

Annerba?ck, Eva-maria; Svedin, Carl Go?ran; Gustafsson, Per

2010-01-01

269

Child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania : possibilities and barriers for prevention  

OpenAIRE

Background: Child sexual abuse is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite beinga crime in most countries, and with well-known physical and mental health consequences, the majority of sexual offences are not reported. Child sexual abuse is a maltreatment form characterized by contact or non-contact acts perpetrated by adults or older children toward younger children who have little power to resist. This thesis aims to understand the social context of child sexualabuse, and the...

Kisanga, Felix

2012-01-01

270

Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to ... influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse, however, is not fully understood. ...

271

Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

2014-10-10

272

Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

2012-06-15

273

The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of child sexual abuse perpetrated by women against minors, mainly against teenagers.

SORIN M. R?DULESCU

2010-04-01

274

Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

2010-01-01

275

Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

2010-01-01

276

Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

2010-01-01

277

Crossing the Line from Physical Discipline to Child Abuse: How Much Is Too Much?.  

Science.gov (United States)

A search of the literature to differentiate among definitions of physical discipline, corporal punishment, and physical child abuse identified five studies which revealed that abusive parents spanked their children more often than did nonabusive parents. Aggregated data from nonabusive parents suggested a "normal range" of daily spanking…

Whipple, Ellen E.; Richey, Cheryl A.

1997-01-01

278

Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A Guide for Foster and Adoptive Parents  

Science.gov (United States)

... a child’s naked body), exhibitionism, or exposing the child to pornography. Abusers often do not use physical force but may use play, deception, threats, or other forms of coercion to engage ... keep the child engaged. These tactics—referred to as ‘grooming’—may ...

279

Benzodiazepine administration induces exogenic psychosis: a case of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 11-year-old boy with psychiatric symptoms was brought to the pediatric clinic by his father. The boy exhibited anxiety, sometimes exaggerating to panic reactions, rage, and disorientation. Because of the boy's behavior it was presumed he was having delusions. Careful physical examination revealed evidence of physical abuse. This article alerts readers to the possible combination of physical abuse and purposeful drug administration. PMID:7583739

Marcus, A; Ammermann, C; Bahro, M; Schmidt, M H

1995-07-01

280

Implementation of Nuclear Medicine Methods for Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglec  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect are detrimental to a child’s health, physical and psychosocial development and result from inappropriate behavior or inattention on the part of those responsible for the child’s care and protection. Child abuse/neglect is a serious public problem encompassing medical, ethical and legal aspects. Imaging methods play an important role in investigating and documenting child abuse and neglect. Radiological imaging methods have particular priority. X-rays of the whole skeletal system are obtained for evaluation of the bone structure. Computerized tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and ultrasonography (US are used for the detection of cranial and internal organ damage. Due to the rapid developments in technology, diagnostic methods using nuclear medicine have also been initiated for use in identifying abuse and neglect. Detection of abuse and neglect carries ethical, judicial and moral liabilities as well as a responsibility for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Implementation of diagnostic methods of nuclear medicine in determining child abuse and neglect might contribute significantly in resolving court cases by providing objective evidence in medicolegal cases for realization of fair trials and in facilitating substantial conclusions. It is hoped that nuclear medicine methods will be helpful in terms of providing objective evidence for the experts. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 30-5

Eser Kaya

2010-05-01

281

Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

2013-10-01

282

[School-detected child abuse in Geneva: outlook on the past 10 years].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Child and youth health service of the Canton of Geneva is an important actor in support of abused children attending school. Incidence of child abuse is stable at around 3.5 per 1,000 school children. Physical, psychological abuse and neglect are the types most frequently encountered. The main risk factors for abuse are precarious socio-economic situations, parenting issues and finally issues related to young people themselves. Although the incidence of abuse is stable in recent years, with respect to the growing number of children attending school, we can conclude that the absolute number of children at risk increases, confirming the need to develop and maintain common policies and prevention actions in this area. PMID:25199228

Maneff, Christina; Jeannot, Emilien; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Lazarevic, Claire Anne Wyler; Chastonay, Philippe

2014-08-13

283

Sexual Abuse of Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

Csapo, Marg

1988-01-01

284

Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. PMID:25484318

Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

2014-12-01

285

Abuses of the girl child in some African societies: implications for nurse practitioners.  

Science.gov (United States)

The definition of a child in African societies varies. From the moment the girl child can talk and walk, she is allocated responsibilities within the family. Westernized cultures view such responsibilities as forms of abuse. Thus, various reports had been written about girl children and had been critical of African societies without acknowledging that Africa is a very large continent. This paper sets out to identify, explore, and present potential areas of abuse of the girl child, for example, female circumcision, child slaves, rape survivors, child soldiers, child prostitution, teenage pregnancy, and arranged marriages. This paper suggests strategies that healthcare professionals could initiate in situations where a girl child is being abused. PMID:16512869

Khalil, Doris Deedei

2006-01-01

286

Care and Protection against Child Abuse: With Special Reference to Malaysia Child Act 2001  

OpenAIRE

All children have the right to live in an environment free from abuse and neglect. The safety of children is the paramount concern that must guide child protection efforts. It is in this context that reference of this paper will be made to The Child Act 2001, the key outcome of Malaysia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which forms part of the protective legal environment for children in the country. Initiatives have been introduced under this Act to safeguar...

Tengku Fatimah Muliana binti Tengku Muda; Engku Ahmad Zaki bin Engku Alwi

2011-01-01

287

The role child sexual abuse can play in girls' involvement in prostitution  

OpenAIRE

The role that child sexual abuse can play in girls involvement in prostitution, was explored in this study. Freuds Psycho Analytical Theory, Hirschis Social Learning Theory and Lemerts Labelling Theory were encompassed to formulate a model. This model is known as The Child Sexual Abuse Counter-Active Model and was designed by researcher as a theoretical framework to direct the research and serve as a basis for the interpretation of findings. This model postulates that the sta...

Scott, Jacqueline Alice

2006-01-01

288

Child contact centers and domestic abuse: victim safety and the challenge to neutrality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child contact with a nonresident father who has perpetrated domestic abuse has gained policy and research attention. Both feminist social policy and family law research identify the role child contact centers can play in facilitating contact in these circumstances. Drawing from a literature review carried out by the authors, this article examines the priorities that underpin feminist social policy and family law disciplines and how these manifest in research on contact centers and domestic abuse. PMID:22855127

Morrison, Fiona; Wasoff, Fran

2012-06-01

289

Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to supp...

Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg

2007-01-01

290

Child abuse inventory at emergency rooms: CHAIN-ER rationale and design  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the injured children attending the emergency room, the consequences of both missed child abuse cases and wrong suspicions are substantial. Therefore, the accuracy of ongoing detection at emergency rooms by health care professionals is highly important. Inte...

Es, Nieuwenhuis Edward; Gm, Moons Karel; Spm, Uiterwaal Cuno; Sittig Judith S; van de Putte Elise M

2011-01-01

291

Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

292

CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION ASPECTS OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE EVIDENCE DETECTION AND COLLECTION  

OpenAIRE

Sexual violence against children is a problem of society and of individuals. In spite of modern society’s growing detection sensitivity to child sexual abuse, children are still often victims of such criminal offenses. Stereotypes and myths concerning child sexual abuse are still very important because they tend to alleviate offenders’ responsibility by placing the blame on the victim and obstruct adequate evidence detection and collection. Qualitative and quantitative research methods us...

Frangez?, Danijela

2012-01-01

293

Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial  

OpenAIRE

The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized effectiveness trial of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST-CAN) for physically abused youth (mean age = 13.88 years, 55.8% female, 68.6% Black) and their families. Eighty-six families being followed by Child Protective Services due to physical abuse were randomly assigned to MST-CAN or Enhanced Outpatient Treatment (EOT), with both interventions delivered by therapists employed at a community mental health center...

Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Faldowski, Richard; Mayhew, Amy Marie

2010-01-01

294

Human and animal research into sex-specific effects of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is the most potent experiential risk factor for developing a mood disorder later in life. The effects of child abuse are also more severe in girls and women than in men. In this review, we explore the origins of this epidemiological sex difference. We begin by offering the hypothesis that a sex-specific risk factor that influences how social cues are perceived and remembered makes girls more susceptible to the effects of child abuse. We then discuss the neural systems that mediate emotion and stress, and, how child abuse and/or mood disorders like anxiety and depression affect them. Drawing upon human and animal research, several candidates for such a risk factor are discussed. They include glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and corticotropin releasing factor receptor binding and signaling. Our own research shows that the morphometry of the prepubertal amygdala is sexually dimorphic, and could contribute to a sex difference in stimulus appraisal. We have also found that the brain of juvenile female rats is less selective than males' for threatening social stimuli. Thus, one way that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of child abuse is that they are more likely to perceive objectively benign stimuli as threatening. This bias in perception could compound with the genuinely traumatic memories caused by child abuse; the burden of traumatic memories and the increasingly reactive stress response systems could then dispose more women than men to develop depression and/or anxiety. PMID:24657521

Cooke, Bradley M; Weathington, Jill M

2014-04-01

295

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in 'battered child syndrome' and brain injuries in 'shaken baby syndrome'. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [German] In der Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung ist die Bildgebung ein wesentlicher Faktor. Trotz scheinbar leerer Anamnese gelingt es, typische Verletzungsmuster als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen, sowohl im Bereich des Skeletts, der Weichteile, des Abdomens ('battered child syndrome', heute: 'non accidental injury', NAI) als auch im ZNS ('shaken baby syndrome'). Den klinischen Symptomen entsprechend, wird im Verdachtsfall ein adaequates diagnostisches Verfahren eingesetzt, das erwartete charakteristische Befunde nachweist, den Mechanismus der Verletzung aufzeigt und das Alter der Laesionen annaehernd festlegt. Radiologische Skelettbefunde werden hinsichtlich ihrer Spezifitaet fuer eine Misshandlung bewertet. Alle Resultate der Bildgebung sind zusammen mit Anamnese und klinischen Befunden zu deuten. Bei schwerer Misshandlung ohne aeussere Verletzungszeichen ist das rechtzeitige Erfassen einer ZNS-Verletzung prognostisch bedeutsam. Initial wird bei diesem Verdacht die CT eingesetzt, um Blutung und Oedem darzustellen, im Verlauf werden mittels MRT Blutungsreste sowie residuelle parenchymatoese Laesionen erfasst. Alle Befunde sind auf ihre Differenzialdiagnosen hin zu pruefen, bevor der Misshandlungsverdacht geaeussert wird. (orig.)

Stoever, B. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, CC6, Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

2007-11-15

296

Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2009-01-01

297

Parental Depression and Child Outcomes: The Mediating Effects of Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…

Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

298

Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

2012-01-01

299

The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: Dreaming of Child Safe Organisations?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 12 November 2012 the then Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard announced she was recommending to the Governor General the establishment of a Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Following inquiries in Australia and elsewhere much is already known about institutional and inter-institutional child protection failures and what is required to address them. That Australia’s national government has pursued another abuse inquiry with terms of reference limited to institution-based (excluding the family sexual abuse is of interest given the lack of political will to enact previous findings and recommendations. This article examines the background to the Government’s announcement, the Commission’s terms of reference and some of its settings, and literature on the nature of royal commissions across time and place. After the lack of success in implementing the recommendations of previous inquiries into how to better protect Australia’s children, the question is: how will this Royal Commission contribute to Australian child protection and safety? Will the overwhelming public support generated by “truth speaking to power” in calling for this inquiry translate into action?

William Budiselik

2014-09-01

300

Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. PMID:25087071

Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

2014-07-30

301

Child abuse: validation of a questionnaire translated into Brazilian Portuguese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study sought to validate the Portuguese translation of a questionnaire on maltreatment of children and adolescents, developed by Russell et al. and to test its psychometric properties for use in Brazil. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese using a standardized forward-backw [...] ard linguistic translation method. Both face and content validity were tested in a small pilot study (n = 8). In the main study, a convenience sample of 80 graduate dentistry students with different specialties, from Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were invited to complete the final Brazilian version of the questionnaire. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the results obtained from the questionnaire for different specialties (pediatric dentistry, for example). The respondents completed the questionnaire again after 4 weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability. The comparison of test versus retest questionnaire answers showed good agreement (kappa > 0.53, intraclass correlation > 0.84) for most questions. In regard to discriminant validity, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the experience and interest domains, in which pediatric dentists showed more experience with and interest in child abuse compared with dentists of other specialties (Mann-Whitney test, p

Glaucia, Marengo; Ana Paula Borges de, Paola; Fernanda Morais, Ferreira; Eduardo, Pizzatto; Gisele Maria, Correr; Estela Maris, Losso.

2013-04-01

302

Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

2010-10-01

303

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?  

OpenAIRE

Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed ...

Almuneef, Maha; Al-eissa, Majid

2011-01-01

304

Fetal Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

Kent, Lindsey; And Others

1997-01-01

305

System Intervention Trauma to Child Sexual Abuse Victims Following Disclosure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines whether social system interventions can produce or reinforce sexual abuse trauma. Results, based on 90 children from three counties, each of which used different interventions, indicate that the number of interviews and a trusting relationship with a professional significantly predicted trauma scores. Most children viewed the system in a…

Henry, Jim

1997-01-01

306

Teachers' Beliefs about the Effects of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-nine teachers generated what they thought were typical outcomes of physical and emotional abuse on children's classroom behavior. Responses generally fell into the following categories: lowered self-esteem, heightened aggression, academic difficulties, and poor social interaction skills. Teachers' responses generally mirrored research…

Yanowitz, Karen L.; Monte, Emmanuelle; Tribble, Jamie R.

2003-01-01

307

Teenage Prostitution as a Product of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teenage runaways and prostitution have become a rising problem in the major cities of the United States. Research into the backgrounds of youngsters selling sexual favors has shown many similarities in children's family background, particularly homes with abusing parents. The handling or lack of handling, up to this point, has not proved…

Seymour, Vickie Lynn

308

Public health strategies to minimize the global incidence of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an extremely complicated and a multi-faceted public health concern, significantly influenced by the victim's age, the settings in which the abuse occurs, and the relationship between the victim and perpetrator. The global estimates are just the tip of the iceberg as most of it takes place in the privacy of domestic life and often goes unreported and undetected. In fact, occurrence of child abuse can be best explained by exploring the complex interaction among multiple factors at different levels. In order to counter this menace there is a definite need to involve all the stakeholders and ensure mandatory reporting of child abuse with the help of a surveillance system. To conclude, comprehensive and integrated package of services is desired to minimize the incidence of child abuse and neglect, supplemented with community-based initiatives to facilitate early detection and prolonged follow-up of victims of the abuse. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 955-958

Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

2014-08-01

309

Responding to Child Abuse: A Handbook = Guide sur l'intervention en cas de mauvais traitements infliges aux enfants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook, in English and French, provides guidelines for reporting and investigating child abuse and neglect by child care providers, law enforcement officials, social workers, health care providers, educators, and others as required by Alberta's Child Welfare Act. The handbook addresses: (1) how to recognize abuse and neglect; (2) how to…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

310

Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C  

Science.gov (United States)

Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

2012-01-01

311

Physiological responses to child stimuli in mothers with and without a childhood history of physical abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reported affect in response to child stimuli in mothers with and without a childhood history of physical abuse. The stimuli were videotape presentations of a smiling and crying infant. During baseline periods (prior to videotape presentations), mothers without a childhood history of abuse displayed a significant reduction in skin conductance, which was not observed in mothers with a childhood history of abuse, suggesting that mothers without a history of abuse habituated to the experimental setting. Although the two groups of mothers did not differ in self-reported affect or in heart rates in response to the crying and smiling infant, mothers with a childhood history of abuse showed increases in skin conductance while viewing the smiling infant, but not while viewing the crying infant. In contrast, mothers without a childhood history of abuse showed increases in skin conductance during the presentation of the crying infant, but not while viewing the smiling infant. Similarities between the skin conductance results for mothers with and without a childhood history of abuse and skin conductance data reported for physically abusive and at-risk mothers are discussed. PMID:7850618

Casanova, G M; Domanic, J; McCanne, T R; Milner, J S

1994-12-01

312

Women survivors of child sexual abuse. How can health professionals promote healing?  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To explore how health professionals can practise in ways sensitive to adult women survivors of child sexual abuse. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured in-depth interviews. SETTING: Small and midsize cities in Ontario and Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. METHODS: Respondents were asked about their experiences with physical therapists and other health professionals and asked how practice could be sensitive to their needs as surviv...

Cl, Schachter; Na, Radomsky; Ca, Stalker; Teram E

2004-01-01

313

Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

2011-12-15

314

Child Sexual Abuse and HIV Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to examine the risks of HIV transmission to children through sexual abuse and exploitation in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper is based on a review of pertinent literature. Child sexual abuse in this region must be defined broadly enough to encompass widespread coercion or violence in early sexual relations in some regions, the practice of ‘transactional sex’ and constructions of masculinity, emphasising multiple sexual partners and power over women and girls. ...

Lalor, Kevin

2008-01-01

315

Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Findings: Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5% boys and 488 (47.5% girls 679 (66.05% cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%, 360 (35% and 394 (38.3% respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence.Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended.

Manoochehr Mahram

2013-04-01

316

The development of hemorrhagic shock encephalopathy syndrome due to child abuse-a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse/neglect is a very important problem in our country as it is in the world. It may be as physical, sexual, psychological abuse and child neglect. A previously healthy baby at the age of 2.5 months was brought to the emergency service with complaints of not breathing and cyanosis. Evaluation of the patient and the history obtained suggested a diagnosis of hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome. During the following period, problems of spasticity and vision impairment appeared. The family history of the patient revealed a case of child abuse/neglect and consultation with the social service resulted in a committee decision of transfer of the custody of the baby to the child protection department. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44: 143-5

Zahide Yalaki

2009-12-01

317

Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

2014-04-01

318

Child abuse and osteogenesis imperfecta: how can they be still misdiagnosed? A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease caused by mutations in genes coding for type I collagen, resulting in bone fragility. In literature are described forms lethal in perinatal period, forms which are moderate and slight forms where the only sign of disease is osteopenia. Child abuse is an important social and medical problem. Fractures are the second most common presentation after skin lesions and may present specific patterns.The differential diagnosis between slight-moderate forms of OI and child abuse could be very challenging especially when other signs typical of abuse are absent, since both could present with multiple fractures without reasonable explanations. We report a 20 months-old female with a history of 4 fractures occurred between the age of three and eighteen months, brought to authorities' attention as a suspected child abuse.However when she came to our department physical examination, biochemical tests, total body X-ray and a molecular analysis of DNA led the diagnosis of OI.Thus, a treatment with bisphosphonate and a physical rehabilitation process, according to Vojta method, were started with improvement in bony mineralization, gross motor skills and absence of new fracture.In conclusion our case demonstrates how in any child presenting fractures efforts should be made to consider, besides child abuse, all the other hypothesis even the rarest as OI. PMID:23289038

D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Palombaro, Marta; Lodato, Valentina; Zambrano, Anna; Celli, Mauro; Persiani, Pietro; De Bari, Maria Pia; Sangiorgi, Luca

2012-09-01

319

Prevalence of Child Abuse in 15-17 year old Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a common phenomenon accompanies with unfavorable short and long term personal and social consequences. With changes in environment which child taken care, negative long term consequences could decreased. This study designed to determine the prevalence of all types of maltreatments in 15-17 year-old students in Kerman. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional- descriptive study, a sample of 360 students (184 boys/196 girls selected by cluster method from all boy and girls high school students of educational area one and two of Kerman and was evaluated. Maltreatment assessment instrument was a 48-questions standard self-report questionnaire which previously recorded. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests. Results: The average of child abuse among samples was 27.6%. The students have experienced physical, neglect and emotional abuse, 9.67%, 23.6% and 17.9% respectively in their history. Conclusion: Despite the lower frequency of child abuse types in comparison with other studies, it seems the early diagnosis and protective educational interventions could have critical roles in diminishing the prevalence and harmful consequences of child abuse.

Laya Sabzevari

2014-05-01

320

Children's Protective Services and Law Enforcement: Fostering Partnerships in Investigations of Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Although collaboration in child abuse investigations has been emphasized since 1974, barriers, including role conflicts and organizational differences, have often been reported. This study describes the process of collaboration based on the perceptions of investigators working with a Child Advocacy Center. Telephone interviews were conducted with…

Newman, Bernie Sue; Dannenfelser, Paul L.

2005-01-01

321

Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

Wiley, Tisha R. A.

2009-01-01

322

The School Counselors' Ideas on Features, Determinant and Intervention on Child Negligence and Abuse Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…

Usakli, Hakan

2012-01-01

323

Corporal Punishment and Child Abuse: Some Observations and Relationships. Monograph Series No. 1:3/83.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various personal observations and experiences of a former director of the Office of Child Development and chief of the Children's Bureau are recounted in an informal discussion of punishment and child abuse. Several brief arguments focusing on the negative effects of punishment are offered, and contributions of the Children's Bureau to action…

Meier, John H.

324

Perspectives on Child Abuse and Labour: Global Ethical Ideals Versus African Cultural Realities  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the global and African postures on the issues of child abuse and child labour. The global ethical ideals of the issues are characterized within their various theoretical perspectives while the African cultural realities are explored through the use of focus group discussion sessions, which were organized in six rural…

Ajayi, A. O.; Torimiro, D. O.

2004-01-01

325

Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mandatory reporting laws have been created in many jurisdictions as a way of identifying cases of severe child maltreatment on the basis that cases will otherwise remain hidden. These laws usually apply to all four maltreatment types. Other jurisdictions have narrower approaches supplemented by differential response systems, and others still have chosen not to enact mandatory reporting laws for any type of maltreatment. In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment—physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect—are often grouped together as if they are homogenous in nature, cause, and consequence. Yet, the heterogeneity of maltreatment types, and different reporting practices regarding them, must be acknowledged and explored when considering what legal and policy frameworks are best suited to identify and respond to cases. A related question which is often conjectured upon but seldom empirically explored, is whether reporting laws make a difference in case identification. This article first considers different types of child abuse and neglect, before exploring the nature and operation of mandatory reporting laws in different contexts. It then posits a differentiation thesis, arguing that different patterns of reporting between both reporter groups and maltreatment types must be acknowledged and analysed, and should inform discussions and assessments of optimal approaches in law, policy and practice. Finally, to contribute to the evidence base required to inform discussion, this article conducts an empirical cross-jurisdictional comparison of the reporting and identification of child sexual abuse in jurisdictions with and without mandatory reporting, and concludes that mandatory reporting laws appear to be associated with better case identification.

Ben Mathews

2014-08-01

326

El maltrato infantil: mecanismos subyacentes / Child abuse: underlying mechanisms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La exposición durante la infancia a estrés traumático, en la forma de abuso o negligencia, está asociada con una mayor vulnerabilidad, la cual resulta en el desarrollo de diversas psicopatologías, relación que ha sido confirmada una y otra vez en estudios epidemiológicos; sin embargo, aún se descono [...] cen los mecanismos neurales que subyacen dichas alteraciones y solo recientemente se han empezado a estudiar los cambios neurobiológicos subyacentes en padres y madres maltratadores. En esta revisión se resumen investigaciones en que se ha abordado esta temática y se presentan algunos de los modelos animales usados para su estudio. Abstract in english Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confirmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are [...] still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I review some of the studies using animal models of early adverse trauma and present some of the data on neural changes. Further studies of brain abnormalities in abusive parents are still needed.

Gladys S., Martínez.

2008-12-01

327

Sexual abuse in children - what to know  

Science.gov (United States)

... that can help include: Childhelp: www.childhelp.org Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network: www.rainn.org Know that health care providers, teachers, and child care workers are required by law to report sexual abuse. If abuse is suspected, ...

328

Drug abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

329

Abusive Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust When Brian and Sarah began dating, her friends were envious. Brian was smart, sensitive, funny, ... harmed by another person. Continue Signs of Abusive Relationships Important warning signs that you may be involved ...

330

Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Victor insisted they add his name to their bank account so he could pay their bills. For the ... benefits, or using another person’s credit cards and bank accounts. Financial abuse includes changing names on a will, ...

331

Financial Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... of illness or embarrassment Abusers may assume that frail victims will not survive long enough to follow through on legal interventions, or that they will not make convincing witnesses Some older people are unsophisticated about financial matters Advances in ...

332

Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

Rosvold Elin

2007-11-01

333

Child abuse: Effects on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a major problem that has been living with man and seen by many as one of his day to day activities. Aim: The study aimed to ascertain the practice and effects of child abuse on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra state, and also to identify the factors associated with child abuse among the children. Methods: The study is a descriptive survey design using self-administered interviewer questionnaire. Four villages were purposively sampled for the study; Oruokwe, Awobu, Urukpeleke, and Uruogbo. Systematic sampling technique was adopted in sampling subjects. Results: Findings showed that the most common associated factor with child abuse with parent/guardian is poverty (50.7% and low social economic status (34.5%. The practices of child abuse are majorly concerned with starving the children (44.2% and kicking/shaking the children (41.2%. The effects on the child abuse on the child and family could lead the abused children into early marriage (26.5% and unwanted pregnancy (22.5%. Conclusion: The study indicated that child abuse in Njikoka LGA is due to poverty/low socio-economic status. The practices of child abuse borders on starving the children, kicking/shaking them and that, the effects of child abuse could lead the children into early marriage and/or having unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, social awareness campaign on child abuse and effects should be adopted and effective child abuse laws should be enacted by the government and stiff penalties and sanctions should be melted out to the offenders.

Achema G

2014-03-01

334

The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

Mohammad Narimani

2012-10-01

335

Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: Examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13-18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754

Auerbach, Randy P; Kim, Judy C; Chango, Joanna M; Spiro, Westley J; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K

2014-12-15

336

Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually escalates to violence. According to one theory, there may be a degree of transgenerational transmission of these communication patterns in children who have been victims of violence, thus propagating the conditions for violence, this time perpetrated by the victims themselves. Therefore there is a pressing need for prevention, perhaps through psychoeducation for parents or through early detection and treatment of traumatized children and adolescents, in the hope that the transgenerational vicious cycle of violence may be broken. PMID:25367662

Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

2014-01-01

337

Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

Bilo, Rob A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands). Department of Pathology and Toxicology; Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Childrens' s Hospital/Academic, Medical Center Amsterdam (Netherlands). Department of Radiology; Robben, Simon G.F. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

2010-07-01

338

Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

339

Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The Alaska Native (AN population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design. PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today’s children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results. Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusions. The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children, supporting child victims in healing and to holding offenders accountable.

Diane Payne

2013-08-01

340

Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

2011-01-01

341

Confidential Settlement Agreements between School Districts and Teachers Accused of Child Abuse: Issues of Law and Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Open records statutes, child abuse reporting laws, and public policy are impediments to confidential settlement agreements with school districts and teachers accused of child abuse. In addition, a school administrator should ask whether the settlement agreement could assist an unsuitable teacher to obtain employment in another school district.…

Fossey, W. Richard

1990-01-01

342

Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2012-01-01

343

The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

2013-01-01

344

Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

2012-01-01

345

Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

2008-01-01

346

Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in China: Regulation the Child Abuse in Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse occurring outside the home in China is inflicted on school-age children and can result in serious physical and mental harm. China is a developing country with a population of over 1.2 billion, of whom over 300 million are children under the age of 16. Making a commitment to respect the rights of children has profound implications for the status of children in China. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter CRC requires that State Parties take all appropriate measures to protect child from abuse. China has ratified the CRC at domestic level and taken legislative, judicial and other measures to prevent children from abuse. Examination of the child abuse statutes and judicial practice of China reveals that China's domestic law has failed to provide adequate protection for children. Chinese traditional Confucian culture and deficiency of CRC both contribute to the soaring number of incidents of child abuse in schools. It is suggested that China review its legislation, establish the independent human rights commission, raise awareness of children's rights and improve cooperation with NGOs to ensure that it conforms fully with the requirements of the CRC.

Peng Xu

2014-03-01

347

Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child

Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

2011-01-01

348

Child abuse inventory at emergency rooms: CHAIN-ER rationale and design  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the injured children attending the emergency room, the consequences of both missed child abuse cases and wrong suspicions are substantial. Therefore, the accuracy of ongoing detection at emergency rooms by health care professionals is highly important. Internationally, several diagnostic instruments or strategies for child abuse detection are used at emergency rooms, but their diagnostic value is still unknown. The aim of the study 'Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms' (CHAIN-ER is to assess if active structured inquiry by emergency room staff can accurately detect physical maltreatment in children presenting at emergency rooms with physical injury. Methods/design CHAIN-ER is a multi-centre, cross-sectional study with 6 months diagnostic follow-up. Five thousand children aged 0-7 presenting with injury at an emergency room will be included. The index test - the SPUTOVAMO-R questionnaire- is to be tested for its diagnostic value against the decision of an expert panel. All SPUTOVAMO-R positives and a 15% random sample of the SPUTOVAMO-R negatives will undergo the same systematic diagnostic work up, which consists of an adequate history being taken by a pediatrician, inquiry with other health care providers by structured questionnaires in order to obtain child abuse predictors, and by additional follow-up information. Eventually, an expert panel (reference test determines the true presence or absence of child abuse. Discussion CHAIN-ER will determine both positive and negative predictive value of a child abuse detection instrument used in the emergency room. We mention a benefit of the use of an expert panel and of the use of complete data. Conducting a diagnostic accuracy study on a child abuse detection instrument is also accompanied by scientific hurdles, such as the lack of an accepted reference standard and potential (non- response. Notwithstanding these scientific challenges, CHAIN-ER will provide accurate data on the predictive value of SPUTOVAMO-R.

Nieuwenhuis Edward ES

2011-10-01

349

Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying ...

Pr, Nalini; Thirunavukarasu MR; Ar, Dongre

2014-01-01

350

Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

Kapur, P

1995-01-01

351

Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. PMID:24747007

Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2014-08-01

352

The psychosocial consequences of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia: a case-control comparative analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers. PMID:20587451

Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry

2011-07-01

353

Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future. PMID:10611766

Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B

1999-10-01

354

Victim to Abuser: Mental Health and Behavioral Sequels of Child Sexual Abuse in a Community Survey of Young Adult Males.  

Science.gov (United States)

This survey of 750 young adult males found that the combination of emotional abuse with multiple events of sexual abuse in the respondent's childhood was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. (Author/DB)

Bagley, Christopher; And Others

1994-01-01

355

Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

2010-01-01

356

The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ...

Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

2010-01-01

357

How parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse: a grounded theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to understand how parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse, including prevention as well as early intervention and detection strategies. Using a social constructivist theoretical foundation and grounded theory methods, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with Australian parents between 2006 and 2008. Based on the data, a balance theory was developed, which explains how parents attempt to balance the type of information given to children in order to protect their children from sexual abuse without scaring them as well as how parents manage sexual boundary crossing incidents experienced by their children in the context of complex social relationships. Implications for prevention programs as well as reporting of child sexual abuse are discussed. PMID:25635898

Babatsikos, Georgia; Miles, Debra

2015-01-01

358

Child and adolescent abuse and neglect in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support. PMID:24661691

da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

2014-10-01

359

Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

2011-01-01

360

Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

2004-01-01

361

Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child

Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

2012-01-01

362

Cultural Protective and Risk Factors: Professional Perspectives about Child Sexual Abuse in Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore perspectives on cultural risks and protective factors among professionals in Kenya. Method: An exploratory/descriptive survey of Kenyan professionals working to prevent or intervene with child sexual abuse was undertaken to determine their perspectives on how tribal culture impacts vulnerability to…

Plummer, Carol A.; Njuguna, Wambui

2009-01-01

363

The Effect of Intra- Versus Post-Interview Feedback during Simulated Practice Interviews about Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two types of instructor feedback (relative to no feedback) on investigative interviewers' ability to adhere to open-ended questions in simulated practice interviews about child abuse. Method: In one condition, feedback was provided at the end of each practice interview. In the other, the…

Powell, Martine B.; Fisher, Ronald P.; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H.

2008-01-01

364

Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

2011-01-01

365

Experiences of School Counselors during and after Making Suspected Child Abuse Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during and after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. A total of 847 school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) participated in this study. Results showed that professional school counselors encountered some…

Sikes, April; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Hays, Danica G.

2010-01-01

366

Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Crafting a Positive Process for Health Professionals and Caregivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…

Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne

2013-01-01

367

Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

2013-01-01

368

The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

2010-01-01

369

Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Processes, Stress, Personal Control, and Risk for Physical Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. Methods: In-home and phone interview data…

Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

2009-01-01

370

Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated. (orig.)

371

Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different…

Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

2013-01-01

372

Introduction to the Development of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

The "World Report on Children and Violence", (Pinheiro, 2006) was produced at the request of the UN Secretary General and the UN General Assembly. This report recommended improvement in research on child abuse. ISPCAN representatives took this charge and developed 3 new instruments. We describe this background and introduce three new measures…

Runyan, Desmond K.; Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.

2009-01-01

373

Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

Benedetti, Genevieve

2012-01-01

374

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

375

The Relationship between Major Life Events and the Potential for Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

High risk parenting and child abuse are the consequences of multiple and interactive factors. The occurrence of major life events such as death, divorce, marriage, and pregnancy frequently presents stressors that may ignite an already volatile family situation. This study was conducted to examine the incidence of reported major life events in…

Burdsal, Jeanne

376

Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

2009-01-01

377

Overlooked Victims: Working with Non-Offending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

The national statistics for child sexual abuse are staggering. In 2004, there were 209,880 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assaults according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. While effective treatment alternatives for victims are being provided, non-offending caregivers can be easily overlooked. Mason and Erooga (1990) have…

Grant, Deborah Dillon

2006-01-01

378

Co-Occurrence of Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse in Hong Kong Chinese Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the prevalence of co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) in a cohort of Chinese parents drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. It also investigates the risk factors for CAN with a special emphasis on the role of IPV. A subsample of 2,363 parents was invited to complete…

Chan, Ko Ling

2011-01-01

379

Reliability of Professional Judgments in Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Unsettled or Unsettling Science?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009) argument…

Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel; Berson, Nancy; Crowson, Mary; Robinson, Harriet

2012-01-01

380

Battling the Passions: The Birth of a Conceptual Understanding of Suspicion for Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Legal obligations for reporting child abuse and neglect have positioned suspicion as a trigger for nursing responses. Suspicion dwells between emotion and thought, and is fraught with uncertainty. Given the importance of suspicion to initiating child protection, suspicion requires critical examination. Spinoza’s ideas of the imagination, and his distinctive inclusion of emotions in understanding human knowledge, provide a framework to explore the human experience of suspicion. These theoretical dimensions of suspicion are illustrated using a recent newspaper article of a missing child in Sydney, Australia. This process reveals the ontological vulnerability of the human mind to construct knowledge that is heavily influenced by our emotionality, our close social connections and our social values. Attending to these vulnerabilities generates new possibilities for understanding and using human suspicions of child abuse and neglect more effectively and creatively in nursing practice.

Rochelle Einboden

2011-04-01

381

How well do we prepare pediatric radiologists regarding child abuse? Results of a survey of recently trained fellows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pediatric radiologists serve an important role in the radiologic diagnosis, investigation, and in legal proceedings in cases of child abuse. The Society for Pediatric Radiology should evaluate and insure the adequacy of training of pediatric radiologists for this important role. The Society for Pediatric Radiology Committee on Child Abuse, 2002, conducted a 24-question survey to evaluate the scope and perceived adequacy of training received by pediatric radiology fellows regarding the radiologic diagnosis of child abuse and the associated legal process. Eighty-four surveys were mailed to radiologists who had completed a year in pediatric radiology fellowship training during the years 1999 and 2000. There were 33 surveys returned for an overall response of 39%. Respondents' perception of adequacy of training was best for the radiologic diagnosis of child abuse. The majority perceived they were not well trained in the investigative and legal processes regarding child abuse. The majority would welcome standardized training. Current pediatric radiology training programs do not sufficiently prepare pediatric radiologists for their role in the legal system regarding child abuse. A standardized program to train pediatric radiologists about the imaging diagnosis of child abuse and their role in the legal system is recommended. (orig.)

382

Virtual patients: an effective educational intervention to improve paediatric basic specialist trainee education in the management of suspected child abuse?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Child abuse is a particularly difficult subject to teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Most doctors are dissatisfied with their training in child abuse recognition and management. We developed an interactive video based Virtual Patient to provide formal training for paediatric Basic Specialist Trainees in the recognition of suspected child abuse. The Virtual Patient case revolves around the management of suspected physical abuse in a seven month old child, who initially presents to the Emergency Department with viral upper respiratory tract symptoms. This Virtual Patient was used to facilitate a case discussion with Basic Specialist Trainees. A questionnaire was developed to determine their perception of the value of the Virtual Patient as an educational tool. Twenty five Basic Specialist Trainees completed the questionnaire. Upon completion of the case, 23\\/25 (92%) participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to recognize cases of suspected child abuse and 24\\/25 (96%) of participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to report cases of suspected child abuse. Basic Specialist Trainees perceived the Virtual Patient to be a useful educational tool. Virtual Patients may have a role to play in enhancing postgraduate training in the recognition of suspected child abuse.

McEvoy, M M

2011-09-01

383

The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

Morton, Cory M.

2013-01-01

384

Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if givediology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

385

Covert video surveillance of parents suspected of child abuse: the British experience and alternative approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

One million cases of child maltreatment and twelve hundred child deaths due to abuse and neglect occur per year. But since many cases of abuse and neglect remain either unreported or unsubstantiated due to insufficient evidence, the number of children who are abused, neglected, and killed at the hands of family caregivers is probably higher. One approach to combat child abuse in the U.K. has been the employment of hospital-based covert video surveillance (CVS) to monitor parents suspected of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP). The use of CVS, however, raises concerns about voluntary informed consent, research on human subjects, privacy, and the appropriateness of healthcare providers to conduct CVS. More broadly, the use of CVS raises concerns about the ethical life of healthcare institutions and their moral obligations to the families and communities they serve. The U.K. protocol for CVS is examined in light of these concerns. Three alternative CVS protocols and two procedures for selecting a protocol are then proposed for use in the U.S. The paper concludes that any CVS protocol selected for use by hospitals ought to be selected by means of open and democratic processes that permit community input and, subsequently, the possibility of a consensus on the moral status and scope of CVS. PMID:15637948

Bauer, Keith A

2004-01-01

386

Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted. PMID:22287568

Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

2012-05-01

387

Maltrato infantil: Experiencia de un abordaje interdisciplinario / Child abuse: An interdisciplinary management experience  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El maltrato infantil constituye una de las formas más frecuentes de violencia familiar. El presente estudio intenta mostrar la situación que, al respecto, existe en la ciudad de Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina y establecer algunas asociaciones propias de esa problemática. Población, ma [...] terial y métodos. Se presenta una serie de 128 casos de niños maltratados, de entre 0 y 19 años, entre noviembre de 1998 y noviembre de 2002 asistidos en Moiru, Centro de Prevención, Orientación, Asistencia y Capacitación en conductas sociales de riesgo, que funciona en Mercedes. Resultados. Se detectó 56% de maltrato físico; 30% de abuso sexual; 10% de negligencia; 3% de maltrato emocional y 1% de síndrome de Münchaussen con una distribución por sexos similares en el total de la casuística. Se señalan variables demográficas y ciertas asociaciones en casos de maltrato físico y abuso sexual. Se evidenció una asociación significativa entre madres víctimas de violencia doméstica y el maltrato físico que éstas proporcionan a sus hijos. Conclusiones. Fueron asistidos en nuestro servicio 128 niños y niñas maltratados Se considera que se trata de una casuística significativa, donde el maltrato físico y el abuso sexual se presentan como más relevantes. Abstract in english Introduction. Child abuse constitutes one of the most frequent forms of family violence. The following study tries to demonstrate the situation that arises in the city of Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina, and to establish some associations about that matter. Population, material and methods. A series [...] of 128 cases of abused children is presented, between 0 and 19 years old, attended from November 1998 to November 2002, in Moiru, Center of prevention, direction, attendance and qualification in social conducts of risk that works in Mercedes. Results. 56% of physical abuse; 30% of sexual abuse; 10% of neglect; 3% of emotional abuse and 1% of syndrome of Münchaussen was detected, with a similar distribution by sexes in the total population. Demographic variables and certain associations in cases of physical abuse and sexual abuse are indicated. A significant association between mothers victims of domestic violence and physical abuse towards their children was demonstrated. Conclusions. 128 young boys and girls were seen in our center. It is considered that, a significant population was treated where physical abuse and sexual abuse appears as most relevant.

José Julio, Seldes; Valentina, Ziperovich; Alejandra, Viota; Fernanda, Leiva.

2008-12-01

388

The Differential Effects of Child Abuse and PTSD on Schizotypal Personality Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Previous findings suggest a relation between trauma exposure and risk for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). However, the reasons for this relationship are not well understood. Some research suggests that exposure to trauma, particularly early trauma and child abuse, as well as PTSD may play a role. Methods We examined subjects (N=541) recruited from the primary care clinics of an urban public hospital as part of an NIMH-funded study of trauma related risk and resilience. We evaluated childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) and SPD with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). We assessed for lifetime PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Results We found that of the three forms of abuse analyzed (emotional, physical, and sexual), only emotional abuse significantly predicted SPD (p<.001, R=0.28) when all three abuse types were simultaneously entered into a regression model. Lifetime PTSD symptoms also significantly predicted SPD (p<.001, R=0.26). PTSD was specifically predictive of four of the eight SPD symptoms (p?.001): excessive social anxiety, a lack of close friends or confidants, unusual perceptual experiences, and eccentric behavior or appearance. Using a Sobel test, we also found a partial mediation effect of PTSD on the relation between emotional abuse and SPD (z=3.45, p<.001). Conclusions These findings point to the important influence of emotional abuse on SPD and suggest that PTSD symptoms may provide a link between damaging childhood experiences and SPD symptoms in traumatized adults. PMID:21683181

Powers, Abigail D.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

2010-01-01

389

Child Sexual Abuse in America--A Call for School & Community Action. A Report of a National Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate of sexual abuse of children and adults in our society is appalling, and growing rapidly. This study was designed to determine trends in child sexual abuse prevention and treatment services offered by school districts across America. The questionnaire was designed to allow comparisons of urban, rural, and suburban school district programs…

Helge, Doris

390

The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on the Education of Boys in Residential Care between 1950 and 1975  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's education may be adversely impacted by external factors during their childhood. For example, learning to learn, critical reflection, experiential learning and self-direction may be permanently impaired. Many children in out-of-home residential care during the last century suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect, including sexual abuse,…

Bode, Andrew; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

2012-01-01

391

Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

2008-01-01

392

Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

2012-01-01

393

Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression.Results: The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%, 260 (46% and 180 (32%, respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90% participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67% cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02, as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03, and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001.Conclusion: Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential.

Zahra Esmaeili Douki

2013-11-01

394

Comments on "How Child Protective Services Investigators Decide to Substantiate Mothers for Failure-to-Protect in Sexual Abuse Cases"  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary discusses the decisions of child protective service (CPS) investigators to substantiate mothers for failure-to-protect (FTP) in child sexual abuse cases. Four areas are identified in which the scientific literature remains inadequate to fully inform child maltreatment researchers, CPS practitioners and child welfare policymakers on…

Shadoin, Amy L.; Carnes, Connie N.

2006-01-01

395

Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this hypothesis. Results indicated that child abusers have a stronger sexual preference for submissiveness than rapists, although there were no differences between child abusers and non-sexual offenders. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that submissive-sexy associations have incremental value over child-sex associations in differentiating child abusers from other offenders. The predictive value of both implicit associations was explored by correlating IAT scores with measures for recidivism risk, aggression, and interpersonal anxiety. Child abusers with stronger child-sex associations reported higher levels of interpersonal anxiety and hostility. More research on implicit cognition in sex offenders is required for a better understanding of what these and similar implicit measures are exactly measuring and what role implicit cognition may play in sexual offending. PMID:25079778

Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J; Snowden, Robert J; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

2014-07-29

396

A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child  

OpenAIRE

It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and r...

Ayaz, Tug?ba; Yilmaz O?zpolat, Ays?e Gu?l; Yu?cel, Damla; Altuno?z, Umut

2013-01-01

397

Misdiagnosis of Child Abuse Related to Delay in Diagnosing a Paediatric Brain Tumour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conflicting opinion regarding the relative weight that should be allocated to the investigation of organic causes of child illness, compared to the pursuit of suspicions of child abuse, has generated considerable public debate. The discourse of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness is at the centre of contention. In particular, concern has arisen that children’s medical needs are being neglected when their conditions are misdiagnosed as child abuse. This paper documents a case study in which the use of Child Protection procedures was linked to the belief that the child’s illness had “no organic cause.” The case study is contextualised in a review of literature relevant to the diagnostic process. The deployment of the Child Protection perspective resulted in significant delay in the diagnosis of the child’s brain tumour. The child was ultimately found to be suffering from an optic chasm mass lesion involving the hypothalamus and the medial temporal regions, resulting in Diencephalic Syndrome. The evidence in this case is that erring on the side of suspecting Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness, was not “erring on the side of the child.” Several lessons need to be learned from the case. The importance of ensuring that the Child Protection perspective does not displace adequate assessment of alternative explanations for the child’s condition is emphasised, as is the need for good communication in medical relationships. Strategies involving empathy, mediation, negotiation and conflict resolution may provide a more appropriate and therapeutic alternative to the use of Child Protection procedures in cases where the diagnosis is contentious. The need to re-write relevant policy, protocols and guidance is imperative.

Lynne Wrennall

2008-01-01

398

Child abuse: Effects on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Background: Child abuse is a major problem that has been living with man and seen by many as one of his day to day activities. Aim: The study aimed to ascertain the practice and effects of child abuse on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra state, and also to identify the factors associated with child abuse among the children. Methods: The study is a descriptive survey design using self-administered interviewer questionnaire. Four ...

Achema G; Emmanuel A; Odinigwe N

2014-01-01

399

The Effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on Emotional Schemas of Female Victims of Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: The study findings proposed that Emotional Schema Therapy can be regarded as an effective intervention in order to modify some dimensions of emotional schemas in women with child abuse and neglect history.

S Daneshmandi

2014-12-01

400

Fatal Child Abuse in Japan: Does a trend exist toward tougher sentencing?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been pointed out in Japan that criminal punishment in domestic homicide cases, especially in fatal child abuse cases, tends to be more lenient than in public homicide cases that occur outside the home. In recent news accounts of fatal child abuse cases, however, the media has reported that court-imposed sentences have tended to be stricter every year.METHODS: Using the online databases of three major Japanese newspapers, we collected articles about fatal child abuse cases that had been published from January 2008 to December 2009. We analyzed these articles to determine, whether a tendency towards tougher penalties, as was put forward by the media, actually exists at present time in the criminal system in Japan. RESULTS: We found 24 cases, out of which 20 involved only one offender and 4 involved two offenders. These 28 offenders comprised nine biological fathers, 11 biological mothers, and eight other male relatives of the child victims. We found that the sentences handed down by the court clearly tended to be more lenient for female offenders. A new system of criminal jurisprudence, the so-called saiban-in system wherein citizens serve as “lay judges” in criminal trials involving serious crimes, was implemented in Japan at the start of 2009. Each, district court has gradually adopted this new system after a preparation period of approximately five years starting in 2004. CONCLUSIONS: Many figures in the Japanese media predicted that the gap between social expectations and court sentences for sanction against domestic homicide cases would be filled with the present transitional period of the Japanese criminal system. However, the present study found no significant difference in the laws regarding sentencing in fatal child abuse cases before and after the preparation period of the saiban-in system.

Satoshi Fujiwara

2011-07-01

401

EL MALTRATO INFANTIL EN LA PRÁCTICA DOCENTE: ESTUDIO DE UN CASO CHILD ABUSE IN THE TEACHING PRACTICE: CASE STUDY  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse is a topic of particular interest in the national and international context because the citizens of different countries know about the impact this phenomenon within the society and future generations and organizations like the ICBF (Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar), (in Colombia), UNESCO and the ONU (in around the world) have drawn attention to the fact that institutions such as families and schools have become partners in practice of child abuse. This article presents ...

JAVIER SUÁREZ GONZÁLEZ; AURA MÁRQUEZ BOLAÑO

2009-01-01

402

Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who...

Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

2011-01-01

403

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the poten [...] tial to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Steven J, Collings.

404

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... have Medicare to sell you a Marketplace plan. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

405

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... have Medicare to sell you a Marketplace plan. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

406

Abuse during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... It's been added to your dashboard . Abuse during pregnancy Abuse, whether emotional or physical, is never okay. ... or physical injuries. What can trigger abuse during pregnancy? For many families, pregnancy can bring about feelings ...

407

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Privacy Practices for Original Medicare Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... have Medicare to sell you a Marketplace plan. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

408

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP): an extreme form of child abuse with a special forensic challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a special form of child abuse in which an adult repeatedly produces symptoms of illness in a person under his/her care. In most cases the perpetrators are mothers who repeatedly and in different ways produce or feign symptoms of illness in their children in order to obtain medical treatment for them. MSBP is thus a special form of child abuse that is also of importance in the field of forensic medicine and a particular challenge to the medicolegal expert. We report two cases of poisoning with different substances (clozapine and clonidine) detected by toxicological investigations at our Department of Legal Medicine. The relevance of the problem for the medicolegal expert and the importance of an interdisciplinary co-operation are pointed out. PMID:14609650

Bartsch, Christine; Risse, Manfred; Schütz, Harald; Weigand, Nikola; Weiler, Günter

2003-11-26

409

EL MALTRATO INFANTIL EN LA PRÁCTICA DOCENTE: ESTUDIO DE UN CASO CHILD ABUSE IN THE TEACHING PRACTICE: CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a topic of particular interest in the national and international context because the citizens of different countries know about the impact this phenomenon within the society and future generations and organizations like the ICBF (Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar, (in Colombia, UNESCO and the ONU (in around the world have drawn attention to the fact that institutions such as families and schools have become partners in practice of child abuse. This article presents the results about a research that focused on classroom practice and teacher to describe whether through speech, actions and interactions (teacherstudent had evidence of child abuse. This suggested a qualitative research, whose design was a single case study. The subject of study was a preschool teacher at a school of social stratum medium Burjassot town in the province of Valencia - Spain. Among the results of the study are the following: the discourse and interaction are within the categories of teaching practice show a particular degree of child abuse. Child abuse in the classroom is not a practice intended by the teacher, but rather factors such as number of students, teaching little accompaniment (class observation and the aid of a practitioner or consultant, among others, mean that child abuse may be evident in the teaching practice.

JAVIER SUÁREZ GONZÁLEZ

2009-06-01

410

Medical evaluation for child physical abuse: what the PNP needs to know.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter physically abused children in their practice. This continuing education offering will help PNPs develop the skills necessary to recognize an injury that raises the concern for abuse based on characteristics of the injury such as appearance, location, or severity and characteristics of the history given for the injury. The link between corporal punishment and physical abuse will be discussed. Cutaneous findings of abuse, oral injuries, skeletal injuries, abdominal trauma, and abusive head trauma will also be discussed. PMID:22525996

Hornor, Gail

2012-01-01

411

Child Sexual Abuse and Adulthood Interpersonal Outcomes: Examining Pathways for Intervention  

OpenAIRE

We examined a dual pathway, longitudinal mediational model in which child sexual abuse (CSA) influences adulthood interpersonal functioning and sexual risk through its impact on resiliency resources and psychological distress. Women were recruited from two obstetrics and gynecological clinics serving primarily low-income, inner-city women (N = 693) and interviewed at pretest (Time 1) and 6-month follow-up (Time 2). The proposed mediators were resiliency resources (i.e., self-esteem and self-e...

Lamoureux, Brittain E.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Jackson, Anita P.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

2011-01-01

412

A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impair...

Habetha Susanne; Bleich Sabrina; Weidenhammer Jörg; Fegert Jörg M

2012-01-01

413

Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED) through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members). The resulting list of facilitators...

Cfm, Louwers Eveline; Korfage Ida J; Affourtit Marjo J; De Koning Harry J; Moll Henriëtte A

2012-01-01

414

Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to t...

Halpe?rin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffe?, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astie?, F.

1996-01-01

415

Twins abused by their father  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

Celal

2011-12-01

416

Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

2011-01-01

417

Sexual abuse and incest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

2012-09-01

418

Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills. PMID:25300194

J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

2014-10-10

419

Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful debate about mandatory reporting. 

Emma Davies

2014-10-01

420

Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study  

OpenAIRE

Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Chi...

Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Ha?kon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

2013-01-01

421

Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

Fontes, Lisa Aronson

2007-01-01

422

Factors Influencing Believing and Blaming in Reports of Child Sexual Abuse: Survey of a Community Sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

Questionnaires consisting of vignettes in which 11-year-old girls reported being sexually abused were completed by 202 respondents. A majority of respondents viewed the reports of sexual abuse as truthful; however, they conveyed confusion regarding why some alleged victims retract their reports or do not resist their abusers. Gender differences in…

Rubin, Miriam L.; Thelen, Mark H.

1996-01-01

423

Working on Memories of Abuse....  

Science.gov (United States)

Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

Horsman, Jenny

1994-01-01

424

Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

Leung, R.S. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Nwachuckwu, C. [Department of Paediatrics, Whipps Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Pervaiz, A. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, C.; Landes, C. [Department of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Childrens NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Offiah, A.C. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: OffiaA@gosh.nhs.uk

2009-07-15

425

The nature of stress in child-abusing families: a factor analytic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

An instrument for measuring stress (the Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes: FILE) was administered to 151 parents of abused children. A factor analytic treatment of the results indicated that ten different aspects of stress (factors) best explained the data. Several of these factors seemed to be unique to the abusing environment while the rest were similar to those found in less atypical samples. The results suggest that (a) "local factor analyses" should be employed with atypical samples and (b) both measures of types of stress as well as general stress may be useful. The ten stress factors identified were (1) Trouble with Teenagers, (2) Violence and Separation, (3) Legal Violations, (4) Work, (5) Family Loss, (6) Financial Strains, (7) Illness and Family Care Strains, (8) Public Assistance, (9) Major Changes in Family Situation, and (10) Young Child Management Focus. The "unique" factors that only appeared in our child-abusing sample were (1) Trouble with Teenagers, (2) Violence and Separation, and (8) Public Assistance. PMID:8302976

Barton, K; Baglio, C

1993-12-01

426

The ability of elementary school children to learn child sexual abuse prevention concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research was designed to address several of the methodological problems in the current body of knowledge on the efficacy of child abuse prevention programs for elementary school-aged children. A new measure, the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire (C.K.A.Q.) was developed, and its psychometric properties assessed. In total, 400 children were tested in four groups. Half of the sample participated in a child abuse prevention program Touching, and the other half were in a waiting list control group. Half of each group were pretested, and the other half were not, in order to determine whether the pretesting sensitized the students. All children were tested again 5 months afterward to investigate the long-term retention of prevention concepts. Results showed that children who participated in the prevention program scored significantly higher on the C.K.A.Q. than children in the control condition. Age was a critical factor, with significant improvements as age increased between the kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 3 and Grade 6 students. All participants maintained their level of knowledge after 5 months had passed. The relevance and practical implications which stem from this research are discussed. PMID:1617471

Tutty, L M

1992-01-01

427

Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

2012-01-01

428

El Maltrato Infantil desde la bioética: El sistema de salud y su labor asistencial ante el maltrato infantil, ¿qué hacer? Child Abuse from bioethics perspective: the health system and its work in child abuse. What to do?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La reflexión bioética de este artículo está orientada al Maltrato Infantil (MI en general, abarcando lo que es común a todas las formas y no en particular al maltrato severo y al abuso sexual. Por ser lo más frecuente, nos orientamos al maltrato que se produce en el medio intrafamiliar. En la primera parte de este artículo se hará un análisis de hechos, revisando la información epidemiológica y de relevancia clínica en el MI. En la segunda parte, se hace un análisis valórico sobre las dificultades de definir el MI y sobre los fundamentos para tratarlo como un problema de salud. En la tercera parte, se discute desde una perspectiva ética, los dilemas que surgen en la atención de los niños maltratados y sus familias. Finalmente se presenta una propuesta, una visión que tiene el comité de maltrato para organizar la labor asistencial de saludThe bioethics thoughts of this article are guided to Child Abuse in general, not only to severe abuse and sexual abuse; it is directed to the most frequent form of abuse that occurs inside the family. In the first part of this article, an analysis of facts is performed, checking over epidemiologic and clinical relevant information of child abuse. In the second part, the analysis is based on values, difficulties in defining child abuse and the reasons why it should be managed as a health problem. In the last part, the discussion is maintained from an ethics perspective, regarding the problems in the attention of abused children and their families. The committee of child abuse presents a proposal for organization of health work in this subject

2007-10-01

429

El maltrato infantil: un problema mundial Child abuse: A worldwide problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al abordar el maltrato infantil se presentan diversos problemas: desconocimiento de la verdadera proporción de dicha problemática; raíces culturales e históricas profundas; diversidad de opiniones en cuanto a su definición y clasificación; dificultades en la investigación y, finalmente, una diversidad de consideraciones sobre sus repercusiones y su manejo terapéutico. En el presente artículo se estudia el maltrato infantil desde sus antecedentes históricos, así como sus clasificaciones, sus definiciones y su epidemiología. Asimismo, se revisan las repercusiones y se plantean las alternativas de tratamiento que en la bibliografía existente se han manejado como fundamentales para enfrentar este fenómeno cada vez más alarmante. Queda subrayada la necesidad de unificar criterios en cuanto a la definición y clasificación de información científica en torno a datos demográficos que, finalmente, hablarán de la realidad del problema, de los avances relacionados con sus causas, su diagnóstico, sus medidas preventivas y su tratamiento. Es fundamental utilizar medidas tendientes a prevenir el maltrato, pues una gran parte de los problemas en el niño se ven reflejados en la vida adulta. Se comparan las distintas clasificaciones en torno al tema, así como las características tanto del agredido como del agresor en los distintos tipos de maltrato.Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present study approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused.

ROSALINDA SANTANA-TAVIRA

1998-01-01

430

Study on Child Abuse in Children and Adolescents in the Province of Buenos Aires:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to provide a current description of the child and teenager maltreatment phenomenon in the Buenos Aires Province. The sample was composed by 5341 cases of children and teenagers from 0 to 20 years old, whose were treated in 2010 for having been victims of maltreatment. Physical maltreatment was the most frequent one. The girls presented major proportion of sexual abuse, whereas boys registered major proportions of negligence, physical maltreatment and desertion situation. An increase of the sexual abuse frequency in teenagers from 12 years was observed. As a whole, the information demonstrates that sex and age of victims are differentially associated with different types of maltreatment, and these are pertinent variables to have into account by future investigations, and prevention and protection organisms.

Cuenya, Lucas

2011-12-01

431

Corporeal punishment and child abuse : a pastoral perspective  

OpenAIRE

For many decades, violence that is perpetuated by parents and loved ones against children in the name of physical child discipline or corporal punishment, has been a major concern for various governments and church leaders among most nations of the world. This does not only take into account hitting or beating a child with a stick, belt, slapping, or choking, but also spanking; especially when it is aggressive or excessive (Bradshaw 2009; Straus 1994; Kanyandago in Waruta & Kin...

Brown, Samuel Jacob

2014-01-01

432

Münchausen's syndrome by proxy as a form of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Munchausen's syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is an emotional disorder in which the parent, almost always the mother, induces or fabricates illness in her child in order to gain medical attention. Although numerous case studies exist in pediatric and medical literature, most nurses are unaware of the warning signs of this disorder. Psychiatric consultation liaison nurses are in an ideal position to identify and intervene in MSBP situations and can also support the pediatric nursing staff through feelings of denial, shock, and guilt as they recognize the syndrome and its danger to the child. PMID:2260890

Yorker, B C; Kahan, B B

1990-10-01

433

Sex, lies, and statistics: inferences from the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Victims of child sexual abuse often recant their complaints or do not report incidents, making prosecution of offenders difficult. The child with sexual abuse accommodation syndrome (CSAAS) has been used to explain this phenomenon by identifying common behavioral responses. Unlike PTSD but like rape trauma syndrome, CSAAS is not an official diagnostic term and should not be used as evidence of a defendant's guilt or to imply probative value in prosecutions. Courts have grappled with the ideal use of CSAAS in the evaluation of child witness testimony. Expert testimony should be helpful to the jurors without prejudicing them. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled recently that statistical evidence about CSAAS implying the probability that a child is truthful runs the risk of confusing jury members and biasing them against the defendant. We review the parameters of expert testimony and its admissibility in this area, concluding that statistics about CSAAS should not be used to draw inferences about the victim's credibility or the defendant's guilt. PMID:24051595

Weiss, Kenneth J; Curcio Alexander, Julia

2013-01-01

434

A Journey to healing : exploring clients’ experience of services in a clinic dealing with child sexual abuse  

OpenAIRE

This research served to explore the clients experiences of services in a clinic dealing with child sexual abuse and related issues. Addressing the issue of therapeutic interventions in clinics dealing with sexual abuse victims and their caregivers looking at how the clients experience these treatments and services and how they have made meaning of these on their journey to healing, is something that needs to be explored in greater depth. The aim therefore of this research is to gain insight i...

Nicolaides, Catherine

2013-01-01

435

Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions  

Science.gov (United States)

... to Child Welfare Information Gateway Disclaimer and Policies Search A to Z Contact Us 1-800-394-3366 info@childwelfare.gov Subscribe to Free Updates Chat with Us Facebook Send Us Your Comments and Feedback Accessibility Download Acrobat Reader

436

Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in China: Regulation the Child Abuse in Schools  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse occurring outside the home in China is inflicted on school-age children and can result in serious physical and mental harm. China is a developing country with a population of over 1.2 billion, of whom over 300 million are children under the age of 16. Making a commitment to respect the rights of children has profound implications for the status of children in China. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter CRC) requires that State Parties take all appropriate measure...

Peng Xu

2014-01-01

437

‘.XXX’ Sponsored Top-Level Domain – Is it a solution to curb child abuse due to Internet Pornography?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposal of having a zone for adult entertainment over Internet was previously not accepted by ICANN (Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers until the recent approval of ‘xxx’ domain for adult entertainment. Among other reasons the main reason to launch a specific domain for adult entertainment was to combat the child abuse cases due to internet pornography or child pornography in particular. This analysis is a submission of the effectiveness of ‘xxx’ domain. The effectiveness of ‘xxx’ will not depend on what ‘child abuse’ is but on the general practice of the children as to how and from where they access the Internet.

Indranath Gupta

2005-09-01

438

The Nature, Extent and Causes of Abuse of Children with Disabilities in Schools in Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies show that the exact number of children with disabilities in Botswana is unknown. A study on child abuse sought to determine: the forms of child abuse perpetrated on children with disabilities; the extent of child abuse; and the causes of child abuse of children with disabilities. A questionnaire on child abuse was adapted and used to…

Shumba, Almon; Abosi, Okey C.

2011-01-01

439

Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease ... diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, drug addiction can be managed successfully. And as with other ...

440

Situational Prevention of Child Abuse in the New Technologies  

OpenAIRE

Situational prevention shifts attention from the psychological characteristics of the individual performing behaviour to the facilitating role played by the immediate environment in which the behaviour occurs. Applied to the problem of Internet child pornography, the situational approach emphasises the role of opportunity in driving consumption. It is argued that under the right environmental conditions the potential to view children as sexual objects is more widespread than sexual deviance m...

Wortley, R. K.

2012-01-01

441

ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Retrospective Version (ICAST-R): Delphi Study and Field Testing in Seven Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To gain consensus among an ethnically and linguistically diverse group of international child protection experts on the structure and content of a new survey tool for retrospective measurement of child abuse, and to determine the performance of the instrument through an international field trial with young adults. Methods: The…

Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Andreva-Miller, Inna; Choo, Wan Yuen; Dunne, Simon K.; Gerbaka, Bernard; Isaeva, Oksana; Jain, Dipty; Kasim, Mohd Sham; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Mamyrova, Nurgul; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Youssef, Randa

2009-01-01

442

Child abuse: review of the literature / Maus-tratos infantis. Revisão da literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Lesões não acidentais em crianças são uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade nesta população. Fraturas são a segunda causa mais comum de manifestação clínica de maus tratos. A fratura do fêmur está associada em mais de 60% dos casos a maus tratos em crianças menores de 3 anos. O objetivo do [...] trabalho foi fazer uma revisão da literatura nas principais bases de dados a respeito dos maus-tratos infantis e relatar um caso raro de fratura subtrocantérica bilateral de fêmur associada com fratura umeral unilateral em um recém-nascido de 28 dias. O ortopedista muitas vezes é o primeiro médico a avaliar essas crianças; portanto, um alto grau de suspeição, além de um exame físico minucioso e uma história clínica detalhada, é mandatório ao se avaliar um recém-nascido com lesões musculoesqueléticas. Abstract in english Non-accidental injuries in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Fractures are the second most common clinical manifestation of child abuse. The fracture of the femur is associated in more than 60% of child abuse in children younger than 3 years. The objectiv [...] e was to review the literature on child abuse in the major databases and report a rare case of bilateral subtrochanteric femur fractures associated with unilaterall humeral fracture in a 28-day newborn. The orthopedic surgeon is often the first physician to evaluate these children, so a high degree of suspicion, and a physical examination and a detailed clinical history is mandatory when evaluating a newborn with musculoskeletal injuries.

Bernardo Barcellos, Terra; Eduardo Antônio de, Figueiredo; Morena Pretti Espindula de Oliveira Lima, Terra; Carlos Vicente, Andreoli; Benno, Ejnisman.

2013-01-01

443

Mental health of mothers and their premature infants for the prevention of child abuse and maltreatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Birth of preterm infants is a stressful event for their parents, particularly for mothers. The mothers of preterm infants often feel hard to relate their infants because they have separated since their first days after delivery. Long term separation and less attractive, less responsive appearance of preterm infants also make it difficult to build mother-child relationships. In addition, the mothers of preterm infants are likely to have mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders. The mothers’ psychiatric illnesses affect the psychosocial development of preterm infants and are often regarded as a risk factor for child abuse and maltreatment in later life. Child abuse and maltreatment are also prevalent among preterm infants than the full term infants. Intervention from the early period of preterm birth is an important issue for both preterm infants and their mothers. Medical and co-medical professionals should pay attention to developmental outcome of preterm as well as psychosocial conditions of their mothers for the improvement of their mental health.

Kazunari Kaneko

2013-03-01

444

Effects of Genotype and Child Abuse on DNA Methylation and Gene Expression at the Serotonin Transporter  

OpenAIRE

Altered regulation of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) is hypothesized to be a key event in many forms of neuropsychiatric illness, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which changes in gene function could lead to illness remains incomplete. In prior studies, we and others have demonstrated that methylation of CpG residues in the promoter associated CpG island alters SLC6A4 gene expression, that the extent of that DNA methylation in child abuse is genotype dependent, a...

MeeshanthiniVijayendran; StevenBeach

2012-01-01

445

MR imaging of the central nervous system in victims of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six victims of child abuse with intracranial injury were examined by high-field MR (1.5-T). In comparison with CT, MR proved to be much more sensitive and accurate in the demonstration and anatomic localization of subacute and chronic hematomas and hemorrhagic contusions. Ischemic white matter changes in the young infant were more easily appreciated on serial CT examinations than on MR studies because of the variable signal intensity found in the myelinating white matter. Contusions represent a large component of the injuries seen in the whiplash infant. Because of its rapidity, CT remains the initial procedure for overall evaluation of injury and for exclusion of operable hematomas

446

Parental child abuse potential and subsequent coping competence in disadvantaged preschool children: moderating effects of sex and ethnicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the effects of abuse potential in parents on subsequent coping competence domains in their children, using a model empirically supported in a high-risk community sample by Moreland and Dumas (2007). Data from an ethnically diverse sample of 579 parents enrolled in the PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence) program was used to evaluate whether parental child abuse potential assessed at pre-intervention negatively contributed to child affective, achievement, and social coping competence in preschoolers one year later, and whether these associations were moderated by sex or ethnicity. Cross-sectional results indicated that parental child abuse potential was negatively related to child affective and achievement coping competence, after accounting for variance associated with child behavior problems. However, child abuse potential was not predictive of subsequent coping competence in any domain after controlling for previous levels of child coping competence. No moderating effects were found for sex and ethnicity, but results showed main effects of sex and ethnicity in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:22425165

Lopez, Cristina M; Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E; de Arellano, Michael A

2012-03-01

447

Predictors of child pornography offenses and child sexual abuse in a community sample of pedophiles and hebephiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about factors that distinguish men who act upon their self-identified sexual interest in prepubescent or pubescent children from those who do not. Even less is known about pedophiles or hebephiles who are not involved with the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 155 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia (or paraphilia not otherwise specified for those who were sexually attracted to pubescent children). Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on sociodemographic variables and measures of dynamic risk factors. The first set was based on recent activity and compared men who had committed child pornography only or child sexual abuse offenses in the past six months with men who remained offense-free during the same period. The second set was based on lifetime offense history (excluding the most recent six months) and compared child pornography offenders with child sexual abuse offenders and men who had committed both kinds of offenses. Overall, there were more similarities than differences between groups. PMID:20935341

Neutze, Janina; Seto, Michael C; Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Beier, Klaus M

2011-06-01

448

Assistance for Special Educators, Law Enforcement, and Child Protective Services in Recognizing and Managing Abuse and Neglect of Children with Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet is designed to help Virginia special educators, law enforcement, and child protective service professionals recognize and understand abuse and neglect of children with disabilities; improve the reporting accuracy when there is suspicion of child abuse/neglect; and provide strategies for interdisciplinary collaboration that will…

Struck, Linda M.

449

Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

2011-01-01

450

Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

2013-01-01

451

Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse; Klinischer Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [German] Gewalt gegen Kinder hat viele Gesichter: Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlaessigung, sexueller Missbrauch und elterliche Partnerschaftsgewalt koennen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu akuten und bleibenden Schaeden fuehren und ihre Entwicklung und Lebensentwuerfe nachhaltig beeinflussen. Betroffen ist in Industrienationen fast jedes zehnte Kind. Bis zu 10% der Kindesmisshandlungen betreffen das zentrale Nervensystem. Von diesen ereignen sich ca. 80% im ersten Lebensjahr. Weltweit sterben nach Angaben der Kinderhilfsorganisation UNICEF jaehrlich ueber 50.000 Kinder an den Folgen von Gewalt, Missbrauch und Vernachlaessigung. In Deutschland ereignen sich pro Jahr ca. 120 Faelle an nichtakzidentellen Kopfverletzungen. Den oeffentlich bekannten Faellen steht eine hohe Dunkelziffer aller Formen von Gewalt gegenueber. Sie zu erkennen und den Betroffenen zu helfen, setzt einen entsprechenden Verdacht voraus sowie die Kenntnis der Pathophysiologie. Der Verdacht erfordert eine gut dokumentierte Anamnese und interdisziplinaere Diagnostik. Aufgrund der aerztlichen Schweigepflicht ist die Informationsweitergabe erschwert, weshalb Netzwerke zur Frueherkennung und Leitlinien zur Kooperation unverzichtbar sind. (orig.)

Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2009-10-15

452

Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

453

The effects of child abuse and race on risk-taking in male adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the effects of abuse on the risk-taking behaviors of 2973 black and white adolescent males, 412 of whom were sexually or physically abused. Surveys on mental and physical health, risk-taking behaviors and attitudes, and family living were administered to 9th and 12th graders in an urban midwestern state. The surveys included questions on past history of sexual and physical abuse. More black than white males reported experiencing incest, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and physical abuse. As for outcome risk-taking behaviors, blacks were more likely to use illegal substances, run away, skip school, attempt suicide, force partners into sex, and commit violent acts; however, the racial effects decreased when abuse histories were taken into consideration. Whites were more likely to drink and drive, and to drink before having sex; abuse history did not decrease this racial effect. Abuse but not race was predictive of drinking and of having serious drinking problems. The results point to the importance of pediatricians, psychologists, and other healthcare workers, as well as those in the legal and criminal justice system screening for a history of abuse among adolescents who demonstrate these or other risk-taking behaviors. PMID:8371280

Hernandez, J. T.; Lodico, M.; DiClemente, R. J.

1993-01-01

454

Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective?We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD).?Methods?Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Health outcomes were again determined at 1-year and young adult follow-up.?Results?In adolescence, higher TC severity was associated with more health-related symptoms, increased age-adjusted body mass index, and stress-response immune system indices. In adolescence and young adulthood, the relationships between TC and health-related symptoms were mediated by anxiety. AUD was associated with liver injury, and cigarette smoking with heart/lung symptoms.?Conclusions?Child abuse predicted persistently elevated health-related symptoms primarily attributable to anxiety, and early signs of liver disease were attributable to AUD. PMID:19966317

Thatcher, Dawn L.; Martin, Christopher S.

2010-01-01

455

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ...

456

Prescription Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and drugs > Prescription drug abuse Overview FAQ Prescription drug abuse Sometimes you may need prescription drugs to treat ... develops, or in how the body works. Neonatal abstinence syndrome (also called NAS). This is a group ...

457

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

458

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Mail you get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: ... Mail you get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse , current page Tips to prevent ...

459

Parenting and Family Support for Families 'at risk' - Implications from Child Abuse Reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of family experiences on children’s development and wellbeing has been widely documented. Yet, recent reports generated by inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the Irish context raise disturbing questions with regard to how the severe maltreatment of children can occur within the family context. It is imperative that the messages generated from these inquiries can effectively inform policy and practice in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support to families at-risk. The present paper draws together key issues for parenting and family support for families ‘at risk’ based on the Roscommon and Monageer inquiries with a view to gaining insight into key issues which need to be addressed in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support for parents experiencing adversity. A number of implications arising from these reports are outlined and discussed. Specifically, the need to amplify the focus on support for parenting in the context of poverty and substance abuse is highlighted with a particular emphasis on developing sensitive screening and assessment for parents who may be difficult to engage with due to chronic mental health issues. The importance of accessing the voice of children within the provision of family support is also underlined in these findings. A key recommendation from these reports is that the needs, wishes and feelings of each child must be considered as well as the totality of the family situation. Moreover, the need for staff in child welfare and protection services to have access to ongoing training and professional development to meet the complex and changing needs of the children and families they are working with is also highlighted. Specifically, ongoing training for frontline staff in understanding the effects of drug and alcohol dependency, and, in particular, the effects on parenting and parent-child relationships is underscored in findings from these reports.

Ann Marie Halpenny

2012-01-01

460

Effects of Genotype and Child Abuse on DNA Methylation and Gene Expression at the Serotonin Transporter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Altered regulation of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4 is hypothesized to be a key event in many forms of neuropsychiatric illness, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which changes in gene function could lead to illness remains incomplete. In prior studies, we and others have demonstrated that methylation of CpG residues in the promoter associated CpG island alters SLC6A4 gene expression, that the extent of that DNA methylation in child abuse is genotype dependent, and that adverse childhood experiences such as child sex abuse are related to methylation. However, we have not examined whether these effects are splice variant specific, whether the association of methylation to gene expression varies as a function of genotype, and whether methylation in other SLC6A4 gene regions are more likely candidates for GxE effects. In the current investigation we measured methylation in lymphoblast DNA from 158 female subjects in the Iowa Adoption Studies at 16 CpG residues spread across the SLC6A4 locus, and analyzed their relationship to gene expression for two SLC6A4 splice variants. Methylation of two CpG residues in the shore of the CpG island (cg22584138 and cg05951817, a location immediately upstream from exon 1A, predicted gene expression for the splice variant containing Exon 1A + 1B. Methylation at two residues in the CpG island itself (cg 25769822 and cg05016953 was associated with total SLC6A4 expression. Examination of these four CpG residues indicated that methylation of cg22584138 was influenced by both genotype and sex abuse, whereas methylation of cg05016953 was influenced only by sex abuse history. Factors influencing methylation at other CpG dinucleotide pairs were not identified. We conclude that methylation effects on transcription may vary as a function of underlying gene motif and splice variant, and that the shore of CpG islands, upstream of TSS, may be of particular interest in examining environmental effects on methylation.

MeeshanthiniVijayendran

2012-06-01

461

Effects of genotype and child abuse on DNA methylation and gene expression at the serotonin transporter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Altered regulation of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) is hypothesized to be a key event in many forms of neuropsychiatric illness, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which changes in gene function could lead to illness remains incomplete. In prior studies, we and others have demonstrated that methylation of CpG residues in the promoter associated CpG island alters SLC6A4 gene expression, that the extent of that DNA methylation in child abuse is genotype dependent, and that adverse childhood experiences such as child sex abuse are related to methylation. However, we have not examined whether these effects are splice variant specific, whether the association of methylation to gene expression varies as a function of genotype, and whether methylation in other SLC6A4 gene regions are more likely candidates for GxE effects. In the current investigation we measured methylation in lymphoblast DNA from 158 female subjects in the Iowa Adoption Studies at 16 CpG residues spread across the SLC6A4 locus, and analyzed their relationship to gene expression for two SLC6A4 splice variants. Methylation of two CpG residues in the shore of the CpG island (cg22584138 and cg05951817), a location immediately upstream from exon 1A, predicted gene expression for the splice variant containing Exon 1A?+?1B. Methylation at two residues in the CpG island itself (cg 25769822 and cg05016953) was associated with total SLC6A4 expression. Examination of these four CpG residues indicated that methylation of cg22584138 was influenced by both genotype and sex abuse, whereas methylation of cg05016953 was influenced only by sex abuse history. Factors influencing methylation at other CpG dinucleotide pairs were not identified. We conclude that methylation effects on transcription may vary as a function of underlying gene motif and splice variant, and that the shore of CpG islands, upstream of TSS, may be of particular interest in examining environmental effects on methylation. PMID:22707942

Vijayendran, Meeshanthini; Beach, Steven R H; Plume, Jeffrey M; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A

2012-01-01

462

SENSIBILIDAD MATERNA Y MALTRATO INFANTIL / MATERNAL RESPONSIVENESS AND CHILD ABUSE / SENSIBILIDADE MATERNA E ABUSO INFANTIL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O interesse deste estudo foi avaliar a construção de sensibilidade materna em um grupo de díades mãe-criança com história de abuso físico na infância frente a um grupo de mães não abusadoras. Os participantes foram 30 díades mãe-bebê: 15 com história de abuso físico e 15 sem histórico de abuso físic [...] o, que foram pareadas com relação à idade e ao sexo das crianças. As duplas foram observadas pelo Sistema de Captura de Dados Ocupacionais (SICD) em situação acadêmica (Vite, Garcia y Rose, 2006). Os resultados indicam que o comportamento das crianças abusadas foi mais aversivo do que as crianças controle, mas foram semelhantes nos comportamentos pró-sociais. Respeito ao comportamento materno, observou-se que as mães abusadoras mostram um comportamento aversivo e instrucional maior do que o comportamento das mães controle, ainda que suas frequências nos comportamentos neutral e pró-social foram semelhantes. Os dois grupos de mães aprovam em proporções baixas o comportamento pró-social de seus filhos. As mães abusadoras são menos sensíveis ao comportamento de seus filhos do que as mães não abusadoras. Estes resultados são uma tentativa de mostrar uma nova perspectiva sobre os intercâmbios sociais que levam as crianças e suas mães a episódios coercivos que terminam em abuso físico. Abstract in spanish El interés del presente estudio fue evaluar el constructo de sensibilidad materna en un grupo de diadas madre-hijo con historia de maltrato físico infantil en relación con un grupo de madres no maltratadoras. Participaron 30 diadas madre-hijo, 15 con historia de maltrato físico y 15 sin historia de [...] maltrato físico, las cuales fueron apareadas con relación a la edad y el sexo de los niños. Todas las diadas fueron observadas a través del Sistema de Captura de Datos Observacionales SICDO (Vite, García y Rosas, 2006), en una condición académica. Los resultados indican que los niños maltratados mostraron mayor comportamiento aversivo que sus contrapartes controles, pero fueron similares en la conducta prosocial. En relación con el comportamiento materno, se observó que las madres maltratadoras presentan mayor comportamiento aversivo e instruccional que las madres control, pero manifestaron frecuencias similares en los comportamientos prosocial y neutral. Así mismo, ambos grupos de madres aprueban de manera similar y en bajas proporciones la conducta prosocial de sus hijos. Por otra parte, las madres maltratadoras son menos sensibles al comportamiento de sus hijos que las madres no maltratadoras. Estos hallazgos representan un intento exploratorio de proporcionar una nueva perspectiva en el proceso de los intercambios sociales a través del cual los niños y sus madres se involucran en episodios coercitivos que llevan al maltrato físico infantil. Abstract in english The interest of this study was to assess the construct of maternal responsiveness in a group of mother-infant dyads with a history of child physical abuse as compared to a group of nonabusive mothers. The sample included 30 mother-infant dyads, 15 with history of physical abuse and 15 without histor [...] y of physical abuse, which were paired in relation to age and sex of children. All dyads were observed through the Data Capture System Observational SOI-I (Vite, Garcia y Rosas, 2006), in an academic condition. The results indicate that abused children were more aversive than their controls, but similar in pro-social behavior. In relation to maternal behavior, the abusive mothers displayed more aversive and instructional behavior than control mothers, but showed similar frequencies in neutral and pro-social behavior. . Also, both groups of mothers approve in a similar manner and in a low rate their children's pro-social behavior. On the other hand, the abusive mothers were less responsive to the behavior of their children than non abusive mothers. These findings represent an exploratory attempt to provide a new perspective

ARIEL, VITE SIERRA; FLORENTE, LÓPEZ RODRÍGUEZ; AGUSTÍN, NEGRETE CORTÉS.

2010-12-01

463

Exploring the Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse with Alleged Victims and Their Parents  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine how children disclosed sexual abuse by alleged perpetrators who were not family members. Methodology: Thirty alleged victims of sexual abuse and their parents were interviewed. The children were interviewed using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol by six experienced youth…

Hershkowitz, Irit; Lanes, Omer; Lamb, Michael E.

2007-01-01

464

Group Therapy for Abused and Neglected Youth: Therapeutic and Child Advocacy Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Although group therapy for abused and neglected youth is a viable and efficacious treatment option, facilitation is challenging. Group leaders must contain intense affect, manage multiple transferences, and advocate for their clients within the larger social welfare system. Using a case study of a group for sexually abused girls, this paper…

Wanlass, Janine; Moreno, J. Kelly; Thomson, Hannah M.

2006-01-01

465

Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

2012-01-01

466

Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

2012-01-01

467

Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola

2006-04-01

468

Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

2006-04-01

469

Can Norm Theory Explain the Effects of Victim Age and Level of Physical Maturity on Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effects of victim age, victim physical maturity, and respondent gender on attributions toward victims, perpetrator, and the nonoffending members of the victim's family in a hypothetical child sexual abuse (CSA) case. Participants read a brief CSA vignette in which the male perpetrator (a school caretaker) sexually…

Rogers, Paul; Davies, Michelle; Anderson, Irina; Potton, Anita

2011-01-01

470

Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

2010-01-01

471

The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample  

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Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

2009-01-01

472

At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea  

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Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

Lewis, Ione R.

2012-01-01

473

Dissociation is associated with emotional maltreatment in a sample of traumatized women with a history of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theories of dissociation emphasize that symptoms of dissociation are correlated with traumatic events. Although the association of dissociative symptoms and retrospective reports of child abuse with a focus on mainly sexual and physical abuse has been well documented, investigation of the contribution of emotional or psychological types of maltreatment to the prediction of dissociation has been neglected to a great extent. The aim of this study was to determine the differential impact of different types of maltreatment on dissociative symptoms in a sample of 203 female residential patients treated for posttraumatic stress disorder linked to child maltreatment. Moreover, it was examined whether the link between dissociation and child maltreatment is direct or indirect. Subjects completed questionnaires on child maltreatment, posttraumatic stress, and dissociative symptoms. Although all types of maltreatment were related to dissociative symptoms, emotional abuse was the strongest and most direct predictor of dissociation in multivariate hierarchical analyses with the influence of other trauma types being confounded by emotional abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional types of maltreatment for the genesis of dissociative symptoms in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25365464

Haferkamp, Lisa; Bebermeier, Anke; Möllering, Andrea; Neuner, Frank

2015-01-01

474

Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort  

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Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

2009-01-01

475

Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Communication Practices of Parents of Elementary School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…

Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping

2007-01-01

476

Developmental Pathways to Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and Dependence: Child Maltreatment, Emerging Personality, and Internalizing versus Externalizing Psychopathology  

OpenAIRE

Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...

Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante

2011-01-01

477

Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

2011-01-01

478

Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Child-Reported Emotional and Physical Abuse: Rates, Risk Factors and Psychosocial Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: This study was designed to assess the incidence of child emotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. Method: One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N=297), Lithuania (N=300), Macedonia (N=302), and…

Sebre, Sandra; Sprugevica, Ieva; Novotni, Antoni; Bonevski, Dimitar; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante; Popescu, Daniela; Turchina, Tatiana; Friedrich, William; Lewis, Owen

2004-01-01

479

/ The origin of maltreatment: An exploratory study on the intergenerational transmission of child abuse typologies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo que se informa fue determinar si, en casos de transmisión inter-generacional de maltrato, se verificaba transmisión de tipologías de abuso y establecer el contexto del abuso. Se desarrolló un estudio exploratorio con 10 agresores de niños, quienes habían sido víctimas de abus [...] o. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron una entrevista semi-estructurada y un cuestionario socio-demográfico. Se realizó un análisis del contenido para estudiar los datos textuales, el test de Fisher para determinar la posible dependencia entre los tipos de abuso sufridos y practicados y análisis del componente principal para explorar asociaciones entre categorías. Se verificó la transmisión del abuso físico en siete casos, en dos casos de abuso psicológico y en dos de negligencia. No se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre las tipologías de abuso sufrido y practicado. Las categorías Entorno Familiar (218 unidades de registro -u.r- unidad de codificación básica) y Relaciones Intrafamiliares (151u.r.) presentaron el mayor número de u.r., y las categorías Abuso Sexual (1u.r.) y Agresor como Figura de Identificación Reconocida (4u.r.), el más bajo. El contexto del abuso se explica mejor mediante un modelo bidimensional: Maltrato e Interacciones Sociales y Contexto del Abuso, Sentimientos y Percepciones. Se encontraron fuertes asociaciones entre Abuso Psicológico y Físico, Relaciones Interpersonales, Inclinación al Abuso y Hábitos Tóxicos, y entre ser la única víctima de agresiones, viendo al otro como figura de identificación y sentimientos negativos hacia el agresor. La transmisión de las tipologías de abuso no fue significativa, pero se encontraron asociaciones entre aspectos contextuales y son discutidos junto con sus limitaciones e implicaciones. Abstract in english The way child maltreatment has been seen and dealt with has changed over time. Nowadays, it is a phenomenon of great importance and social recognition, being the target of many studies, and having led to the creation and implementation of several protection measures. The intergenerational transmissi [...] on of maltreatment is one of the main causes for current child abuse and neglect. In this way, our objective was to assess whether a transmission of abuse typologies occurred, in the cases where an intergenerational transmission of maltreatment is observed. Thus, we developed an exploratory study using a convenience sample of 10 child aggressors, who had been victims of abuse during their own childhood, from the district. All participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar socio-economic background. The participants gave their informed consent to participate in this study. For data collection we used a semi-structured interview, developed specifically for this study, and a socio-demographic questionnaire that enabled a characterization of the sample. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data produced was then analyzed using as used content analysis, to study the textual data collected with the interviews, and principal components analysis. Fisher’s test was used to determine the association between suffered and inflicted types of abuse (p

Raquel V., Oliveira; João, Maroco; Lucía G., Pais.

2012-12-01

480

A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound and Canada (upper bound, whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings.

Habetha Susanne

2012-11-01

481

Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity a