WorldWideScience

Sample records for abundant energy source

  1. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2009-01-01

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of f...

  2. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations of...... integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA).......Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching this...

  3. Thermonuclear fusion in the UK: towards a new abundant and durable energy source

    The ITER treaty (International thermonuclear experimental reactor) was signed in Paris on November 21, 2006, by the European Union, China, the USA, Japan and Russia. This treaty is devoted to the construction and exploitation of the biggest thermonuclear facility ever, capable to generate 500 MW during a reaction of 10 minutes. ITER is a priori the last experimental step before the construction of a fusion power plant for power generation at the industrial scale. The goal of ITER is to obtain a quasi-unexhaustible and less polluting energy source by the mid-21. century. The British research work has largely contributed to the development of this technology through a large number of projects that have preceded ITER but also through its present day involvement in the creation of the future reactor of Cadarache. This document presents: the UK fusion program, the projects carried out at the Culham science centre (Compass-D, Joint European Torus (JET), Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START), Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), EASY-2005 (European activation system)), the British involvement in ITER project and the transfer of technologies, and the nuclear fusion research in British universities (PPRG Imperial College London, CFSA Warwick university, Dalton nuclear institute (DNI), department of physics York university). (J.S.)

  4. Biogas, energy in abundance

    In France, a more favorable legal framework and more attractive financial incentives are making the transformation of organic wastes to energy a real market. The methanation process is adaptable to various sources of waste supply: industrial, agricultural, and domestic. In France methanation is an emerging market and is attracting both the giants of environment services and a multitude of specialized start-ups. In 2008, the construction market of municipal waste methanation units was evaluated to 262 Meuros. The management of wastes generated by municipal waste methanation units is a delicate task and requires a costly and specific know-how. Therefore, most actors prefer to concentrate on small-capacity facilities for the valorization of agricultural wastes. (J.S.)

  5. Helium abundance in the Orion A source

    The H, He 66α (22.4 GHz) and H, He 56α (36.5 GHz) recombination line observations were made at several positions of the central region of Orion A (R ∼ 3'). The observed relative helium abundance y' is found to increase with the angular distance from the nebular centre and to amount the mean value of 11.6% at the peripherycal positions. The comparison with the results of low frequency observations (H, He 109α, ν ∼ 5.0 GHz) shows that measurements towards the centre (y'=8-9%) is in agreement with the low frequency measurements of y', however y' at the peripherycal positions are higher than that at low frequency. The nebula model of a ''blister'' type is constructed to explain such behaviour. The conclusions are made that the actual helium abundance y in Orion A is ∼ 12%, the Orion Nebula expands and its radial velocity is ∼ 5 km/s

  6. Energy sources

    A study carried out around 1970 on the world energy future is described. One method is based on world energy evaluations extrapolated to 1985 and 2000. The other one is prospective and tries to account for changes in life style and technology and relations with the developing countries

  7. Energy efficiency and energy management: an abundance

    As France has just published a decree on the energy audit for large companies, and has thus been among the first countries to comply with an article of the European directive on energy efficiency, a set of articles discusses various aspects of these issues of energy efficiency and energy management. A first one presents this mandatory energy audit as a tool for a better energy efficiency, and illustrates the relationship between this commitment and the ISO 50001 standard for French large companies. A second article outlines the tools and standards of application of this energy audit in different legal texts. A third one comments the introduction of four new European arrangements on the labelling of products (indication of energy performance by retailers, objective of reduction of energy consumption, information displayed on site and on-line for various household appliances, current legislation). The next article comments the new German legislation on renewable energies which implements environmental requirements higher than European objectives, and tries to boost the carbon market. The presence of the ISO 50001 certification in the German law is also briefly addressed. Then, an article proposes an overview of a bill project, opinions of experts, and way to go for the new arrangement for energy saving certificates (CEE, certificat d'economie d'energie) launched by the French ministry of Ecology, and which aims at a 700 TWh saving. The content of each article of the bill project is presented and explained, and the relationship between certificate application and some standards is highlighted. The last article comments the decision of the European Court of Justice on the compatibility of Flemish Green Certificates with the European law

  8. Uranium: inexhaustible energy source

    There exist two social worries in reference with the use of energy, to know, the first is the availability of energy resources for the near future, in terms that the main energy sources at the present, petroleum has a foreseeable limit, and the other, the possible negative effects that the use of fossil fuels, coal among them could have on the environment, the ecology and the life conditions for the human being in general. This two worries take us to consider the availability of uranium, as an alternate energy source for the future of the mankind, considering its lesser ecological impact, since it can be controlled. in this study, the results of several investigations concerning to the abundance, energetic content, extraction costs and the appropiate use of the uranium existing in the earth crust determining the period of time that this fuel can be used as energy source to satisfy the demand of a growing population of human beings on the eart, are re-examined. It is concluded that the utilization of this fuel in the so caled breeder reactors, could satisfy the energy demand for the whole humanity for a long period of time comparable to the life of the sunas a yellow star. (Author)

  9. Thermonuclear fusion in the UK: towards a new abundant and durable energy source; La fusion nucleaire au Royaume-Uni: vers une nouvelle source d'energie abondante et durable

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The ITER treaty (International thermonuclear experimental reactor) was signed in Paris on November 21, 2006, by the European Union, China, the USA, Japan and Russia. This treaty is devoted to the construction and exploitation of the biggest thermonuclear facility ever, capable to generate 500 MW during a reaction of 10 minutes. ITER is a priori the last experimental step before the construction of a fusion power plant for power generation at the industrial scale. The goal of ITER is to obtain a quasi-unexhaustible and less polluting energy source by the mid-21. century. The British research work has largely contributed to the development of this technology through a large number of projects that have preceded ITER but also through its present day involvement in the creation of the future reactor of Cadarache. This document presents: the UK fusion program, the projects carried out at the Culham science centre (Compass-D, Joint European Torus (JET), Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START), Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), EASY-2005 (European activation system)), the British involvement in ITER project and the transfer of technologies, and the nuclear fusion research in British universities (PPRG Imperial College London, CFSA Warwick university, Dalton nuclear institute (DNI), department of physics York university). (J.S.)

  10. Lambda Boo Abundance Patterns: Accretion from Orbiting Sources

    Jura, M

    2015-01-01

    The abundance anomalies in lambda Boo stars are popularly explained by element-specific mass inflows at rates that are much greater than empirically-inferred bounds for interstellar accretion. Therefore, a lambda Boo star's thin outer envelope must derive from a companion star, planet, analogs to Kuiper Belt Objects or a circumstellar disk. Because radiation pressure on gas-phase ions might selectively allow the accretion of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and inhibit the inflow of elements such as iron, the source of the acquired matter need not contain dust. We propose that at least some lambda Boo stars accrete from the winds of hot Jupiters.

  11. Testing Relationships between Energy and Vertebrate Abundance

    Understanding what drives variation in the abundance of organisms is fundamental to evolutionary ecology and wildlife management. Yet despite its importance, there is still great uncertainty about the main factors influencing variation in vertebrate abundance across taxa. We believe valuable knowledge and increased predictive power could be gained by taking into account both the intrinsic factors of species and the extrinsic factors related to environmental surroundings in the commonly cited RQ model, which provides a simple conceptual framework valid at both the interspecific and the intraspecific scales. Approaches comparing studies undertaken at different spatial and taxonomic scales could be key to our ability to better predict abundance, and thanks to the increased availability of population size data, global geographic datasets, and improved comparative methods, there might be unprecedented opportunities to (1) gain a greater understanding of vertebrate abundance patterns and (2) test existing theories on free-ranging animals.

  12. New renewable energy sources

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  13. Diversification of energy sources

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  14. Tracking alternative energy sources

    This is the third and last article dealing with global energy topics analyzed at the 13th World Energy Congress. The varied particality or applicability of the following alternative energy sources is briefly discussed at a popular level: fusion, solar, ocean thermal energy conversion, waves, winds, tidal, and geothermal

  15. Alternative energy sources

    Michaelides, Efstathios E. (Stathis) [Texas Christian Univ., Forth Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years). The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources - wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric - and some of the less common sources, such as tidal and wave energy. The emphasis of these chapters is on the global potential of each source; the engineering/technical systems that are currently used in harnessing the potential of each one of these energy sources; the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources; and the environmental effects associated with their current and their wider use. The last three chapters are: energy storage, which is the main limitation of the wider use of solar and wind power and will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are to be used widely; energy conservation, which appears to be everyone's favorite issue, but by itself is not a solution to our energy challenge; and energy economics, a necessary consideration in market-driven economies. The fourteen chapters in the book have been chosen so that one may fit a semester University course around this book. At the end of every chapter, there are 12-20 problems

  16. Hydrogen energy - An inexhaustible abundant clean energy system

    Nayar, M. G.

    1981-04-01

    A review is presented of various hydrogen production processes from possible primary energy resources. The processes covered are nuclear coal gasification, thermochemical hydrogen production, and hydrogen production by electrolysis, which includes solid polymer electrolyte-based electrolyzers, high-temperature electrolyzers, and photoelectrochemical decomposition of water. Attention is given to hydrogen transport and storage (in metal hydride systems) and to its application as an automotive fuel. Hydrogen as a secondary energy source is also discussed, and its uses as an off-peak power storage medium and as an energy transmission medium are described. Costs, flow diagrams and chemical formulas are analyzed in detail.

  17. Alternative Energy Sources

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  18. Towards abundant and pollution-free energy. Laser nuclear fusion

    This book shows that it is now practically certain that by the year 2080 laser nuclear fusion will allow to produce an abundant and relatively cheap energy. Thanks to this energy, it will be possible to convert a mixture of CO2, H2 and water into an automotive fuel or a food product. Laser nuclear fusion will use deuterium as fuel and thus oil and gas will become useless. Also, thanks to this new energy source, global warming and starvation will be overcome. The laser fusion concept was introduced by J. Robieux in 1962 just after the discovery of the laser. This idea was immediately accepted and sustained by the French President De Gaulle. The research on laser fusion was initially undertaken at the Marcoussis research centre from the Compagnie Generale d'Electricite (General Electricity Company - CGE). In 1967, the lasers built at Marcoussis were 30 times more powerful than any other laser in the rest of world. A cooperation with the USA started at that time and is still going on today. In 1969, the CEA centre of Limeil realized the world premiere experiments of laser fusion. This book presents the historical aspects and the state-of-the-art of this technology today. It is written in two parts, the first part does not require any scientific knowledge and is accessible to everybody, while the second part can be understood only by readers having a basic scientific background. (J.S.)

  19. Risks of energy sources

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  1. Alternative energy sources

    Various possible energy sources are reviewed, with special reference to their use for the generation of electricity in the UK. The economics and environmental aspects of some of the most popular suggestions are examined. Energy conservation through the insulation of houses is discussed. It is concluded that as part of the policy of keeping all options open the UK should proceed with the development and construction of a commercial fast reactor. (U.K.)

  2. A New Energy Source

    2006-01-01

    Foreign energy companies are flocking to China to participate in the development of a potentially meaningful new energy source, coalbed methane, which is found in coal deposits. China United Coalbed Methane Co. Ltd. signed a contract with U.S.-based Orion Energy International Inc. on April 5 to jointly exploit the resource in the Sanjiao region of coal-rich Shanxi Province. Covering an area of some 462 square km, Sanjiao is home to rich coalbed methane reserves with thick, multi-level coalbeds that have ...

  3. Information sources in energy technology

    Anthony, L.J. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    Energy technology is a rapidly growing topic of research throughout the world. Although there are many books and journals about energy technology, until now there has not been a single volume available about sources of information. The comprehensive book presented describes the international and national organizational sources of information as well as primary and secondary documentary sources. Sources in fuel technology including energy conservation and specific fuels including alternative energy sources such as wind, wave and geothermal energy are discussed.

  4. What Are the Sources of Solar Energetic Particles? Element Abundances and Source Plasma Temperatures

    Reames, Donald V.

    2015-11-01

    We have spent 50 years in heated discussion over which populations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated at flares and which by shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association of the large "gradual" SEP events with shock acceleration is supported by the extensive spatial distribution of SEPs and by the delayed acceleration of the particles. Recent STEREO observations have begun to show that the particle onset times correspond to the observed time of arrival of the shock on the observer's magnetic flux tube and that the SEP intensities are related to the local shock speed. The relative abundances of the elements in these gradual events are a measure of those in the ambient solar corona, differing from those in the photosphere by a widely-observed function of the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. SEP events we call "impulsive", the traditional "3He-rich" events with enhanced heavy-element abundances, are associated with type III radio bursts, flares, and narrow CMEs; they selectively populate flux tubes that thread a localized source, and they are fit to new particle-in-cell models of magnetic reconnection on open field lines as found in solar jets. These models help explain the strong enhancements seen in heavy elements as a power (of 2-8) in the mass-to-charge ratio A/Q throughout the periodic table from He to Pb. A study of the temperature dependence of A/Q shows that the source plasma in impulsive SEP events must lie in the range of 2-4 MK to explain the pattern of abundances. This is much lower than the temperatures of >10 MK seen on closed loops in solar flares. Recent studies of A/Q-dependent enhancements or suppressions from scattering during transport show source plasma temperatures in gradual SEP events to be 0.8-1.6 MK in 69 % of the events, i.e. coronal plasma; 24 % of the events show reaccelerated impulsive-event material.

  5. What are the Sources of Solar Energetic Particles? Element Abundances and Source Plasma Temperatures

    Reames, Donald V

    2015-01-01

    We have spent 50 years in heated discussion over which populations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated at flares and which by shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association of the large "gradual" SEP events with shock acceleration is supported by the extensive spatial distribution of SEPs and by the delayed acceleration of the particles. The relative abundances of the elements in these gradual events are a measure of those in the ambient solar corona, differing from those in the photosphere by a widely-observed function of the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. SEP events we call "impulsive", the traditional "3He-rich" events with enhanced heavy-element abundances, are associated with type III radio bursts, flares, and narrow CMEs; they selectively populate flux tubes that thread a localized source, and they are fit to new particle-in-cell models of magnetic reconnection on open field lines as found in solar jets. These models help explain ...

  6. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Shah, R R; Bala Dutt

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the s...

  7. The metal abundance and specific energy of intracluster gas

    The hot gas in the cores of rich galaxy clusters is metal-rich with nearly solar abundances of metals. It is not clear whether the metals were shed from galaxies via protogalactic winds or via ram-pressure stripping. It has been suggested that if metals were injected via centrally concentrated stripping, the overall abundances could be much less than those observed in cluster cores, diminishing the degree of stellar processing required. The observed energetics of intracluster gas can be used to deduce the metal injection mechanism, which in turn may allow the global metal abundance uncertainty to be resolved in the absence of spatially resolved X-ray spectra. Existing X-ray spectral and surface brightness data for galaxy clusters indicate that the gas in cool clusters has substantially greater specific energy than could have been gained through cluster collapse. Supernovae-driven protogalactic winds can provide this extra energy, while ram-pressure stripping cannot. Such protogalactic winds will distribute metals fairly homogeneously. Much processing of gas through stars is then required, with protogalaxies losing perhaps one-half of their initial luminous mass in metal-rich winds. Furthermore, the oxygen-to-iron ratio observed in two clusters indicates that the bulk of the iron in cluster gas was produced by Type II supernovae, not Type I supernovae, as is usually supposed. 52 refs

  8. Energy sources and power plants

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded.

  9. Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93

    The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

  10. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  11. Energy Sources: An Historical Perspective.

    Perry, Constance M.

    1983-01-01

    Putting the present energy situation into an historical perspective provides meaning to today's energy concerns and demonstrates how important energy has always been to our life style. Primary energy sources of the United States from 1850 to the present are examined. (RM)

  12. Modeling unobserved sources of heterogeneity in animal abundance using a Dirichlet process prior

    Dorazio, R.M.; Mukherjee, B.; Zhang, L.; Ghosh, M.; Jelks, H.L.; Jordan, F.

    2008-01-01

    In surveys of natural populations of animals, a sampling protocol is often spatially replicated to collect a representative sample of the population. In these surveys, differences in abundance of animals among sample locations may induce spatial heterogeneity in the counts associated with a particular sampling protocol. For some species, the sources of heterogeneity in abundance may be unknown or unmeasurable, leading one to specify the variation in abundance among sample locations stochastically. However, choosing a parametric model for the distribution of unmeasured heterogeneity is potentially subject to error and can have profound effects on predictions of abundance at unsampled locations. In this article, we develop an alternative approach wherein a Dirichlet process prior is assumed for the distribution of latent abundances. This approach allows for uncertainty in model specification and for natural clustering in the distribution of abundances in a data-adaptive way. We apply this approach in an analysis of counts based on removal samples of an endangered fish species, the Okaloosa darter. Results of our data analysis and simulation studies suggest that our implementation of the Dirichlet process prior has several attractive features not shared by conventional, fully parametric alternatives. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  13. Renewable Energy Sources

    K. Karthikeyan

    2012-01-01

    The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas) and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold ...

  14. Economics and energy sources.

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2013-01-01

    Energy-based instrumentation has not only facilitated the rapid adoption of laparoscopic surgery, but could be considered essential for the completion of abdominal and pelvic procedures under endoscopic guidance. For decades, relatively simple and generic reusable monopolar and bipolar systems were the only options available. More recently, the available options for energy-based surgical instrumentation have become more crowded with the introduction of ultrasound-based cutting and sealing instruments and proprietary, impedance monitoring radiofrequency coagulation devices. Such instrumentation is presented as being easier to use as well as providing greater safety and efficacy. However, these new instruments typically require the expenditure of capital for proprietary energy generators and are usually designed to be for single use, a circumstance that increases per case costs, a circumstance that begs the question of value. Do the additional costs expended for the more expensive devices translate into reduced complications, faster operating time, or even wider access to minimally invasive procedures because they enable more surgeons to offer the service? Herein is explored the complex economic issues associated with the use of energy-based surgical devices as they apply to minimal access surgery in general and to laparoscopic procedures specifically. PMID:23659752

  15. Information sources in energy technology

    Anthony, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    This book lists the major national and international information sources in the field of energy technology. Includes organizations, journals, indexing and abstracting services, conference papers, standards, online databases, dictionaries, directories, handbooks, and encyclopedias.

  16. Metabolome analysis and pathway abundance profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated on different carbon sources.

    Zhao, Chen; Gu, Deqing; Nambou, Komi; Wei, Liujing; Chen, Jun; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Hua, Qiang

    2015-07-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica, a model microorganism of oleaginous yeasts with developed sophisticated genetic tools, is able to metabolize a wide range of substrates and accumulate large amounts of lipids. However, there is a lack of literature reporting the metabolic characteristics of Y. lipolytica metabolizing these substrates in a systematic view. In this study, Y. lipolytica was cultivated on a variety of carbon sources, among which cell growth and production characteristics on two representative substrates (glucose and oleic acid) were investigated in detail at metabolomic level. Metabolic pathway abundance was computed to interpret the metabolome data in a straightforward way. The results showed that most pathway abundances decreased in the shift from growth to production phase. Specifically, when cultivated on glucose, abundances of twelve pathways decreased markedly between the growth and lipid production phases, while thirteen pathways reduced and only three pathways increased significantly in abundances on oleic acid. In comparison, for the same cultivation phase only a few pathways exhibited significant changes between glucose-grown and oleic acid-grown cells. This study revealed that the pathway abundance could be used to effectively show the activity changes of pathways, providing a new perspective to employ metabolomics data for understanding cell metabolism and enhancing the production of target metabolites. PMID:25912211

  17. Economy of Alternative Energy Sources

    Pincová, Olga

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is about electricity production generated from renewable energy sources and their relation to investors and to the objectives of Czech Republic set by European Union. First part of this theses introduces renewable energy sources and conditions for their usage. Second part evaluates, by means of econometrics and three predefined scenarios, whether it is possible to meet objectives given by Strategy Europe 2020. In the third part, these scenarios are evaluated by mi...

  18. Estimating abundance while accounting for rarity, correlated behavior, and other sources of variation in counts

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Martin, Juulien; Edwards, Holly H.

    2013-01-01

    The class of N-mixture models allows abundance to be estimated from repeated, point count surveys while adjusting for imperfect detection of individuals. We developed an extension of N-mixture models to account for two commonly observed phenomena in point count surveys: rarity and lack of independence induced by unmeasurable sources of variation in the detectability of individuals. Rarity increases the number of locations with zero detections in excess of those expected under simple models of abundance (e.g., Poisson or negative binomial). Correlated behavior of individuals and other phenomena, though difficult to measure, increases the variation in detection probabilities among surveys. Our extension of N-mixture models includes a hurdle model of abundance and a beta-binomial model of detectability that accounts for additional (extra-binomial) sources of variation in detections among surveys. As an illustration, we fit this model to repeated point counts of the West Indian manatee, which was observed in a pilot study using aerial surveys. Our extension of N-mixture models provides increased flexibility. The effects of different sets of covariates may be estimated for the probability of occurrence of a species, for its mean abundance at occupied locations, and for its detectability.

  19. Local thermodynamic equilibrium study of H- abundance in negative-ion source discharges

    A local thermal equilibrium study of a hydrogen gas has been carried out for temperatures and densities relevant to the expected conditions in the Penning SAS source, which is a negative-ion source presently under investigation by AT-2 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For the pure hydrogen mixture, it was found that the relative abundance of H- ions peaks at about 10,000 K but is extremely low. The inclusion of cesium does improve the H- abundance significantly only at low temperatures (≤5000 K), raising it to about several parts per million, which should be considered low in view of estimates from the sheath physics which is not based on the local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. Incorporation of the enhancement of dissociative attachment from contributions by higher rotational-vibrational states associated with a nonthermal hot electron component has not been attempted, being an intrinsically nonthermal effect. The higher rotational-vibrational states themselves are, however, fully included

  20. Detailed atmospheric abundance analysis of the optical counterpart of the IR source IRAS 16559-2957

    Molina, R E

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a detailed abundance analysis of the optical counterpart of the IR source IRAS16559-2957 with the aim of confirming its possible post-AGB nature. The star shows solar metallicity and our investigation of a large number of elements including CNO and 12C/13C suggests that this object has experienced the first dredge-up and it is likely still at RGB stage.

  1. The Abundance of X-Shaped Radio Sources: Implications for the Gravitational Wave Background

    Roberts, David H.; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Coalescence of super massive black holes (SMBH's) in galaxy mergers is potentially the dominant contributor to the low frequency gravitational wave background (GWB). IIt was proposed by Merritt and Ekers (2002) that X-shaped radio galaxies are signposts of such coalescences, and that their abundance might be used to predict the magnitude of the gravitational wave background. In Roberts et al. (2015) we present radio images of all 52 X-shaped radio source candidates out of the sample of 100 se...

  2. Termite Nests as an Abundant Source of Cultivable Actinobacteria for Biotechnological Purposes

    Sujada, N.; Sungthong, R.; Lumyong, S.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 118 actinobacterial isolates were collected from the three types of termite nests (mound, carton, and subterranean nests) to evaluate their potential as a source of bioactive actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity. The highest number (67 isolates) and generic abundance (7 known genera) of actinobacterial isolates were obtained from carton nests. Streptomyces was the dominant genus in each type of termite nest. In the non-Streptomyces group, Nocardia was the dominant genus detec...

  3. Alternate energy sources

    The paper is a pleading in favor of hydroelectric power which in Romania originated more than 100 y ago. The hydroelectric potential of this country amounts to about 40 TWh / year. The hydroelectric yield is currently 15.5 TWh / year, 11.5 TWh / year of which being supplied by the Danube Power Plants. The hydroelectric power has a number of advantages: it is renewable, can be stocked and distributed according to the daily, weekly or seasonal energy demand, the energetic output is 82-89 %, if the project is carefully worked out the hydroelectric system has a small environmental impact, the service life can reach over 80 years, while the maintaining and operation costs are low. Some drawbacks are listed: the problems related to the population relocation, the environmental effects, especially the forest clearing, salt enrichment of affected soils. Arguments are presented from the economic point of view, backed up by ecological and technological advantages in favor of developing the micro hydroelectric power facilities

  4. Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources

    Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Inst., Nicosia, Cyprus (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The origin and continuation of mankind is based on water. Water is one of the most abundant resources on earth, covering three-fourths of the planet's surface. However, about 97% of the earth's water is salt water in the oceans, and a tiny 3% is fresh water. This small percentage of the earth's water - which supplies most of human and animal needs - exists in ground water, lakes and rivers. The only nearly inexhaustible sources of water are the oceans, which, however, are of high salinity. It would be feasible to address the water-shortage problem with seawater desalination; however, the separation of salts from seawater requires large amounts of energy which, when produced from fossil fuels, can cause harm to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to employ environmentally-friendly energy sources in order to desalinate seawater. After a historical introduction into desalination, this paper covers a large variety of systems used to convert seawater into fresh water suitable for human use. It also covers a variety of systems, which can be used to harness renewable energy sources; these include solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds and geothermal energy. Both direct and indirect collection systems are included. The representative example of direct collection systems is the solar still. Indirect collection systems employ two sub-systems; one for the collection of renewable energy and one for desalination. For this purpose, standard renewable energy and desalination systems are most often employed. Only industrially-tested desalination systems are included in this paper and they comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The paper also includes a review of various systems that use renewable energy sources for desalination. Finally, some general guidelines are given for selection of

  5. Renewable energy sources and ecology

    The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the

  6. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  7. Benthic marine litter in four Gulfs in Greece, Eastern Mediterranean; abundance, composition and source identification

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Papatheodorou, George; Kougiourouki, Ourania; Georgiadis, Michalis

    2008-04-01

    The types, abundance, distribution and sources of benthic marine litter found in four Greek Gulfs (Patras, Corinth, Echinades and Lakonikos) were studied using bottom trawl nets. Mean distribution and weight densities range between 72-437 Item/km 2 and 6.7-47.4 kg/km 2. Litter items were sorted into material and usage categories. Plastic litter (56%) is the most dominant material category followed by metal (17%) and glass (11%). Beverage packaging (32%) is the dominant usage category followed by general packaging (28%) and food packaging (21%). Based on the typological results three dominant litter sources were identified; land-based, vessel-based and fishery-based. Application of factor analysis (R- and Q-mode) conducted on both material and usage litter datasets confirmed the existence of the three dominant litter sources. Q-mode analysis further resulted in the quantification of the litter sources; land-based ones provided the majority (69%) of the total litter items followed by vessel-based (26%) and fishery-based (5%) sources. Diverse environmental parameters influence significantly these amounts among the four Gulfs.

  8. Energy policy and renewable energy sources

    According to Shell, by 2050, renewable energy sources may supply over 50% of the energy, worldwide. This concentration on renewable energy sources is primarily due to the intensified environmental demands. The UN climate panel has estimated that to avoid irreversible climate change it is necessary to reduce the global emissions of CO2 by 50 to 60% during the next 100 years. Biomass energy includes a number of biological raw materials from forestry and agriculture. The forests provide wood, wood chips, bark, branches and treetops, and from agriculture, straw. Although biomass energy is not entirely pollution-free, it is renewable and CO2-neutral as long as growth and consumption are in balance. In Norway, the total annual growth of available biomass corresponds to about 80 TWh. The technical potential is estimated to 30 TWh per year, allowing for operationally reasonable ways of producing the biomass. However, there is competition for the biomass since it is used by the wood processing industry. The use of biomass and waste for energy generation varies considerably among the Nordic countries. In Denmark, agriculture dominates and large quantities of straw are burned in cogeneration plants. Sweden and Finland have well-developed forest industries, and the wood processing industry in these countries uses much more biomass fuel (bark, fibre mud, black liquor) than the Norwegian wood processing industry. In Norway, more energy can be obtained by retrofitting old hydroelectric plants such as by installing a flexible liner in existing tunnels. This improves energy flexibility and increases energy production without negative environmental consequences. The potential for wind power is larger in Norway than in Denmark and Germany. The cost of wind power has fallen considerably as a consequence of the technological development of the sector

  9. BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN INDIA

    DEEPAK PALIWAL,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fossil fuel is a main source of energy for generation of electricity in India. Overall, about 80% of greenhouse gas (GHS emissions are related to the production and use of energy, and particularly, burning of fossils fuels. The environmental problems are associated with the generation of conventional sources of energy.The Kyoto protocol has established flexible mechanisms for developing countries to meet there GHG reduction commitment. Therefore, renewable source of energy is an alternative to conserve the natural resources and reduce the pollution burden. At present renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower provide small fraction of energy need. The most prevalent source is biomass, which accounts around 12% of total energy requirement. This source of energy includes wood, logging waste, sawdust, animal dung and vegetables consisting of grass, leaves, grass residues and agricultural waste. The biomass is abundant in nature which can be trapped as source of energy for generation of electricity for the rural as well as urban population. The technology needs to be developed for use of biomass as a source of energy. This paperdiscusses about its prospects in Asia and particularly in India. The recent developments and projects in India are discussed. A note on pollution control strategies has also been added.

  10. Abundances, energy and LET spectra of HZE particles in space

    The present chapter reviews knowledge of the composition and energy spectra of HZE (high Z and energy) particles in space and present experimental results of LET spectra measured in several manned satellites

  11. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  12. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  13. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  14. Gravitational energy sources in Jupiter

    Flasar, F. M.

    1973-01-01

    Gravitational sources of the intrinsic luminosity of Jupiter are examined in the context of current hydrogen-helium models. When no gravitational separation of matter occurs, the amount of heat which can be released over the remaining lifetime of the planet is necessarily limited by the size of its existing reservoir of thermal energy. This conclusion rests only on the assumption that its interior is relatively cold and degenerate. If gravitational unmixing occurs, the size of the thermal reservoir does not necessarily limit the heat output. If core formation occurs, for example, then the size of the core formed will be a limiting factor. The energy released with the formation of a helium core is computed for Jupiter. A core growth rate, averaged over several billion years, of 20 trillionths of Jupiter's mass per year is required if gravitational separation is to play a significant role in the thermal evolution.

  15. Alternative energy sources. Part B

    This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future for oil and gas extracted by conventional techniques. This text includes the state-of-the-art of these technologies as seen by experts in their respective disciplines. In the coverage of the technologies presented, an attempt has been made to include present developed technologies and those under development. As a consequence, the level of detail in each presentation is appropriate to the developmental stage of the technology under consideration, as assessed by the author. In general, the papers covering proven or nearly proven technologies mostly consist of detailed and or comparative assessments of the diverse engineering schemes without unduly dwelling on basics, while papers addressing technologies under development review the theoretical basis of these technologies in some details. In all instances where meaningful economics are available, numbers are included. This text also includes review papers of electric storage technology and transportation and energy, topics that, along with conservation, affect most strategic energy planning for the foreseeable future. The text also includes economics methodology and economical development papers that will hopefully allow researchers in the energy field access to the more common tools and approaches of the economic and financial analysts and the international development economists. Separate abstracts of individual presentations have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  16. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Konovalov, Vyacheslav Vasilievich; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Rostovshchikova, А.; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative a...

  17. The ocean as the eternal energy source

    The oceans contain enormous reserves of fossil fuels. Also use can be made of sustainable energy in the form of wave energy, tidal power and heat. The options to use the oceans as an energy source are outlined. 4 refs

  18. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  19. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  20. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  1. Brown carbon aerosol in the North American continental troposphere: sources, abundance, and radiative forcing

    Liu, J.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Ziemba, L. D.; Thornhill, K. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Devi, J. J.; Bergin, M.; Perring, A. E.; Markovic, M. Z.; Schwarz, J. P.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Chemical components of organic aerosol (OA) selectively absorb light at short wavelengths. In this study, the prevalence, sources, and optical importance of this so-called brown carbon (BrC) aerosol component are investigated throughout the North American continental tropospheric column during a summer of extensive biomass burning. Spectrophotometric absorption measurements on extracts of bulk aerosol samples collected from an aircraft over the central USA were analyzed to directly quantify BrC abundance. BrC was found to be prevalent throughout the 1 to 12 km altitude measurement range, with dramatic enhancements in biomass-burning plumes. BrC to black carbon (BC) ratios, under background tropospheric conditions, increased with altitude, consistent with a corresponding increase in the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) determined from a three-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The sum of inferred BC absorption and measured BrC absorption at 365 nm was within 3 % of the measured PSAP absorption for background conditions and 22 % for biomass burning. A radiative transfer model showed that BrC absorption reduced top-of-atmosphere (TOA) aerosol forcing by ~ 20 % in the background troposphere. Extensive radiative model simulations applying this study background tropospheric conditions provided a look-up chart for determining radiative forcing efficiencies of BrC as a function of a surface-measured BrC : BC ratio and single scattering albedo (SSA). The chart is a first attempt to provide a tool for better assessment of brown carbon's forcing effect when one is limited to only surface data. These results indicate that BrC is an important contributor to direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  2. Scheduling under non-reversible energy sources

    Ngueveu, Sandra Ulrich; Artigues, Christian; Lopez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address a preemptive scheduling problem involving multiple non-reversible energy sources. To the classical scheduling issue, an additional decision level is added regarding the selection of the energy source used to satisfy the total power demand of tasks processed at each instant. Different non-reversible energy sources are available, with different characteristics in terms of efficiency and power range. The objective is to identify the best combination between scheduling a...

  3. The analysis of security cost for different energy sources

    Global concerns for the security of energy have steadily been on the increase and are expected to become a major issue over the next few decades. Urgent policy response is thus essential. However, little attempt has been made at defining both energy security and energy metrics. In this study, we provide such metrics and apply them to four major energy sources in the Korean electricity market: coal, oil, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear. In our approach, we measure the cost of energy security in terms of supply disruption and price volatility, and we consider the degree of concentration in energy supply and demand using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index (HHI). Due to its balanced fuel supply and demand, relatively stable price, and high abundance, we find nuclear energy to be the most competitive energy source in terms of energy security in the Korean electricity market. LNG, on the other hand, was found to have the highest cost in term of energy security due to its high concentration in supply and demand, and its high price volatility. In addition, in terms of cost, we find that economic security dominates supply security, and as such, it is the main factor in the total security cost. Within the confines of concern for global energy security, our study both broadens our understanding of energy security and enables a strategic approach in the portfolio management of energy consumption.

  4. The analysis of security cost for different energy sources

    Global concerns for the security of energy have steadily been on the increase and are expected to become a major issue over the next few decades. Urgent policy response is thus essential. However, little attempt has been made at defining both energy security and energy metrics. In this study, we provide such metrics and apply them to four major energy sources in the Korean electricity market: coal, oil, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear. In our approach, we measure the cost of energy security in terms of supply disruption and price volatility, and we consider the degree of concentration in energy supply and demand using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index (HHI). Due to its balanced fuel supply and demand, relatively stable price, and high abundance, we find nuclear energy to be the most competitive energy source in terms of energy security in the Korean electricity market. LNG, on the other hand, was found to have the highest cost in term of energy security due to its high concentration in supply and demand, and its high price volatility. In addition, in terms of cost, we find that economic security dominates supply security, and as such, it is the main factor in the total security cost. Within the confines of concern for global energy security, our study both broadens our understanding of energy security and enables a strategic approach in the portfolio management of energy consumption. (author)

  5. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  6. Possibility of accumulation of energy from renewable energy sources

    Hanuš, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses issues of renewable sources energy accumulation. The first part describes possibilities of gaining energy from renewable sources, especially in our climatic conditions. In the second part a summary of energy accumulation methods is presented. The last part in detail analyses energy accumulation process at a pumped-storage power plant in conditions of the Czech Republic.

  7. Italian national conference on renewable energy sources

    In the ambit of national energy conference are reported the interventions of representative of national government, regions, local government, university enterprises and social parts and associations on renewable energy sources in Italy

  8. Thorium is an ultimate source of energy

    Kim, HungGeun; Lee, Sangcheol

    2013-01-01

    This article is written for readers to help the understanding of thorium as an alternative source of nuclear energy. Thorium (Thorium) can be applied for reactor fuels and thorium energy development such as ADSR; Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor. This particle explains the thorium as a possible choice to replace of uranium to supply enormous energy could be the energy source. A Korean article published in "Science Times" in South Korea. The article is based on an interview ...

  9. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  10. Sustainable Sources of Energy and the Expected Benefits to Nigerian Economy

    Anowor, Oluchukwu F.; Achukwu, Innocent I.; Ezekwem, Ogochukwu S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development entails conservation, preservation, accessibility and affordability. When it comes to energy usage, Nigeria relies mostly on conventional source of energy with quite high opportunity cost making it cost-wise comparatively inaccessible for the poor population. In this work, renewable energy sources like solar radiation which is abundantly present in Nigeria was found to offers a much cheaper alternative in meeting the energy demands since they are derived from natural p...

  11. Sustainable Energy Sources and Developing Clean Energy Technologies

    Reis, A. Heitor; Miguel, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    Energy and sustainability are issues in the global agenda. The concern for the impacts of energy use, which adds to the alarm for the scarcity of primary sources of energy has triggered new research on sustainable primary energy sources and on clean and efficient energy systems and processes. Due to the current global warming, the link between energy and environment becomes inescapable in such a way that researchers have to deal both with efficiency and environmental impacts.

  12. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  13. Evaluation of solar radiation abundance and electricity production capacity for application and development of solar energy

    Mustamin Rahim, Jun Yoshino, Takashi Yasuda

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze solar radiation abundance to ascertain the potential of solar energy as an electrical energy resource. Local weather forecasting for predicting solar radiation is performed using a meteorological model MM5. The prediction results are compared with observed results obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency for verification of the data accuracy. Results show that local weather forecasting has high accuracy. Prediction of solar radiation is similar with o...

  14. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  15. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Burra, Rajni K.; Acharya, Kaustuva

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  16. Economic potential of renewable energy sources

    The production cost, specific investment cost, total energy conversion efficiency, and power produced per m2 area are estimated for various power plant types, the assets and shortcomings of renewables are described, the problem of whether renewable sources of energy would pay is discussed, and the potential of such sources in the Czech Republic is explained. (P.A.)

  17. Relationship between fluvial clastic sediment and source rock abundance in Rapti river basin of central Nepal Himalayas

    Many tributaries from carbonate sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Lesser Himalayan and clastic sedimentary rocks of the Sub-Himalayan Ranges carry gravelly sediments to the Rapti River. River bar sediments were analyzed for composition and texture to evaluate downstream changes in properties, and to establish relationship between proportion of clasts and the abundance of rock types in the source areas. Percent quartzite clast or granite clast increases whereas that of carbonate, schist or slate decreases along downstream. The largest grain size decreases downstream, whereas fatness index and sphericity tend to increase. Despite of little diminish in relative abundance of rock types in source areas along the river, the relative proportion of corresponding clast type shows rapid reduction (e.g. slate or phyllite or carbonate clasts) or rapid enhancement (e.g. granite clast). The relationships of quartzite clast and schist clasts with their corresponding source rocks are statistically significant suggesting that these clasts can provide clue to source rock abundance. About 85 to 94% of the gravel clasts represent rock types of the Lesser Himalayan Range suggesting that this range has been contributing enormous amount of sediments.

  18. Energy sources for the future

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  19. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puzzle is prepared for primary-school students aiming at teaching of energy sources as a supplementary source. In the mean time, the puzzle we prepared reveals the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and fossil energy sources. Here, the student’s aim is to complete the puzzle by answering the questions respectively. .

  20. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the major issues in the modern energy sector. The objective of this work was to examine the potential of wind energy, solar energy (e.g. photovoltaics), biomass energy sources to meet the current energy use in the island of Lemnos in...... Greece. An optimisation methodology was applied to the energy system of the island, where various Renewable Energy Sources are abundant and could be exploited to satisfy part of the island's energy needs. An optimization model has been developed having as an objective the satisfaction of Lemnos Island...... energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility to...

  1. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  2. Renewable Energy Sources on the Polish Electrical Energy Market

    Paweł Bućko

    2014-01-01

    Production of electricity from renewable energy sources in Poland is presented in the paper. The mechanism of energy origin certificates market and the proposal of mechanism modification are discussed. Perspectives of electricity production from renewable energy sources are indicated and discussed.

  3. Green Certificates – the Symbol Renewable Energy Sources (Clean Energy)

    Mihaela Ghicajanu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper present one alternative solution as regards of the suplimentary power generation - renerawable energy sources. Are present a few words about renewable energy sources and green certificates; policy European Union of the renewable energy power and situation green certificates market on Romania.

  4. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    Clive L. Spash; Young, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  5. Finding radiant-energy sources

    Schaffer, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    Antenna is scanned in orthogonal directions to pinpoint interfering sources. Satellite system locates ground-based microwave transmitter to accuracy of about 100 miles. When data on misalinement of satellite antenna boresight are used to correct antenna pointing, accuracy is improved to better than 70 miles.

  6. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  7. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  8. Renewable energy sources and decentralized electricity production

    Technological assessment, economic analysis, feasibility and potential development of the decentralized electricity production by various renewable energy sources (Small-scale hydro-electricity, wind energy, photovoltaic energy, thermodynamical solar plants, electricity from biomass) are presented and comparisons are made with other countries situation. Recommendations for optimal development are proposed

  9. Sources of Information on Wind Energy (Brochure)

    2001-12-01

    As wind technology continues to mature and the wind industry becomes an increasingly respected member of the energy producing community, a growing number of people require more information about wind energy. Whether you are a business manager, utility engineer, scientific researcher, or an interested energy user, this brochure provides helpful information sources.

  10. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions.

  11. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 2

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held in Prague on 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas, and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, of which 3 were inputted in INIS. Topics covered include: a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector.

  12. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    Ohta, Tokio

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  13. Biogas, energy in abundance; Le biogaz, de l'energie a revendre

    Pottier, M.; Quesne, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2009-01-15

    In France, a more favorable legal framework and more attractive financial incentives are making the transformation of organic wastes to energy a real market. The methanation process is adaptable to various sources of waste supply: industrial, agricultural, and domestic. In France methanation is an emerging market and is attracting both the giants of environment services and a multitude of specialized start-ups. In 2008, the construction market of municipal waste methanation units was evaluated to 262 Meuros. The management of wastes generated by municipal waste methanation units is a delicate task and requires a costly and specific know-how. Therefore, most actors prefer to concentrate on small-capacity facilities for the valorization of agricultural wastes. (J.S.)

  14. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Fischer, Peter [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Under the umbrella of RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren (Ibbenbueren, Federal Republic of Germany), the RAG Montan Immobilien (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Mining Solutions (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) are unified. With their activities in the German coal mining industry RAG contributes to the national energy security and create employment effects far beyond the mining regions.

  15. Renewable energy sources in CR

    Pokorný, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá klasifikací obnovitelných zdrojů energie a jejich porovnáním s ostatními energetickými zdroji. Vyjmenovává a charakterizuje zdroje sluneční, vodní, větrné, geotermální energie a biomasy, tedy energie vyráběné z obnovitelných zdrojů. Popisuje využití těchto jednotlivých zdrojů v rámci České republiky. Další část se zabývá legislativou a to zejména zákonem 180/2005 sb. Na závěr jsou uvedeny další zákony a vyhlášky, které s výrobou elektřiny z obnovitelných zdrojů a její dis...

  16. Sources of carbon and the evolution of the abundance of CNO elements

    Liang, Y. C.; Zhao, G.; Shi, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Using the standard infall model of Galactic chemical evolution, we explore the origin of carbon and calculate the abundance evolution of CNO elements for 8 different models of stellar nucleosynthesis yields. The results show that, in the early stage of the Galaxy, massive stars are the main producer of carbon, and that as our Galaxy evolves to the late stage, the longer lived intermediate- and low-mass stars play an increasingly important role, while at the same time, metal-rich Wolf-Rayet st...

  17. GASAHOL: a potential energy source

    Cannon, R.J.

    1978-04-01

    The production of GASOHOL and/or a synthetic fuel using any agricultural product as a portion of a mixture with gasoline is presently held in a fanaticism/mania context by both the proponents and opponents. There is a tremendous interest in GASOHOL throughout the country as shown by the enormous amount of material that has been written on the subject both pro and con. In addition, a variety of legislation at the state and Federal levels concerning an ethanol-gasoline mix either has been passed or is pending. This extensive amount of activity has been going on for the past 3 or 4 years and yet nothing really positive has happened. One reason is the lack of capital to get started. Congress is working on this problem and, coupled with some of the state legislatures, this hurdle should soon be overcome. Another reason and/or reasons are often vociferously pointed out by the opponents - those being the poor economics of such an advanture and a negative input-output energy ratio in producing ethanol. On the economics both sides will agree that a public subsidy, probably in the form of tax credits, is necessary in order for GASOHOL to be competitive with gasoline. The amount of this subsidy varies under different assumptions and by region. Whether the production of ethanol from grain is energy-efficient or not remains a question of debate, and it is in this area that the pros and cons are in most disagreement. There are regional exceptions to the energy balance - Hawaii being one of them. Current plans in the State of Hawaii consist of utilizing molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, to product ethanol. Since molasses is a byproduct, one can supposedly start the distilling process with a zero energy input. It is generally agreed that the mixing of ethanol and gasoline is technically possible. Thus, it seems likely, that there is or will be some Federal and state money available for plant construction, and that one or more demonstration projects will be undertaken.

  18. Renewable energy sources '91. Part 2

    Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, out of which 3 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and with the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector. (M.D.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

  19. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  20. Influence of Biofield Energy Treatment on Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Aniline Derivatives

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Alice Branton; Dahryn Trivedi; Gopal Nayak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The ...

  1. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  2. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  3. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 μm of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  4. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  5. Carcinogenic potential of various energy sources

    Evaluation of the health impacts of different sources of energy should include a comparison of the potential carcinogenic effects of the radioactive and chemical substances produced by various sources. In general, these potential health effects are too small to be measured directly and are therefore estimated by extrapolation, on the basis of a linear dose-response model, from measurable effects at high dose levels. Estimates of the carcinogenic potential of various energy sources available in North America are given in this paper. For most if not all of the energy sources for which data are currently available, it would appear that the known biological benefits in terms of life expectancy greatly outweigh all the potential harm due to carcinogenic (and genetic) effects on human beings, when expressed in the same terms, i.e. life expectancy. (author)

  6. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  7. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puz...

  8. Sources, availability and costs of future energy

    An attempt is made to put the future energy scene in perspective by quantitatively examining energy resources, energy utilization and energy costs. Available data on resources show that conventional oil and gas are in short supply and that alternative energy sources are going to have to replace oil and gas in the not too distant future. Cost/applications assessments indicate that a mix of energy sources are likely to best meet our energy needs of the future. Hydro, nuclear and coal are all practical alternatives for meeting electrical needs and electricity is a practical alternative for space heating. Coal appears to be the most practical alternative for meeting much of the industrial energy need and frontier oil or oil from the tar sands appear to be the most practical alternatives for meeting the transportation need. Solar energy shows promise of meeting some of the space heating load in Canada if economical energy storage systems can be developed. The general conclusion is that the basic energy problem is energy conversion. (author)

  9. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the

  10. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable

  11. Prices and costs of energy sources

    An evaluation of the complete social energy cost should result from the sum of the production marginal cost, of the external marginal cost and of the marginal cost of substitution of non-renewable energy sources. This last parameter is difficult to estimate because of theoretical and methodological obstacles. The two others are evaluated for different energy sources, in the present day situation, and in the perspective of a probable evolution. Today, fossil fuels have the lowest internal costs whatever their use. Thus, in 'business as usual' energy scenarios, fossil fuels represent more than 80% of the energy supply at the 2050 prospects. However, several uncertainties can affect the future evolution of these costs, some are of geopolitical origin (political fragility of some exporting countries), and some are of environmental origin (internalized costs of CO2 emissions). Finally, the depletion of some resources should be anticipated. (J.S.)

  12. Extra galactic sources of high energy neutrinos

    Waxman, E

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the construction of large volume, high energy neutrino telescopes is the detection of extra-Galactic neutrino sources. The existence of such sources is implied by observations of ultra-high energy, >10^{19} eV, cosmic-rays (UHECRs), the origin of which is a mystery. The observed UHECR flux sets an upper bound to the extra-Galactic high energy neutrino intensity, which implies that the detector size required to detect the signal in the energy range of 1 TeV to 1 PeV is >=1 giga-ton, and much larger at higher energy. Optical Cerenkov neutrino detectors, currently being constructed under ice and water, are expected to achieve 1 giga-ton effective volume for 1 TeV to 1 PeV neutrinos. Coherent radio Cerenkov detectors (and possibly large air-shower detectors) will provide the >> 1 giga-ton effective volume required for detection at ~10^{19} eV. Detection of high energy neutrinos associated with electromagnetically identified sources will allow to identify the sources of UHECRs, will provide a uniq...

  13. Singly- and doubly-negative carbon clusters in sputtering: Energy spectra, abundance distributions and unimolecular fragmentation

    The emission of singly- and doubly-charged negative cluster ions in sputtering of graphite by 14.5 keV Cs+ ion bombardment was investigated by mass spectrometry. Specifically, for anionic Cn- (n≤23) and CsCn- (n≤11) and dianionic Cn2- (n≤39) species the emission-energy spectra were recorded and their abundance distributions as a function of cluster size n were determined. The energy spectra provided evidence for cluster decomposition in the ion accelerating region of the spectrometer corresponding to a time scale from some 10-10 s to several 10-8 s. The abundance of these fragment ions are similar to those of the parent ions in terms of the dependence on the size n and their absolute magnitudes converge with increasing cluster size. Due to energetic ejection events, the clusters are sputtered with high internal energies; they cool by unimolecular decomposition. The most probable fragmentation process for Cn- appears to be by evaporation of a neutral C2 molecule. For these decay reactions, the fragmentation-time distributions were derived from the appropriate parts of the energy spectra; they were found to scale exponentially with time. From these data the average lifetimes τ for these unimolecular decompositions were determined. For Cn- the lifetimes slightly increase with n: τ ∼ 8 x 10-9 s at n=6 to τ ∼ 5 x 10-8 s at n=25. Similar values are found for CsCn-, whereas for the dianionic clusters Cn2- they are shorter, τ ∼ (5-7) x 10-9 s for n=12-18. Estimates of internal energies, Eint, of sputtered Cn- clusters were derived from these lifetimes, employing statistical theories of unimolecular decomposition. Values of Eint increase with cluster size n for 5≤n≤25, whereas the average internal energy per constituent atom, Eint/n amounts to ∼1 eV in that range

  14. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-01-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  15. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  16. Nuclear energy - a source of sustainable, clean and safe energy

    This paper discusses various factors which make nuclear energy an attractive source of cheap, reliable and clean power in Indian scenario, with a special reference to Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP)

  17. Open Source Energy Simulation for Elementary School

    Lye, Sze Yee

    2012-01-01

    With the interactivity and multiple representation features, computer simulations lend itself to the guided inquiry learning. However, these simulations are usually designed for post-elementary students. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate how the use of guided inquiry approach with customized energy simulation can improve students' understanding of this topic. In this ongoing research, the case study is adopted. In the first phase of the study, we have modified open source energy simulation based on principles for reducing extraneous processing, existing energy simulation and guided inquiry approach. The modified simulation is sent to teachers for evaluation and the feedback is encouraging. In the next phase of the study, the guided inquiry lesson package involving the energy simulation would be designed and deployed in an elementary classroom. Multiple data sources would be collected to seek a deeper understanding on how this learning package can possibly impact students' understanding of the phys...

  18. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the Western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    Zdenek Zencak; Jana Klanova; Ivan Holoubek; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

    2007-06-01

    Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19{per_thousand}, whereas {Delta}{sup 14}C values ranged from -568{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these {Delta}{sup 14}C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. New renewable energy sources: Strategies and prospects

    An assessment is made of the technological reliability, and environmental and economic benefits of biomass, wind and photovoltaic energy sources in meeting the world's ever increasing demand for electric power. This assessment favours R ampersand D investment for the commercialization of processes involving the production of hydrogen through photovoltaic energy conversion. These plants are especially recommended for oil importing third world countries located in tropical areas

  20. Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation

    Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

  1. Olive cake used as an energy source

    In order to reduce global warming, biomass is expected to become one of the key energy resources. The solid wastes of olives are called as olive cake. This has been in use as an energy source. After the oil crisis in 1970s, there has been increase in studies of alternative and renewable energy resources as well as fuel technologies. However fossil fuels still preserve the predominant position satisfying 90% of the world energy consumption. On the basis of the sustainable development principle and suggestions of Kyoto protocol, their has been an emphasis on the urgent need for reduction of the emission of green house gases the generates negative impact on ozone and replacing current energy resources with renewable energy

  2. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed. (topical review)

  3. Nuclear power, energy source of the future?

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, nowadays questions of energy techniques and energy industry cannot be separated from energy policy. It is easily understandable that after the accident in Chernobyl, many people felt uncomfortable and the demand for other sorts of energy, especially renewable energy sources, increased. In the meantime, everybody returned to a more realistic way of looking at things. The importance of nuclear energy to energy supply is still big and the elimination of nuclear energy would unevitably lead to price rises, even maybe endanger the supply to a certain point. One third of the power generated cannot be substituted on short term without problems. Where is nuclear energy in 1988, worldwide and in Germany and how can these aspects referred to in the public discussion about energy be assessed? The experts' meeting made the attempt to find an answer to these questions. The topics are directed to all energy engineers and experts, and particularly to those who are not directly active in nuclear techniques. All papers are separately indexed into the database. (orig./HP)

  4. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  5. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Secken, Nilgun

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing.…

  6. CIVIL REGULATION OF USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with civil regulation of using renewable energy sources. To deal with such items we need to understand a clear definition of this concept and to consider the specifics of Public-Private Partnership in such claims

  7. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  8. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL)

  9. Cosmic rays - Astronomy with energetic particles. [production mechanisms, abundance and energy spectra review

    Meyer, P.; Ramaty, R.; Webber, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    All nuclei in the periodic table of the elements, as well as electrons and positrons, are present in the stream of cosmic-ray particles. The cosmic-ray particles constitute the only sample of matter from outside the solar system which reaches the earth. Some of the most accurate knowledge of the extrasolar-element abundance distribution is based on the study of these particles. Observational data concerning the cosmic rays are discussed along with cosmic-ray sources, questions of particle interactions and propagation, the electron spectrum, and the significance of the positron component. The directions of cosmic ray research in the immediate future are also considered, giving attention to some fundamental questions which have not yet been answered.

  10. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  11. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U.S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer.

  12. The nuclear energy: an essential source of the energy package

    In the framework of the energy consumption facing the environmental quality, the author presents the energy sources, used and possible. He shows the necessity to reduce the dependency towards the fossil fuels. He discusses the possibility of the CO2 storage, the electric power use to decrease the CO2 emissions. He then analyses the cogeneration alternative, the hybrid vehicles and the advantages of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Use of abundance ratios of somatic coliphages and bacteriophages of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron GA17 for microbial source identification.

    Muniesa, Maite; Lucena, Francisco; Blanch, Anicet R; Payán, Andrey; Jofre, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Water contaminated with human faeces is a risk to human health and management of water bodies can be improved by determining the sources of faecal pollution. Field studies show that existing methods are insufficient and that different markers are required. This study proposes the combined use of two microbial indicators, the concentrations of which are presented as ratios. This provides a more reliable approach to identifying faecal sources as it avoids variation due to treatment or ageing of the contamination. Among other indicators, bacteriophages have been proposed as rapid and cheap indicators of faecal pollution. Samples analysed in this study were derived from wastewater treatment plants (raw sewage, secondary and tertiary effluents and raw sewage sludge) river water, seawater and animal related wastewater. The abundance ratios of faecal coliforms and Bacteroides phages, either strain RYC2056 (non-specific for faecal origin) or strain GA17 (specific for human pollution), and among somatic coliphages and phages infecting both Bacteroides strains, were evaluated. The results indicate that the ratio of somatic coliphages and phages infecting Bacteroides strain GA17, which is specific to human faecal sources, provides a robust method for discriminating samples, even those presenting different levels and ages of pollution, and allows samples polluted with human faeces to be distinguished from those containing animal faecal pollution. This method allows the generation of numerical data that can be further applied to numerical methods for faecal pollution discrimination. PMID:23039916

  14. Effect of ''outer'' sources and dissipative processes on abundance of inert gases in atmospheres of the Earth group planets

    The problem of abundance of inert gases in atmospheres of the Earth group planets is discussed. It is shown that introduction of He, Ne and 36Ar into the Mars and Mercury atmospheres with interplanetary dust and from other external sources require the presence of special mechanisms of losses for these gases. For the Mars atmosphere dissipation on atmosphere interaction with solar wind during the periods of anomalously low temperatures is a probable mechanisms of Ne and 36Ar losses. For the Mercury thermal dissipation for He and polar wind for other inert gases are possible. For all the planets of the Earth group dissipation on interaction with solar wind and introduction with interplanetary dust could play an important role at the early stages of evolution of planets

  15. Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix

    Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

  16. Geothermal energy. An old-new energy source

    Geothermal energy comes from the fusion of earth internal layers and the radioisotope decay. The geothermal zones are bound to tectonic plates and are to be found in volcano recent activity regions or where the earth's crust has become thinner. Geothermal heat sources have been widely used. It's not a renewable energy but a useful one. However geothermics use for electricity production has been only very limited. Present technologies are: direct use, electricity production. The seventies energy crisis promoted geothermal energy use which allows savings. Geothermal energy worldwide resources are extensive but the existing technologies must be improved. When geothermal energy is correctly used, it is renewable and generates no pollution, it is a clean energy because the recent reinjection technologies and the up-to-date geothermal systems exclude the toxic gas leaks towards atmosphere. Geothermal energy represents an important contribution in the developing countries which possess such resources

  17. Use of renewable energy sources in Estonia

    Estonia has made success in the implementation of energy conservation programme and bio fuel programmes. The basis for promoting the use of biofuels and peat are identified in the first National Energy Conservation Programme (approved by the government in 1992) and in the National Long Term Energy Development Programme (approved by the parliament in 1998). The first National Energy Conservation Programme has set up the following goals: reduction of the share of imported fuels in national primary energy balance through implementation of energy conservation projects and through conversion from imported fuels to local fuels (peat and wood); solving the ownership problems of heating enterprises; financial support for implementation of energy conservation and fuel conversion projects; to stop the subsidies of energy tariffs; promotion of energy conservation awareness campaign. The National Long Term Energy Development Programme identified the promotion of the use of biofuels and peat as one of the main tasks of national energy policy. According to the development plan, the share of renewable energy sources in national primary energy balance shall reach the percentage of 13 in the year 2010. The government approved the new National Energy Conservation Programme in January 2000. One part of the programme is the analyses of the results of the first programme. The conclusion is that the main tasks of the first energy conservation programme (from 1992) are fulfilled: the total use of primary energy has decreased from 1991 to 1998 from 390,6 PJ to 214 PJ; the total amount of imported fuels has decreased from 173 PJ in 1991 to 80 PJ in 1998; the total share of peat and wood in primary energy balance has increased from 14,8 TJ in 1991 to 24,3 TJ in 1998. This is from 3,6 % to 11,3 % accordingly. Since the annual growth of peat resources is bigger than the annual consumption, in Estonian conditions, peat could be considered as renewable energy source. The increase of the share

  18. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  19. Conventional versus Alternative Energy Sources and their Economy

    Jirková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis is to deliver a complex and understandable knowledge about the issue of renewable sources of energy and its comparison to conventional sources of energy. For that reason the first part of this work contains theoretical background about renewable energy: definition of alternative sources of energy and conventional sources of energy, different options of alternative energy, pros and cons of alternative energy, analysis of the situation on the market with alternativ...

  20. Solar energy versus nuclear energy as energy sources at the transition period

    Technical aspects and social aspects of nuclear power plants and solar energy system as energy sources, were comparatively evaluated. The evaluation proves that solar energy is better than nuclear energy. (SMN)

  1. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  2. ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Providing access to quality and sufficient energy to all households, individuals, sectors, and institutions at all times is the minimum condition for economic development. The climate change is gradually harming the environment, social and economic development of world economy. The major culprit fuelling the climate change is burning of fossil fuel. Hence, the power generation in India should not only aim at sufficient power generation, but also at generating clean, green and sustainable energy. The major sources of renewable power in India are 1 Wind power 2 Small Hydro power 3 Biomass 4 Cogeneration biogases and 5 waste to energy. India is having 89,760 MW estimated potential of renewable energy. But less than 2% are harnessed in actual terms.

  3. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P; Wu, Yue

    2012-02-01

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase reaction and compressed into robust bulk pellets through spark plasma sintering and hot press while still maintaining nanoscale grain size inside. Electrical and thermal measurements have been performed from 300 to 700 K to understand the electron and phonon transports. Extra copper doping during the nanocrystal synthesis introduces a significant improvement in the performance. PMID:22214524

  4. Propagation and Source Energy Spectra of Cosmic-Ray Nuclei at High Energies

    Ave, M; Hoeppner, C; Marshall, J; Müller, D

    2008-01-01

    A recent measurement of the TRACER instrument on long-duration balloon has determined the individual energy spectra of the major primary cosmic-ray nuclei from oxygen (Z=8) to iron (Z=26). The measurements cover a large range of energies and extend to energies beyond 10^14 eV. We investigate if the data set can be described by a simple but plausible model for acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays. The model assumes a power-law energy spectrum at the source with a common spectral index alpha for all nuclear species, and an energy dependent propagation pathlength (Lambda proportional to E^-0.6) combined with an energy-independent residual pathlength Lambda_0. We find that the data can be fit with a fairly soft source spectrum alpha=2.3-2.4), and with a residual pathlength Lambda_0 as high as 0.3 g cm^-2. We discuss this model in the context of other pertinent information, and we determine the relative abundances of the elements at the cosmic-ray source.

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THIRD GENERATION UNIVERSITY

    Pavlov, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, entrepreneurs are able to use the innovations at the universities in order to set up their own business. That collaboration is part of the concept of the “Third Generation University”. The aim of this paper is to outline some possibilities for innovative business development in the Ruse region, Bulgaria that are aimed at supporting technostarters who use biomass for energy production. It describes the need of renewable energy sources in EU context, giv...

  6. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only...... recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first...... cyanase is a member of a distinct clade also containing cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite oxidizers supply cyanase-lacking ammonia oxidizers with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this microbial...

  7. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  8. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 3

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The Fourth International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held at Prague Technical University from 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 3 of the proceedings contains a report on the conference and 10 contributions, of which 2 were inputted in INIS: one deals with the economic problems of wind-, solar- and oil-driven water pumps, the other deals with the decrease in sunshine brought about by the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants.

  9. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  10. Evaluation of solar radiation abundance and electricity production capacity for application and development of solar energy

    Rahim, Mustamin [Department of Architecture, Khairun University, Ternate (Indonesia); Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Yoshino, Jun; Yasuda, Takashi [Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze solar radiation abundance to ascertain the potential of solar energy as an electrical energy resource. Local weather forecasting for predicting solar radiation is performed using a meteorological model MM5. The prediction results are compared with observed results obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency for verification of the data accuracy. Results show that local weather forecasting has high accuracy. Prediction of solar radiation is similar with observation results. Monthly average values of solar radiation are sufficiently good during March–September. Electrical energy generated by photovoltaic cells is almost proportional to the solar radiation amount. Effects of clouds on solar radiation can be removed by monthly averaging. The balance between supply and demand of electricity can be estimated using a standard curve obtained from the temporal average. When the amount of solar radiation every hour with average of more than 100 km radius area does not yield the standard curve, we can estimate the system of storage and auxiliary power necessary based on the evaluated results of imbalance between supply and demand.

  11. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  12. Energy sources and nuclear energy. Comparative analysis and ethical reflections

    Under the authority of the episcopacy of Brugge in Belgium an independent working group Ethics and Nuclear Energy was set up. The purpose of the working group was to collect all the necessary information on existing energy sources and to carry out a comparative analysis of their impact on mankind and the environment. Also attention was paid to economical and social aspects. The results of the study are subjected to an ethical reflection. The book is aimed at politicians, teachers, journalists and every interested layman who wants to gain insight into the consequences of the use of nuclear energy and other energy sources. Based on the information in this book one should be able to objectively define one's position in future debates on this subject

  13. Changes in carbon sources fueling benthic secondary production over depth and time: coupling Chironomidae stable carbon isotopes to larval abundance.

    Frossard, Victor; Verneaux, Valérie; Millet, Laurent; Magny, Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie

    2015-06-01

    Stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) values of chironomid remains (head capsules; HC) were used to infer changes in benthic C sources over the last 150 years for two French sub-Alpine lakes. The HCs were retrieved from a series of sediment cores from different depths. The HC δ(13)C values started to decrease with the onset of eutrophication. The HC δ(13)C temporal patterns varied among depths, which revealed spatial differences in the contribution of methanotrophic bacteria to the benthic secondary production. The estimates of the methane (CH4)-derived C contribution to chironomid biomass ranged from a few percent prior to the 1930s to up to 30 % in recent times. The chironomid fluxes increased concomitantly with changes in HC δ(13)C values before a drastic decrease due to the development of hypoxic conditions. The hypoxia reinforced the implication for CH4-derived C transfer to chironomid production. In Lake Annecy, the HC δ(13)C values were negatively correlated to total organic C (TOC) content in the sediment (Corg), whereas no relationship was found in Lake Bourget. In Lake Bourget, chironomid abundances reached their maximum with TOC contents between 1 and 1.5 % Corg, which could constitute a threshold for change in chironomid abundance and consequently for the integration of CH4-derived C into the lake food webs. Our results indicated that the CH4-derived C contribution to the benthic food webs occurred at different depths in these two large, deep lakes (deep waters and sublittoral zone), and that the trophic transfer of this C was promoted in sublittoral zones where O2 gradients were dynamic. PMID:25630956

  14. Energy density and variability in abundance of pigeon guillemot prey: Support for the quality-variability trade-off hypothesis

    Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Abookire, A.A.; Robards, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    1. The quality-variability trade-off hypothesis predicts that (i) energy density (kJ g-1) and spatial-temporal variability in abundance are positively correlated in nearshore marine fishes; and (ii) prey selection by a nearshore piscivore, the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba Pallas), is negatively affected by variability in abundance. 2. We tested these predictions with data from a 4-year study that measured fish abundance with beach seines and pigeon guillemot prey utilization with visual identification of chick meals. 3. The first prediction was supported. Pearson's correlation showed that fishes with higher energy density were more variable on seasonal (r = 0.71) and annual (r = 0.66) time scales. Higher energy density fishes were also more abundant overall (r = 0.85) and more patchy at a scale of 10s of km (r = 0.77). 4. Prey utilization by pigeon guillemots was strongly non-random. Relative preference, defined as the difference between log-ratio transformed proportions of individual prey taxa in chick diets and beach seine catches, was significantly different from zero for seven of the eight main prey categories. 5. The second prediction was also supported. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to summarize variability in correlated prey characteristics (energy density, availability and variability in abundance). Two PCA scores explained 32% of observed variability in pigeon guillemot prey utilization. Seasonal variability in abundance was negatively weighted by these PCA scores, providing evidence of risk-averse selection. Prey availability, energy density and km-scale variability in abundance were positively weighted. 6. Trophic interactions are known to create variability in resource distribution in other systems. We propose that links between resource quality and the strength of trophic interactions may produce resource quality-variability trade-offs.

  15. Integrated Alternative Source of Energy System with Grid Substation

    Shyamsundar Gupta; Sankalp Saurabh; A.K. Akella

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, simulation and optimization of integrated alternative source of energy system with grid substation. When there is a lack of energy in grid substation to meet the demand of customer load then alternative source of energy compensates energy deficiency and after that if there is excess energy available then remaining energy is stored in battery bank or sells to grid according to need. In another case when required energy is not generated by alternative sources ...

  16. Biochar As a Renewable Energy Source

    Stein, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Biochar is a form of charcoal prepared by heating biomass in limited air. It is porous and has high surface area, maintaining much of the morphology of the biomass. The heat for its preparation arises primarily from burning volatiles emitted upon heating. About half the chemical energy in the biomass is contained in the biochar, about 40% is used for the conversion, and about 10% may be used as a local heat source. The biochar can serve as a soil additive where it acts as a template for the growth of bacteria and fungi which then lead to improved growth of biomass by as much as several hundred percent. It remains inert in the soil for many years. Thus, it sequesters the carbon, originally coming from the carbon dioxide absorbed during the photosynthesis occurring during the growth of the biomass. Its use reduces fertilizer and water needs and to pollution arising from the run-off of fertilizer and emission of noxious vapors. Its use is best done at a local level, close to sources of biomass from farm and forest waste. The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative along with the Center of Agriculture of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst is promoting the use of biochar on local farms which reduces their dependence on energy arising from fossil fuel and nuclear sources.

  17. Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers.

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade also containing cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite oxidizers supply cyanase-lacking ammonia oxidizers with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this microbial consortium through reciprocal feeding. By screening a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples, we reveal that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microorganisms, and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate in cycling of nitrogen compounds in the environment. PMID:26222031

  18. Next generation energy sources : the role of natural gas

    This presentation identified natural gas as the energy choice for the next generation. Natural gas is a safe, clean, flexible and reliable energy source that is part of an increasingly diversified fuel mix. With abundant, long term supplies of natural gas, new natural gas generation can be built quickly and cost effectively. Power generation is the fastest source of natural gas demand growth. In Canada, power generation accounts for 9 per cent of natural gas demand, while in the United States, it accounts for 23 per cent. Generating electricity with natural gas costs less, plus it is efficient and clean. The annual North American production is 27 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), which closely matches the current demand. The demand is expected to reach 32 Tcf by 2015. North American proven reserves are 254 Tcf and Canada's ultimate potential resource is 473 Tcf. This presentation also discussed the outlook for future gas prices. Price and volatility have both increased. The prospects in the medium term are for an easing of market tightness and restoring the balance of supply and demand. tabs., figs

  19. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  20. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    ÇETİN, ATALAY; Vardar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are incr...

  1. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs

  2. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  3. Energy Sources and Light Curves of Macronovae

    Kisaka, Shota; Takami, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    A macronova (kilonova) was discovered with short gamma-ray burst, GRB 130603B, which is widely believed to be powered by the radioactivity of $r$-process elements synthesized in the ejecta of a neutron star binary merger. As an alternative, we propose that macronovae are energized by the central engine, i.e., a black hole or neutron star, and the injected energy is emitted after the adiabatic expansion of ejecta. This engine model is motivated by extended emission of short GRBs. In order to compare the theoretical models with observations, we analytically formulate the light curves of macronovae. The engine model allows a wider parameter range, especially smaller ejecta mass, and better fit to observations than the $r$-process model. Future observations of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves should distinguish energy sources and constrain the activity of central engine and $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

  4. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  5. Spherical explosion with a central energy source

    Masuyama, Miyu; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution that describes the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements needed to satisfy the boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus-derived applicable range, and compare the results with the semi-analytic solutions.

  6. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  7. Spherical explosion with central energy source

    Masuyama, Miyu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution describing the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements to satisfy boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus derived applicable range, and compare with the semi-analytic solutions.

  8. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  9. Microalgae: An Alternative Source of Renewable Energy

    A. Z. A. Saifullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients.

  10. Renewable energy sources in liberalized electricity market

    The development of electricity production from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) creates conditions for a long-term security of electricity supplies, reduction of dependence from imported energy supplies, reduction of emissions from greenhouse gases, climate protection, possibility to avoid conflicts, related to ores and minerals, creation of new jobs, etc. The provision of incentives for development of technologies for electricity production from RES creates conditions to address the commitment for electricity production from RES constituting 11% from the gross domestic consumption of the country up to 2010, according to the Accession Treaty of Republic of Bulgaria to the EU. From 1 April 2002, the State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission (SEWRC) applies incentive policy towards producers of electricity from RES via enforcement of feed-in tariffs of the purchased electricity. Energy Act (EA) from 8 September 2006 regulates the promotion of electricity production from RES. Review of the proposed by the Commission criteria in setting-up feed-in tariffs for electricity, generated by RES is well presented in this report.(author)

  11. Some thoughts on new energy sources

    The problems of developing a new central station power source utilizing advanced technology are discussed in the article. Its thesis is that the task of developing a new power system may be generally underestimated; that our present social, financial, and political approach may not be suitable to the task and that therefore development along our present course can result in very large expenditures without timely success. In particular, even after technological success has been achieved, it is not clear that a new system can be introduced in time to avoid serious economic and social dislocations. The history of nuclear power and the development of the breeder are used as illustrative examples of some of the problems to be faced in developing new power sources. In facing a future problem, it is foolish to ignore past experience. On the other hand, it can also be dangerous to generalize and draw analogies. Some conclusions that appear to be generally applicable to the development of new energy sources are summarized

  12. Importance of biomass energy as alternative to other sources in Turkey

    Energy plays a vital role in socio-economic development and raising standards of human beings. Turkey is a rapidly growing country; both its population and economy are expanding each year so its energy demand increases correspondingly and this increasing demand has to be met for keeping sustainable development in the economy and raising living conditions of mankind. Although Turkey has many energy sources, it is a big energy importer. Turkey has a lot of potential to supply its own energy, which could be put to use in order to avoid this energy dependence. Additionally, Turkey is a country that has an abundance of renewable energy sources and can essentially provide all energy requirements from indigenous energy sources. Biomass is one of the most promising energy sources considered to be alternative to conventional ones. This paper investigates the importance of biomass energy in Turkey. Additionally, the potential of biomass and its utilization in Turkey are presented in detail. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries of the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being a major resource of Turkey. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to satisfy much of its energy requirements

  13. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  14. The long-term relationships among China's energy consumption sources and adjustments to its renewable energy policy

    To reduce its consumption of coal and oil in its primary energy consumption, China promotes the development of renewable energy resources. I have analysed the long-term relationship among China's primary energy consumption sources. Changes in coal consumption lead those in the consumption of other energy sources in the long term. Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. The long-term elasticities of China's coal consumption relative to its hydroelectricity consumption were greater than one and nearly equal during the two sample periods. Therefore, increased hydroelectricity consumption did not imply a reduction in coal consumption. China holds abundant hydroelectricity, wind and, solar energy potential. China must prevent an excessive escalation of its economy and resultant energy demand to realise a meaningful substitution of coal with hydroelectricity. Moreover, China must develop and use wind and solar energy sources. Natural gas can be a good substitute for coal, given its moderate price growth and affordable price levels. - Highlights: ► Coal consumption changes lead those of other energy sources in the long term. ► Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. ► Increased hydroelectricity consumption has not meant lower coal consumption. ► Wind, solar and natural gas are China's promising energy sources.

  15. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.;

    2013-01-01

    . Gaseous emissions of SO2 can therefore be cleaned up with the simultaneous production of hydrogen, an energy store or carrier, which provides an economic offset to the overall cost of this potential remediation process. This process forms part of the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle as well as the once......Global sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions peaked around the mid- 1970s, after which they declined. However, with the growth of specifically China, emissions are on the rise again. In 2008, global anthropogenic SO2 emissions totalled 127 Mt, with energy production accounting for 63.2 Mt and metal......-related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas...

  16. Target technology of high energy neutron source

    As a facility of high energy neutron source for materials research and development, Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) is a strong candidate. The FMIT is designed to study the irradiation effect of fusion neutron on a fusion reactor materials. The FMIT generates a high-flux, high-energy neutron, which is produced in a stripping reaction by impinging a 3.5 MeV-0.1A beam of deuterons on a flowing lithium target. Target technology obtained in the FMIT will be useful for Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test Facility (ESNIT) and IFMIF of D-Li stripping reaction facility. In the first report (I), the flowing lithium target of the FMIT was reviewed, and some technical considerations in design were pointed out. In the second report (II), the target assembly and target material were proposed as the option of the HEDEL reference design of FMIT in order to improve the hazard and economy for the Li system: Firstly, the exchangeable target back wall and the measures to minimize the outside device damage in case of back wall breaking, and secondly, the option of molten fluoride salt as target material were proposed. (M.T.)

  17. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler,...

  18. Positive and Negative Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources

    Vezmar, Stanislav; Spajić, Anton; Topić, Danijel; Šljivac, Damir; JOZSA, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, positive and negative impacts of renewable energy sources are presented. Impacts of solar power, biomass power, fuel cells, hydro power, wind power and geothermal power are described. Ecological, social and political impacts of different renewable energy sources are described. Impacts of power plants using different renewable energy sources on the power grid are also described.

  19. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-01-01

    In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions faci...

  20. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  1. A Comparison of ACE Measurements of Galactic Cosmic-Ray Abundances and Energy Spectra for Two Successive Solar Minima

    J. Lavé; Binns, W. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R.A; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Using current solar minimum measurements from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we report the observed elemental abundances and energy spectra for C, O, Si, and Fe in the energy range of ~50-500MeV/nucleon. These measurements are compared to prior CRIS observations for the 1997-98 solar minimum period, when the solar magnetic field was of the opposite polarity. By April 2009, the current solar minimum intensities for each of the ...

  2. Evaluating microbial carbon sources in Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds using natural abundance stable and radiocarbon isotopes

    Ahad, J. M.; Pakdel, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural abundance stable (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotopes of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to evaluate the carbon sources utilized by the active microbial populations in surface sediments from Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds. The absence of algal-specific PLFAs at three of the four sites investigated, in conjunction with δ13C signatures for PLFAs that were generally within ~3‰ of that reported for oil sands bitumen (~ -30‰), indicated that the microbial communities growing on petroleum constituents were dominated by aerobic heterotrophs. The Δ14C values of PLFAs ranged from -906 to -586‰ and pointed to a significant uptake of fossil carbon (up to ~90% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum), particularly in PLFAs (e.g., cy17:0 and cy19:0) often associated with petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The comparatively higher levels of 14C in other, less specific PLFAs (e.g., 16:0) indicated the preferential uptake of younger organic matter by the general microbial population (~50-80% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum). Since the main carbon pools in tailings sediment were essentially 'radiocarbon dead' (i.e., no detectable 14C), the principal source for this modern carbon is considered to be the Athabasca River, which provides the bulk of the water used in the bitumen extraction process. The preferential uptake of the minor amount of young and presumably more biodegradable material present in systems otherwise dominated by recalcitrant petroleum constituents has important implications for remediation strategies. On the one hand, it implies that mining-related organic contaminants could persist in the environment long after tailings pond reclamation has begun. Alternatively, it may be that the young, labile organic matter provided by the Athabasca River plays an important role in stimulating or supporting the microbial utilization of petroleum carbon in oil sands tailings ponds via co-metabolism or priming processes

  3. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  4. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method o...

  5. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  6. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    Aloisio, R.; Berezinsky, V.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri)

    2013-01-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate $X_{max}(E)$ and dispersion $\\sigma(X_{max})$ as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must ...

  7. BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN INDIA

    DEEPAK PALIWAL,; NILANJAN SARKAR; RANJAN BASAK,; DEBOJYOTI MITRA,

    2010-01-01

    The fossil fuel is a main source of energy for generation of electricity in India. Overall, about 80% of greenhouse gas (GHS) emissions are related to the production and use of energy, and particularly, burning of fossils fuels. The environmental problems are associated with the generation of conventional sources of energy.The Kyoto protocol has established flexible mechanisms for developing countries to meet there GHG reduction commitment. Therefore, renewable source of energy is an alternat...

  8. Space Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources: Understanding the Market

    MacAuley, Molly K.

    2002-01-01

    fossil fuels. In addition, a ground-based electricity generation system is now increasingly realized as also vulnerable to disruption. What advantages does space solar power (SSP) offer over other renewable energy sources (wind, terrestrial photovoltaics, biopower, and geothermal) in addressing these concerns? What are disadvantages? This paper discusses the economics of renewable energy in the United States' market in two geographic regions (the west coast and the north central regions) where renewable energy resources are abundant and relatively low cost (thus, aggressively competitive with SSP), but where the security and reliability advantages of SSP may indeed outweigh any generation cost advantage of the terrestrial technologies.

  9. Economic impulses to the implementation of alternative energy sources

    The factors are considered of macroeconomic regulation and microeconomic incentives of the implementation of alternative energy sources in condition of prevailing utilization of conventional energy sources. The analysis concludes that both state regulation and microeconomic incentives shift a time horizon of effective implementation of alternative sources nearer to the present. (author) 6 figs

  10. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Atalay ÇETİN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are increasingly continue around theworld. As a matter of fact, when it is compared to the 2011 rates, the consumption rate of hydro-electricity and other renewable energy sources has increased to 4.3% and % 15.2 respectively in 2012 in the world, is verifying that view.The aim of this study is to investigate the present potential and sufficiency of the main sources of renewable energy such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal andbiomass at Turkey. In this regard, even Turkey has a remarkable potential especially in hydro, wind, solar and geothermal energies among Europe, renewable energy sources ratio in Turkey’s total energy consumption is not rising at desired level. Furthermore becauseTurkey hasn’t got a rich fossil fuel reserves, it needs to import fossil energy sources to meet its rapidly growing energy needs. In related to this, Turkey’s current deficit has beengrowing due to the increase in fossil fuel sources prices at international energy markets. On the other side Turkey’s Green House Gases (GHGs emission has grown more thantwo times as a result of its rapidly using of fossil fuel sources due to its growing economy, industrialization and urbanization process since 1990. Within this context, as a foreigndependent country on fossil fuel energy sources (especially on crude oil and natural gas, Turkey should rapidly change its energy policy from fossil fuels to renewable energysources which are domestic, clean and much more cheaper

  11. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  12. Fusion energy as an alternative major energy source in the next century

    Fusion energy system is assessed from the viewpoints of energy resources, energy ratio, environment, and economics. It is compared with other alternative major energy sources, such as fission and solar energy systems. (author)

  13. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  14. Domestic energy sources urged as Middle East situation heats up

    This article discusses the alternatives to foreign oil as an energy source for the US in the light of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Topics addressed include the responses of organizations representing various energy sources, the public response of the Department of Energy, the response of conservation advocates, and the Administration's reaction

  15. Energy Options: Examining Sources and Defining Government's Role.

    League of Women Voters of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication attempts to provide a non-technical overview of energy sources. Its purpose is to inform citizens so that they can more wisely shape their future. This publication is a companion to SE 025 935 which provides information on the social, political and economic aspects of the energy crisis. An inventory of present energy sources,…

  16. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  17. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources. Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  18. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    Jan Zupa; Ivan Herec

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  19. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    About two-thirds of the energy generated in a light water reactors (LWRs) core is currently dissipated to the ocean as lukewarm water through steam condensers; more than half the energy in helium (He) gas turbine high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) is dissipated through pre-coolers and inter coolers. The new waste heat recovery system efficiently recovers the waste heat from reactors using boiling heat transfer of 20 degree C liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) instead of conventional sea water as a cooling medium. The CO2 gasified in the cooling process is used directly as a working fluid of mechanical heat pumps for hot water supply. In LWRs, the net energy utilization fraction to total heat generation in the core exceeds 85% through the waste heat recovery. This cogeneration system is about 2.5 times more effective than current systems in reducing global warming gas emissions and long half- life radioactive material accumulation. It also increases uranium resource utilization relative to current LWRs. In the HTGR cogeneration system, the waste heat is also useful for cold water supply by introducing an adsorption refrigeration system since the gas temperature is still as high as about 190 degree Celsius. When the heat recovery system is incorporated into the HTGR, the electricity to heat-supply ratio of the HTGR cogeneration system accommodates the demand ratio in cities well; it would be suited to dispersed energy sources. The heat supply cost is expected to be lower than those of conventional fossil-fired boilers beyond operation of about four years. The waste heat recovered is able to be utilized not only for local heat supply but also for methane and methanol production from waste products of cities and farms through high-temperature fermentation, e.g., garbage, waste wood and used paper that are produced in cities, along with excreta produced through farming. The methane and methanol can be used to generate hydrogen for fuel cells. The new waste heat

  20. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion

  1. Hydro power. A flexible and dynamic source of energy

    Hydro power is the source of approximately 16 % of electrical energy production worldwide. In this manner, it is the most significant producer of electricity amongst all renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources available. Hydro power is also the most sustainable means of electricity production, taking into account its lifetime, high efficiency, flexibility, and economic viability. Founded on decades of research and development, hydro power has proven to be an ideal source of energy. (orig.)

  2. Development of renewable energy sources during the years

    The present report briefly characterizes the main types of renewable energy sources aimed at minimizing the negative consequences of the changes in the global climate in the past years and emphasizes the potential and the usage of renewable energy sources in the European Union and Bulgaria respectively in compliance with the normative framework of the European Union. Some of Bulgarian major implemented projects are revealed and special consideration has been given to Bulgarian contribution to development of renewable energy sources. (author)

  3. Conventional versus Alternative Energy Sources and their Economy

    Altmanová, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the production of electricity in the Czech Republic. Divides its production according to the type of energy sources in conventional power plants that use fossil fuels as a source of energy, eventually nuclear fuel and power plants using renewable energy sources. In detail are specified water power plants, wind power plants and photovoltaic power plants. These are specified principles of their functioning, development and share of total electricity production in the Czec...

  4. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  5. The role of the renewable energy sources in the Bulgarian fuel energy balance

    The structure of the gross energy consumption of primary and renewable energy sources is given. The expected part of the renewable energy sources in the country' fuel-energy balance is discussed. The possibilities for use of biomass, hydro energy, geothermal, solar and wind energy in Bulgaria are briefly presented

  6. Renewable energy sources in Italy at 2010 an occupational impact

    The present paper analyzes the occupational impact attained to the realization of programs of renewable energy sources illustrated in the Green Paper presented at the National Conference Energy and Environment

  7. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  8. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  9. Geothermal energy resource: an alternative to energy source in Kenya

    Ogala, J.S. [Nairobi Univ., Faculty of Science, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1999-07-01

    Kenya energy potential lies in the use of geothermal resources. Currently the country relies heavily on imported petroleum fuels and biomass. Electricity is derived from hydropower which is currently 570 MW with an additional 30MW imported from Uganda; thermal 136MW and geothermal 45MW. Geothermal potential in Kenya currently stands at 2000MW. Other potential areas include Suswa, Longonot, Menengai, Korosi, Paka, Silai, Emurungogolak, Namarunu, Barrier and Homa Hill. Geothermal exploration is taking place at Olkaria, Eburru and L. Bogoria, all in the Kenya rift valley. Other potential areas include the Nyanza rift. Exploitation of this potential would meet the current and future electricity needs of the country. Geothermal resources is a relatively environmentally friendly source of energy. The technology of production is well developed to minimise gas and water vapour emissions into the atmosphere. For example, at Olkaria Geothermal Station, the production system has a cooling tower where hot water steam mixture is cooled. Only 5% of the water, representing 70% of the condensed steam is lost from the cooling tower through evaporation. The cooled water, at a temperature of 23degC is injected back into the well for the recharge of the steam reservoir. (Author)

  10. 5th Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    This volume presents papers and lectures in a condensed format on alternative energy sources. The main topics include: ocean thermal energy; alcohol production; geothermal energy; hydrogen production and utilization; bioconversion; solar energy and solar collectors; carbon dioxide and its environmental effects; energy economics; wind power; hydro power; solar cells; thermal energy storage; solar distillation; nuclear energy; and energy conversion and waste product utilization. Three hundred and seventeen of these papers have been indexed and titled listed for the US Department of Energy's Energy Data Base

  11. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink(regsign), an extension of MATLAB(regsign), is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  12. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  13. Basic physics program for a low energy antiproton source in North America

    We summarize much of the important science that could be learned at a North American low energy antiproton source. It is striking that there is such a diverse and multidisciplinary program that would be amenable to exploration. Spanning the range from high energy particle physics to nuclear physics, atomic physics, and condensed matter physics, the program promises to offer many new insights into these disparate branches of science. It is abundantly clear that the scientific case for rapidly proceeding towards such a capability in North America is both alluring and strong. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  15. New Strong Line Abundance Diagnostics for \\HII Regions: Effects of $\\kappa$-Distributed Electron Energies and New Atomic Data

    Dopita, Michael A; Nicholls, David C; Kewley, Lisa J; Vogt, Frédéric P A

    2013-01-01

    Recently, \\citet{Nicholls12}, inspired by \\emph{in situ} observations of solar system astrophysical plasmas, suggested that the electrons in \\HII regions are characterised by a $\\kappa$-distribution of electron energies rather than by a simple Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Here we have collected together the new atomic data within a modified photoionisation code to explore the effects of both the new atomic data and the $\\kappa$-distribution on the strong-line techniques used to determine chemical abundances in \\HII regions. By comparing the recombination temperatures ($T_{\\rm rec}$) with the forbidden line temperatures ($T_{\\rm FL}$) we conclude that $ \\kappa \\sim 20$. While representing only a mild deviation from equilibrium, this is sufficient to strongly influence abundances determined using methods which depend on measurements of the electron temperature from forbidden lines. We present a number of new emission line ratio diagnostics which cleanly separate the two parameters determining the optical spe...

  16. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  17. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  18. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  19. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  20. Alternative Energy Sources. Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    Benrey, Ronald M.; Schultz, Robert F.

    Eight experiments dealing with alternative energy sources are presented. Each experiment includes an introductory section which provides background information and discusses the promises and problems of the particular energy source, a list of materials needed to complete the experiment, and the procedures to be used. The experiments involve:…

  1. Conversion of biomass into energy source

    This study assists the identification of possible application and markets of the CHP-plants in the NAS states, and forms the first part of a detailed study on economical and ecological prospects of small scale and large heat pipe reformers in NAS. It is well known that the energy strategy of the European Union, foresees the increase of the participation of the renewable energy from the total of the energy resources of the European Union, up to 12% in 2010. This participation is of a great importance for the adequate reduction of green house effect gases. From the energy production point of view it is proven the fact that in 2010 the production of renewable energy will be: electricity - 675 tWh; heat - 80 Mtoe (930 TWh). From the above mentioned energy demand, the biomass will cover: electricity - 230 TWh-34,1%; heat - 75 Mtoe (93,8%)

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE PROSPECTS OF SOLAR ENERGY AND OTHER ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN UKRAINE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  3. On the Dynamics of Competing Energy Sources

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the dynamics of energy markets in which energy is derived from polluting (fossil) and clean (solar) resources. The analysis is based on geometric optimal control considerations. An important feature of solar energy technologies is that their cost of supply is predominantly due to upfront investment in capital infrastructure (rather than to actual supply rate) and this feature has important implications for the market allocation outcome. In particular, it gives rise to a thresh...

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  5. Does the source of carbon influence the abundance of nirK, nirS and nosZ functional genes in laboratory denitrification bioreactors?

    Barrett, Maria; Fenton, Owen; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Healey, Mark G.

    2014-05-01

    Biological denitrification in soil is the main producer of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrifying soil microbes are capable of reducing nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) to N2O and di-nitrogen gas (N2). One third of these denitrifers possess a truncated functional gene pathway, which may lack the nosZ gene and emit N2O as a final emission product instead of the more benign N2. A carbon rich environment, specific to certain types of carbon sources, has been shown to foster an anaerobic environment, which positively impacts microbial denitrification rates. The present study examined the effect of varying carbon sources in laboratory-scale denitrification bioreactors on NO3- removal and also correlated performance with the abundance of the denitrifying microbial consortia possessing the denitrifying functional genes nirK, nirS and nosZ in each bioreactor. The bioreactors comprised either lodgepole pine woodchips (LPW), lodgepole pine needles (LPN), barley straw (BBS), or cardboard (CCB), each mixed with soil in a 1:1 ratio (by volume) and subject to sequentially increasing hydraulic loading rates of 3, 5 and 10 cm d-1 for a total operation period of up to 744 days. A reactor containing soil only (CSO) was used as the study control. The abundance of denitrifers was determined by targeting nirK, nirS, nosZ functional genes and the overall microbial population was determined by targeting bacterial and archaeal 16sRNA genes. Nitrate removal from all bioreactors was > 99.7%, but when pollution swapping was considered, this ranged from 67% for LPW to 95% for the CCB ; this was also mirrored in the average nirk/nirS/nosZ gene abundance (CCB, c. 94% (c. 108); LPN, 75% (c. 107); BBS, c. 74% (c. 106/107); LPW, 70% (c. 105). Bacterial 16sRNA gene abundance was similar in all reactors including the control (P=0.0362). The abundance of nosZ genes and the genetic potential for N2 emissions varied in all reactors in comparison to the control CSO, BBS (P=0.0051); CCB (P=0

  6. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Mattia Filippini; Marta Molinas; Eneko Olea Oregi

    2015-01-01

    A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of th...

  7. The Effects of Renewable Portfolio Standards on Renewable Energy Sources

    Ohler, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs have experienced increased popularity at the state level with twenty-three states adopting policies. Policy makers implement these programs in the hopes of stimulating renewable energy generation and lessening the states reliance on nonrenewable sources, by requiring utility companies to provide a specified amount of electricity from renewable sources. I examine the use of renewable energy sources caused by the implementation of these programs, and ...

  8. The development of renewable energy sources must change its scale.

    The French orientation law on energy should be adopted very soon. It fixes ambitious objectives to develop renewable energy sources, in particular a 50% increase of the renewable heat by 2010. Despite an evident acceleration in the development of these energy sources, the path remains long before reaching the orientation law and Kyoto protocol objectives. In particular, several brakes remain to be released for the development of collective facilities (renewable heat networks). This article presents the objectives of the French government in terms of renewable energy sources development (solar thermal and photovoltaic, wood fueled and cogeneration systems) and the problems encountered so far in the implementation of this policy. (J.S.)

  9. Use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation

    India being a developing country, cannot afford to meet the power and energy demand only from conventional sources. Power generation can be augmented by using non-conventional energy sources. Sufficient importance must be given for recovery of energy from industrial/urban waste. Solar heating system must replace industrial and domestic sectors. Solar photovoltaic, biogas plant, biomass based gasified system must also be given sufficient place in energy sector. More thrust has to be given for generation of power by using sugar cane which is a perennial source

  10. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Department of Food and Resource Economics; Parsons, George R. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). College of Marine and Earth Sciences and Department of Economics

    2007-06-15

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic ''green energy'' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources. (author)

  11. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic ''green energy'' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources. (author)

  12. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic 'green energy' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources

  13. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems

  14. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  15. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding...

  16. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-01-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerob...

  17. Decarbonizing electricity generation with intermittent sources of energy

    Ambec, Stefan; Crampes, Claude

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of public policies that aim to decarbonate electricity production by replacing fossil fuel energy by intermittent renewable sources, namely wind and solar power. We consider a model of energy investment and production with two sources of energy: one is clean but intermittent (e.g. wind), whereas the other one is reliable but polluting (e.g. coal). A carbon tax decreases electricity production while simultaneously increasing investment in wind power. This tax may however ...

  18. Hybrid energy sources for electric and fuel cell vehicle propulsion

    Schofield, N; Yap, H T; Bingham, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimi...

  19. Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Naphthalene Derivatives After Biofield Energy Treatment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Alice Branton; Dahryn Trivedi; Gopal Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Naphthalene and 2-naphthol are two naphthalene derivatives, which play important roles in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in naphthalene and 2-naphthol using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Naphthalene and 2-naphthol samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, while the treated g...

  20. Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

    Trivedi, Mahendra; Branton, Alice; Trivedi, Dahryn; Nayak, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (P 18O/16O (P M+1/PM) and ...

  1. Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 2H, 13C, 18O, and 37Cl in Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have been used as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and dyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or 13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4- DCP and 2,6-DC...

  2. Imaging of granular sources in high energy heavy ion collisions

    Yang, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Huo, Lei; Zhang, Jing-Bo

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the source imaging for a granular pion-emitting source model in high energy heavy ion collisions. The two-pion source functions of the granular sources exhibit a two-tiered structure. Using a parametrized formula of granular two-pion source function, we examine the two-tiered structure of the source functions for the imaging data of Au+Au collisions at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We find that the imaging technique introduce...

  3. Flexible Integration of Alternative Energy Sources for Autonomous Sensing

    Weddell, Alex S.; Grabham, Neil J; Harris, Nick R.; White, Neil M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in energy harvesting and autonomous sensing mean that it is now possible to power sensors solely from energy harvested from the environment. Clearly this is dependent on sufficient environmental energy being present. The range of feasible environments for operation can be extended by combining multiple energy sources on a sensor node. The effective monitoring of their energy resources is also important to deliver sustained and effective operation. This paper outlines the i...

  4. Promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in Finland

    Pozdnyakova, Liudmila

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this case was to study the development of energy projects from renewable energy sources and green energy promotion in Finland. A further aim was to establish whether the development takes purely economic turn and if there is a need for improvement of green energy promotion. The research was based on comparison and analysis of wind energy development in Finland, Germany and the Netherlands. Special attention was given to the development of promotional strategies and pol...

  5. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of highly efficient coherent optical sources was reviewed. This work has focused on nonlinear frequency conversion of the highly coherent output of the non-planar ring laser oscillators developed earlier in the program, and includes high efficiency second harmonic generation and the operation of optical parametric oscillators for wavelength diversity and tunability.

  6. Barriers for renewable energy sources development in Poland on the example of wind energy

    Development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of main priorities of energy policy in Poland. Wind energy is one of the most dynamically developing sectors within renewable energy segment. The installed capacity of wind installations in Poland in 2014 was twice as big as in 2010. Despite such a dynamic growth, wind energy sector constantly faces obstacles of various kind in its development. The article presents the current state, barriers and development perspectives of wind energy in Poland and its share in the renewable energy sources sector. Key words: Poland, Renewable Energy Sources, wind energy, electricity

  7. Nuclear energy. Sources and global perspective (3)

    The paper presents a review of the global nuclear energy. The development of the new generation of the nuclear reactors as well as the advanced nuclear power plants is analysed. The perspectives of the nuclear power development are also analysed

  8. Nuclear energy. Sources and global perspective (4)

    The paper presents a review of the global nuclear energy. The development of the new generation nuclear reactors as well as the advanced nuclear power plants is analysed. The perspectives of the nuclear power development are also analysed

  9. Comparing nuclear power with other energy sources

    The economics of electric generation of nuclear, hydro, oil and gas origin are compared. A similar comparison is also made from the health and environment standpoint for the fossil, nuclear, solar and wind generation. A risk assessment for energies of different origin is outlined and the significance of the greenhouse effect is emphasised. A comprehensive economic and environmental evaluation is recommended for the energy planning

  10. A new energy source originating from extra dimensions

    Tao Bi-Xiu; Ji Shi-Yin; Li Fang-Qiong

    2004-01-01

    In this work the Einstein gravitational field equations and the Lichnerowicz boundary formalism in the extra dimensions are used to build up our black hole model from 6-dimensional space-time. From the internal stress-energy tensor the solutions with energy levels and semiclassical space-quantization are obtained, which combines with only one metric condition outside the defect. We show a new type of energy source, which originates from extra dimensions. A part of the energy source of quasi-stellar object (QSO) maybe come from extra dimensions in that way. The theoretical arithmetic upper limit is identical to that of the output energy of QSO.

  11. Propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and compact sources

    Fodor, Z

    2001-01-01

    The clustering of ultrahigh energy (>10^{20} eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. Statistical analysis (Dubovsky et al., 2000) estimated the source density. We extend their analysis to give also the confidence intervals (CI) for the source density using a.) no assumptions on the relationship between clustered and unclustered events; b.) nontrivial distributions for the source luminosities and energies; c.) the energy dependence of the propagation. We also determine the probability that a proton created at a distance r with energy E arrives at earth above a threshold E_c. Using this function one can determine the observed spectrum just by one numerical integration for any injection spectrum. The observed 14 UHECR events above 10^{20} eV with one doublet gives for the source densities 180_{-165}^{+2730}\\cdot 10^{-3} Mpc^{-3} (on the 68% confidence level).

  12. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays from Compact Sources

    Fodor, Z

    2001-01-01

    The clustering of ultra high energy (above 10^20 eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. Statistical analysis of Dubovsky et al. (astro-ph/0001317) estimated the source density. We extend their analysis to give also the confidence intervals for the number of sources using a.) no assumptions on the relationship between clustered and unclustered events; b.) nontrivial distributions for the source intensities and energies; c.) the energy dependence of the propagation. We determine the probability that a proton created at a distance r with energy E arrives at earth above a threshold E_c. The observed 14 UHECR events above 10^20 eV with one doublet gives for the source densities 6.43_-6.05^+136*10^-3 Mpc^-3 (on the 68% confidence level). We present detailed results for future experiments with larger UHECRs statistics.

  13. Solar Energetic Particles: Sampling Coronal Abundances

    Reames, Donald V.

    1998-05-01

    In the large solar energetic particle (SEP) events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shock waves out through the corona that accelerate elements of the ambient material to MeV energies in a fairly democratic, temperature-independent manner. These events provide the most complete source of information on element abundances in the corona. Relative abundances of 22 elements from H through Zn display the well-known dependence on the first ionization potential (FIP) that distinguishes coronal and photospheric material. For most elements, the main abundance variations depend upon the gyrofrequency, and hence on the charge-to-mass ratio, Q/A, of the ion. Abundance variations in the dominant species, H and He, are not Q/A dependent, presumably because of non-linear wave-particle interactions of H and He during acceleration. Impulsive flares provide a different sample of material that confirms the Ne:Mg:Si and He/C abundances in the corona.

  14. Utilization of natural variations in the isotopic abundance of 15N to trace the source of aquifer pollution by nitrates

    The validity of using the natural isotope nitrogen-15 to trace the source of nitrates contained in aquifers is discussed with reference to experimental devices (lysimeters and experimental plots) and for examples chosen from the Paris area. There are a number of sources of nitrates: (1) industrially synthesized nitrates (fertilizers); (2) nitrates produced by oxidation of organic matter associated with human, agricultural or urban activities; (3) nitrates synthesized in the soil by the decay of organic matter. In the examples studied these sources differ in their 15N content: (1) fertilizers have a delta15N close to zero (atmospheric nitrogen); (2) the nitrates originating from organic pollution have high delta15N (above 10-12 per mille) and this 15N enrichment is associated with the volatilization of ammonia during the ammonia stage of mineralization; (3) the isotopic characterization of the nitrates produced by organic matter in the soil is less evident. Citing several examples, the author demonstrates that these three sources are diffentiated isotopically. Consideration of the parameters nitrate concentration/isotopic composition reveals simple mixture curves. In the most complicated cases - where there is association with other isotopic (3H) or chemical parameters - it is possible qualitatively to trace the sources of nitrogen pollution

  15. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  16. ALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Тітлова, О.А.

    2015-01-01

    Today humanity is beginning to understand the consequences of ill-considered use of energy resources. In the last decade  a new direction of the economy is actively developing – «The Blue Economy». Its aim is to find innovative solutions that are safe for the environment and society. Bioenergy is one of the directions of the «Blue Economy» which is actively developing lately. The article discusses the possibility, advisability and examples of the algae use as a feedstock for the energy resour...

  17. Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy

    As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

  18. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of selected springs, and the abundance and health of associated endemic anuran species in the Mojave network parks

    Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Martin, Peter; Flint, Alan L.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrological and biological investigations were done during 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. National Park Service to investigate the source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of selected springs and the abundance and health of endemic anuran (frog and toad) species at Darwin Falls in Death Valley National Park, Piute Spring in Mojave National Preserve, and Fortynine Palms Oasis in Joshua Tree National Park. Discharge from the springs at these sites sustains isolated riparian habitats in the normally dry Mojave Desert. Data were collected on water quantity (discharge) and quality, air and water temperature, and abundance and health of endemic anuran species. In addition, a single survey of the abundance and health of endemic anuran species was completed at Rattlesnake Canyon in Joshua Tree National Park. Results from this study were compared to limited historical data, where they exist, and can provide a baseline for future hydrological and biological investigations to evaluate the health and sustainability of the resource and its response to changing climate and increasing human use.

  19. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  20. Nuclear energy. Sources and global perspective (2)

    The paper presents a review of the global nuclear energy, economic aspects of its utilization, as well as its environmental impacts. The data of the nuclear power are being compared by countries and regions. The perspectives of the nuclear power development are also analysed

  1. Nuclear energy: Sources and global perspective (7)

    The paper presents a review of the global nuclear energy. The development of the new generation of the nuclear reactors AR 600 is analysed. The advanced nuclear power plants as well as the perspectives of the nuclear power development are also analysed

  2. Phenomenology of extragalactic high energy sources

    The course is divided in two main bodies: Chapters 1 and 2 deal with some of the fundamental properties of the production of high energy radiation, while chapter 3 is devoted to the observations of active galaxies; chapter 4 presents the X-ray emission of clusters of galaxies and the sky background

  3. SPACE: More high energy gamma sources

    Ultra high energy (TeV) gamma rays have been observed by an international team working at the Whipple observatory in Arizona. These also correlate with some of the signals seen by NASA's big Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) satellite launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis last year

  4. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  5. Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region

    European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as for the energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored support system of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energy markets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contribution is to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley. We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesis is the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valley and determination of the best possible variant of it. (authors)

  6. Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

  7. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  8. Energy-dependent Charge States and Their Connection with Ion Abundances in Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

    DiFabio, R.; Guo, Z.; Möbius, E.; Klecker, B.; Kucharek, H.; Mason, G. M.; Popecki, M.

    2008-11-01

    Impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events show substantial enhancements of heavy ions and 3He over the composition in the Sun's atmosphere. Mass per charge dependent acceleration mechanisms have been proposed to account for this preferential acceleration. However, a problem emerged for all the preferential acceleration models with the measurement of ionization states near 1 MeV nucleon-1, which showed that ions from C to Mg are fully stripped, a challenge that had been recognized early on. Since all models relied on differences in the charge-to-mass ratio to enable preferential acceleration, the proposed mechanisms were incompatible with this observation. Recent observations of the ionic charge states at lower energies have revealed a dependence on energy, with the charge states decreasing for lower energy ions. This raises the possibility that the low-energy charge states reflect the plasma conditions at the acceleration site, while the high-energy charge states are due to stripping low in the solar corona. In a survey of impulsive events we show that the increase of the Fe charge states with energy is highly significant for the sample of events and thus most likely a general feature of impulsive events. To see whether there is a connection between the enhancements and charge states, we extended the ACE SEPICA charge-state observations to lower energies and combined them with the ion fluxes from ACE ULEIS for impulsive events observed between 1997 and 2000. We find a positive correlation between the abundance ratios and the charge states at low energy, while the charge states at the highest energy do not demonstrate such dependence. This supports the idea that the higher mass particles are preferentially accelerated before being stripped.

  9. The Abundance of Low Energy Cosmic Ray Boron and Nitrogen Nuclei Measured at Voyager 1 Beyond the Heliopause, Where Do They All Come From? An Interpretation Using a Leaky Box Galactic Propagation Model

    Webber, W R

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in the Voyager data itself as well as the cross sections for production of these secondaries at these low energies are an important limitation on the estimates of the amount of matter traversed. We also attempt a fit to the B observations at low energies by considering a source component of B generated in 1.0 g/cm2 of matter near the sources but after acceleration. This would be equivalent to a Nested LBM. In this model the V1 data below 40 MeV/nuc is now well fit. For Nitrogen, which is dominated by a source component at these low energies, a fit to the data between 10-130 MeV/nuc can be obtained with a N/O source ratio = 6.3 + 1.0% and a path length compatible with the H and He propagation as noted above. This Voyager observation confirms earlier measurements of a low N abundance in the cosmic ray source relative to what is found for solar abundances, for example, where the N/O ratio is found to be ~12%.

  10. Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner

  11. Analysis of Different Methods for Computing Source Energy in the Context of Zero Energy Buildings

    Torcellini, Paul A.; Bonnema, Eric; Goldwasser, David; Pless, Shanti

    2016-08-26

    Building energy consumption can only be measured at the site or at the point of utility interconnection with a building. Often, to evaluate the total energy impact, this site-based energy consumption is translated into source energy, that is, the energy at the point of fuel extraction. Consistent with this approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) definition of zero energy buildings uses source energy as the metric to account for energy losses from the extraction, transformation, and delivery of energy. Other organizations, as well, use source energy to characterize the energy impacts. Four methods of making the conversion from site energy to source energy were investigated in the context of the DOE definition of zero energy buildings. These methods were evaluated based on three guiding principles--improve energy efficiency, reduce and stabilize power demand, and use power from nonrenewable energy sources as efficiently as possible. This study examines relative trends between strategies as they are implemented on very low-energy buildings to achieve zero energy. A typical office building was modeled and variations to this model performed. The photovoltaic output that was required to create a zero energy building was calculated. Trends were examined with these variations to study the impacts of the calculation method on the building's ability to achieve zero energy status. The paper will highlight the different methods and give conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied.

  12. Research and development in alternative energy sources

    This paper comprehensively discusses the various bioconversion and thermochemical processes. It recommends that the most urgent research and development issues should relate to direct microbial conversion systems for starch and cellulosic material and to basic biomass combustion rates and mechanisms. An overview of some of the major renewable energy resources and conversion technologies along with the potentials and problems associated with these are also presented.(author). 235 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Chemical energy sources transformations by remote experiment

    Tkáč, Lukáš; Schauer, František; Gerhátová, Žaneta

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the first experience with the set up, functioning and data evaluation of the remote experiment "Energy transformation" accessible via Internet (http://remotelab10.truni.sk ) as a part of the e-laboratory at the Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Trnava University in Trnava, Slovakia. The remote experiment control and data acquisition is based on the system ISES (Internet School Experimental System) and its control program and www page are built using the environm...

  14. ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-01-01

    Providing access to quality and sufficient energy to all households, individuals, sectors, and institutions at all times is the minimum condition for economic development. The climate change is gradually harming the environment, social and economic development of world economy. The major culprit fuelling the climate change is burning of fossil fuel. Hence, the power generation in India should not only aim at sufficient power generation, but also at generating clean, green and ...

  15. Marine energies, the new wave of renewable energy sources

    Hydro-kinetic power, wave energy, thermal energy of seawater, all these techniques have a low notoriety for the moment but are progressively gaining ground thanks to technological progress, to public support, but first of all to the mobilization of companies and regions in concern. This article shows that France is still within the time to build up its renewable marine energies industry

  16. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  17. ENEGY FORESTRY A SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Margareta RUSU

    2014-01-01

    Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation s...

  18. Energising Africa: 'Leapfrogging' energy technologies can help, and so can more investment and partnerships for developing Africa's abundant resources

    The importance of modern energy provision in African development cannot be over-emphasised, as it is the nucleus of socio-economic development worldwide. However, large numbers of Africans depend instead on firewood and charcoal, reflecting the comparatively low level of industrialisation on the continent. Moving out of this stage requires a substantial increase in cost-effective and affordable energy sources, while minimising environmental hazards and ensuring social equitability and sustainability. For Africa to be competitive, its per capita primary energy needs to be increased. In comparison with the rest of the world, Africans are among the smallest consumers of primary energy. In addition, Africa has multiple energy technologies to satisfy the needs of 30% of the population, in urban areas. The rural areas, where the remaining 70% live, have limited energy choices. It must be a priority for African governments to ensure that the rural majority has access to the same choices as those who live in urban areas

  19. Relative and contextual contribution of different sources to the composition and abundance of indoor air bacteria in residences

    Miletto, Marzia; Lindow, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of the microbial communities in the built environment is of critical importance as humans spend the majority of their time indoors. While the microorganisms in living spaces, especially those in the air, can impact health and well-being, little is known of their identity and the processes that determine their assembly. We investigated the source-sink relationships of airborne bacteria in 29 homes in the San Francisco Bay Area. Samples taken in the sites expected to be sou...

  20. Financial incentives for renewable energy sources: how much?

    In this article is assessed the costs and effectiveness of financial incentives policies to stimulate the development of renewable energy sources for electricity production in view of the European goals for the year 2020

  1. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  2. Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony

    The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.)

  3. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    and solar power production and their co-fluctuation at small time scales. The multi-scale nature of the variability is less studied, i.e., the potential adverse or favorable co-fluctuation at intermediate time scales involving water scarcity or abundance, is less present in the literature.Our review points out that it could be especially interesting to promote research on how the pronounced large-scale fluctuations in inflow to hydropower (intra-annual run-off) and smaller scale fluctuations in wind- and solar-power interact in an energy system. There is a need to better represent the profound difference between wind-, solar- and hydro-energy sources. On the one hand, they are all directly linked to the 2-D horizontal dynamics of meteorology. On the other hand, the branching structure of hydrological systems transforms this variability and governs the complex combination of natural inflows and reservoir storage.Finally, we note that the CRE production is, in addition to weather, also influenced by the energy system and market, i.e., the energy transport and demand across scales as well as changes of market regulation. The CRE production system lies thus in this nexus between climate, energy systems and market regulations. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk)

  4. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  5. Field biomass as global energy source

    Hakala, Kaija; Kontturi, Markku; Pahkala, Katri

    2009-01-01

    Current (1997–2006) and future (2050) global field biomass bioenergy potential was estimated based on FAO (2009) production statistics and estimations of climate change impacts on agriculture according to emission scenario B1 of IPCC. The annual energy potential of raw biomass obtained from crop residues and bioenergy crops cultivated in fields set aside from food production is at present 122–133 EJ, 86–93 EJ or 47–50 EJ, when a vegetarian, moderate or affluent diet is followed, respectively....

  6. SINGLE - PHASE INVERTER CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR INTERFACING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    C.Nallasivam

    2015-01-01

    A novel current control technique is proposed to control power flow from a renewable energy source feeding a microgrid system through a three - phase parallel - connected inverter. The parallel - connected inverter ensures that the power flow from the grid with low - current total harmonic distortion even in the presence of nonlinear load. The renewable energy sources ar e paralleled, and the average of this constant sup...

  7. Electricity generating costs in small-scale dispersed energy sources

    Small-scale dispersed energy sources - small-scale-gas-fired cogeneration heat and power (CHP) plants, fuel cells, wind generators and others are playing bigger and bigger role in the world's electricity production. These sources will be not an alternative for the electricity supply system (including nuclear power plants), during the nearest two decades. (author)

  8. Optimum target source term estimation for high energy electron accelerators

    Nayak, M. K.; Sahu, T. K.; Nair, Haridas G.; Nandedkar, R. V.; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R. M.; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2016-05-01

    Optimum target for bremsstrahlung emission is defined as the thickness of the target material, which produces maximum bremsstrahlung yield, on interaction of electron with the target. The bremsstrahlung dose rate per unit electron beam power at a distance of 1 m from the target material gives the optimum target source term. In the present work, simulations were performed for three different electron energies, 450, 1000 and 2500 MeV using EGSnrc Monte-Carlo code to determine the optimum thickness. An empirical relation for optimum target as a function of electron energy and atomic number of the target materials is found out from results. Using the simulated optimum target thickness, experiments are conducted to determine the optimum target source term. For the experimental determination, two available electron energies, 450 MeV and 550 MeV from booster synchrotron of Indus facility is used. The optimum target source term for these two energies are also simulated. The experimental and simulated source term are found to be in very good agreement within ±3%. Based on the agreement of the simulated source term with the experimental source term at 450 MeV and 550 MeV, the same simulation methodology is used to simulate optimum target source term up to 2500 MeV. The paper describes the simulations and experiments carried out on optimum target bremsstrahlung source term and the results obtained.

  9. Intracluster Supernova as a Possible Extra Energy Source of Clusters

    Sasaki, Shin

    2000-01-01

    The observed luminosity -- temperature relation of clusters is considerably steeper than that expected from a simple scaling relation. Although extra energy input is a likely solution, its source has not been identified. We propose intracluster supernova as a possible source, and also predict the supernova rate in intracluster space as a critical test.

  10. Energy sources and power plants; Energiequellen und Kraftwerke

    Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ. / Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Schulz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [German] Energie wird aus verschiedenen Energietraegern gewonnen (Kohle, Erdoel, Erdgas, Kernbrennstoffe, Windenergie, Solarenergie, Wasserkraft, Biomasse, Geothermie). Diese unterscheiden sich jeweils hinsichtlich ihrer Verfuegbarkeit, der Methoden ihrer Gewinnung und der benoetigten Kraftwerkstechnologien. Als Zukunftstechnologien werden Brennstoffzellen und Kernfusion gehandelt.

  11. Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania

    The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  12. Technology, risks and insurance of alternative energy sources

    The discussion of conversion scenarios from nuclear energy to alternative energy sources has taken up a central position in the field of electrical and environmental policy. The possibilities of using solar energy and its conversion forms of hydroelectric power, wind energy, biomass, environmental heat and solar hydrogen (as a secondary energy carrier) are presented, using typical pilot projects. The analysis of the technological status, the main centres of development interest and the operating and damage experience demonstrates the risks involved in these energy technologies. The investigation of the technical and economic development potential leads to an assessment of the position of the alternative energy sources in the electricity supply market. This leads to a survey of their importance in the future insurance market. (orig.)

  13. Abundances, charge states, and energy spectra of helium and heavy ions during solar particle events

    Gloeckler, G.; Sciambi, R.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1975-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen energy spectra observed during several solar events indicate a systematic deviation of these spectra from a simple power law: the spectra bend down below about 100 keV/nuc and the amount of this bending is highly correlated with the size of the flare, as measured by the 'event averaged' flux of 130-220 keV protons. The energy spectra of helium computed for the same time periods do not show a similar feature. A large variability of the alpha/CNO ratio is found from event to event (from 2 to about 20 at 40 keV/nuc), and in all cases examined the carbon and oxygen nuclei are nearly fully stripped. These results are interpreted as evidence for storage of energetic ions in hot coronal regions, followed by strong adiabatic deceleration.

  14. High-energy neutrinos from sources in clusters of galaxies

    Fang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structure, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report the cumulative cosmic ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and $\\gamma$ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.

  15. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-04-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.

  16. Prioritization of renewable energy sources for Turkey by using a hybrid MCDM methodology

    Highlights: • The paper proposes a hybrid model to prioritize RE sources for Turkey. • The hybrid model based on BOCR and ANP is proposed under linguistic values. • Strategic criteria are economy, security, wellbeing, technology and global effects. • Nineteen criteria are used to evaluate hydro, geothermal, solar, wind and biomass. - Abstract: Developing countries such as Turkey, with their fast growing population and economy, are facing an increasing demand for energy. Turkey does not possess a sufficient quantity of domestic oil and natural gas resources to support this growing demand. On the other hand, the country does have abundant reserves of renewable energy that can be a major component in providing part of the overall energy supply. The country plans to explore its renewable energy (RE) sources and increase the renewable energy share in near future. With this in mind, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on BOCR (Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks) and ANP (Analytic Network Process) to determine Turkey’s energy status and prioritize alternative RE sources. BOCR analysis provides a strategic analysis and detailed overview of the country’s energy issues. ANP is a practical multi criteria decision making (MCDM) method and offers the advantages of decision making models, based on tangible and intangible factors. 19 criteria are used to evaluate five alternative RE sources (Hydro, Geothermal, Solar, Wind and Biomass). The subsequent results show that the most important strategic criterion is economy; other criteria include security, human wellbeing, technology and global effects. Their weights are 0.485, 0.235, 0.130, 0.097 and 0.053, respectively. In the conclusion of this paper, the authors propose hydro power as the optimal RE source for the country

  17. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    Berta, S; Santini, P; Wuyts, S; Rosario, D; Brisbin, D; Cooray, A; Franceschini, A; Gruppioni, C; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hwang, H S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Popesso, P; Pozzetti, L; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) Far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PEP and HerMES programs is combined with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields. Based on this rich dataset, we reproduce the restframe UV to FIR ten-colors distribution of galaxies using a superposition of multi-variate Gaussian modes. The median SED of each mode is then fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an AGN. The defined Gaussian grouping is also used to identify rare sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z~1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, an...

  18. Bremsstrahlung source term estimation for high energy electron accelerators

    Thick target bremsstrahlung source term for 450 MeV and 550 MeV electrons are experimentally determined using booster synchrotron of Indus facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, India. The source term is also simulated using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Results from experiment and simulation are found to be in very good agreement. Based on the agreement between experimental and simulated data, the source term is determined up to 3000 MeV by simulation. The paper also describes the studies carried out on the variation of source term when a thin target is considered in place of a thick target, used in earlier studies. - Highlights: • Experimental determination of bremsstrahlung source term at 450 and 550 MeV electrons. • Monte Carlo calculations performed for validation of experimental data. • Thick and thin target bremsstrahlung source term is studied. • Brensstrahlung Source term is determined up to 3 GeV electron energies

  19. Development of a high-energy distributed energy source electromagnetic railgun with improved energy conversion efficiency

    Vought Corporation in cooperation with the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas (CEM-UT) has developed under sponsorship by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) a high-energy distributed energy source (DES) electromagnetic (EM) railgun accelerator. This paper discusses the development and current status of the DES railgun which has the design capability to launch projectile masses up to 60 grams to the 3-4 km/sec velocity regime with energy conversion efficiencies above 35 percent. These goals are being accomplished through utilization of scaled-energy CEM-UT railgun experiments for sequenced timing/staging and a full energy (575 kJ) design at Vought for high efficiency capability. The operational Vought single-pulse railgun forms the baseline for the full energy testing

  20. Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future

    The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass

  1. The IEA Model of Short-Term Energy Security (MOSES): Primary Energy Sources and Secondary Fuels

    Jessica Jewell

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES...

  2. Briket Daun Kering Sebagai Sumber Energi Alternatif (Dry Leaves Briquettes As An Alternative Energy Source)

    Arif, Effendy

    2012-01-01

    The increase of energy consumption and the lack of reserve make the energy price fluctuating with increasing trend. This condition affects the global economics and Indonesian national budget due to the huge increasing subsidiary cost of oil/energy. One of the efforts to overcome this problem is to utilize various alternative energy sources such as biomass waste. Some biomass waste have been studied as altenative energy sources, e.g.: cashew shell, paddy husk, coconut shell, peanut shell, palm...

  3. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...

  4. Preparatory assistance project alternative energy sources. Summary of results

    This work is about the forest areas and the artificial forest wood survey carried out in the alternative energy sources framework project. The use of wood as fuel in Uruguay requires specific actions of the State to ensure the balanced management of natural energy resources

  5. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    Wei, Di

    2015-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability.

  6. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose of...

  7. Active Galactic Nuclei as High-Energy Neutrino Sources

    Murase, Kohta

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be promising candidates of extragalactic cosmic-ray accelerators and sources, and associated high-energy neutrino and hadronic gamma-ray emission has been studied for many years. We review models of high-energy neutrino production in AGN, and discuss their implications for the latest IceCube observation of the diffuse neutrino intensity.

  8. Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources

    Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.

  9. Pulsed Neutron Sources from Low Energy Proton Beams

    The efficiency with which neutrons may be produced using (p,n) reactions in Be and Li is substantially less than that of spallation. Only about 1 neutron for every 100 or more protons for these reactions in contrast to 10’s of neutrons per proton in the case of spallation. Nevertheless, the large currents available from linear accelerators with energies in the range from 3 to 30MeV allow the construction of a pulsed neutron source with reasonable flux based on these reactions because of their low threshold energies. At least one line of commercial neutron sources is presently being marketed for use in radiography medical applications and various research applications using these reactions. These sources provide neutrons at rates up to 1x1013 n/s and couple the source to a simple room temperature moderator. At Indiana University we are taking this concept slightly further in constructing the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) to provide neutrons at rates up to 1x1014 n/s and combining the source with a cryogenic moderator. LENS is designed to be a very flexible facility fulfilling three missions: to provide a rich educational environment for students to learn the details of neutron techniques, to develop new types of neutron instrumentation, and to conduct materials research using neutrons. The source will have a variable pulse structure (from as short as 5 μsec to as long as 1.2msec) and variable frequency (up to 100 Hz when using shorter pulses). We envision that sources such as LENS will provide a viable model for constructing networks of small sources that can support the major new spallation sources under construction in the USA and Japan in a manner similar to the support that national reactor sources presently provide for the ILL and ISIS in Europe. In this sense, LENS will serve as a prototype for the type of source this meeting was convened to discuss

  10. Interaction between Musca domestica L. and its predator Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae: effects of prey density and food source abundance

    Juliano Lessa Pinto Duarte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between Musca domestica L. and its predator Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae: Effects of prey density and food source abundance. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of prey density and food source abundance on the predatory behavior of Muscina stabulans over M. domestica. Three predator/prey proportions were evaluated (1:1, 1:3 and 1:6, using 100 third instar predator larvae against second instar prey larvae. Each proportion was maintained using three different levels of food substrate (25, 50 and 100 g. The experiments were carried out in triplicate in BOD incubators (25ºC, UR 70% ± 10% and 12 h photoperiod. The mortality of the M. domestica larvae was 100% under all conditions, except in the 1:6 predator/prey proportion, at the 50g and 100g food substrate levels, where it was 99.99% and 99.22%, respectively. There was a significant increase in the development period of M. stabulans in relation to the increase in prey density and decrease in quantity of food substrate. An increase in the proportion of individuals and a reduction in the amount of resource slowed down larval development. Muscina stabulans pupal weight was proportional to the increase in prey density and the amount of food substrate. The proportion or the density influenced the survival of M. stabulans, with no difference in relation to the amount of food source and consequently in the interaction of the factors. There was no difference between the 1:1 and 1:3 predator-prey densities, with both differing from the 1:6 density.

  11. Economically available resources of renewable energy sources in Bulgaria

    The report is a part of the Project on Renewable Energy Sources jointly developed by the US National Laboratory on Renewable Energy Sources and the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia. The economically accessible resources (EAR) in different geographical regions of Bulgaria are calculated for the following applications: passive and active use of solar energy for heating, photovoltaic batteries and wind energy equipment. A comparison of EAR values for certain renewable technologies in 2010 and 2020 is made. The analysis comprises: passive use of solar energy, domestic water heating, district heating, industrial water heating, photovoltaics, wind energy conversion systems (WECS) with horizontal axis turbines; burning of municipal, forestry and agricultural residues; small hydro installations, balneology, home heating. The percentage share of EAR values for each technology is calculated and compared with those of corresponding reserve estimates. 4 refs., 1 tab

  12. Use of surplus napalm as an energy source

    Mushrush, G.W.; Beal, E.J.; Hardy, D.R.; Hughes, J.M.

    2000-03-01

    The current military surplus of napalm should be viewed as an energy source rather than as hazardous waste. The energy content of this resource is too valuable to waste. There are at present significant problems to be overcome both scientifically and politically before this material can be used as an energy source. Scientific problems include solubility in a proper fuel matrix, methods to ensure complete combustion, and safety in transportation and handling. In this paper, the authors present data on gasoline and benzene extraction from napalm, napalm fuel matrix solubilities, burner characteristics of these napalm fuel mixtures, and the accelerated storage stability studies of these mixtures.

  13. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2014-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  14. Presence and abundance of non-native plant species associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin

    Preston, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Williston Basin, located in the Northern Great Plains, is experiencing rapid energy development with North Dakota and Montana being the epicenter of current and projected development in the USA. The average single-bore well pad is 5 acres with an estimated 58,485 wells in North Dakota alone. This landscape-level disturbance may provide a pathway for the establishment of non-native plants. To evaluate potential influences of energy development on the presence and abundance of non-native species, vegetation surveys were conducted at 30 oil well sites (14 ten-year-old and 16 five-year-old wells) and 14 control sites in native prairie environments across the Williston Basin. Non-native species richness and cover were recorded in four quadrats, located at equal distances, along four transects for a total of 16 quadrats per site. Non-natives were recorded at all 44 sites and ranged from 5 to 13 species, 7 to 15 species, and 2 to 8 species at the 10-year, 5-year, and control sites, respectively. Respective non-native cover ranged from 1 to 69, 16 to 76, and 2 to 82 %. Total, forb, and graminoid non-native species richness and non-native forb cover were significantly greater at oil well sites compared to control sites. At oil well sites, non-native species richness and forb cover were significantly greater adjacent to the well pads and decreased with distance to values similar to control sites. Finally, non-native species whose presence and/or abundance were significantly greater at oil well sites relative to control sites were identified to aid management efforts.

  15. Public perceptions towards various energy sources in Sweden

    This paper deals with the Swedish energy debate of the summer of 1989 from a risk-perception approach. What are the attitudes (both environmental and economic) of the citizens in two towns in Sweden to the various energy sources which can be used to replace the electricity lost from a nuclear phase-out? The following three important conclusions are reached: (i) a majority of the respondents in both towns oppose an early phase-out of nuclear power if the electricity lost is replaced by fossil fuels. (ii) The people interviewed in the two areas had differences of opinion concerning various energy sources. (iii) Citizens' perceptions of risks played a major role in determining their attitudes towards various energy sources. (Author)

  16. Phase 1 report: investigation of geothermal energy information sources

    1976-07-14

    A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.

  17. Renewable energy for rural development to protect environmental pollution from energy sources

    Energy is the key input for technological industrial, social and economical development of a nation. The present energy scenario is heavily biased towards the conventional energy sources, such as petroleum products, coal, atomic energy, etc., which are finite in nature and causes environmental pollution. The energy utilization pattern is also meant for the energy requirement in urban areas. To meet the growing energy requirement of rural areas through the conventional energy sources will cause serious harmful effect on the environmental pollution. The man's thurst to use more energy after about 150 thousand years ago, invention of wheel, use of petroleum products for power generation and invention of steam and coal has brought him to use the energy sources for his comfort irrespective of the environmental consideration. The extensive use of energy operated devices in domestic, industrial, transport and for agriculture sectors in urban and rural areas have resulted in economical development of the society

  18. Energy Economics and Policy of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Wadim Strielkowski; Štěpán Krška; Evgeny Lisin

    2013-01-01

    European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In ...

  19. THE PLACE OF RENEWABLE SOURCES AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE ENERGY POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Slobodan Cvetanović , Miljan Jovanović

    2014-01-01

    The increasing renewable source usage and energy efficiency enhancement represent the key aims of the energy sector's development in EU countries. The purpose of their implementation is at the same time the creation of the renewable sources concept as a new development paradigm.Thus, this points to the conclusion that all the projects of renewable source usage and energy efficiency enhancement must be viewed from the perspective of the manifestation of economic, environmental and social effec...

  20. Constraining High-Energy Cosmic Neutrino Sources: Implications and Prospects

    Murase, Kohta

    2016-01-01

    We consider limits on the local ($z=0$) density ($n_0$) of extragalactic neutrino sources set by the nondetection of steady high-energy neutrino sources producing $\\gtrsim30$ TeV muon multiplets in the present IceCube data, taking into account the redshift evolution, luminosity function and neutrino spectrum of the sources. We show that the lower limit depends weakly on source spectra and strongly on redshift evolution. We find $n_0\\gtrsim{10}^{-7}~{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$ for standard candle sources evolving rapidly, $n_s\\propto{(1+z)}^3$, and $n_0\\gtrsim{10}^{-5}~{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$ for nonevolving sources. The corresponding upper limits on their neutrino luminosity are $L_{{\

  1. ENEGY FORESTRY A SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Margareta RUSU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation should be targeted to deliver sustainability, biodiversity and economic growth. Romanian has a high potential and can develop energy forestry in order to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure an alternative energy solution and an energy reserve. This paper aims to analize the challenges and opportunities the biomass energy industry creates in the context of climate change mitigation which must be seen from an entrepreneurial perspective in Romania.

  2. Mantle in the Manihiki Plateau source with ultra-depleted incompatible element abundances but FOZO-like isotopic signature

    Golowin, R.; Hoernle, K.; Portnyagin, M.; Hauff, F.; Gurenko, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.; Werner, R.

    2014-12-01

    The ~120Ma Manihiki Plateau basement consists of high-Ti tholeiitic basalts with EM-I type isotopic signatures, similar to the Singgalo basalts at Ontong Java, and low-Ti tholeiitic basalts with FOZO (Kwaimbaita/Kroenke) to HIMU-type isotopic compositions, similar to late stage volcanism on Hikurangi and Manihiki Plateaus (Hoernle et al. 2010; Timm et al. 2011). The low-Ti basalts have affinities to boninites and have been interpreted to be derived from residual mantle wedge mantle (Ingle et al. 2007). New major, volatile and trace element and radiogenic isotope data have been generated from fresh low-Ti glass samples recovered during R/V Sonne cruises SO193 and SO225. The low-Ti samples have distinctly lower Ti/V ratios compared to lavas from Ontong Java Plateau (Kwaimbaita-Kroenke and Singgalo), but similar to boninitic rocks. Glasses and melt inclusions in olivine have low volatile contents (0.12-0.25 wt% H2O). Olivine chemistry points to derivation from peridotite source. Therefore we interpret the low-Ti lavas to have formed through melting of dry and depleted peridotite at high temperatures, consistent with Timm et al (2011). The low-Ti group is characterized by U-shaped trace element patterns. The glass samples form linear mixing arrays on radiogenic isotope diagrams, pointing to the involvement of two components: 1) a component ultra-depleted in highly incompatible elements (UDC) but with intermediate Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, being similar to Kwaimbaita/Kroenke lavas from Ontong Java, and 2) an enriched component with HIMU-type incompatible element and isotopic characteristics, similar to late-stage volcanism on Manihiki, Hikurangi and Ontong Java (e.g. Hoernle et al. 2010). The ultra-depleted, FOZO-like mantle component could represent second stage melting of FOZO type mantle or re-melting of young recycled oceanic lithosphere within the plume head. Enrichment with HIMU type melts is required to explain the enrichment in the most incompatible

  3. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  4. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  5. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  6. TAXONS OF CHICKEN CECUM MICROBIOM ARE ABUNDANT, AND INFLUENCED BY THE COMBINED FEED COMPOSITION AND DECREASED METABOLIZABLE ENERGY

    L.A. IL’INA; E.A. YILDIRIM; I.N. NIKONOV; V.A. FILIPPOVA; G.Yu. LAPTEV; N.I. NOVIKOVA; A.A. GROZINA; T.N. LENKOVA; V.A. MANUKYAN; V.I. FISININ; I.A. EGOROV

    2015-01-01

    Currently the processed sunflower products as the cheapest source of vegetable protein are considered an alternative to soybean cake and meal in the poultry diet. However, in sunflower meal the energy value is lower, lysine rate is less than required, and the level of non-starch polysaccharides not digestible in poultry gut because of absence of specific enzymes (i.e., amylases, cellulases, etc.) are rather high. Digestion of these components is possible due to microbial enzymes. Gut content ...

  7. Heterogeneous distribution of H2O in the Martian interior: Implications for the abundance of H2O in depleted and enriched mantle sources

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Srinivasan, Poorna; Santos, Alison R.; Elardo, Stephen M.; Filiberto, Justin; Steele, Andrew; Shearer, Charles K.

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a petrologic study of apatite within 12 Martian meteorites, including 11 shergottites and one basaltic regolith breccia. These data were combined with previously published data to gain a better understanding of the abundance and distribution of volatiles in the Martian interior. Apatites in individual Martian meteorites span a wide range of compositions, indicating they did not form by equilibrium crystallization. In fact, the intrasample variation in apatite is best described by either fractional crystallization or crustal contamination with a Cl-rich crustal component. We determined that most Martian meteorites investigated here have been affected by crustal contamination and hence cannot be used to estimate volatile abundances of the Martian mantle. Using the subset of samples that did not exhibit crustal contamination, we determined that the enriched shergottite source has 36-73 ppm H2O and the depleted source has 14-23 ppm H2O. This result is consistent with other observed geochemical differences between enriched and depleted shergottites and supports the idea that there are at least two geochemically distinct reservoirs in the Martian mantle. We also estimated the H2O, Cl, and F content of the Martian crust using known crust-mantle distributions for incompatible lithophile elements. We determined that the bulk Martian crust has ~1410 ppm H2O, 450 ppm Cl, and 106 ppm F, and Cl and H2O are preferentially distributed toward the Martian surface. The estimate of crustal H2O results in a global equivalent surface layer (GEL) of ~229 m, which can account for at least some of the surface features on Mars attributed to flowing water and may be sufficient to support the past presence of a shallow sea on Mars' surface.

  8. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée;

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...... and the locations of solar powered nodes. Results show a maximum 39% savings in energy consumption with different increases in connection blocking probability....

  9. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-15

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH{sub 2} and 1.36 $/kgH{sub 2}, respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH{sub 2} to 6.03 $/kgH{sub 2}. On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future.

  10. Mathematical modelling of electricity market with renewable energy sources

    The paper addresses the electricity market with conventional energy sources on fossil fuel and non-conventional renewable energy sources (RESs) with stochastic operating conditions. A mathematical model of long-run (accounting for development of generation capacities) equilibrium in the market is constructed. The problem of determining optimal parameters providing the maximum social criterion of efficiency is also formulated. The calculations performed have shown that the adequate choice of price cap, environmental tax, subsidies to RESs and consumption tax make it possible to take into account external effects (environmental damage) and to create incentives for investors to construct conventional and renewable energy sources in an optimal (from the society view point) mix. (author)

  11. Energy-Based Collaborative Source Localization Using Acoustic Microsensor Array

    Li Dan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensor network source localization method based on acoustic energy measurements is presented. This method makes use of the characteristics that the acoustic energy decays inversely with respect to the square of distance from the source. By comparing energy readings measured at surrounding acoustic sensors, the source location during that time interval can be accurately estimated as the intersection of multiple hyperspheres. Theoretical bounds on the number of sensors required to yield unique solution are derived. Extensive simulations have been conducted to characterize the performance of this method under various parameter perturbations and noise conditions. Potential advantages of this approach include low intersensor communication requirement, robustness with respect to parameter perturbations and measurement noise, and low-complexity implementation.

  12. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  13. Low-energy point source searches with IceCube

    Euler Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the overwhelming background of atmospheric muons, the traditional IceCube point source search in the Southern Hemisphere is mainly sensitive to neutrinos with energies above 100TeV. A new approach focuses on events starting inside the instrumented volume. By utilizing different veto techniques we are able to significantly reduce the energy threshold and can now for the first time explore the entire Southern Hemisphere at neutrino energies as low as 100GeV. We present the results of two analyses targeting slightly different energy ranges. Both use one year of data taken with the completed IceCube detector in 2011/12.

  14. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  15. Solid waste as an energy source for the Northeast

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This report, one of a series prepared for the BNL study of the Energy Future of the Northeastern United States, presents an assessment of the potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal refuse to energy supply in the region. A brief review of the present and likely future quantity and composition of municipal refuse and the technologies available for energy recovery (Chapters II and III) is followed by a comparison of the potential contributions to energy supply of the various recovery options including direct firing in utility boilers, pyrolysis to oil or gas, and steam generation for industrial process heat or district space heating (Chapter IV). The relationship of refuse energy recovery to market conditions for alternative energy sources is considered in Chapter V, which also includes an analysis of the impact of haul costs, interest rates, and delivered prices of the major fuels. Institutional barriers to implementation of energy recovery are reviewed in Chapter VI, and the environmental implications of the concept are addressed in Chapter VII. In the concluding chapters, scenarios of energy recovery are developed for 1985 and 2000, and the sensitivity of overall energy yield to projections and assumptions is examined. Although even under the most optimistic assumptions, refuse energy recovery is found to contribute only some 5 percent of total regional consumption, the economic and environmental benefits, coupled with the increasing difficulty of finding other refuse disposal alternatives, make energy recovery a very attractive policy choice for helping to relieve future energy supply difficulties in the Northeast. (auth)

  16. Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms in Dynamic Optical Core Networks with Dual Energy Sources

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars

    This paper proposes new energy efficient routing algorithms in optical core networks, with the application of solar energy sources and bundled links. A comprehensive solar energy model is described in the proposed network scenarios. Network performance in energy savings, connection blocking...

  17. Diversification of Energy Supply: Prospects for Emerging Energy Sources

    Ross, Michael M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Asia’s burgeoning energy demand has stimulated interest in photovoltaics, wind power, and unconventional gas (shale gas, tight gas, coal-bed methane, and coal-mine methane). For each of these, the resource, current status, future prospects, environmental implications, investment and infrastructure requirements, and risks are examined. Shale gas has revolutionized North American gas supply, but may develop slowly in Asia due to challenging geological conditions, lack of geological data, dense ...

  18. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs

  19. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O. Olotuah; Olabosipo I Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

    Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research metho...

  20. Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development

    Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

  1. Energy sources in gamma-ray burst models

    Taam, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of energy sources in models of gamma-ray bursts is examined. Special emphasis is placed on the thermonuclear flash model which has been the most developed model to date. Although there is no generally accepted model, if the site for the gamma-ray burst is on a strongly magnetized neutron star, the thermonuclear model can qualitatively explain the energetics of some, but probably not all burst events. The critical issues that may differentiate between the possible sources of energy for gamma-ray bursts are listed and briefly discussed.

  2. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  3. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  4. Prices and costs of energy sources; Les prix et les couts des sources d'energie

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie (CNRS- UPMF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    An evaluation of the complete social energy cost should result from the sum of the production marginal cost, of the external marginal cost and of the marginal cost of substitution of non-renewable energy sources. This last parameter is difficult to estimate because of theoretical and methodological obstacles. The two others are evaluated for different energy sources, in the present day situation, and in the perspective of a probable evolution. Today, fossil fuels have the lowest internal costs whatever their use. Thus, in 'business as usual' energy scenarios, fossil fuels represent more than 80% of the energy supply at the 2050 prospects. However, several uncertainties can affect the future evolution of these costs, some are of geopolitical origin (political fragility of some exporting countries), and some are of environmental origin (internalized costs of CO{sub 2} emissions). Finally, the depletion of some resources should be anticipated. (J.S.)

  5. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  7. A source of energy : sustainable architecture and urbanism

    Roestvik, Harald N.

    2011-07-01

    An update on the environmental challenges. Meant to inspire and be a source of energy.Tearing down myths and floodlighting paradoxes. Particularly relevant for students of architecture, architects and concerned citizens. Training tasks, recommendations for further source books and web sites, are included. From the content: Climate change and consensus, Population growth, Food production, The sustainable city, Transportation myths and facts, A mini history of environmental architecture, Architects' approach to sustainable design, The failure of western architects; a case study; China, The passive, zeb and plus energy building, Natural ventilation, Sustainable materials, Plastics in building, Nuclear energy, Solar energy, The grid of the future, Indoor climate and health. The sick building syndrome, Radon, Universal design, Paradoxes, Bullying techniques, Trust yourself, Timing, Which gateway will you choose?, On transience. (au)

  8. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole

  9. Guidelines for the calibration of low energy photon sources at beta-ray brachytherapy sources

    With the development of improved methods of implanting brachytherapy sources in a precise manner for treating prostate cancer and other disease processes, there has been a tremendous growth in the use of low energy photon sources, such as 125I and 103Pd brachytherapy seeds. Low energy photon sources have the advantage of easier shielding and also lowering the dose to normal tissue. However, the dose distributions around these sources are affected by the details in construction of the source and its encapsulation more than other sources used for brachytherapy treatments, such as 192Ir. With increasing number of new low energy photon sources on the market, care should be taken with regard to its traceability to primary standards. It cannot be assumed that a calibration factor for an ionization chamber that is valid for one type of low energy photon source, automatically is valid for another source even if both would use the same isotope. Moreover, the method used to calculate the dose must also take into account the structure of the source and the encapsulation. The dose calculation algorithm that is valid for one type of low energy source may not be valid for another source even if in both cases the same radionuclide is used. Simple ''point source'' approximations, i.e. where the source is modeled as a point, should be avoided, as such methods do not account for any details in the source construction. In this document, the dose calculation formalism adopted for low energy photon sources is that recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) as outlined by Task Group-43 (TG-43). This method accounts for the source and capsule geometry. The AAPM recommends brachytherapy photon sources to be specified in terms of 'Air Kerma Strength' that is also used in the formalism mentioned above. On the other hand, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends that the specification be done in terms of Reference Air

  10. Production of electrical and heat energy. Analysis of the efficiency of energy sources

    The paper analyses the technical and economic indicators of different energy sources employed in the energy production. The electricity and heat production shared by a condensation plant and a boiler house is compared with common production of both the kinds of energy by one electrical plant in a cogeneration process. The analysis is performed based on the conventional and less known approaches to the estimation of plant operation efficiency. The former concerns energy indicators while the latter exergy ones. The variations in the energy indicators were considered depending on the load of an energy source, with estimation also given for a potential use of the exergy efficiency indicators. (Authors)

  11. A Novel Source of Tagged Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils

    Joshi, Tenzing H. Y.

    2011-01-01

    For sufficiently wide resonances, nuclear resonance fluorescence behaves like elastic photo-nuclear scattering while retaining the large cross-section characteristic of resonant photo-nuclear absorption. We show that NRF may be used to characterize the signals produced by low-energy nuclear recoils by serving as a novel source of tagged low-energy nuclear recoils. Understanding these signals is important in determining the sensitivity of direct WIMP dark-matter and coherent neutrino-nucleus s...

  12. Nuclear fusion: the energy source of the future?

    Nuclear fusion reactors are safer and do not produce any long-lived radioactive waste, unlike nuclear fission reactors. Moreover, their energy source is endless. In the strive for a sustainable energy future, rather a lot of eyes are turned towards nuclear fusion technology that is also CO2-neutral. In 2009, Belgium decided to actively participate in the international 'Broader Approach' nuclear fusion programme, a partnership between the EU and Japan, with SCK-CEN playing the Belgian lead role.

  13. Methane as an energy source for the 21st century

    Nakicenovic, N.

    2002-01-01

    Today, fossil fuels supply about 80% of global primary energy. The consequences are severe for human health from indoor and regional air pollution, acidification due to sulphur and nitrogen oxide emissions and climate change due to rapidly growing greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the efficiency and the environmental compatibility of fossil technologies, shift to fossil energy sources with lower environmental impacts such as natural gas, or shift awa...

  14. Biogas from cattle manure as an alternative energy source

    Castrillón Peláez, Leonor; Fernández Nava, Yolanda; Marañón Maison, María Elena; Ormaechea, P.; Quiroga, G.; S. Valero

    2009-01-01

    Research into alternative renewable energy sources is a global objective aimed at sustaining the current standard of living in developed countries. Biogas production offers a very promising option for generating renewable energy. Asturias, a region in the north of Spain, has a large population of dairy cattle. The industrialization of cattle farming in the region has led to surplus manure, around 696400 t/year. The objective of this research was to study the co-digestion of cattle manure with...

  15. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  16. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  17. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  18. Impacts of chronic anthropogenic noise from energy-sector activity on abundance of songbirds in the boreal forest.

    Bayne, Erin M; Habib, Lucas; Boutin, Stan

    2008-10-01

    The effects of human activities in forests are often examined in the context of habitat conversion. Changes in habitat structure and composition are also associated with increases in the activity of people with vehicles and equipment, which results in increases in anthropogenic noise. Anthropogenic noise may reduce habitat quality for many species, particularly those that rely on acoustic signals for communication. We compared the density and occupancy rate of forest passerines close to versus far from noise-generating compressor stations and noiseless well pads in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Using distance-based sampling, we found that areas near noiseless energy facilities had a total passerine density 1.5 times higher than areas near noise-producing energy sites. The White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata), and Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) were less dense in noisy areas. We used repeat sampling to estimate occupancy rate for 23 additional species. Seven had lower conditional or unconditional occupancy rates near noise-generating facilities. One-third of the species examined showed patterns that supported the hypothesis that abundance is influenced by anthropogenic noise. An additional 4 species responded negatively to edge effects. To mitigate existing noise impacts on birds would require approximately $175 million. The merits of such an effort relative to other reclamation actions are discussed. Nevertheless, given the $100 billion energy-sector investment planned for the boreal forest in the next 10 years, including noise suppression technology at the outset of construction, makes noise mitigation a cost-effective best-management practice that might help conserve high-quality habitat for boreal birds. PMID:18616740

  19. Photon energy tunability of the advanced photon source undulators

    At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or open-quote tunedclose quotes by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay-clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5-20 keV is discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and K-values are given for two typical classes of devices

  20. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  1. Energy efficiency: a source of savings; a priority objective

    Energy efficiency is defined as consumption of less energy whilst delivering the same service. Significant progress has been made through the impact of technology, price increases and awareness of waste. Too often viewed as a constraint, energy efficiency nonetheless constitutes the leading potential source of domestic energy for the 2020 goal. Energy efficiency is or will be (depending on the will of the stakeholders, public authorities and society as a whole) a key market for the future and a pathway to creative innovation. Everything is pointing in that direction: the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fourfold, the new European Directive on Energy Efficiency to be incorporated, the expected increase in energy prices, the presence in France of industry leaders and of a small-scale but important industry in this sector. The goals in energy efficiency entail: - at Community level, that the objective of 20% energy savings for the 2020 goal becomes binding; - at national level, that public policies for energy efficiency are part of a long-term vision, based on the achievements of the Grenelle Environment Forum and avoid sending out any wrong signals which might adversely affect progress. The ESEC proposals are built around the following four themes: - (residential and service sector) buildings: Make energy efficiency into a real sector and a new opportunity 'work together', Optimise tools and regulations, Be innovative in terms of financial support; - fuel poverty; - industry and agriculture; - the particular situation of the overseas departments

  2. Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications

    Hershcovitch, A.; Roser, T.

    2009-12-01

    A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.

  3. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  4. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain...

  5. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  6. Earth science: Another energy source for the geodynamo

    Buffett, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is not usually considered to be a constituent of Earth's core, but its presence there has now been proposed to explain an ongoing enigma -- the identity of the energy sources that drive our planet's magnetic field. See Letter p.387

  7. Connection of the Renewable Energy Sources in a Distribution Network

    Procházka, K.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor; Vybíralík, F.

    Buenos Aires: ADEERA, 2006, s. 1-6. ISBN N. [International Congress on Electricity Distribution - CIDEL. Buenos Aires (AR), 27.11.2006-29.11.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : renewable energy sources * distributed generators * wind power plant Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Search for high energy cosmic neutrino point sources with ANTARES

    The aim of this thesis is the search for high energy cosmic neutrinos emitted by point sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The detection of high energy cosmic neutrinos can bring answers to important questions such as the origin of cosmic rays and the γ-rays emission processes. In the first part of the thesis, the neutrino flux emitted by galactic and extragalactic sources and the number of events which can be detected by ANTARES are estimated. This study uses the measured γ-ray spectra of known sources taking into account the γ-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light. In the second part of the thesis, the absolute pointing of the ANTARES telescope is evaluated. Being located at a depth of 2475 m in sea water, the orientation of the detector is determined by an acoustic positioning system which relies on low and high frequency acoustic waves measurements between the sea surface and the bottom. The third part of the thesis is a search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data. The search algorithm is based on a likelihood ratio maximization method. It is used in two search strategies; 'the candidate sources list strategy' and 'the all sky search strategy'. Analysing 2007+2008 data, no discovery is made and the world's best upper limits on neutrino fluxes from various sources in the Southern sky are established. (author)

  9. Energy sources of the high latitude upper atmosphere

    Banks, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodynamic (Joule) dissipation and plasma wave heating are reviewed as sources of energy for the upper atmosphere at high latitudes. Electrodynamic heating in the thermosphere is described by a generalized energy balance equation taking into account a variety of inelastic processes and energy losses, and the use of height-integrated values of the Joule heating rate to estimate the importance of electrodynamic heating at high latitudes is discussed. Observations of electrons between 95 and 115 km altitude that are up to 1000 K hotter than the neutral atmosphere is presented as evidence for atmospheric heating due to unstable plasma waves arising from the Farley-Buneman modified two-stream instability.

  10. Renewable Energy Sources in International and EU Legal Regulations

    Róża Miklaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues relating to international and EU regulations in the field of renewable energy sources (RES. It discusses in a comprehensive manner the most important acts specific for the both regulatory platforms. Also presented are the most important objectives and premises, which these acts implement. The RES development, at both the international and Community levels, is presented in the context of activities undertaken within the energy policy framework at each of the concerned platforms. The description of the characteristics of international and EU legislation also refers to their significant impact on Polish legislation on renewable energy.

  11. Strategy for regenerative energy sources. Status and development potential

    Without doubt, in the future, we shall have to cover a growing proportion of our energy requirements by utilizing regenerative energy sources such as the sun, wind, water and biomass. The indisputable advantages of inexhaustibility and environment friendliness are, however, compared with the disadvantages of non-uniform demand as well as partially small potential and high costs. In spite of these facts, there are, in the minds of the public, high expectations and great demands on the electricity supply industry in relation to the further development of regenerative power generation. In the future, RWE Energie AG will strongly intensify its efforts towards improving the economics of regenerative power generation. (orig.)

  12. Efficiency of utilization of various sources of energy for growth.

    Donato, K.; Hegsted, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The relative efficiency of dietary sucrose, protein sources, and fats in depositing body protein and fat (total energy) was directly estimated in young rats by feeding graded levels of each as supplements to a fixed amount of a basal diet that was presumably adequate in all essential nutrients except for energy. Under these conditions, the net gain in total body energy was a linear function of the amount of supplement added and the data fulfill the criteria of a valid slope-ratio bioassay. Th...

  13. Economics of energy sources: Data management and information system

    Vaccaro, R.; Trozzi, C.; Sano, A.

    1988-08-01

    This work reports on an information system containing historical series in the field of economics of energy sources. Specific problems related to energy data are analyzed together with the general problem of data, information and information systems. In the development of an information system, before logical and physical design, it is essential that the system be analyzed from the point of view of conceptual and organizational design. Referring to ENERGECO, a data base in the fields of energy and economics, developed by Energy Studies Directorate of ENEA, the problem of interface of an information system is discussed. ENERGECO represents the first step in the development of a complete energy information system. In this work, the principal aspects for the planning of a such system are introduced; in particular the structure of energy data is analyzed. A descriptive scheme'', that defines the structure of data, is analyzed for every process (for example, production) and its relative indicators (for example, quantity) in all its elements (energy source, unit, coverage period, coverage area, etc.). Finally, the basis for a decision support system, that allows the user to retrieve data, to use rules for their combination and aggregation and also to use statistical functions and models are set.

  14. Energy spread of ion beams generated in multicusp ion sources

    For the production of future microelectronics devices, various alternate methods are currently being considered to replace the presently used method of lithography with ion beam lithography. One of these methods is the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL), which aims at the possibility of projecting sub-0.25 μm patterns of a stencil mask onto a wafer substrate. In order to keep the chromatic aberrations below 25 nm, an ion source which delivers a beam with energy spread of less than 3 eV is desired. For this application, multicusp ion sources are being considered. We measure the longitudinal energy spread of the plasma ions by using a two-grid electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy spread of the extracted beam is measured by a high-voltage retarding-field energy analyzer. In order to obtain the transverse ion temperature, a parallel-plate scanner is being set up to study the beam emittance. In this paper, comparisons are made for different ion source configurations

  15. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    In 1959, Miller and Urey (Science 130, 245) published their classic compilation of energy sources for indigenous prebiotic organic synthesis on the early Earth. Much contemporary origins of life research continues to employ their original estimates for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges, 2 × 1019 J yr-1 and 6 × 1019 J yr-1, respectively. However, more recent work in terrestrial lightning and point discharge research suggests that these values are overestimates by factors of about 20 and 120, respectively. Calculated concentrations of amino acids (or other prebiotic organic products) in the early terrestrial oceans due to electrical discharge sources may therefore have been equally overestimated. A review of efficiencies for those experiments that provide good analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges suggests that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole J-1) are about one order of magnitude higher than those for coronal discharge. Therefore organic production by lightning may be expected to have dominated that due to coronae on early Earth. Limited data available for production of nitric oxide in clouds suggests that coronal emission within clouds, a source of energy heretofore too uncertain to be included in the total coronal energy inventory, is insufficient to change this conclusion. Our recommended valves for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early Earth are, respectively, 1 × 1018 J yr-1 and 5 × 1017 J yr-1.

  16. High energy neutron source for materials research and development

    Requirements for neutron source for nuclear materials research are reviewed and ESNIT, Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test facility proposed by JAERI is discussed. Its principal aims of a wide neutron energy tunability and spectra peaking at each energy to enable characterization of material damage process are demanding but attractive goals which deserve detailed study. It is also to be noted that the requirements make a difference in facility design from those of FMIT, IFMIF and other high energy intense neutron sources built or planned to date. Areas of technologies to be addressed to realize the ESNIT facility are defined and discussed. In order to get neutron source having desired spectral characteristics keeping moderate intensity, projectile and target combinations must be examined including experimentation if necessary. It is also desired to minimize change of flux density and energy spectrum according to location inside irradiation chamber. Extended target or multiple targets configuration might be a solution as well as specimen rotation and choice of combination of projectile and target which has minimum velocity of the center of mass. Though relevant accelerator technology exists, it is to be stressed that considerable efforts must be paid, especially in the area of target and irradiation devices to get ESNIT goal. Design considerations to allow hands-on maintenance and future upgrading possibility are important either, in order to exploit the facility fully for nuclear materials research and development. (author)

  17. Employment effects through enhanced use of renewable energy sources

    The Bonn-based association Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., (forum for energies of the future), carried out a study investigating whether and to what extent enhanced use of renewable energy sources may contribute to improving in the future the employment situation in Germany. Taking as a basis the current conditions determining expenses and profits in the energy sector and the related employment situation, the study elaborates several scenarios and analyses their conceivable effects. The objective of the study presented in this issue was to assess the gross and net employment effects possibly to be achieved by programmes fostering power generation from renewable sources, and the financial input required in form of investments by industry and governmental grants. (orig./CB)

  18. Nuclear power 2009. Renaissance of an energy source?

    In spite of some setbacks, the peaceful use of nuclear energy has been quite successful in its fifty years of history. In 2008, there were 438 nuclear reactors world-wide, which generated about 13 % of the total power generated that year; 2.5 thousand million tonnes of CO2 emissions were prevented, and fossil resources in the range of about 1.35 thousand million tonnes t.c.e were saved. In the overall power mix, nuclear power has ensured price stability as it is still one of the least costly energy sources. (In the USA, nuclear power is indeed the least costly energy source, with a price of 1.87 US cents per kWH, followed by coal at 2.75 US cent per kWH). There is also a current trend towards reviewing the option of new power plants, which may indeed herald a renaissance. (orig.)

  19. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  20. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  1. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  2. Energy Efficiency: Information Sources for New and Emerging Technologies

    Parker, Steven A.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to share a list of useful organizations that provide reliable information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies based on research and experience. Experienced energy managers may use the information provided by these organizations to enhance their knowledge and understanding, thereby improving their energy management programs. The scope is limited to publicly-available and open-membership organizations that deal with new and emerging, energy-efficient technologies, strategies, and products. The sources identified should not be considered exhaustive but rather a first step “go to” list suggested by the author when searching for useful information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies.

  3. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  4. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  5. A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria

    O.T. Okugbo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing global warming. Nipa Palm which has been regarded as an environmental menace is now regarded as one of the candidates for renewable energy to fulfill the requirement of clean carbon emission. Abundant quantity of Nipa Palm provides an impetus for the sustainable generation of bio-ethanol. This sugar based bio-ethanol source development in Nigeria provides not only profitable use to a problem plant but also provides an opportunity and incentive to generate some Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs credits.

  6. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  7. Search for point sources of high energy neutrinos with Amanda

    Report of search for likely point sources for neutrinos observed by the Amanda detector. Places intensity limits on observable point sources. This paper describes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector, an array of 302 photomultiplier tubes, used for the detection of Cherenkov light from upward traveling neutrino-induced muons, buried deep in ice at the South Pole. The absolute pointing accuracy and angular resolution were studied by using coincident events between the AMANDA detector and two independent telescopes on the surface, the GASP air Cherenkov telescope and the SPASE extensive air shower array. Using data collected from April to October of 1997 (130.1 days of livetime), a general survey of the northern hemisphere revealed no statistically significant excess of events from any direction. The sensitivity for a flux of muon neutrinos is based on the effective detection area for through-going muons. Averaged over the Northern sky, the effective detection area exceeds 10,000 m2 for Eμ ∼ 10 TeV. Neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions were used to verify the predicted performance of the detector. For a source with a differential energy spectrum proportional to Eν-2 and declination larger than +40o, we obtain E2 (dNν/dE) (le) 10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 for an energy threshold of 10 GeV

  8. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  9. On the Energy Source of the Gravitational Field

    Mayer, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    According to the principles of special relativity, the systemic energy budget of a quantum harmonic oscillator exceeds canonical ``total energy" (E) by the difference between the 1̂-norm and 2̂-norm (E) of the complex number (mc^2 + ipc). This surplus energy manifests as a spatially unbounded continuous waveform centered on the source particle, having a phase velocity equal to the speed of light. In the immediate vicinity of a source particle and at corresponding high radial amplitude variation, the interaction between this waveform and spacetime induces various quantum effects. A kilogram of mass contains ˜ 0^27 subatomic harmonic oscillators (e.g., quarks); decoherent superposition of their momentum-driven (/δx) radiated waveforms provides an isotropic monotonically-decreasing space energy density. Spacetime response to the presence of this distributed energy manifests as the gravitational field in accord with the basic interpretation of general relativity: ``energy curves spacetime.'' Hypotheses put forward in this discussion are empirically testable with tabletop experiments.

  10. A Source of Energy for Any Kind of Star

    Rabounski D.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a recently predicted mechanism whereby energy is produced by the background space non-holonomic field (the global space rotation in Thomson dispersion of light in free electrons. We compare the mechanism to the relations of observational astrophysics — the mass-luminosity relation and the stellar energy relation. We show that by such a mechanism generating energy in a star, the luminosity of a star L is proportional to its volume, with a progression associated with increasing radius. The obtained relation L ≈ R^3.4 explains why there are no stars of a size close to that of the bulky planets. This also explains the extremely high thermal flow from within Jupiter, which most probably has the same energy sources as those within a star, but with a power much less than that required to radiate like a star. The theory, being applied to a laboratory condition, suggests new energy sources, working much more effectively and safely than nuclear energy.

  11. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basis of theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, description of the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources, reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesis is reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the company is implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air), the mission of the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic side of it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes t he questionnaire offer for effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance (benefits) from the government and EU funds. (authors)

  12. New impetus to the economy through renewable energy sources

    The paper shows that the renewable energy sources offer a unique chance: to replace the 'deus ex machina' philosophy by the 'deus ex sole' approach. The reasons why the energy industry refuses to consider exploitation of renewable energy sources are quite obvious. Any deep-cutting change in energy policy priorities would imply likewise deep cuts in the utilities' returns from investments made for existing, conventional power generation systems and transmission infrastructure, which would entail losses in a branch of industry never seen before. It is high time, however, to demand a basic switch in policy and to pave the way for solar energy by appropriate political and economic incentives now, as Germany as one of the highly industrialised countries must not turn a blind eye to its responsability for the global environment. Even if there were not the risk of a global environmental crisis as a consequence of current resource squandering, good economic reasoning and a sense of responsability for the developing economies of the world be reason enough to alter the energy policy approach without hesitation. (orig./CB)

  13. Current state and utilization of nontraditional and renewable energy sources in Poland

    Szymańska, Daniela; Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse and assess the use of renewable energy sources in the Polish energy balance for the period 2006-2010. In Poland, in according to the Energy Law (1997), renewable energy sources are sources using the processing power: wind energy, solar radiation, geothermal energy, waves power, energy of currents and tides, energy of river gradient, biogas and biomass. Biomass could be divided into forest biomass, agricultural biomass (mainly energy crops, but also consumer ...

  14. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  15. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation's kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil

  16. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  17. Energy sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. [Carcinogenicity of PAHs

    Guerin, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Combustion is the predominant end-process by which fossil fuels are converted to energy. Combustion, particularly when inefficient, is also the primary technological source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released into the environment. The need for liquid fuels to supply the transportation industry and for nonpolluting fuels for heat and power generation provide the incentive to commercialize processes to convert coal to substitute natural gas and oil. These processes represent a potentially massive new source of environmental PAHs. Insuring an adequate supply of energy with minimum impact on the environment and on health is one of the most important, urgent, and challenging goals currently facing science and technology. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon related carcinogenesis is among the most important of possible occupational- and environmental-health impacts of much of the current and projected national energy base. An understanding of the relationship of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to human cancer and a continued surveillance of energy sources for PAH content are necessary to minimize this impact.

  18. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Over the past two decades or so, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources have created a tremendous impact and given a major boost to technology and science in the production of high intensity multiply charged ions. A project was undertaken to develop a research facility consisting of an ECR source along with all its peripheral electronics and vacuum components placed on a 200 kV high voltage platform for obtaining multiply charged ions in a widely varying energy range from a few kilo electron volts (keV) to a few million electron volts (MeV)

  19. A Low Carbon EU Energy System and Unconventional Sources

    The paper investigates the potential role of unconventional fossil fuels in a global low carbon energy system. Making use of a systemic approach, the paper presents an original application of a global partial equilibrium energy system model (TIAM-JET). In order to give a worldwide perspective with higher detail on European energy systems, the model links a set of extra-European macro-regions to the 30 European countries. First, a review of the most recent estimates of the available stocks of unconventional hydrocarbon resources is used to build the set of assumption for the scenario analysis. Secondly, a set of scenarios assuming different availability and cost of unconventional fuels are added to both a Current Trend scenario and a Carbon Constrained (CC) scenario, to explore the perspectives of unconventional gas and oil in a scenario halving CO2 emissions by 2050, which is consistent with a 2 degree temperature increase. The results show if/how unconventional sources can contribute to the robustness of the European energy system with respect to the stress of a strong carbon constraint. We define this robustness as the capacity of the energy system to adapt its evolution to long-term constraints and keep delivering energy services to end users. In our approach robustness represents the long-term dimension of energy security. Assessing this ''system property'' requires analysing the wide range of factors that can exercise a stabilizing influence on the energy services delivery system, together with their relations, actual interactions and synergies. The energy system approach used for the analysis seeks to take into account as much of this complexity as possible. We assess the robustness of the EU system to the carbon constraint by looking at how the CC scenario affects energy system costs and energy prices under scenarios with different deployment of unconventional sources. This provides insights on the synergies and/or trade-offs between energy security and

  20. Energy Management Policies for Energy-Neutral Source-Channel Coding

    Castiglione, Paolo; Erkip, Elza; Zemen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In cyber-physical systems where sensors measure the temporal evolution of a given phenomenon of interest and radio communication takes place over short distances, the energy spent for source acquisition and compression may be comparable with that used for transmission. Additionally, in order to avoid limited lifetime issues, sensors may be powered via energy harvesting and thus collect all the energy they need from the environment. This work addresses the problem of energy allocation over source acquisition/compression and transmission for energy-harvesting sensors. At first, focusing on a single-sensor, energy management policies are identified that guarantee a maximal average distortion while at the same time ensuring the stability of the queue connecting source and channel encoders. It is shown that the identified class of policies is optimal in the sense that it stabilizes the queue whenever this is feasible by any other technique that satisfies the same average distortion constraint. Moreover, this class...

  1. Three-source partitioning of soil respiration by 13C natural abundance and its variation with soil depth in a plantation

    Wenchen Song; Xiaojuan Tong; Jinsong Zhang; Ping Meng

    2016-01-01

    Partitioning soil respiration into three compo-nents is vital to identify CO2 sink or source and can help us better understand soil carbon dynamics. However, knowl-edge about the influences of soil depth and the priming effect on soil respiration components under field has been limited. Three components of soil respiration (root respi-ration, rhizomicrobial respiration and basal respiration) in a plantation in the hilly area of the North China were sepa-rated by the 13C natural abundance method. The results showed that the average proportions of rhizomicrobial respiration, root respiration and basal respiration at the 25–65 cm depths were about 14, 23 and 63%, respec-tively. Three components of soil respiration varied with soil depth, and root respiration was the main component of soil respiration in deeper soil. The priming effect was obvious for the deep soil respiration, especially at the 40–50 cm depth. Thus, depth and priming effect should be taken into account to increase the accuracy of estimations of soil carbon flux.

  2. A Comparison of ACE/CRIS Measurements of Galactic Cosmic-Ray Abundances and Energy Spectra for Two Successive Solar Minima

    Lave, K. A.; Binns, W. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R.A; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Using current solar minimum measurements from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we report the observed elemental abundances and energy spectra for C, 0, Si, and Fe in the energy range of ~50-500 MeV/nucleon. These measurements are compared to prior CRIS observations for the 1997-98 solar minimum period, when the solar magnetic field was of the opposite polarity. By April 2009, the current solar minimum intens...

  3. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks using asymmetric distributed source coding

    Rao, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Murlidhar

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are networks of sensor nodes deployed over a geographical area to perform a specific task. WSNs pose many design challenges. Energy conservation is one such design issue. In literature a wide range of solutions addressing this issue have been proposed. Generally WSNs are densely deployed. Thus the nodes with the close proximity are more likely to have the same data. Transmission of such non-aggregated data may lead to an inefficient energy management. Hence the data fusion has to be performed at the nodes so as to combine the edundant information into a single data unit. Distributed Source Coding is an efficient approach in achieving this task. In this paper an attempt has been made in modeling such a system. Various energy efficient codes were considered for the analysis. System performance in terms of energy efficiency has been made.

  4. Thermonuclear reaction: a sustainable energy source for the future

    A restructuring of the energy system is a necessary prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. At present, the world energy supply relies to more than 80% on fossil fuels, a situation which is not expected to change in the next few decades. New and more sustainable energy carriers and conversion technologies need to be developed. Nuclear fusion belongs in this category. Progress in fusion research has made it possible to design the ITER experiment, which will demonstrate the physical and technical viability of fusion as an energy source. Moreover, it will qualify most of the key technologies to construct and operate a demonstration power plant. Investigations based on physics arguments have shown that the safety and environmental aspects of fusion are very positive and are well in line with most concepts of sustainable development. Present cost estimates show that fusion power plants could be economical, provided of course that >>external<< aspects such as greenhouse gas emissions are included in the calculations. (orig.)

  5. The energetic playground : A feasibility study applying energy sources on a Playground: Green Energy alternatives

    Rey-Siso, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the feasibility of using energy generated by the physical activity of children playing in playgrounds. More particular, the goal is to generate clean energy by playing games and showing them the effort about how energy is produced. The ease of turning on lights or using electrical appliance by simply pushing one button causes unawareness of the actual effort and negative impacts of the generation, transmission and distribution behind energy sourcing. The idea of t...

  6. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    Pucar Mila; Nenković-Riznić Marina

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy poli...

  7. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  8. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  9. The dynamic energy source of the Sun and the duplicity of the stellar energy production

    Grandpierre, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Some possible ways of the energy production with fusion reactions in the Sun was explored theoretically in the first half of this century. Nowadays it is a standard view that the Sun produces its energy on a uniform level. I point out, that in the stellar and solar energy production a dynamic energy source is necessarily present behind the uniform one, and generates a direct connection between the core and the surface layers through tunnels.

  10. Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings

    The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

  11. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate Xmax(E) and dispersion σ(Xmax) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ∼ E-γ with γ∼ 1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ∼ 5Z× 1018 eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ∼ E-2.7). In this sense, at the ankle EA≈ 5× 1018 eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande

  12. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    Aloisio, R.; Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5—50125 Firenze (Italy); Berezinsky, V., E-mail: aloisio@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: berezinsky@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), viale F. Crispi 7, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate X{sub max}(E) and dispersion σ(X{sub max}) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ∼ E{sup -γ} with γ∼ 1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ∼ 5Z× 10{sup 18} eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ∼ E{sup -2.7}). In this sense, at the ankle E{sub A}≈ 5× 10{sup 18} eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande.

  13. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  14. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices: An Alternative Energy Source for Wireless Sensors

    Action Nechibvute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in ultralow power device integration, communication electronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology have fuelled the emerging technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The spatial distributed nature of WSNs often requires that batteries power the individual sensor nodes. One of the major limitations on performance and lifetime of WSNs is the limited capacity of these finite power sources, which must be manually replaced when they are depleted. Moreover, the embedded nature of some of the sensors and hazardous sensing environment make battery replacement very difficult and costly. The process of harnessing and converting ambient energy sources into usable electrical energy is called energy harvesting. Energy harvesting raises the possibility of self-powered systems which are ubiquitous and truly autonomous, and without human intervention for energy replenishment. Among the ambient energy sources such as solar energy, heat, and wind, mechanical vibrations are an attractive ambient source mainly because they are widely available and are ideal for the use of piezoelectric materials, which have the ability to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical energy. This paper presents a concise review of piezoelectric microgenerators and nanogenerators as a renewable energy resource to power wireless sensors.

  15. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  16. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  17. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  18. Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system

    The integration of large amounts of renewable energy is an important challenge for the future management of electric systems, since it affects the operation of the electric power system and the design of the transmission and distribution network infrastructure. This is specially due to the connection requirements of the renewable energy technologies, to the extension and adjustment of the grid infrastructure and to the identification of new solutions for operational reserve, in order to maintain the overall system flexibility and security. In this paper, the impact of high penetration of intermittent energy sources, expected in long term in the Portuguese Power System, is analysed and the operational reserve requirements to accomplish a reliable and reasonable electrical energy supply are identified. It was concluded that pumped storage power plants, special power plants with regulating capabilities, will have an important task to provide the operational reserve requirements of the Portuguese Power System. This technology assumes a fundamental role not only to ensure the adequate levels of security of supply but also to allow the maximum exploitation of the installed capacity in renewable energy sources. (authors)

  19. Italian consumers’ willingness to pay for renewable energy sources

    Bigerna, Simona; Paolo POLINORI

    2011-01-01

    EU Directive 2009/72/CE imposes to the European Countries environmental and energy targets. The Italian goal is to attain a 17% share in electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES) by 2020. To make investment in renewables attractive, market prices must be profitable and the gap between the private and social costs of renewables must be filled using “persuasive” tools. The acceptance of such a burden may be controversial because it results in an increase in prices. It is intere...

  20. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.;

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...... during thermomechanical loading. Case studies demonstrate the mapping of grain boundary topology, the evaluation of stress tensors of individual grains during tensile deformation and comparison to a finite element modeling simulation, and the characterization of evolving dislocation structure...

  1. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  2. Microalgae as a Renewable Source of Energy: A Niche Opportunity

    Simon Jegan Porphy Jegathese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae are believed to be a good source of renewable energy because of its rapid growth rate and its ability to be cultivated in waste water or waste land. Several companies and government agencies are making efforts to reduce capital cost and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Algae are the fastest growing plant and theoretically have the potential to produce more oil or biomass per acre when compared to other crops and plants. However, the energy efficiency ratio and carbon and water footprint for algal based biofuels still need to be evaluated in order to fully understand the environmental impact of algal derived biofuels.

  3. How to classify the hydro power renewable energy sources

    In this report various classifications of hydropower renewable energy sources (HRES) used in several countries like: USA, China, Russia, EU and Bulgaria are given and discussed. The existence of numerous differences and peculiarities in the various national classifications all over the world require the creation of a common unification. In particular the peculiarity and heterogeneity of HRES in Bulgaria demands a creation of specific regulations about. There is a necessity in a creation of a new law of RES and preparation of united EU energy policy

  4. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  5. Materials and neutronic research at the Low Energy Neutron Source

    Baxter, David V.

    2016-04-01

    In the decade since the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM) produced its first neutrons, the facility has made important contributions to the international neutron scattering community. LENS employs a 13MeV proton beam at up to 4kW beam power onto one of two Be targets to produce neutrons for research in fields ranging from radiation effects in electronics to studies of the structure of fluids confined in nanoporous materials. The neutron source design at the heart of LENS facilitates relatively rapid hands-on access to most of its components which provides a foundation for a research program in experimental neutronics and affords numerous opportunities for novel educational experiences. We describe in some detail a number of the unique capabilities of this facility.

  6. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  7. THE INVESTMENT PROBLEMATIC FOR PRODUCING ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES IN ROMANIA

    Marius Gavriletea; Mihaela Gavriletea

    2009-01-01

    The higher energy consumption, the increasing of the price for primary energy sources and the continuous worldwide debates for carbon emission in the atmosphere determined the reorientation to energy production from renewable sources (biomass, solar energy, wind, hydro, geothermal etc). Taking into account the low capacity that produce energy from renewable sources, we conclude that there are needed important investment in this sector.

  8. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  9. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    La Ferla, L. [La Ferla Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized using US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.

  10. Did high energy astrophysical sources contribute to Martian atmospheric loss?

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Mars is believed to have had a substantial atmosphere in the past. Atmospheric loss led to depressurization and cooling, and is thought to be the primary driving force responsible for the loss of liquid water from its surface. Recently, MAVEN observations have provided new insight into the physics of atmospheric loss induced by ICMEs and solar wind interacting with the Martian atmosphere. In addition to solar radiation, it is likely that its atmosphere has been exposed to radiation bursts from high-energy astrophysical sources which become highly probable on timescales of ~Gy and beyond. These sources are capable of significantly enhancing the rates of photoionization and charged particle-induced ionization in the upper atmosphere. Here, we explore the possibility of damage from Galactic Gamma Ray Bursts, nearby supernovae, encounter with dense interstellar clouds and extreme solar events. We use Monte Carlo simulations to model the interaction of charged particles and photons from astrophysical sources in th...

  11. Light source based on multiturn circulation energy recovery linac

    Light source based on a nine-turn ring circulation energy recovery linac with bunch-by-bunch beam switch by RF deflection cavities is proposed and its performance is estimated including the degradation of the beam quality by radiation excitation. The application of the round to flat beam conversion at a injector, which was proposed for linear colliders, is discussed for a scheme to reduce the brightness degradation by radiation excitation. (author)

  12. Impact of Renewable Energy Sources Penetration in a Microgrid

    N. Ravi,; Y. Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several types of Distributed Generators (DGs) have been connected together to form a small power system called a microgrid (MG). MG usually operates in normal connecting mode and is connected to the main grid. This paper presents the performance enhancement of microgrid with RES (Renewable Energy Sources) penetration in grid connected and islanded operation, and also shows the effect of wind and solar penetration individually and as well as coupled along with backup ...

  13. Optimization of Gas Supply of CHP Sources of Energy

    Odiņeca, T; Zēbergs, V

    2008-01-01

    The article contains reviews the method of optimization of gas supply of CHP sources of energy - the method of calculation of permissible IRR. It is effective for analyzing the projects of CHP plants’ gasification (also in reconstruction of existing boiler houses). IRR is an effective criterion of profitability of gasification, if the forecast of the consumption of gas is precise. Using the method of calculation of permissible IRR it is possible to find the load limits in which CH...

  14. Prioritizing Energy Sources to Generate Electricity (Application of Fuzzy Logic)

    Bahareh Hashemlou; Hossein Sadeghi; Arashk Masaeli; Mohammadhadi Hajian; Shima Javaheri

    2015-01-01

    Organizations, institutions, and different sectors of manufacturing, services and agriculture are constantly making decisions. Each of the aforementioned sectors, have strategies, tactics, and various functions that play a basic role in reaching the objectives. On the other hand, energy demand in developing countries is increasing day by day. The exact calculation of the cost per unit of electricity generated by power plants is not easy. Therefore, this study according to four sources of natu...

  15. Influence of Renewable Energy Sources on Distribution Network Availability

    Mikulec, Ana; Mikuličić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of production facilities from renewable energy sources which especially influence the power system with variable production. The paper describes some basic ways of connection and technical data relevant for the design of production plants, as well as the most important influences on the power system, especially with respect to the following: voltage, short circuit current, operation of the system, losses and power quality. Basic concepts of reliability, mathe...

  16. Market-based support schemes for renewable energy sources

    Fagiani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union set ambitious goals regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and the majority of European governments have implemented policies stimulating investments in such technologies. Support schemes differ in many aspects, not only in their effectivity and efficiency but also in the long-term incentives provided and in the financial risk involved for investors. This research compares the performance of different policy mechanisms analyzing the interactio...

  17. Optimal Dynamic Management of a Renewable Energy Source under Uncertainty

    Bobtcheff, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    We consider a risk averse planner who has access to different energy sources to produce electricity; hydroelectricity is produced with a dam and thermal electricity is obtained from an unlimited supply at some exogenous cost. The dam is supplied with a random water ow. The presence of constraints on a minimal and maximal storage capacity makes electricity consumption smoothing possible only when the quantity of water available to the agent lies in a certain range that is determined. Consumpti...

  18. Orion A helium abundance

    The 22.4-GHz (H,He)66-alpha and 36.5-GHz (H,He)56-alpha radio recombination lines have been observed at several Jaffe-Pankonin positions in the central part of the Orion A source. The measured relative abundance of ionized helium increases with distance, averaging 11.6 percent at peripheral points. The observed behavior is interpreted by a blister-type model nebula, which implies that Orion A has a true He abundance of 12 percent, is moving with a radial velocity of 5 km/sec, and is expanding. 18 references

  19. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation (invited)

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P2+ [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P3+ (1.9 pmA), and P4+ (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb3+Sb4+, Sb5+, and Sb6+ respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources

  20. Landfill gas: from harmful emission to reliable energy source

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilise greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilisation of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of 1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; 2) limiting odours, 3) controlling damage to vegetation, 4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; 5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and 6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. (Author)

  1. High energy gamma ray counterparts of astrophysical sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    C. Ferrigno(ISDC); P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); De Marco, D.

    2004-01-01

    If ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are accelerated at astrophysical point sources, the identification of such sources can be achieved if there is some kind of radiation at observable wavelengths that may be associated with the acceleration and/or propagation processes. No radiation of this type has so far been detected or at least no such connection has been claimed. The process of photopion production during the propagation of UHECRs from the sources to the Earth results in the genera...

  2. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  3. Energy sources for the next 35-50 years

    The next 35-50 years will be a period of great change around the world with respect to energy resources. Problems such as global warming, the loss of forests, the growth of the population and the availability of energy in various forms will become more urgent and will have to be faced. There is a vocal group which raises doubts regarding the overall effects of adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in large quantities in terms of global warming and are therefore not taking seriously the commitments made at the 1992 Rio Summit on the Environment and Development. These attitudes need to be challenged. Forests continue to be destroyed in certain areas to provide farmland and fuel for 1.25 billion people. The need for a strong reforestation programme is evident. The world population now at 5.3 billion, continues to grow and is predicted to reach 8.3 billion by 2030. Where will the additional 3 billion people find living space, fuelwood and food? There is also the need for much more energy, but the emphasis needs to be on sources which are renewable so that global warming is not enhanced. There is steady progress being made in the development of photovoltaic sources, their costs closely approaching traditional generating methods. A rapid acceleration in the application of these devices in the next decade is to be expected. Wind power is playing a larger role and hydropower continues to provide a significant portion of society's needs for energy along with nuclear power. The relative amounts of the total energy 'pie' which will be required will depend on the availability of power from each of these sources and the political pressures brought to bear as a result of environmental, sociological and resource availability factors

  4. ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

  5. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    Pucar Mila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy policy in Serbia and their achievement are also given by that strategy. Serbia's energy policies are designed to allow new legislative, structural, organizational, institutional, and economic frames and visions of unification of Serbian energetics into regional and Pan-European integrations. One of the key factors is the inclusion of sustainable development and energy efficient design concerned policies. Application of these, almost completely neglected, energy sources, for which there is high potential in Serbia, would allow preservation of primary energy sources and local environment. This potential hasn't seen significant research, and therefore, neither the technical improvement. Apart from that, one of the goals of wider application of renewable energy sources is lowering the poverty level. This helps avoiding the already used “dirty development” method. .

  6. Galactic very high energy sources and enhancements of material content

    Pedaletti, Giovanna; de Oña Wilhelmi, Emma; Torres, Diego F.; Natale, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    The association of very-high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) sources with regions of the sky rich in dust and gas has been noticed in the study of individual VHE sources. However, the statistical significance of this correlation for the whole population of TeV detections has not been assessed yet. To trace the material content, we make use of the publicly released all-sky maps of astrophysical foregrounds of the Planck Collaboration, and of an extensive existing CO mapping of the Galactic sky. To test the correlation, we construct randomized samples of VHE source positions starting from the inner Galactic plane survey. A positive correlation cannot be firmly established yet. Additionally we explore the possibility that unidentified VHE sources are located in environment particularly rich in material content unaccounted by traditional tracers, including HI hyperfine transition at 21 cm to trace atomic hydrogen in regions where the gas is diffuse. No additional gas component is found in the direction of unidentified VHE sources.

  7. The new Greek legislation about electricity production from renewable energy sources and national policies and activities in the sector

    Due to its geophysical morphology and temperate climate Greece is a country which possesses abundant reserves of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Indeed climate conditions are ideal for the exploitation of solar and wind energy. The current status is that in 1994, RES contributed only 3.9% to total consumption (22 Mtoe), despite the fact that the exploitable potential has been estimated to be twenty times higher. The main reasons for the slow development of the sector stem from the restrictive measures embodied in law No. 1559/85 regarding the development of RES. Today, three main axes define energy policy, working towards the ultimate objectives of guaranteeing security of supply and reducing energy costs. These axes include the new legislative framework as defined by law No. 2244/94 (which incorporates institutional regulations and the definition of a tariff policy for production) and financial mechanisms to support investments in the energy sector. (author)

  8. Colloquium on the risks of different energy sources

    Four subjects, each taking up one session, were dealt with in this Colloquium. The first is the definition of the health risk concept which is only obvious on the surface. It was shown how within the medical world itself, apparently the most competent to discover and evaluate these risks, this definition is still approximate both in theory and in practice. The second theme dealt with concerns the way in which risks are viewed by the general public. By a psychological and sociological approach it is possible to form an idea of how differently opinion reacts to risks of similar gravity and probability. The apprehension of risks and the opposition to nuclear energy were analysed in detail in this session. The third subject, more analytical and probably one of the most topical is concerned with the inventory of risks due to each industrial energy sector. This session was in two parts, the first devoted to problems specific to each source of energy including nuclear, the second to common problems (pollution of air, fresh water and sea water, and long-term effects (nuclear wastes for example). The fourth and last session dealt with a fundamental problem, methods of studying these risks. The conclusions of different enquiries are always very similar: the energy source hierarchy, in order of diminishing risks, is as follows: coal, liquid hydrocarbons, nuclear and gaseous hydrocarbons

  9. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  10. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants

  11. AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM

    J. Pavalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

  12. Energy conversion of source separated packaging; Energiutvinning ur kaellsorterade foerpackningsfraktioner

    Blidholm, O.; Wiklund, S.E. [AaF-Energikonsult (Sweden); Bauer, A.C. [Energikonsult A. Bauer (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The basic idea of this project is to study the possibilities to use source separated combustible material for energy conversion in conventional solid fuel boilers (i.e. not municipal waste incineration plants). The project has been carried out in three phases. During phase 1 and 2 a number of fuel analyses of different fractions were carried out. During phase 3 two combustion tests were carried out; (1) a boiler with grate equipped with cyclone, electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser, and (2) a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser. During the tests source separated paper and plastic packagings were co-fired with biomass fuels. The mixing rate of packagings was approximately 15%. This study reports the results of phase 3 and the conclusions of the whole project. The technical terms of using packaging as fuel are good. The technique is available for shredding both paper and plastic packaging. The material can be co-fired with biomass. The economical terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion can be very advantageous, but can also form obstacles. The result is to a high degree guided by such facts as how the fuel is collected, transported, reduced in size and handled at the combustion plant. The results of the combustion tests show that the environmental terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion are good. The emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere are very low. The emissions are well below the emission standards for waste incineration plants. 35 figs, 13 tabs, 8 appendices

  13. OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model. - Highlights: → OSeMOSYS is a new free and open source energy systems. → This model is written in a simple, open, flexible and transparent manner to support teaching. → OSeMOSYS is based on free software and optimizes using a free solver. → This model replicates the results of many popular tools, such as MARKAL. → A link between OSeMOSYS and LEAP has been developed.

  14. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  15. Prioritizing Energy Sources to Generate Electricity (Application of Fuzzy Logic

    Bahareh Hashemlou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Organizations, institutions, and different sectors of manufacturing, services and agriculture are constantly making decisions. Each of the aforementioned sectors, have strategies, tactics, and various functions that play a basic role in reaching the objectives. On the other hand, energy demand in developing countries is increasing day by day. The exact calculation of the cost per unit of electricity generated by power plants is not easy. Therefore, this study according to four sources of natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy and other fossil fuels other than natural gas that are used in a variety of electricity production plants is trying to clarify the ranking of generation electricity approach using "fuzzy preference relations" analysis. Accordingly, three models were used and the results showed that natural gas, with regard to the four criteria of low investment cost, low power, lack of pollution and the safety and reliability of electrical energy has priority over other alternatives. Full preferred model results also suggested that the energy of natural gas, renewable energies, nuclear and other fossil fuels should be considered in a priority for power generation. Sensitivity analysis results moreover demonstrated that the above models are not affected by the threshold values ​​and the full stability of the models is observed.

  16. Panorama 2012 - Marine renewable energy sources: their place in energy policy, projects and players

    Marine energy sources are now a reality in the scientific landscape and, from now on, will be an increasingly important feature of the industry. Driven by public policy and renewable energy development targets, projects are multiplying, and industry players are jostling for maximum advantage in the first bidding rounds. (author)

  17. Environmental impacts of energy utilization and environmental energy sources in Turkey

    Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited and lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Due to increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Because of this and the fact that it has limited fossil fuel resources, a gradual shift from fossil fuels to renewables seems to be serious and the sole alternative for Turkey. This article presents a review of the present energy situation and sustainability, technical and economical potential of renewable energy sources and future policies for energy sector in Turkey. Throughout the paper several problems relating to energy sources, environment and sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives. (author)

  18. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  19. A low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2007-01-08

    A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.

  20. Testing SPI imaging of high-energy and extended sources

    Vunderer, C.B.; Schonfelder, V.; Strong, A.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Connell, P. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Hammer, J.W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenphysik

    2003-11-01

    INTEGRAL's main instruments employ coded apertures to obtain directional information on the incoming radiation. In order to experimentally better determine the imaging capabilities of the spectrometer SPI, the SPI Imaging Test Setup (SPITS) has been built at MPE. It consists of the SPI coded mask and two SPI-identical Ge detectors on an XY-table which allows us to move them to cover the 19 Ge detector positions. The SPI flight model imaging calibration only covered the energy range up to 2.7 MeV and did not include extended emission. SPITS was used to explore the performance of such a coded aperture system - combined with the SPI image analysis software - for higher-energy point sources and extended sources. We find that a 2.4 degrees diameter disk emitting 511 keV emission is reconstructed well. For the high signal-to-noise ratios of laboratory measurements, positions of point sources above 4 MeV could be reconstructed to better than 0.1 degrees. (authors)

  1. Energy demand modelling: pointing out alternative energy sources. The example of industry in OECD countries

    This thesis studies energy demand and alternative energy sources in OECD countries. In the first part, the principle models usually used for energy demand modelling. In the second part, the author studies the flexible functional forms (translog, generalized Leontief, generalized quadratic, Fourier) to obtain an estimation of the production function. In the third part, several examples are given, chosen in seven countries (Usa, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada). Energy systems analysis in these countries, can help to choose models and gives informations on alternative energies. 246 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  2. Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Gillas, Konstantinos; Pollaki, Antrianna; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Bounialetou, Fanouria [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    This study aims to assess the state of the art of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels. This will contribute to determining the potential of efficient and sustainable energy technologies integration. Hotel managers were interviewed face to face and information sessions were provided. Special energy and environmental awareness campaigns, sectoral tourism programs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, supportive policies and hotel energy investments and renovation programs are some recommendations elicited from the results of this study. (author)

  3. Potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia

    Cingoski, Vlatko

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia are discussed. This presentation was part of the research project entitled "Opportunities and Methods for Energy Substitution, Savings and Efficiency Improvements in the Hotel Industry" funded by the University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia. It was prsented at the joint workshop between University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia and the Bashkent Un...

  4. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  5. Assessing the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Evrendilek, F. [Mustafa Kemal Univ., Antakya-Hatay (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture; Ertekin, C. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture

    2003-12-01

    To meet Turkey's growing energy demand, the installed electric power capacity of 27.8 GW in 2001 has to be doubled by 2010 and increased fourfold by 2020. The difference between Turkey's total primary energy supply (TPES) from its own sources and total final consumption (TFC) is projected to grow from 1 quad (1.06-2.06) in 1999 to 5.71 quads (2.79-8.5) in 2020 (1 QUAD=293.071 TWh). Turkey's limited amount of fossil fuels has a present average ratio of proved reserves of 97.38 quads to production rate of 3.2 quads yr{sup -1} of about 30 years. Turkey's reliance on fossil fuel-based energy systems to meet the growing demand is most likely to exacerbate the issues of energy insecurity, national environmental degradation, and global climate change in increasing proportions. Economically-feasible renewable energy potential in Turkey is estimated at a total of ca. 1.69 quads yr{sup -1} (495.4 TWh yr{sup -1}) with the potential for 0.67 quads yr{sup -1} (196.7 TWh yr{sup -1}) of biomass energy, 0.42 quads yr{sup -1} (124 TWh yr{sup -1}) of hydropower. 0.35 quads yr{sup -1} (102.3 TWh yr{sup -1}) of solar energy, 0.17 quads yr{sup -1} (50 TWh yr{sup -1}) of wind energy, and 0.08 quads yr{sup -1} (22.4 TWh yr{sup -1}) of geothermal energy. Pursuit and implementation of sustainability-based energy policy could provide about 90 and 35% of Turkey's total energy supply and consumption projected in 2010, respectively. Utilization of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation would necessitate about 23.2 Mha (29.8%) of Turkey's land resources. (author)

  6. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  7. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  8. Prioritizing low-carbon energy sources to enhance China’s energy security

    Highlights: • Four dimensions and ten metrics are used for energy security assessment. • Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered for energy security. • AHP has been used to quantify qualitative metrics. • TOPSIS method has been used for prioritize the low-carbon energy sources. • Sensitivity analysis and integrated ranking have been carried out. - Abstract: This paper explores how low-carbon systems compare to each other in terms of their net effect on Chinese energy security, and how they ought to be ranked and strategized into an optimal and integrated resource plan. The paper utilizes Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to first determine the relative performances of hydroelectricity, wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, and nuclear power with respect to the energy security dimensions of availability, affordability, accessibility, and acceptability. Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered. It relies on AHP to calculate the relative weights of the qualitative metrics attached to these dimensions of energy security for each of our five low carbon energy sources. Then, energy security performance is determined by aggregating multiple, weighted metrics into a generic index based on the method of TOPSIS and then tweaked with a sensitivity analysis. Finally, an integrated method has been developed to rank the low-carbon energy systems from most to least important, with major implications for Chinese decision-makers and stakeholders. We conclude that hydroelectricity and wind power are the two low-carbon energy sources with the most potential to enhance China’s energy security. By contrast, nuclear and solar power have the least potential

  9. Can renewable and unconventional energy sources bridge the global energy gap in the 21st century?

    Energy experts project that global oil supplies will only meet demand until global oil production has peaked sometime between 2013 and 2020. Declining oil production after peak production will cause a global energy gap to develop, which will have to be bridged by unconventional and renewable energy sources. Nuclear, solar and hydrogen are destined to become major energy sources during the 21st century, but only if their enabling technologies improve significantly to ensure affordability and convenience of use. This paper will argue that global oil production will probably peak between 2004 and 2005, causing a serious energy gap to develop sometime between 2008 and 2010 rather than 2013-2020 as the energy experts projected. It will also argue that a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is inevitable. The paper will conclude, however, that fossil fuels with a growing contribution from nuclear energy, will still be supplying the major part of the global energy needs for most, perhaps all, of the 21st century. (author)

  10. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  11. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    P Kumar; G Rodrigues; U K Rao; C P Safvan; D Kanjilal; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion beams ranging from a few keV to a few MeV for research in materials sciences, atomic and molecular physics is described. One of the important features of this facility is the availability of relatively large currents of multiply charged positive ions from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source placed entirely on a high voltage platform. All the electronic and vacuum systems related to the ECR source including 10 GHz ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter, high voltage power supplies for extractor and Einzel lens are placed on a high voltage platform. All the equipments are controlled using a personal computer at ground potential through optical fibers for high voltage isolation. Some of the experimental facilities available are also described.

  12. NEWLY BORN PULSARS AS SOURCES OF ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS

    Newly born pulsars offer favorable sites for the injection of heavy nuclei, and for their further acceleration to ultrahigh energies. Once accelerated in the pulsar wind, nuclei have to escape from the surrounding supernova envelope. We examine this escape analytically and numerically and discuss the pulsar source scenario in light of the latest ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) data. Our calculations show that, at early times, when protons can be accelerated to energies E > 1020 eV, the young supernova shell tends to prevent their escape. In contrast, because of their higher charge, iron-peaked nuclei are still accelerated to the highest observed energies at later times, when the envelope has become thin enough to allow their escape. Ultrahigh energy iron nuclei escape newly born pulsars with millisecond periods and dipole magnetic fields of ∼1012-1013 G, embedded in core-collapse supernovae. Due to the production of secondary nucleons, the envelope crossing leads to a transition of composition from light to heavy elements at a few EeV, as observed by the Auger Observatory. The escape also results in a softer spectral slope than that initially injected via unipolar induction, which allows for a good fit to the observed UHECR spectrum. We conclude that the acceleration of iron-peaked elements in a reasonably small fraction (∼< 0.01%) of extragalactic rotation-powered young pulsars would reproduce satisfactorily the current UHECR data. Possible signatures of this scenario are also discussed.

  13. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE

    The technical objective of the project was to develop an ultra-low-energy, high-intensity ion source (ULEHIIS) for materials processing in high-technology fields including semiconductors, micro-magnetics and optics/opto-electronics. In its primary application, this ion source can be incorporated into the 4Wave thin-film deposition technique called biased target ion-beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a deposition technique based on sputtering (without magnetic field, i.e., not the typical magnetron sputtering). It is a technological challenge because the laws of space charge limited current (Child-Langmuir) set strict limits of how much current can be extracted from a reservoir of ions, such as a suitable discharge plasma. The solution to the problem was an innovative dual-discharge system without the use of extraction grids.

  14. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  15. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described

  16. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described. PMID:26932065

  17. A retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distributions of liquid metal ion sources

    In this paper the setup and use of a retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distribution of LMIS will be presented. An introduction in the technology and mechanism of LMIS will be given in chapter 2. The experimental configuration of the retarding field energy analyser, together with an error estimation and a computer program, to control the energy analyser and to calculate the energy distribution, will be discussed in chapter 3. To test the energy analyser an electron source, consisting of a tungsten thermoionic cathode, will be used. Energy distribution measurements of a gallium LMIS will be presented in chapter 4. Finally in chapter 5, the accuracy of the energy analyser and suggestions for improvement will be presented. (orig.)

  18. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  19. Quasars as Sources of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays

    The results are presented that were obtained by analyzing arrival directions for cosmic rays that the Yakutsk array for studying extensive air showers recorded between 1974 and 2002 in the energy region E0 ≥5x1017 eV for zenith angles in the region θ ≤60 deg. . It is shown that quasars for which the redshift lies in the region z≤2.5 can be sources of these cosmic rays. Ordered structures are observed in the disposition of quasars and in the cosmic-ray arrival directions. These structures can be associated in one way or another with the large-scale structure of the Universe

  20. Computational methods for high-energy source shielding

    The computational methods for high-energy radiation transport related to shielding of the SNQ-spallation source are outlined. The basic approach is to couple radiation-transport computer codes which use Monte Carlo methods and discrete ordinates methods. A code system is suggested that incorporates state-of-the-art radiation-transport techniques. The stepwise verification of that system is briefly summarized. The complexity of the resulting code system suggests a more straightforward code specially tailored for thick shield calculations. A short guide line to future development of such a Monte Carlo code is given

  1. Prospects for inertial fusion as an energy source

    Progress in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program has been very rapid in the last few years. Target physics experiments with laboratory lasers and in underground nuclear tests have shown that the drive conditions necessary to achieve high gain can be achieved in the laboratory with a pulse-shaped driver of about 10 MJ. Requirements and designs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been formulated. Research on driver technology necessary for an ICF reactor is making progress. Prospects for ICF as an energy source are very promising. 11 refs., 5 figs

  2. Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources

    The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.)

  3. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  4. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier. PMID:25836452

  5. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Mu' taz A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jordan, PO Box 961060, Amman 11196 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO{sub x} and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources. (author)

  6. Sources for Low Energy Extreme of Ion Implantation

    A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past four and a half years. The ultimate goal is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P2+(8.6 pmA), P3+(1.9 pmA), and P4+(0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb3+ Sb4+, Sb5+, and Sb6+ respectively. During the past year the effort was channeled towards low energy implantation, for which the effort involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 3 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 14 keV and a smaller current of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, a Boron fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source.

  7. Laticiferous taxa as a source of energy and hydrocarbon

    Marimuthu, S.; Subramanian, R.B.; Kothari, I.L.; Inamdar, J.A. (Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India))

    Twenty-nine laticiferous taxa of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Sapotaceae were screened for suitability as alternative sources of renewable energy, rubber, and phytochemicals and to select the most promising ones for large-scale cultivation. Of these, Allamanda violacea (14.9% protein, 13.8% polyphenol, 8.6% oil, 3.2% hydrocarbon), Catharanthus roseus (15.4% protein, 10.4% polyphenol, 11.5% oil, 1.9% hydrocarbon), and Holarrhena antidysenterica (14.2% protein, 16.4% polyphenol, 5,4% oil, 4.8% hydrocarbon) of Apocynaceae; Asclepias curassavica (19.3% protein, 6.5% polyphenol, 3.9% oil, 2.0% hydrocarbon), Calotropis gigantea (18.5% protein, 6.8% polyphenol, 7.0% oil, 2.8% hydrocarbon) of Asclepiadaceae; Mimusops elengi (11.3% protein, 9.7% polyphenol, 7.2% oil, 4.0% hydrocarbon) of Sapotaceae show promising potential for future petrochemical plantations; of all these taxa, Holarrhena antidysenterica yielded an unusually high percentage (4.8%) of hydrocarbon fraction followed by Mimusops elengi (4.0%). NMR spectra confirmed the presence of cis-polyisoprene in all species studied except Nerium indicum (white-flowered var.). These data indicate that the majority of the species under investigation may be considered for large-scale cultivation as an alternative source of rubber, intermediate energy, and other phytochemicals.

  8. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs

  9. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NOx and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 deg. C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources.

  10. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs

  11. Analytical investigation of low temperature lift energy conversion systems with renewable energy source

    The efficiency of the renewable energy powered energy conversion system is typically low due to its moderate heat source temperature. Therefore, improving its energy efficiency is essential. In this study, the performance of the energy conversion system with renewable energy source was theoretically investigated in order to explore its design aspect. For this purpose, a computer model of n-stage low temperature lift energy conversion (LTLEC) system was developed. The results showed that under given operating conditions such as temperatures and mass flow rates of heat source and heat sink fluids the unit power generation of the system increased with the number of stage, and it became saturated when the number of staging reached four. Investigation of several possible working fluids for the optimum stage LTLEC system revealed that ethanol could be an alternative to ammonia. The heat exchanger effectiveness is a critical factor on the system performance. The power generation was increased by 7.83% for the evaporator and 9.94% for the condenser with 10% increase of heat exchanger effectiveness. When these low temperature source fluids are applied to the LTLEC system, the heat exchanger performance would be very critical and it has to be designed accordingly. - Highlights: •Energy conversion system with renewable energy is analytically investigated. •A model of multi-stage low temperature lift energy conversion systems was developed. •The system performance increases as the stage number is increased. •The unit power generation is increased with increase of HX effectiveness. •Ethanol is found to be a good alternative to ammonia

  12. Feasibility and impact analysis of a renewable energy source (RES)-based energy system in Korea

    In this study, we analyze the feasibility and impacts of a renewable energy source (RES)-based electricity supply system of future Korea. To achieve this goal, we first developed different scenarios for increasing the contribution of RES by lowering the rate of i) nuclear power, ii) thermal power, iii) both nuclear and thermal power, and iv) these scenarios with real-world constraints. Based on the generated scenarios, we then specified the established systems with practical strategies which encourage different renewable sources (wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass, and waste). Finally, we analyzed the impacts of the established RES-based systems according to various criteria: the total required cost, the dependence on imported energy, CO2 emissions, and land use. The results show that the RES-based system that utilizes wind energy as its main source by steadily decreasing the rate of thermal power for electricity generation is the most affordable for future Korean electricity system. We also identify the merits and drawbacks of the analyzed systems and provide relevant recommendations for the establishment of a sustainable energy system for Korea. These findings will support policy makers in integrating quantitative assessments into energy-related policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • We model and analyze RES-based electricity supply system in Korea. • Impact analysis includes: economic, energy security, environmental protection aspects. • We also evaluate different strategies to establish RES-based system. • We show that wind energy-based system is the most affordable for Korea

  13. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  14. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  15. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  16. Radioistopes to Solar to High Energy Accelerators – Chip-Scale Energy Sources

    This talk will present MEMS based power sources that utilize radioisotopes, solar energy, and potentially nuclear energy through advancements in integration of new structures and materials within MEMS. Micro power harvesters can harness power from vibration, radioisotopes, light, sound, and biology may provide pathways to minimize or even eliminate batteries in sensor nodes. In this talk work on radioisotope thin films for MEMS will be include the self-reciprocating cantilever, betavoltaic cells, and high DC voltages. The self-reciprocating cantilever energy harvester allows small commercially viable amounts of radioisotopes to generate mW to Watts of power so that very reliable power sources that last 100s of years are possible. The tradeoffs between reliability and potential stigma with radioisotopes allow one to span a useful design space with reliability as a key parameter. These power sources provide pulsed power at three different time scales using mechanical, RF, and static extraction of energy from collected charge. Multi-use capability, both harvesting radioisotope power and local vibration energy extends the reliability of micro-power sources further

  17. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  18. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  19. Towards fusion energy as a sustainable energy source: Activities at DTU Physics

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Christensen, Alexander Simon; Dam, Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fusion – the process from which the Sun derives its energy – holds the potential to become a clean,safe, highly efficient, and virtually inexhaustible energy source for the future. To mimic this process on earth, experimental fusion devices seek to heat gas to millions of degrees (creating...... a fusion plasma) and to confine it within magnetic fields. Learning how such plasmas behave and can be controlled is a crucial step towards realizing fusion as a sustainable energy source.At the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy (PPFE) section at DTU Physics, we are exploring these issues,focusing on areas...... of high priority on the way towards a working fusion power plant. On the theoreticalfront, we are simulating plasma turbulence and transport of heat and particles in fusion plasmas (Fig. 1a). These issues play a key role in determining how the plasma behaves globally and how well it remains confined...

  20. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    Highlights: • Microalgae offer solution of wastewater treatment, CO2 sequestration, and energy crises. • Microalgal biofuel is renewable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly option. • Integration of wastewater treatment with biofuels production has made them more cost effective. • This article details out the potential production process and benefits of microalgal biofuels. - Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with