WorldWideScience

Sample records for absorption spectroscopy principles

  1. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy principles and applications

    Platt, Ulrich; Imboden, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Measurement techniques form the basis of our knowledge about atmospheric composition and chemistry. Presently, important questions of atmospheric chemistry center on urban pollution, free-radical chemistry, degradation of greenhouse gases and the budgets of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. Among the many different optical spectroscopic methods that are in use, DOAS has emerged as a universal technique to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases by making use of the characteristic absorption features of gas molecules along a path of known length in the open atmosphere. This bo

  2. Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy: principles and applications to lipid-protein interaction in Langmuir films.

    Mendelsohn, Richard; Mao, Guangru; Flach, Carol R

    2010-04-01

    Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) of lipid/protein monolayer films in situ at the air/water interface provides unique molecular structure and orientation information from the film constituents. The technique is thus well suited for studies of lipid/protein interaction in a physiologically relevant environment. Initially, the nature of the IRRAS experiment is described and the molecular structure information that may be obtained is recapitulated. Subsequently, several types of applications, including the determination of lipid chain conformation and tilt as well as elucidation of protein secondary structure are reviewed. The current article attempts to provide the reader with an understanding of the current capabilities of IRRAS instrumentation and the type of results that have been achieved to date from IRRAS studies of lipids, proteins, and lipid/protein films of progressively increasing complexity. Finally, possible extensions of the technology are briefly considered. PMID:20004639

  3. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  4. First-principles study of phonon effects in x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy

    Nemausat, R.; Brouder, Ch; Gervais, Ch; Cabaret, D.

    2016-05-01

    Usually first-principles x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) calculations are performed in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation assuming a static lattice, whereas the nuclear motion undoubtedly impacts XANES spectra notably at the K pre-edge of light elements in oxides. Here, an efficient method based on density-functional theory to account for quantum thermal fluctuations of nuclei is developed and is successfully applied to the K edge of corundum for temperatures up to 930 K. The zero-point motion influence is estimated. Comparison is made with previous theoretical approaches also developed to account for vibrations in XANES.

  5. 5 f -Shell correlation effects in dioxides of light actinides studied by O 1s x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies and first-principles calculations

    Soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopic data are reported for the O 1s region of a single crystal of UO2, a polycrystalline NpO2 sample, and a single crystal of PuO2. The experimental data are interpreted using first-principles correlated-electron calculations within the framework of the density functional theory with added Coulomb U interaction (DFT+U). A detailed analysis regarding the origin of different structures in the x-ray emission and x-ray absorption spectra is given and the effect of varying the intra-atomic Coulomb interaction-U for the 5 f electrons is investigated. Our data indicate that O 1s x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies can, in combination with DFT+U calculations, successfully be used to study 5 f -shell Coulomb correlation effects in dioxides of light actinides. The values for the Coulomb U parameter in these dioxides are derived to be in the range of 4–5 eV. (paper)

  6. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  7. Graphene intracavity spaser absorption spectroscopy

    Lozovik, Yu. E.; Nechepurenko, I. A.; Dorofeenko, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an intracavity plasmon absorption spectroscopy method based on graphene active plasmonics. It is shown that the plasmonic cavity contribution to the sensitivity is proportional to the quality factor Q of the graphene plasmonic cavity and reaches two orders of magnitude. The addition of gain medium into the cavity increases the sensitivity of method. Maximum sensitivity is reached in the vicinity of the plasmon generation threshold. The gain contribution to the sensitivity is proportional to Q1/2. The giant amplification of sensitivity in the graphene plasmon generator is associated with a huge path length, limited only by the decoherence processes. An analytical estimation of the sensitivity to loss caused by analyzed particles (molecules, nanoparticles, etc.) normalized by the single pass plasmon scheme is derived. Usage of graphene nanoflakes as plasmonic cavity allows a high spatial resolution to be reached, in addition to high sensitivity.

  8. UV/VUV high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy

    High sensitivity absorption spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic technique for reactive glow discharges plasmas. Absolute column densities of many chemical radicals have been measured in both deposition and etching plasmas. Modern photodiode or charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arrays vastly increase the sensitivity of traditional absorption experiments enabling one to observe fractional absorptions of ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation less than 0.0001. Stable arc lamps provide a continuum source in some experiments, but experiments at very high spectral resolution or at VUV wavelengths require the greater spectral radiance of synchrotron radiation. High sensitivity absorption spectroscopy has been applied to intense glow discharges used for lighting, for diamond film deposition, and for both depositing and etching Si films. Absorption spectroscopy provides absolute column densities, is useful for transitions that do not fluoresce, and approaches the sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in glow discharges under some conditions

  9. Further advancement of differential optical absorption spectroscopy: theory of orthogonal optical absorption spectroscopy.

    Liudchik, Alexander M

    2014-08-10

    A modified version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is presented. The technique is called orthogonal optical absorption spectroscopy (OOAS). A widespread variant of DOAS with smoothing of the registered spectrum and absorption cross sections being made employing a polynomial regression is a particular case of OOAS. The concept of OOAS provides a variety of new possibilities for constructing computational schemes and analyzing the influence of different error sources on calculated concentrations. PMID:25320931

  10. XAFS Spectroscopy : Fundamental Principles and Data Analysis

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Mojet, B.L.; Dorssen, G.E. van; Ramaker, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The physical principles of XAFS spectroscopy are given at a sufficiently basic level to enable scientists working in the field of catalysis to critically evaluate articles dealing with XAFS studies on catalytic materials. The described data-analysis methods provide the basic tools for studying the e

  11. Theory of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Lindroth, Eva; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    A theory for time-domain attosecond pump–attosecond probe photoabsorption spectroscopy is formulated and related to the atomic response. The theory is illustrated through a study of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton. The atomic parameters entering the formulation such as energies and...... Auger widths, as well as wave functions and dipole coupling matrix elements, are determined by accurate many-body structure calculations. We create a hole in a valence shell by an attosecond pump, couple an inner-shell electron to the hole by an attosecond probe, and then monitor the formation of the...

  12. Principles of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics

    Berman, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics. The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorptio

  13. Absorption spectroscopy with quantum cascade lasers

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers operating near lambda=8 micrometers were used for detection and quantification of trace gases in ambient air by means of sensitive absorption spectroscopy. N2O, 12CH4, 13CH4, and different isotopic species of H2O were detected. Also, a highly selective detection of ethanol vapor in air with a sensitivity of 125 parts per billion by volume (ppb) was demonstrated.

  14. Absorption effects in diffusing wave spectroscopy.

    Sarmiento-Gomez, Erick; Morales-Cruzado, Beatriz; Castillo, Rolando

    2014-07-20

    The effect of absorption in diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) was studied using an absorption-dependent diffusive equation for describing the light propagation within a turbid liquid where dielectric microspheres have been embedded. Here, we propose an expression for the time-averaged light intensity autocorrelation function that correctly describes the time fluctuations for the scattered light, in the regime where the diffusion approximation accurately describes the light propagation. This correction was suspected previously, but it was not formally derived from a light diffusive equation. As in the case of no absorption, we obtained that time fluctuations of the scattered light can be related to the mean square displacement of the embedded particles. However, if a correction for absorption is not taken into account, the colloidal dynamics can be misinterpreted. Experimental results show that this new formulation correctly describes the time fluctuations of scattered light. This new procedure extends the applicability of DWS, and it opens the possibility of doing microrheology with this optical method in systems where absorption cannot be avoided. PMID:25090203

  15. Study on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy : Technique and its Applications

    Liu, Jianguo

    2002-01-01

    ln the first part of speech, with a description of the principle of DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy), the design and realization of two different kinds of DOAS systems are nresented. 0ne is using a slotted disc raoid scanning device with a photomultiplier, which is suitable for ambient air quality measurement. It can measure total 16 kinds of pollutants such as SO_2, NO, N02, NH_3, O_3, C_6H_6, C_7H_8 and CH_2O etc., with detection limits of 1-2ppb. The other is using a UV ...

  16. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  17. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with high temperature flames.

    Willis, J B

    1968-07-01

    An account is given of the history of the development of high temperature flames for the atomic absorption measurement of metals forming refractory oxides. The principles governing the design of premix burners for such flames, and the relative merits of different types of nebulizer burner systems are described. After a brief account of the structure and emission characteristics of the premixed oxygen-acetylene and nitrous oxide-acetylene flames, the scope and limitations of the latter flame in chemical analysis are discussed. PMID:20068790

  18. Moessbauer spectroscopy - applications of the Doppler principle

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is an experimental method based on the application of the Doppler principle in the velocity modulation system for variation of γ-ray energy. The object of observations is a resonating nucleus. From Moessbauer spectra one can gain information on the electronic and magnetic environment (based on hyperfine interactions) and on the vibrational states of atoms (based on the Debey-Waller factor). It is a typical microscopic method which has found applications in all disciplines of natural sciences as well as in medicine, art, archaeology and materials science. (author) 5 figs., 37 refs

  19. Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    Reber, Melanie A R; Allison, Thomas K

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique using a frequency comb laser and optical cavities for performing ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy with improved sensitivity. Resonantly enhancing the probe pulses, we demonstrate a sensitivity of $\\Delta$OD $ = 1 \\times 10^{-9}/\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$ for averaging times as long as 30 s per delay point ($\\Delta$OD$_{min} = 2 \\times 10^{-10}$). Resonantly enhancing the pump pulses allows us to produce a high excitation fraction at high repetition-rate, so that signals can be recorded from samples with optical densities as low as OD $\\approx 10^{-8}$, or column densities $< 10^{10}$ molecules/cm$^2$. This high sensitivity enables new directions for ultrafast spectroscopy.

  20. Spectroscopy of organic semiconductors from first principles

    Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Biller, Ariel; Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffery

    2011-03-01

    Advances in organic optoelectronic materials rely on an accurate understanding their spectroscopy, motivating the development of predictive theoretical methods that accurately describe the excited states of organic semiconductors. In this work, we use density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory (GW/BSE) to compute the electronic and optical properties of two well-studied organic semiconductors, pentacene and PTCDA. We carefully compare our calculations of the bulk density of states with available photoemission spectra, accounting for the role of finite temperature and surface effects in experiment, and examining the influence of our main approximations -- e.g. the GW starting point and the application of the generalized plasmon-pole model -- on the predicted electronic structure. Moreover, our predictions for the nature of the exciton and its binding energy are discussed and compared against optical absorption data. We acknowledge DOE, NSF, and BASF for financial support and NERSC for computational resources.

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Ridgway, Mark

    2015-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique with which to probe the properties of matter, equally applicable to the solid, liquid and gas phases. Semiconductors are arguably our most technologically-relevant group of materials given they form the basis of the electronic and photonic devices that now so widely permeate almost every aspect of our society. The most effective utilisation of these materials today and tomorrow necessitates a detailed knowledge of their structural and vibrational properties. Through a series of comprehensive reviews, this book demonstrates the versatility of XAS for semiconductor materials analysis and presents important research activities in this ever growing field. A short introduction of the technique, aimed primarily at XAS newcomers, is followed by twenty independent chapters dedicated to distinct groups of materials. Topics span dopants in crystalline semiconductors and disorder in amorphous semiconductors to alloys and nanometric material as well as in-sit...

  2. Utilization of synchrotron radiation in analytical chemistry. Soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy

    Synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy includes three major types of spectroscopy such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This paper takes up XAS and XES of soft X-rays, and briefly describes the principle. XAS is roughly classified into XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), and XANES is mainly used in the analysis based on XAS of soft X-rays. As the examples of the latest soft X-ray analyses, the following are introduced: (1) bandgap of boron implantation diamond and the local structure of boron, (2) catalytic sites in solid fuel cell carbon electrode, and (3) soft X-ray analysis under atmospheric pressure. (A.O.)

  3. Isotope analysis by infrared laser absorption spectroscopy

    The feasibility of IR laser spectroscopy as a technique for the measurement of small abundances of stable and radioactive isotopes has been examined. Theoretical considerations and first experimental results with two laser systems are presented: 1) Coincidences between emission lines of a CO2-laser and absorption lines of 13C-subsituted ethylene can be used to determine the 13C-concentration of C2H4. 2) A tunable PbS-diode laser emitting in the 4.3 μm-spectral region of the rotation-vibration bands of CO2 can be used to determine abundances of 12C, 13C, 16O, 17O and 18O in small samples of CO2. With optimized performance, sensitivities up to 10-9-10-10 seem possible, and for higher abundances an accuracy of 10-3. This should allow geophysical isotope studies to be performed and it is hoped that the technique will eventually be applicable to measuring the activity of long-lived radioisotopes. (orig.)

  4. Solid state spectroscopies basic principles and applications

    Gonzalo, Julio A; De Frutos, Jose

    2002-01-01

    Materials physics is a very active research field at present and it is expected to remain so in the foreseeable future. Different spectroscopies are currently used to investigate the structure and dynamics of crystalline materials. Some traditional spectroscopies are presented in this book: optical, magnetic resonance, ultrasonic, brillouin, neutron scattering, soft mode and dielectric response spectroscopies. For all of them, the presentation is complemented with some reference material for more modern or sophisticated spectroscopies.This book should be useful as an introductory textbook for

  5. (EXAFS) X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    The technique EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) is presented and its applications using the synchrotron radiation as an incidente beam in Science of Materials and Biophysics are shown. (L.C.)

  6. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy on a smartphone

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J.; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    A self-powered smartphone-based field-portable "dual" spectrometer has been developed for both absorption and fluorescence measurements. The smartphone's existing flash LED has sufficient optical irradiance to undertake absorption measurements within a 3D-printed case containing a low cost nano-imprinted polymer diffraction grating. A UV (λex ~ 370 nm) and VIS (λex ~ 450 nm) LED are wired into the circuit of the flash LED to provide an excitation source for fluorescence measurements. Using a customized app on the smartphone, measurements of absorption and fluorescence spectra are demonstrated using pH-sensitive and Zn2+-responsive probes. Detection over a 300 nm span with 0.42 nm/pixel spectral resolution is demonstrated. Despite the low cost and small size of the portable spectrometer, the results compare well with bench top instruments.

  7. Basic principles of ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    N K Rai; A Y Lakshmanna; V V Namboodiri; S Umapathy

    2012-01-01

    When a light beam passes through any medium, the effects of interaction of light with the material depend on the field intensity. At low light intensities the response of materials remain linear to the amplitude of the applied electromagnetic field. But for sufficiently high intensities, the optical properties of materials are no longer linear to the amplitude of applied electromagnetic field. In such cases, the interaction of light waves with matter can result in the generation of new frequencies due to nonlinear processes such as higher harmonic generation and mixing of incident fields. One such nonlinear process, namely, the third order nonlinear spectroscopy has become a popular tool to study molecular structure. Thus, the spectroscopy based on the third order optical nonlinearity called stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a tool to extract the structural and dynamical information about a molecular system. Ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy (URLS) is analogous to SRS but is more sensitive than SRS. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis of SRS (URLS) techniques which have been developed in our laboratory.

  8. Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy

    Chemically reactive atmospheric species play a crucial role in tropospheric processes which affect regional air quality and global climate change. Contrary to long-lived species such as greenhouse gases, interference-free accurate and precise concentration assessments of strongly reactive short-lived species represent a real challenge. In this paper, we report on the recent progress in spectroscopic instrumental developments for monitoring of OH, NO3, HONO and NO2 by using modern photonic sources (Quantum Cascade Laser, distributed feedback diode laser, light emitting diode) in conjunction with high-sensitivity spectroscopic measurement techniques such as multi-pass cell based long optical path length absorption spectroscopy, wavelength-modulation enhanced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy, Faraday rotation spectroscopy, incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The main techniques available for routine atmospheric measurements of OH, NO3 and HONO are overviewed, in comparison with the emerging modern photonic spectroscopy techniques.

  9. Photothermal Absorption Spectroscopy of Individual Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Berciaud, Stéphane; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim

    2007-01-01

    Photothermal heterodyne detection is used to record the first room-temperature absorption spectra of single CdSe/ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals. These spectra are recorded in the high cw excitation regime, and the observed bands are assigned to transitions involving biexciton and trion states. Comparison with the single nanocrystals photoluminescence spectra leads to the measurement of spectral Stokes shifts free from ensemble averaging.

  10. [Study of retrieving formaldehyde with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Li, Yu-Jin; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Qu, Xiao-Ying; Hu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    The present paper introduces the method of retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The authors measured ambient HCHO in Beijing region with the help of differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument made by ourself, and discussed numerous factors in retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), especially, the choice of HCHO wave band, how to avoid absorption of ambient SO2, NO2 and O3, and the influence of the Xenon lamp spectrum structure on the absorption of ambient HCHO. The authors achieved the HCHO concentration by simultaneously retrieving the concentrations of HCHO, SO2, NO2 and O3 with non-linear least square fitting method, avoiding the effect of choosing narrow wave of HCHO and the residual of SO2, NO2, O3 and the Xenon lamp spectrum structure in retrieving process to attain the concentration of HCHO, Finally the authors analyzed the origin of error in retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and the total error is within 13.7% in this method. PMID:19385238

  11. Optical technique for broadband microwave absorption spectroscopy in aqueous media

    Precise measurements of microwave absorption over a large range of frequencies in aqueous media are difficult to obtain and can result in conflicting results as a consequences of small differences in instrumentation. Traditional methods of microwave spectroscopy that make use of time-domain spectrometers or network analyzer systems provide only indirect measurement of the microwave absorption coefficient because they measure the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, ε' and ε'', separately. The absorption coefficient must then be calculated from ε' and ε'' taking into account the geometry (e.g., of the waveguide and mode) among other factors. It has been shown that direct measurement of the microwave absorption coefficient α is possible using phase fluctuation optical heterodyne spectroscopy. Taking advantage of this hybrid optical-microwave technique the authors report on a broadband spectrometer with demonstrated accurate operation from 3 to 20 GHz

  12. Theory of Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Krypton for Overlapping Pump and Probe Pulses

    Pabst, Stefan; Sytcheva, Arina; Moulet, Antoine; Wirth, Adrian; Goulielmakis, Eleftherios; Santra, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We present the first fully ab initio calculations for attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of atomic krypton with overlapping pump and probe pulses. Within the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TDCIS) approach, we describe the pump step (strong-field ionization using a near-infrared pulse) as well as the probe step (resonant electron excitation using an extreme- ultraviolet pulse) from first principles. We extent our TDCIS model and account for the spin-orbit splitting...

  13. Speciesion arsenic and selenium using hydride method atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Hydrides production - atomic absorption spectroscopy system was studied. Hydrides production tool and gas-liquid separator were tested and successfully used in this work. Hydride was produced through natrium borohydride reaction with sample solution. Emitted gas was separated by gas-liquid separator before it is carried by nitrogen gas through T tube which is put in atomic absorption flame spectrophotometer. Efficiency of the system was tested through standard reference sample and seawater / sediment samples which is collected from Negeri Johor water bays

  14. Determination of trace amounts of scandium by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Chau, Y K

    1968-05-01

    Optimum instrumental conditions were investigated for the determination of trace quantities of scandium by atomic-absorption spectroscopy. Enhancement effects by organic solvents and by complex extractions were also studied. (46)Sc was used to establish the optimum extraction conditions. A sensitivity of 0.06 ppm of Sc was observed when using extraction into oxine-butanol and atomic absorption was measured with an acetylene-nitrous oxide flame. PMID:18960315

  15. Absorption spectroscopy of laser excited europium vapour

    Absorption spectra of europium vapour irradiated by intense, monochromatic resonance radiation at the wavelengths of the three principal resonance lines, 4f76s2, 8S(J=7/2)→4f76s6p, y 8P(J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) at 466.2, 462.7 and 459.4 nm respectively, have been photographed at high resolution. Pulsed resonance radiation was obtained from a tunable, narrow-band dye laser pumped by a nitrogen laser: a broad-band dye laser pumped by the same nitrogen laser provided background radiation. Our spectra covered the ranges 380-400 nm, and 410-450 nm, each one showing transitions from a single resonance level to upper levels in the region of either the 4f76s, 7S or the 4f76s, 9S ionization limit of EuII. In the shorter wavelength range the spectra consisted of weak autoionized series converging towards the 7S limit. In the longer wavelength range the three spectra were surprisingly dissimilar. The majority of the upper levels could be arranged into five highly-perturbed series, one corresponding to each of the J values 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2. These series arose from excitation of the 6p electron to high lying d-orbitals. The absorption transitions to the series members are only prominent in regions where the series are strongly perturbed, indicating that most of the line strength is derived from the perturbing levels. Possible origins for the perturbing levels are discussed. Little evidence was found for a series arising from excitation of the 6p electron to high lying s-orbitals. (author)

  16. Infrared laser spectroscopy using a long pathlength absorption cell

    The authors developed two very long pathlength absorption cells to be used in conjunction with diode lasers. They were designed to operate at controlled temperatures with the optical pathlength variable up to approx. 1,5 Km. Not only very low sample pressures are used for studies with such cells but also the spectroscopic sensitivity is enhanced over conventional methods by a factor of 103 to 104. In this paper they present some analytical aspects of the diode laser spectroscopy using the long pathlength absorption cells in the areas of absorption line widths, pressure broadening coefficients, isotope composition measurements and trace impurity analysis

  17. Developing a Transdisciplinary Teaching Implement for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Drew, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explain why I wrote the set of teaching notes on Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and why they look the way they do. The notes were intended as a student reference to question, highlight and write over as much as they wish during an initial practical demonstration of the threshold concept being introduced, in this case…

  18. Laser photothermal spectroscopy of light-induced absorption

    Skvortsov, L A [Institute of Cryptography, Communications and Informatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-31

    Basic methods of laser photothermal spectroscopy, which are used to study photoinduced absorption in various media, are briefly considered. Comparative analysis of these methods is performed and the latest results obtained in this field are discussed. Different schemes and examples of their practical implementation are considered. (review)

  19. Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy of a Lasing Material: Ruby

    Esposti, C. Degli; Bizzocchi, L.

    2007-01-01

    Ruby is a crystalline material, which comes very expensive and is of great significance, as it helped in the creation of first laser. An experiment to determine the absorption and emission spectroscopy, in addition to the determination of the room-temperature lifetime of the substance is being described.

  20. Communication: XUV transient absorption spectroscopy of iodomethane and iodobenzene photodissociation

    Drescher, L.; Galbraith, M. C. E.; Reitsma, G.; Dura, J.; Zhavoronkov, N.; Patchkovskii, S.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Mikosch, J.

    2016-07-01

    Time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy of iodomethane and iodobenzene photodissociation at the iodine pre-N4,5 edge is presented, using femtosecond UV pump pulses and XUV probe pulses from high harmonic generation. For both molecules the molecular core-to-valence absorption lines fade immediately, within the pump-probe time-resolution. Absorption lines converging to the atomic iodine product emerge promptly in CH3I but are time-delayed in C6H5I. We attribute this delay to the initial π → σ* excitation in iodobenzene, which is distant from the iodine reporter atom. We measure a continuous shift in energy of the emerging atomic absorption lines in CH3I, attributed to relaxation of the excited valence shell. An independent particle model is used to rationalize the observed experimental findings.

  1. Estimation of molar absorptivities and pigment sizes for eumelanin and pheomelanin using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    Piletic, Ivan R.; Matthews, Thomas E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2009-11-01

    Fundamental optical and structural properties of melanins are not well understood due to their poor solubility characteristics and the chemical disorder present during biomolecular synthesis. We apply nonlinear transient absorption spectroscopy to quantify molar absorptivities for eumelanin and pheomelanin and thereby get an estimate for their average pigment sizes. We determine that pheomelanin exhibits a larger molar absorptivity at near IR wavelengths (750nm), which may be extended to shorter wavelengths. Using the molar absorptivities, we estimate that melanin pigments contain ˜46 and 28 monomer units for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively. This is considerably larger than the oligomeric species that have been recently proposed to account for the absorption spectrum of eumelanin and illustrates that larger pigments comprise a significant fraction of the pigment distribution.

  2. Light-induced changes in subband absorption in a-Si:H using photoluminescence absorption spectroscopy

    Gu, S. Q.; Taylor, P. C.; Nitta, S.

    1991-08-01

    We have used the photoluminescence (PL) generated in a thin-film sample of a-Si:H to probe low absorption levels by measuring the absorption of the PL as it travels down the length of the film in a waveguide mode. This technique, which we have called PL absorption spectroscopy of PLAS, allows the measurement of values of the absorption coefficient α down to about 0.1 cm-1. Because this technique probes the top and bottom surfaces of the a-Si:H sample, it is important to separate surface from bulk absorption mechanisms. An improved sample geometry has been employed to facilitate this separation. One sample consisted of an a-Si1-xNix:H/a-Si:H/ a-Si1-xNx:H/NiCr layered structure where the silicon nitride layers served as the cladding layers for the waveguide. In a second sample the a-Si:H layer was interrupted near the middle for two separate, thin (100 Å) layers of a-Si1-xNx:H in order to check for the importance of the absorption at the silicon/silicon nitride interfaces in these PLAS measurements. Changes in the below-gap absorption on light soaking were examined using irradiation from an Ar+ laser (5145 Å, ˜200 mW/cm2 for 5.5 hours at 300 K). The silicon/silicon nitride interface is responsible for an absorption which has a shoulder near 1.2 eV while the bulk a-Si:H absorption exhibits no such shoulder. The metastable, optically-induced increase in the below gap absorption appears to come entirely from the bulk of the a-Si:H. These low temperature PLAS measurements are compared with those obtained at 300 K by photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

  3. Transient x-ray absorption spectroscopy of hydrated halogen atom

    Elles, Christopher G; Crowell, Robert A; Arms, Dohn A; Landahl, Eric C

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy monitors the transient species generated by one-photon detachment of an electron from aqueous bromide. Hydrated bromine atoms with a lifetime of ca. 17 ns were observed, nearly half of which react with excess Br- to form Br2-. The K-edge spectra of the Br atom and Br2- anion exhibit distinctive resonant transitions that are absent for the Br- precursor. The absorption spectra indicate that the solvent shell around a Br0 atom is defined primarily by hydrophobic interactions, in agreement with a Monte Carlo simulation of the solvent structure.

  4. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals

    Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. During the last year, infrared kinetic spectroscopy using excimer laser flash photolysis and color-center laser probing has been employed to study the high resolution spectrum of HCCN, the rate constant of the reaction between ethynyl (C{sub 2}H) radical and H{sub 2} in the temperature region between 295 and 875 K, and the recombination rate of propargyl (CH{sub 2}CCH) at room temperature.

  5. CO2 Spectroscopy Evaluation Using Atmospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    Sen, Bhaswar; Brown, Linda R.; Miller, Charles E.; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Toth, Robert A.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Wennberg, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the improvements in successive versions (1996 - 2004) of HITRAN (1) and other molecular line parameter data set (2) to correctly simulate infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) CO 2 transmittance spectra. Understanding the global sources and sinks of CO 2 requires highly accurate measurements (ó 0.3%) and makes extreme de- mands on the spectroscopy. We evaluated the line parameter data sets by fitting solar absorption spectra measured by the JPL MkIV FTIR spectrometer (3) and the ...

  6. Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)

    Hönninger, G.; Von Friedeburg, C.; U. Platt

    2004-01-01

    Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) in the atmosphere is a novel measurement technique that represents a significant advance on the well-established zenith scattered sunlight DOAS instruments which are mainly sensitive to stratospheric absorbers. MAX-DOAS utilizes scattered sunlight received from multiple viewing directions. The spatial distribution of various trace gases close to the instrument can be derived by combining several viewing directions. Ground...

  7. Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)

    Hönninger, G.; Friedeburg, C.; U. Platt

    2004-01-01

    Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) in the atmosphere is a novel measurement technique that represents a significant advance on the well-established zenith scattered sunlight DOAS instruments which are mainly sensitive to stratospheric absorbers. MAX-DOAS utilizes scattered sunlight received from multiple viewing directions. The spatial distribution of various trace gases close to the instrument can be derived by combining sev...

  8. APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY TO ACTINIDE PROCESS ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

    Lascola, R.; Sharma, V.

    2010-06-03

    The characteristic strong colors of aqueous actinide solutions form the basis of analytical techniques for actinides based on absorption spectroscopy. Colorimetric measurements of samples from processing activities have been used for at least half a century. This seemingly mature technology has been recently revitalized by developments in chemometric data analysis. Where reliable measurements could formerly only be obtained under well-defined conditions, modern methods are robust with respect to variations in acidity, concentration of complexants and spectral interferents, and temperature. This paper describes two examples of the use of process absorption spectroscopy for Pu analysis at the Savannah River Site, in Aiken, SC. In one example, custom optical filters allow accurate colorimetric measurements of Pu in a stream with rapid nitric acid variation. The second example demonstrates simultaneous measurement of Pu and U by chemometric treatment of absorption spectra. The paper concludes with a description of the use of these analyzers to supplement existing technologies in nuclear materials monitoring in processing, reprocessing, and storage facilities.

  9. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    Liang Mei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor, the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique.

  10. Study on the elemental mercury absorption cross section based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Zheng, Haiming; Yao, Penghui

    2015-08-01

    With the method of ultraviolet absorption spectrum, the exact absorption cross-section with the light source of the low-pressure mercury lamp was determined, during which the optimum wavelength for mercury concentrations inversion was 253.69 nm, the highest detection limit was 0.177 μg/cm3, and the lowest detection limit was 0.034 μg/cm3. Furthermore, based on the differential optical absorption spectroscopy(DOAS), the relationship between the integral parameters (IP) and the concentration as well as the signal-noise ration (SNR) under the conditions of gas flow was determined and the lowest detection limit was figured out to be 0.03524 μg/cm3, providing a method of DOAS to de-noise through the comparison between the mercury concentration values produced by DOAS and that produced by the wavelet de-noising method (db5). It turned out that the differential optical absorption spectroscopy had a strong anti-interference ability, while the wavelet de-noising method was not suitable for measuring the trace concentration change.

  11. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z0. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (1021-1025-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the line shape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality

  12. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z{sup 0}. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (10{sup 21} - 10{sup 25}-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time-evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the lineshape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality.

  13. Operando X-ray absorption and infrared fuel cell spectroscopy

    Lewis, Emily A.; Kendrick, Ian; Jia, Qingying; Grice, Corey; Segre, Carlo U.; Smotkin, Eugene S. (NuVant); (IIT); (NEU)

    2011-11-17

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell enables operando X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy of the membrane electrode assembly catalytic layer with flowing fuel and air streams at controlled temperature. Time-dependent X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra of the Pt and Ni edge of Pt based catalysts of an air-breathing cathode show that catalyst restructuring, after a potential step, has time constants from minutes to hours. The infrared Stark tuning plots of CO adsorbed on Pt at 100, 200, 300 and 400 mV vs. hydrogen reference electrode were obtained. The Stark tuning plots of CO adsorbed at 400 mV exhibit a precipitous drop in frequency coincident with the adsorption potential. The turn-down potential decreases relative to the adsorption potential and is approximately constant after 300 mV. These Stark tuning characteristics are attributed to potential dependent adsorption site selection by CO and competitive adsorption processes.

  14. Fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Tommasini, Matteo; Lucotti, Andrea; Alfè, Michela; Ciajolo, Anna; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of 51 PAHs whose structures have been hypothesized from mass spectrometry data collected on samples extracted from carbon particles of combustion origin. We have obtained relationships between infrared absorption signals in the fingerprint region (mid-IR) and the chemical structures of PAHs, thus proving the potential of IR spectroscopy for the characterization of the molecular structure of aromatic combustion products. The results obtained here for the spectroscopic characterization of PAHs can be also of interest in Materials Science and Astrophysics.

  15. High Resolution Spectroscopy on an X-ray Absorption Beamline

    Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Proux, Olivier; Nassif, Vivian; Palancher, Hervé; Lahera, Eric; Da Silva, Cécile; Braillard, Aurélien; Testemale, Denis; Diot, Marie-Ange; Alliot, Isabelle; Delnet, William; Manceau, A.; Gélébart, Frédéric; Morand, Marc; Dermigny, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A bent crystal spectrometer based on the Rowland circle geometry has been tested on the BM30b/FAME beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The energy resolution of the spectrometer (1.3eV at the Cu K1 energy, i.e. 8047.78eV) allows to perform different kinds of measurements, including X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering and X-ray Raman Scattering experiments. The simplicity of the experimental device makes it easily implemented on a cl...

  16. Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    Haibach, Fred; Erlich, Adam; Deutsch, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Block Engineering has developed an absorption spectroscopy system based on widely tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL). The QCL spectrometer rapidly cycles through a user-selected range in the mid-infrared spectrum, between 6 to 12 μm (1667 to 833 cm-1), to detect and identify substances on surfaces based on their absorption characteristics from a standoff distance of up to 2 feet with an eye-safe laser. It can also analyze vapors and liquids in a single device. For military applications, the QCL spectrometer has demonstrated trace explosive, chemical warfare agent (CWA), and toxic industrial chemical (TIC) detection and analysis. The QCL's higher power density enables measurements from diffuse and highly absorbing materials and substrates. Other advantages over Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy include portability, ruggedness, rapid analysis, and the ability to function from a distance through free space or a fiber optic probe. This paper will discuss the basic technology behind the system and the empirical data on various safety and security applications.

  17. Utilization of synchrotron radiation in analytical chemistry. Hard X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy

    This paper takes up X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) method, which has widely spread due to the energy selectivity of radiation, and fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy, which is utilized in non-destructive screening analysis and high precision quantitative analysis method for bulk materials due to the popularity of commercialized devices that usually use X-ray sources, and explains their devices, measurement principle, and applications. As the device, it introduces X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that was installed in SPring-8 beamline (BL05SS). As the application examples of fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy, it introduces the analysis of heavy elements due to high-energy X-ray excitation, and fluorescent X-ray analysis using microbeams. As the example of the use of XAFS method, it introduces the in-situ observation of the charging/discharging process of lithium battery. (A.O.)

  18. [Retrieval of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Xie, Pin-Hua; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Qin, Min; Li, Ang; Liu, Shi-Sheng; Wei, Qing-Nong

    2006-09-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique has been used to measure trace gases in the atmosphere by their strongly structured absorption of radiation in the UV and visible spectral range, e. g. SO2, NO2, O3 etc. However, unlike the absorption spectra of SO2 and NO2, the analysis of aromatic compounds is difficult and strongly suffers from the cross interference of other absorbers (Herzberg bands of oxygen, ozone and sulfur dioxide), especially with relatively low concentrations of aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. In the present paper, the DOAS evaluation of aromatic compounds was performed by nonlinear least square fit with two interpolated oxygen optical density spectra at different path lengths and reference spectra of ozone at different temperature and SO2 cross section to correct the interference from absorbers of O2, O3 and SO2. The measurement of toluene, benzene, (m, p, o) xylene and phenol with a DOAS system showed that DOAS method is suitable for monocyclic aromatic compounds monitoring in the atmosphere. PMID:17112022

  19. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of silanized silicon quantum dots

    Kuntermann, Volker; Cimpean, Carla; Brehm, Georg; Sauer, Guido; Kryschi, Carola; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Excitonic properties of colloidal silicon quantum dots (Si qdots) with mean sizes of 4nm were examined using stationary and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Chemically stable silicon oxide shells were prepared by controlled surface oxidation and silanization of HF-etched Si qdots. The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photogenerated excitons in Si qdot colloids were studied on the picosecond time scale from 0.3psto2.3ns using femtosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The time evolution of the transient absorption spectra of the Si qdots excited with a 150fs pump pulse at 390nm was observed to consist of decays of various absorption transitions of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band which overlap with both the photoluminescence and the photobleaching of the valence band population density. Gaussian deconvolution of the spectroscopic data allowed for disentangling various carrier relaxation processes involving electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scatterings or arising from surface-state trapping. The initial energy and momentum relaxation of hot carriers was observed to take place via scattering by optical phonons within 0.6ps . Exciton capturing by surface states forming shallow traps in the amorphous SiOx shell was found to occur with a time constant of 4ps , whereas deeper traps presumably localized in the Si-SiOx interface gave rise to exciton trapping processes with time constants of 110 and 180ps . Electron transfer from initially populated, higher-lying surface states to the conduction band of Si qdots (>2nm) was observed to take place within 400 or 700fs .

  20. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Leen, J. Brian, E-mail: b.leen@lgrinc.com; O’Keefe, Anthony [Los Gatos Research, 67 E. Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10{sup −10} cm{sup −1}/√(Hz;) an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features.

  1. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Leen, J. Brian; O’Keefe, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10−10 cm−1/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\sqrt {{\\rm Hz;}}$\\end{document} Hz ; an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features. PMID:25273701

  2. Near infrared spectroscopy in animal science production: principles and applications

    Roberto Riovanto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR is one of the techniques belonging to vibrational spectroscopy. Its radiation (750 to 2500nm interacts with organic matter, and the absorption spectrum is rich in chemical and physical information of organic molecules. In order to extract valuable information on the chemical properties of samples, it is necessary to mathematically process spectral data by chemometric tools. The most important part in the development of an NIR method is building the predicting model generally called calibration. NIR spectroscopy has several advantages over other analytical techniques: rapidity of analysis, no use of chemicals, minimal or no samples preparation, easily applicable in different work environments (on/in/at line applications. On the other hand, NIR spectroscopy has some disadvantages: low ability to predict compounds at low concentration (<0.1%, necessity of accurate analysis as reference, development of calibration models required high trained personnel, need of a large and up-to-date calibration data set (often difficult to obtain, difficulties to transfer calibration among instruments, initial high financial investments. In the feed industry, NIR spectroscopy is used for: feed composition, digestibility (in vivo, in vitro, in situ, traceability assessment (to avoid possible frauds. As far as animal products are concerned, NIR spectroscopy has been used to determine the main composition of meat, milk, fish, cheese, eggs. Furthermore, it was also used to predict some physical properties (tenderness, WHC (Water Holding Capacity, drip loss, colour and pH in meat; coagulation ability in milk; freshness, flavour and other sensorial parameters in cheese. Interesting applications of NIR spectroscopy regard issues like: determination of animal products’ authenticity and the detection of adulteration (in order to prevent frauds, discrimination PDO (Protected Designation of Origin and PGI (Protected Geographical Indication from other non

  3. Mercury pollution surveys in Riga by Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Practical sessions of mercury pollution measurements in Riga (Latvia) have been performed in several districts using an RA-915+ Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer coupled with a global positioning system (GPS). The measurements were taken from a driving car and in different days at one particular location (the Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy) for monitoring the changes in atmospheric mercury concentration. GPS was used to relate the measurement results to particular places, which made it possible to create a digitalized database of pollution for different geographic coordinates in different time spans. The measurements have shown that the background level of mercury concentration in Riga does not exceed 5 ng/m3, although there are several areas of elevated mercury pollution that need particular attention. (Authors)

  4. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Serrano, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez de la Fuente, O. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Collado, V.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Castro, G. R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG Beamline at the ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble, Cedex 09, France and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Monton, C. [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Garcia, M. A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Nanociencia, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5}, depending on the particular experiment.

  5. Investigating Actinide Molecular Adducts From Absorption Edge Spectroscopy

    Den Auwer, C.; Conradson, S.D.; Guilbaud, P.; Moisy, P.; Mustre de Leon, J.; Simoni, E.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    Although Absorption Edge Spectroscopy has been widely applied to the speciation of actinide elements, specifically at the L{sub III} edge, understanding and interpretation of actinide edge spectra are not complete. In that sense, semi-quantitative analysis is scarce. In this paper, different aspects of edge simulation are presented, including semi-quantitative approaches. Comparison is made between various actinyl (U, Np) aquo or hydroxy compounds. An excursion into transition metal osmium chemistry allows us to compare the structurally related osmyl and uranyl hydroxides. The edge shape and characteristic features are discussed within the multiple scattering picture and the role of the first coordination sphere as well as contributions from the water solvent are described.

  6. Arsenic speciation in solids using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Foster, Andrea L.; Kim, Chris S.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an in situ, minimally-destructive, element-specific, molecular-scale structural probe that has been employed to study the chemical forms (species) of arsenic (As) in solid and aqueous phases (including rocks, soils, sediment, synthetic compounds, and numerous types of biota including humans) for more than 20 years. Although several excellent reviews of As geochemistry and As speciation in the environment have been published previously (including recent contributions in this volume), the explosion of As-XAS studies over the past decade (especially studies employing microfocused X-ray beams) warrants this new review of the literature and of data analysis methods.

  7. Annette Bunge: developing the principles in percutaneous absorption using chemical engineering principles.

    Stinchcomb, A L

    2013-01-01

    Annette Bunge and her research group have had the central theme of mathematically modeling the dermal absorption process. Most of the research focus has been on estimating dermal absorption for the purpose of risk assessment, for exposure scenarios in the environment and in the occupational setting. Her work is the basis for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's estimations for dermal absorption from contaminated water. It is also the basis of the dermal absorption estimates used in determining if chemicals should be assigned a 'skin notation' for potential systemic toxicity following occupational skin exposure. The work is truly translational in that it started with mathematical theory, is validated with preclinical and human experiments, and then is used in guidelines to protect human health. Her valued research has also extended into the topical drug bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment field. PMID:23921118

  8. Integrating cavity ring-down spectroscopy (ICRDS) and the direct measurement of absorption coefficients

    Fry, Edward S.; Mason, John D.

    2016-04-01

    Absorption of light at various wavelengths (i.e. absorption spectroscopy) is a powerful tool for identifying the presence of chemical compounds or specific substances in a sample. Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a well-known technique for very high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy. Another technique, integrating cavity spectroscopy has the additional unique feature of providing accurate absorption data even in the presence of severe scattering. This paper describes a combination of these two techniques that has led to an extremely powerful and useful new technology—integrating CRDS.

  9. High Dispersion Absorption-line Spectroscopy of AE Aqr

    Echevarria, J; Costero, R; Zharikov, S; Michel, R

    2008-01-01

    High-dispersion time-resolved spectroscopy of the unique magnetic cataclysmic variable AE Aqr is presented. A radial velocity analysis of the absorption lines yields K_2 = 168.7+/- 1 km/s. Substantial deviations of the radial velocity curve from a sinusoid are interpreted in terms of intensity variations over the secondary star's surface. A complex rotational velocity curve as a function of orbital phase is detected which has a modulation frequency of twice the orbital frequency, leading to an estimate of the binary inclination angle that is close to 70^o. The minimum and maximum rotational velocities are used to indirectly derive a mass ratio of q= 0.6 and a radial velocity semi-amplitude of the white dwarf of K_1 = 101+/-3 km/s. We present an atmospheric temperature indicator, based on the absorption line ratio of Fe I and Cr I lines, whose variation indicates that the secondary star varies from K0 to K4 as a function of orbital phase. The ephemeris of the system has been revised, using more than one thousa...

  10. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H2S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  11. Ultra-fast X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the study of matter in transient regime

    In this work, we study the physics of dense matter, plasmas or solids, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through the use of sources produced by laser-matter interaction, we have measured the absorption spectra of aluminum and bromine plasmas, as well as those of vanadium dioxide (VO2). The measurement of absorption coefficients allows us to probe the dense matter and to study its properties. The experiments are carried out following the same principle: they use the same experimental set-up, called pump-probe. When the matter is dense, the absorption properties of an atom are modified by the surrounding environment. In a plasma, it is mainly the bound- bound transitions which are altered: the shapes of those spectral rays are modified. In a solid, the position of the neighbouring atoms in relation to the absorbing atom modify the structure of absorption levels (bound-free transition). The study of this structure allows us to measure the parameters of the material, and provides information such as the state of the electronic band or the interatomic gaps. The experiments carried out at the LULI have allowed us to probe plasmas in the relatively unknown regime of the Warm Dense Matter. One of the key parameters is that the plasma is characterised independently (FDI diagnostic). It allows for a better comparison of the measured absorption against a calculation made with the numerical model OPA-S. The experiments carried out at INRS have led to the realisation of an experimental system having the characteristics which allow the study of the dynamics of solids showing ultra-fast phase transition. For those experiments, we have used vanadium dioxide as a model system allowing us to test the feasibility of the method. (author)

  12. Quantitative investigation of two metallohydrolases by X-ray absorption spectroscopy near-edge spectroscopy

    The last several years have witnessed a tremendous increase in biological applications using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (BioXAS), thanks to continuous advancements in synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and detector technology. However, XAS applications in many biological systems have been limited by the intrinsic limitations of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique e.g., the lack of sensitivity to bond angles. As a consequence, the application of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy changed this scenario that is now continuously changing with the introduction of the first quantitative XANES packages such as Minut XANES (MXAN). Here we present and discuss the XANES code MXAN, a novel XANES-fitting package that allows a quantitative analysis of experimental data applied to Zn K-edge spectra of two metalloproteins: Leptospira interrogans Peptide deformylase (LiPDF) and acutolysin-C, a representative of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) from Agkistrodon acutus venom. The analysis on these two metallohydrolases reveals that proteolytic activities are correlated to subtle conformation changes around the zinc ion. In particular, this quantitative study clarifies the occurrence of the LiPDF catalytic mechanism via a two-water-molecules model, whereas in the acutolysin-C we have observed a different proteolytic activity correlated to structural changes around the zinc ion induced by pH variations

  13. Quantitative investigation of two metallohydrolases by X-ray absorption spectroscopy near-edge spectroscopy

    Zhao, W. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Chu, W.S.; Yang, F.F.; Yu, M.J.; Chen, D.L.; Guo, X.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, D.W.; Shi, N. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Marcelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, Frascati 00044 (Italy); Niu, L.W.; Teng, M.K. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Gong, W.M. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Benfatto, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, Frascati 00044 (Italy); Wu, Z.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, Frascati 00044 (Italy)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-09-21

    The last several years have witnessed a tremendous increase in biological applications using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (BioXAS), thanks to continuous advancements in synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and detector technology. However, XAS applications in many biological systems have been limited by the intrinsic limitations of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique e.g., the lack of sensitivity to bond angles. As a consequence, the application of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy changed this scenario that is now continuously changing with the introduction of the first quantitative XANES packages such as Minut XANES (MXAN). Here we present and discuss the XANES code MXAN, a novel XANES-fitting package that allows a quantitative analysis of experimental data applied to Zn K-edge spectra of two metalloproteins: Leptospira interrogans Peptide deformylase (LiPDF) and acutolysin-C, a representative of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) from Agkistrodon acutus venom. The analysis on these two metallohydrolases reveals that proteolytic activities are correlated to subtle conformation changes around the zinc ion. In particular, this quantitative study clarifies the occurrence of the LiPDF catalytic mechanism via a two-water-molecules model, whereas in the acutolysin-C we have observed a different proteolytic activity correlated to structural changes around the zinc ion induced by pH variations.

  14. Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy -- Laser Spectroscopy in Unconventional Environments

    Svanberg, Sune

    2010-02-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The GASMAS technique combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with optical propagation in diffuse media. Whereas solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures. These are typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. Molecular oxygen and water vapor have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen gas, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the human sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen, while breathing normally through the mouth. A clinical study comprising 40 patients has been concluded.

  15. Limiting absorption principle and perfectly matched layer method for Dirichlet Laplacians in quasi-cylindrical domains

    Kalvin, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We establish a limiting absorption principle for Dirichlet Laplacians in quasi-cylindrical domains. Outside a bounded set these domains can be transformed onto a semi-cylinder by suitable diffeomorphisms. Dirichlet Laplacians model quantum or acoustically-soft waveguides associated with quasi-cylindrical domains. We construct a uniquely solvable problem with perfectly matched layers of finite length. We prove that solutions of the latter problem approximate outgoing or incoming solutions with an error that exponentially tends to zero as the length of layers tends to infinity. Outgoing and incoming solutions are characterized by means of the limiting absorption principle.

  16. Cavity-Enhanced Frequency-Agile Rapid Scanning (fars) Spectroscopy: Measurement Principles

    Hodges, Joseph T.; Long, David A.; Truong, Gar-Wing; Douglass, Kevin O.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Zee, Roger Van; Plusquellic, David F.

    2013-06-01

    We present the principles of frequency-agile, rapid scanning (FARS) spectroscopy, a new technique for high-bandwidth, cavity-enhanced, laser absorption measurements. This method enables a visible or near-infrared probe laser beam to be frequency tuned over several tens of GHz using a microwave source, a waveguide phase modulator and a filter cavity. For the types of cavity-enhanced methods discussed here, the optical resonator itself is used to select a single sideband of the modulated laser spectrum, obviating the need for a separate filter cavity. FARS offers several important advantages over conventional cw laser tuning methods based on thermal or mechanical methods. These include, high speed tuning with sub-ms switching times, the ability to select arbitrary frequency steps or chirp rates, and the realization of a spectrum detuning axis with sub-kHz level precision. We discuss how FARS can be applied to cavity ring-down spectroscopy and other cavity-enhanced methods to enable rapid and accurate measurements of line parameters and to give noise-equivalent absorption coefficients at the 10^{-12} cm^{-1} Hz^{-1/2} level.

  17. Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Human Breath Analysis

    Wojtas, J.; Tittel, F. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Lewicki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Stefanski, P.; Tarka, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes two different optoelectronic detection techniques: cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. These techniques are designed to perform a sensitive analysis of trace gas species in exhaled human breath for medical applications. With such systems, the detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level can be achieved. The presence of certain gases (biomarkers), at increased concentration levels, indicates numerous human diseases. Diagnosis of a disease in its early stage would significantly increase chances for effective therapy. Non-invasive, real-time measurements, and high sensitivity and selectivity, capable of minimum discomfort for patients, are the main advantages of human breath analysis. At present, monitoring of volatile biomarkers in breath is commonly useful for diagnostic screening, treatment for specific conditions, therapy monitoring, control of exogenous gases (such as bacterial and poisonous emissions), as well as for analysis of metabolic gases.

  18. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  19. Molecular electronic states in charge transfer complex studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    The electronic states of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF: TTF = C6H4S4) molecule in organic ferroelectric TTF-p-bromanil (TTF-BA: BA = C6Br4O2) and TTF crystals have been investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurement at S K-edge. We elucidated that the peak structure at 2470.5 eV directly reflects the existence of hole in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) state of the TTF molecule in TTF-BA; that is consistent with the ionic TTF molecule (TTF+). The XAS of TTF-BA was evaluated on the basis of first-principles calculations, and the calculated spectra reproduce well the shape of experimental spectrum and the peak energy of the HOMO state.

  20. Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS

    G. Hönninger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS in the atmosphere is a novel measurement technique that represents a significant advance on the well-established zenith scattered sunlight DOAS instruments which are mainly sensitive to stratospheric absorbers. MAX-DOAS utilizes scattered sunlight received from multiple viewing directions. The spatial distribution of various trace gases close to the instrument can be derived by combining several viewing directions. Ground based MAX-DOAS is highly sensitive to absorbers in the lowest few kilometres of the atmosphere and vertical profile information can be retrieved by combining the measurements with Radiative Transfer Model (RTM calculations. The potential of the technique for a wide variety of studies of tropospheric trace species and its (few limitations are discussed. A Monte Carlo RTM is applied to calculate Airmass Factors (AMF for the various viewing geometries of MAX-DOAS. Airmass Factors can be used to quantify the light path length within the absorber layers. The airmass factor dependencies on the viewing direction and the influence of several parameters (trace gas profile, ground albedo, aerosol profile and type, solar zenith and azimuth angles are investigated. In addition we give a brief description of the instrumental MAX-DOAS systems realised and deployed so far. The results of the RTM studies are compared to several examples of recent MAX-DOAS field experiments and an outlook for future possible applications is given.

  1. Decay Heat Measurements Using Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Rice, S.; Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Taín, J. L.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Z.; Agramunt, J.; Gelletly, W.; Nichols, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    A knowledge of the decay heat emitted by thermal neutron-irradiated nuclear fuel is an important factor in ensuring safe reactor design and operation, spent fuel removal from the core, and subsequent storage prior to and after reprocessing, and waste disposal. Decay heat can be readily calculated from the nuclear decay properties of the fission products, actinides and their decay products as generated within the irradiated fuel. Much of the information comes from experiments performed with HPGe detectors, which often underestimate the beta feeding to states at high excitation energies. This inability to detect high-energy gamma emissions effectively results in the derivation of decay schemes that suffer from the pandemonium effect, although such a serious problem can be avoided through application of total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy (TAS). The beta decay of key radionuclei produced as a consequence of the neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu are being re-assessed by means of this spectroscopic technique. A brief synopsis is given of the Valencia-Surrey (BaF2) TAS detector, and their method of operation, calibration and spectral analysis.

  2. Nocturnal Measurements of HONO by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Wojtal, P.; McLaren, R.

    2011-12-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was used to quantify the concentration of HONO, NO2 and SO2 in the nocturnal urban atmosphere at York University over a period of one year. These measurements form a comprehensive HONO data set, including a large range of temperatures, relative humidity, surface conditions (snow, water, dry, etc.) and NO2 concentrations. Laboratory studies and observations within the nocturnal boundary layer reported in the literature suggest heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on surface adsorbed water as the major nighttime source of HONO. HONO formation and photolysis is believed to represent a major source term in the hydroxyl radical budget in polluted continental regions. Currently, most air quality models tend to significantly underpredict HONO, caused by the lack of understanding of HONO formation processes and the parameters that affect its concentration. Recently, we reported nocturnal pseudo steady states (PSS) of HONO in an aqueous marine environment and a conceptual model for HONO formation on aqueous surfaces was proposed. The data set collected at York University is being analyzed with a view towards further understanding the nighttime HONO formation mechanism and testing several hypotheses: 1) A HONO PSS can exist during certain times at night in an urban area in which the HONO concentration is independent of NO2, given the surface contains sufficient water coverage and is saturated with nitrogen containing precursors; 2) The concentration of HONO is positively correlated with temperature during periods where a PSS exists; 3) Different conversion efficiencies of NO2 to HONO exist on dry, wet and snow surfaces; 4) HONO formation has a NO2 order dependence between 0 and 2nd order, dependant on NO2 concentration, relative humidity, etc. The data set will be presented along with statistical analysis that sheds new light on the source of HONO in urban areas at night.

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES - A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) had been an essential tool to gather spectroscopic information about atomic energy level structure in the early decades of this century. The correct interpretation of the oscillatory structure in the x-ray absorption cross-section above the absorption edge has transformed XAS from a spectroscopic tool to a structural technique. EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) yields information about the interatomic distances, near neighbor coordination numbers, and lattice dynamics. XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure), on the other hand, gives information about the valence state, energy bandwidth and bond angles. Today, there are about 50 experimental stations in various synchrotrons around the world dedicated to collecting x-ray absorption data from the bulk and surfaces of solids and liquids. In this chapter, they will give the basic principles of XAS, explain the information content of essentially two different aspects of the absorption process leading to EXAFS and XANES, and discuss the source and sample limitations

  4. Interferometric measurement of lines shift in flames in connection with interpretation of lined absorption method in atomic absorption spectroscopy

    This paper is concerned with interferometric measuring of the line shift in flames in the view of interpretation of absorption lines in the atomic absorption spectroscopy. The newly measured line shifts were compared to the known data on Lorentz broadening of the same lines obtained by methods free of the systematic errors. The resonant lines of the alkaline earth elements (Sr, Ca, Ba) were investigated. To reduce self-absorption in the flame the solutions with minimum concentrations of the elements were used. The computation scheme includes the spectrometer apparatus width and line broadening due to the self-absorption. Formulae are given for computing the values studied. Good agreement was observed between the computed and experimental results. Error analysis was performed. It was concluded that any line shifts in the hydrocarbons were correctly taken into an account in the absolute computations of absorption

  5. XANES determination of chromium oxidation states in glasses: comparison with optical absorption spectroscopy

    Villain, Olivier; Calas, Georges; Galoisy, Laurence; Cormier, Laurent; Hazemann, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation state of chromium in glasses melted in an air atmosphere with and without refining agents was investigated by Cr K-edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) and optical absorption spectroscopy. A good agreement in the relative proportion of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) is obtained between both methods. We show that the chemical dependence of the absorption coefficient of Cr(III) is less important in XANES than in optical absorption spectroscopy. The comparison of glasses melted un...

  6. Study of self-absorption in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    We present a simple analytical expression for self-absorption correction of a spectrum recorded in the image mode of a CCD camera. It is assumed that two spectra are available, F2 recorded with a back mirror and F1 recorded without. The corrected spectrum F0, free of self-absorption, is given by the following simple expression F0=(2F1)/(1+(F2−F1)/(GF1) ) . We discuss the influence of noise on subsequent inverse Abel transform. An example, illustrating proposed method for self-absorption correction and Abel inversion is given in details. - Highlights: • We present a simple expression for self-absorption correction in LIBS plasma. • Method needs two spectra recorded in the image mode of the CCD. • Abel transform is not necessary for self-absorption correction

  7. Femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of astaxantin in solution and in alpha-crustacyanin

    Ilagan, R.P.; Christensen, R.L.; Chapp, T.W.; Frank, H.A.; Polívka, Tomáš; Pascher, T.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 14 (2005), s. 3120-3127. ISSN 1089-5639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : absorption spectroscopy * astaxantin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.898, year: 2005

  8. In situ gas temperature measurements by UV-absorption spectroscopy

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2009-01-01

    range from 23 degrees C to 1,500 degrees C. The gas temperature was evaluated (1) from the analysis of the structure of selected NO high-resolution gamma-absorption bands and (2) from the analysis of vibrational distribution in the NO gamma-absorption system in the (211-238) nm spectral range. The......The absorption spectrum of the NO A(2)Sigma(+) <- X(2)Pi gamma-system can be used for in situ evaluation of gas temperature. Experiments were performed with a newly developed atmospheric-pressure high-temperature flow gas cell at highly uniform and stable gas temperatures over a 0.533 m path in the...... accuracy of both methods is discussed. Validation of the classical Lambert-Beer law has been demonstrated at NO concentrations up to 500 ppm and gas temperatures up to 1,500 degrees C over an optical absorption path length of 0.533 m....

  9. Multiple scattering approach to X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the state of the art of the theoretical background needed for analyzing X-ray absorption spectra in the whole energy range. The multiple-scattering (MS) theory is presented in detail with some applications on real systems. We also describe recent progress in performing geometrical fitting of the XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) energy region and beyond using a full multiple-scattering approach.

  10. Two-wavelength absorption modulation spectroscopy of bandtail absorption in GaAs quantum wells

    We have discovered that below-band-gap photoexcitation produces large bleaching of the exciton absorption in GaAs quantum well heterostructures. We have used this effect to perform the first investigation of room-temperature bandtail absorption in these structures. We find that the below-band-gap absorption follows a spectral Urbach's rule. In addition, proton-bombarded samples show an Urbach energy correlated with bombardment-induced defects. This sensitive technique has enabled us to study samples as thin as 1 μm at energies where the absorption coefficient is approx.10 cm-1

  11. Ultrafast terahertz conductivity and transient optical absorption spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystal thin films

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Harthy, Rahma Al; Cooke, David;

    We use time-resolved THz spectroscopy and transient optical absorption spectroscopy as two complementary techniques to study ultrafast carrier dynamics in silicon nanocrystal thin films. We find that the photoconductive dynamics in these materials is dominated by interface trapping, and we observe...

  12. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  13. Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy of laser-excited materials

    Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamline 6.0 is designed for x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond x-ray pulse generated by bunch 'slicing' technique. Soft and hard x-ray branch lines will cover a wide photon energy range from 120 eV to 10 KeV. A soft x-ray spectrograph will collect absorption spectra dispersively. The application of laminar gratings to dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the photon energy range 2-8 KeV has been investigated. (author)

  14. Theoretical experimental study of the factors that govern the molybdenum absorption signal by means of electro thermic atomic absorption spectroscopy

    The formation of molybdenum carbides in the atomizer, used in the electro thermic atomic absorption spectroscopy, is responsible for incomplete analyte removal in its analysis. This generates the apparition of the memory effect and little precision in the results. In this work, different variables that could affect the molybdenum absorption sign were investigated, as well as the influence of hydrochloric acid on the memory effect, by means of studies in the different stages: drying, calcination and atomization, and the samples deposition order in molybdenum solutions, either acidified or not acidified

  15. [The Research for Trace Ammonia Escape Monitoring System Based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy].

    Zhang, Li-fang; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-bin; Yan, Jian-hua; Cen, Ke-fa

    2015-06-01

    In order to on-line measure the trace ammonia slip of the commercial power plant in the future, this research seeks to measure the trace ammonia by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy under ambient temperature and pressure, and at different temperatures, and the measuring temperature is about 650 K in the power plant. In recent years lasers have become commercially available in the near-infrared where the transitions are much stronger, and ammonia's spectroscopy is pretty complicated and the overlapping lines are difficult to resolve. A group of ammonia transitions near 4 433.5 cm(-1) in the v2 +v3 combination band have been thoroughly selected for detecting lower concentration by analyzing its absorption characteristic and considering other absorption interference in combustion gases where H2O and CO2 mole fraction are very large. To illustrate the potential for NH3 concentration measurements, predictions for NH3, H2O and CO2 are simultaneously simulated, NH3 absorption lines near 4 433.5 cm(-1) wavelength meet weaker H2O absorption than the commercial NH3 lines, and there is almost no CO2 absorption, all the parameters are based on the HITRAN database, and an improved detection limit was obtained for interference-free NH3 monitoring, this 2.25 μm band has line strengths several times larger than absorption lines in the 1.53 μm band which was often used by NH3 sensors for emission monitoring and analyzing. The measurement system was developed with a new Herriott cell and a heated gas cell realizing fast absorption measurements of high resolution, and combined with direct absorption and wavelenguh modulation based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy at different temperatures. The lorentzian line shape is dominant at ambient temperature and pressure, and the estimated detectivity is approximately 0.225 x 10(-6) (SNR = 1) for the directed absorption spectroscopy, assuming a noise-equivalent absorbance of 1 x 10(-4). The heated cell

  16. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    de Groot, F. M. F.

    2001-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption process. Section II discusses 1s X-ray absorption, i.e., the K edges, and section III deals with 2p X-ray absorption, the L edges. X-ray emission is discussed in, respectively, the L edges. X-ray emis...

  17. Compact supercontinuum sources based on tellurite suspended core fibers for absorption spectroscopy beyond 2 μm

    Strutynski, Clément; Picot-Clémente, Jérémy; Désévédavy, Frédéric; Jules, Jean-Charles; Gadret, Grégory; Kibler, Bertrand; Smektala, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    We present the experimental development of two compact supercontinuum laser sources based on tellurite suspended core fibers with and without tapering post-processing. The pumping scheme makes use of commercially-available nJ-level femtosecond and picosecond fiber lasers at 1.56 and 2.06 μm respectively. The resulting spectral broadening that occurs in a few tens-of-centimeters of tellurite fiber allows coverage of the convenient molecular fingerprint region between 2 and 3 μm. It is then exploited in a proof-of-principle experiment for methane spectroscopy measurements in the mid-infrared by means of the supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy technique. Experimental results are in fairly good agreement with both numerical simulations of supercontinuum generation and spectroscopic predictions of the HITRAN database.

  18. Near-infrared radiation absorption properties of covellite (CuS using first-principles calculations

    Lihua Xiao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available First-principles density functional theory was used to investigate the electronic structure, optical properties and the origin of the near-infrared (NIR absorption of covellite (CuS. The calculated lattice constant and optical properties are found to be in reasonable agreement with experimental and theoretical findings. The electronic structure reveals that the valence and conduction bands of covellite are determined by the Cu 3d and S 3p states. By analyzing its optical properties, we can fully understand the potential of covellite (CuS as a NIR absorbing material. Our results show that covellite (CuS exhibits NIR absorption due to its metal-like plasma oscillation in the NIR range.

  19. Absorption spectroscopy of electronic states near Fermi level

    This paper reports that the temperature behavior of the absorption spectra of superconducting YBa2-Cu3-O7-δ textured films is measured in a 1.5 + 3.0 eV energy region with varying temperatures from 25 to 300 K. The spectra are found to be sensitive to a superconducting transition: the temperature-dependent behavior of absorption at T > Tc undergoes critical changes under the superconducting transition and for T c the spectrum ceases to depend on temperature. The spectra display an exciton maximum in the optical gap Eg = 1.95 eV. The spectrum freezing at Tc can be explained assuming that the Fermi level is in temperature resonance with a narrow local level which is responsible for a delta-like singularity in the density of states

  20. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO3− and NO2−. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lithium sulfur battery reaction intermediates

    Wujcik, Kevin; Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David; Balsara, Nitash

    2015-03-01

    Lithium sulfur batteries have a theoretical energy density nearly five times greater than current lithium ion battery standards, but questions still remain regarding the reaction pathways through which soluble lithium polysulfide (Li2Sx, ``x'' ranging from 2 to 8) reaction intermediates are formed. Complicating spectroelectrochemical approaches to elucidate redox pathways is the challenge of obtaining spectral standards for individual Li2Sx species. Lithium polysulfides cannot be isolated as individual component and exist only in solution as a distribution of different Li2Sx molecules formed via disproportionation reactions (e.g. 2Li2S4 goes to Li2S3 + Li2S5). X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the sulfur K-edge has recently been employed as a technique to study Li-S chemistry. We have recently obtained XAS standards for individual Li2Sx species via first principles DFT simulations and the excited electron and core hole approach. Here, experimental sulfur K-edge XAS of Li2Sx species dissolved in poly(ethylene oxide) are compared to spectra obtained from analogous theoretical calculations. The impact that polysulfide solution concentration and the presence of other lithium salts (e.g. LiNO3) have on X-ray spectra of Li2Sx species is explored via experiment and theory.

  2. Probing the chemical reactivity of free titanium clusters by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Synchrotron radiation-based experimental techniques are largely employed for the characterization of the reactivity of finite size systems; in particular, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a suitable tool to shed light on the local electronic structure and chemical status of atoms in nano-objects, as it is very sensitive to the local bonding environment of the probed site. In supported clusters intrinsic properties and reactivity are largely distorted and obscured by the changes imposed by the growth procedure and by the influence of the substrate, so the attainability of experiments on free clusters reacting with species in the gas phase is a primary goal in the development of cluster science. In this paper we report a proof of principle of the applicability of gas phase XAS technique to titanium and titanium oxide, hydride and hydrate systems. Experiments are performed by coupling a pulsed microplasma cluster source (PMCS) with a third generation synchrotron light source, and measuring the intensity of the electron yield coming from the interaction of VUV photons with the clusters seeded in a supersonic beam. (orig.)

  3. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Saykally, Richard J., E-mail: saykally@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Shih, Orion [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Rizzuto, Anthony M. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Prendergast, David [The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  4. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO3- and NO2-. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  5. Design principle for absorption enhancement with nanoparticles in thin-film silicon solar cells

    The use of nanoparticles in solar cells has created many controversies. In this paper, different mechanisms of nanoparticles with different materials with diameters varying from 50 to 200 nm, surface coverage at 5, 20, and 60 %, and different locations are analyzed systematically for efficient light trapping in a thin-film c-Si solar cell. Mie theory and the finite difference time domain method are used for analysis to give a design principle with nanoparticles for the solar cell application. Metals exhibit plasmonic resonances and angular scattering, while dielectrics show anti-reflection and scattering in the incident direction. A table is given to summarize the advantages and disadvantages in different conditions. The silicon absorption enhancement with nanoparticles on top is mainly in the shorter wavelengths below 700 nm, and both Al and SiO2 nanoparticles with diameter around 100 nm show the most significant enhancement. The silicon absorption enhancement with embedded nanoparticles takes place in the longer wavelengths over 700 nm, and Ag and SiO2 nanoparticles with larger diameter around 200 nm perform better. However, the light absorbed by Ag nanoparticles will be converted to heat and will lead to decrease in cell efficiency; hence, the choice of metallic nanoparticles in applications to solar cells should be carefully considered. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline by choosing reasonable parameters for the different requirements in the application of thin-film solar cells

  6. A heated chamber burner for atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Venghiattis, A A

    1968-07-01

    A new heated chamber burner is described. The burner is of the premixed type, and burner heads of the types conventionally used in atomic absorption may be readily adapted to it. This new sampling system has been tested for Ag, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, and Zn in aqueous solutions. An improvement of the order of ten times has been obtained in sensitivity, and in detection limits as well, for the elements determined. Interferences controllable are somewhat more severe than in conventional burners but are controllable. PMID:20068792

  7. [Retrieval of tropospheric NO2 by multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Xu, Jin; Xie, Pin-hua; Si, Fu-qi; Dou, Ke; Li, Ang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Wen-qing

    2010-09-01

    A method of retrieving NO2 in troposphere based on multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) was introduced. The differential slant column density (dSCD) of NO2 was evaluated by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), removing the Fraunhofer structure and Ring effect. Combining the results of different observing directions, the tropospheric NO2 differential slant column density (deltaSCD) was evaluated, and the air mass factor (AMF) was calculated with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN and the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) was retrieved. To ensure the accuracy of the results, it was compared with the results of long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS), a good accordance was shown with the correlation coefficients of 0.94027 and 0.96924. PMID:21105419

  8. Surface and ultrathin-layer absorptance spectroscopy for solar cells

    Holovský, Jakub; Remeš, Zdeněk; De Wolf, S.; Ballif, C.

    Vol. 60. Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd, 2014 - (Gordon, I.; Valenta, J.; Turan, R.; Atwater, H.; Mirabella, S.), s. 57-62 ISSN 1876-6102. [E- MRS Spring Meeting 2014. Lille (FR), 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12029; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - FAST TRACK Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface states * thin-film limit * ATR-FTIR * photothermal deflection spectrscopy * photocurrent spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Ultra-fast X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the study of matter in transient regime; Spectroscopie d'absorption ultra-rapide de rayonnement X pour l'etude de la matiere en regime transitoire

    Lecherbourg, L

    2007-12-15

    In this work, we study the physics of dense matter, plasmas or solids, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through the use of sources produced by laser-matter interaction, we have measured the absorption spectra of aluminum and bromine plasmas, as well as those of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). The measurement of absorption coefficients allows us to probe the dense matter and to study its properties. The experiments are carried out following the same principle: they use the same experimental set-up, called pump-probe. When the matter is dense, the absorption properties of an atom are modified by the surrounding environment. In a plasma, it is mainly the bound- bound transitions which are altered: the shapes of those spectral rays are modified. In a solid, the position of the neighbouring atoms in relation to the absorbing atom modify the structure of absorption levels (bound-free transition). The study of this structure allows us to measure the parameters of the material, and provides information such as the state of the electronic band or the interatomic gaps. The experiments carried out at the LULI have allowed us to probe plasmas in the relatively unknown regime of the Warm Dense Matter. One of the key parameters is that the plasma is characterised independently (FDI diagnostic). It allows for a better comparison of the measured absorption against a calculation made with the numerical model OPA-S. The experiments carried out at INRS have led to the realisation of an experimental system having the characteristics which allow the study of the dynamics of solids showing ultra-fast phase transition. For those experiments, we have used vanadium dioxide as a model system allowing us to test the feasibility of the method. (author)

  10. Alternative method for concentration retrieval in differential optical absorption spectroscopy atmospheric gas pollutant measurements

    Videla, Fabián; Schinca, Daniel Carlos; Tocho, Jorge O.

    2003-01-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy is a widely used technique for open-column atmospheric-gas pollution monitoring. The concentration retrieval is based on the fitting of the measured differential absorbance through the Lambert-Beer law. We present an alternative method for calculating the gas concentration on the basis of the proportionality between differential absorbance and differential absorption cross section of the gas under study. The method can be used on its own for single...

  11. Optical-Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

    Maisons, G.; Gorrotxategi Carbajo, P.; Carras, M.; Romanini, D.

    2010-01-01

    Optical{feedback cavity{enhanced absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated in the mid{IR using a quantum cascade laser (emitting at 4.46 ¹m). The laser linewidth reduction and frequency locking by selective optical feedback from the resonant cavity ¯eld turns out to be particularly important in this spectral range: It allows strong cavity transmission which compensates for low light sensitivity, especially when using room temperature detectors. We obtain a noise equivalent absorption coe±cient ...

  12. Absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and visible spectral range of hexavalent chromium aqueous solutions

    Mignani, Anna G.; Spadoni, Lorenzo

    1999-09-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of performing direct absorption spectroscopy of Hexavalent Chromium aqueous solutions, absorption measurements were performed at the dual- beam spectrophotometer in the 250 - 850 nm spectral range, with 10 mm and 100 mm path lengths. Low concentration (26 - 520 (mu) g/l) (and high concentration (2.6 - 52 mg/l) solutions were analyzed, showing that it is possible to implement a basic instrumentation for risk condition monitoring and a more advanced instrumentation for quantitative measurements.

  13. Polarization dependent interface properties of ferroelectric Schottky barriers studied by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Denlinger, M. Meier J.; Guo, J.; Wanli, Y.; A. Scholl; Freelon, B.; Schneller, T.; Waser, R.; Yu, P; Ramesh, R.; Learmonth, T.; Glans, P.-A.; Smith, K. E.

    2008-01-01

    We applied soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the Ti L-edge in ferroelectric capacitors using a modified total electron yield method. The inner photo currents and the X-ray absorption spectra were polarization state dependent. The results are explained on the basis of photo electric effects and the inner potential in the ferroelectric capacitors as a result of back-to-back Schottky barriers superimposed by the potential due to the depolarization field. In general, the presented metho...

  14. Broadband Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) – applicability and corrections

    U. Platt; J. Meinen; D. Pöhler; T. Leisner

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric trace gas measurements by cavity assisted long-path absorption spectroscopy are an emerging technology. An interesting approach is the combination of CEAS with broadband light sources, the broadband CEAS (BB-CEAS). BB-CEAS lends itself to the application of the DOAS technique to analyse the derived absorption spectra. While the DOAS approach has enormous advantages in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the measurement, an important implication is the reduction of the light pa...

  15. Non-intrusive sensing of air velocity, humidity, and temperature using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Park, Suhyeon

    2015-01-01

    This work will report the non-intrusive sensing of air velocity, humidity, and temperature using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), and discuss the potential applications of such sensors for in situ monitoring and active control for wind energy. The sensing technique utilizes the absorption features of water vapor in ambient air to monitor multiple flow parameters including velocity, humidity, and temperature simultaneously and non-intrusively [1-3]. The TDLAS technique does...

  16. Total absorption spectroscopy of N = 51 nucleus 85Se

    Goetz, K. C.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Karny, M.; Fialkowska, A.; Wolinska-Cichocka, M.; Rasco, B. C.; Zganjar, E. F.; Johnson, J. W.; Gross, C. J.

    2014-09-01

    An experimental campaign utilizing the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) was conducted at the HRIBF facility in January of 2012. The campaign studied 22 isotopes, many of which were identified as the highest priority for decay heat analysis during a nuclear fuel cycle, see the report by the OECD-IAEA Nuclear Energy Agency in 2007. The case of 85Se will be discussed. 85Se is a Z = 34, N = 51 nucleus with the valence neutron located in the positive parity sd single particle state. Therefore, its decay properties are determined by interplay between first forbidden decays of the valence neutron and Gamow-Teller decay of a 78Ni core. Analysis of the data obtained during the January 2012 run indicates a significant increase of the beta strength function when compared with previous measurements, see Ref..

  17. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by μ-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included

  18. Absorption spectroscopy of powdered materials using time-resolved diffuse optical methods.

    D'Andrea, Cosimo; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A; Farina, Andrea; Taroni, Paola; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2012-11-10

    In this paper a novel method, based on time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy, is proposed to measure the absorption of small amounts of nanostructured powder materials independent of scattering. Experimental validation, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, has been carried out on India Inkparticles. The effectiveness of the technique to measure scattering-free absorption is demonstrated on carbon nanotubes. The comparison between the absorption spectra acquired by the proposed method and conventional measurements performed with a commercial spectrophotometer is discussed. PMID:23142900

  19. Quartz crystal microbalance and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy characterization of bisphenol A absorption in the poly(acrylate) thin films.

    Li, Guifeng; Morita, Shigeaki; Ye, Shen; Tanaka, Masaru; Osawa, Masatoshi

    2004-02-01

    The absorption process of bisphenol A (BPA) in a number of poly(acrylate) thin films, such as poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA), poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), has been investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) measurements. Both QCM and IRRAS measurements show that the BPA molecules absorb in PMEA, PEA, and PBMA thin films but not in PMMA thin film. The differences in the BPA absorption behavior are mainly attributed to the difference in the glass transition temperature (T(g)) between these polymers. This absorption behavior also depends on the BPA concentration and polymer film thickness. Furthermore, IRRAS characterization demonstrates that the hydrogen bonding is formed between the hydroxyl group in BPA and the carbonyl group in the poly(acrylate) thin films. BPA molecule absorbed in these polymer thin films can be removed by ethanol rinse treatment. By optimizing experimental conditions for the QCM electrode modified by PMEA thin film, detection limitation of approximately 1 ppb for BPA can be realized by the in situ QCM measurement. This method is expected to be a sensitive in situ detection way for trace BPA in the environmental study. PMID:14750877

  20. Study of cancer cell lines with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy

    Uceda Otero, E. P.; Eliel, G. S. N.; Fonseca, E. J. S.;

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell lines: the Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) human cervix carcinoma and 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes and d...

  1. Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.

  2. Oxidation of plutonium dioxide: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted in order to characterise plutonium dioxide oxidation. It is shown that the sample preparation adopted does not enable elaboration of hyperstoichiometric plutonium dioxide. These results could mean that plutonium dioxide oxidation only occurs under very specific conditions

  3. Determination of atmospheric corrosion of coated steel surfaces by in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS)

    Full text: Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) is a sensitive technique for measuring thin layers on metallic surfaces. The principal goal of this IRRAS study was the development of a reproducible and reliable in situ measurement procedure for the determination of corrosion of coated steel surfaces. (author)

  4. Absorption spectroscopy of Al XIII Ly-ŕ radiation by an Fe XXIV plasma

    Gouveia, A.; Al'miev, I. R.; Hawreliak, J.; Chambers, D. M.; Liang, T.; Marjoribanks, R.; Pinto, O.; Renner, Oldřich; Zhang, J.; Wark, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 81, - (2003), s. 199-207. ISSN 0022-4073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : XUV laser * radiative transfer * X-ray absorption spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.382, year: 2003

  5. Gas concentration measurement by optical similitude absorption spectroscopy: methodology and experimental demonstration.

    Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2016-06-13

    We propose a new methodology to measure gas concentration by light-absorption spectroscopy when the light source spectrum is larger than the spectral width of one or several molecular gas absorption lines. We named it optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS), as the gas concentration is derived from a similitude between the light source and the target gas spectra. The main OSAS-novelty lies in the development of a robust inversion methodology, based on the Newton-Raphson algorithm, which allows retrieving the target gas concentration from spectrally-integrated differential light-absorption measurements. As a proof, OSAS is applied in laboratory to the 2ν3 methane absorption band at 1.66 µm with uncertainties revealed by the Allan variance. OSAS has also been applied to non-dispersive infra-red and the optical correlation spectroscopy arrangements. This all-optics gas concentration retrieval does not require the use of a gas calibration cell and opens new tracks to atmospheric gas pollution and greenhouse gases sources monitoring. PMID:27410280

  6. Spectroscopy

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  7. Silicon oxide particle formation in RF plasmas investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    In situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the composition of particles formed and suspended in radio-frequency discharges of silane-oxygen-argon gas mixtures. The silane gas consumption was observed by infrared absorption. The stoichiometry of the produced particles depends on the silane flow rate and was compared with commercial colloidal silica. A small proportion of silane gas produces nanometric stoichiometric particles whereas a large proportion produces larger under-stoichiometric particles. Absorption spectroscopy was sufficiently sensitive to reveal particles too small to be visually observed by laser light scattering. Post-oxidation of hydrogenated silicon particles trapped in an argon plasma by adding oxygen was demonstrated. Mass spectrometry of negative and positive ions showed an extensive range of ionic clusters which may be at the origin of particle formation. A model based on an iterative reaction sequence gives a good agreement with the measured positive ion mass spectrum. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., 34 refs

  8. [The Diagnostics of Detonation Flow External Field Based on Multispectral Absorption Spectroscopy Technology].

    Lü, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Compared with traditional sampling-based sensing method, absorption spectroscopy technology is well suitable for detonation flow diagnostics, since it can provide with us fast response, nonintrusive, sensitive solution for situ measurements of multiple flow-field parameters. The temperature and concentration test results are the average values along the laser path with traditional absorption spectroscopy technology, while the boundary of detonation flow external field is unknown and it changes all the time during the detonation engine works, traditional absorption spectroscopy technology is no longer suitable for detonation diagnostics. The trend of line strength with temperature varies with different absorption lines. By increasing the number of absorption lines in the test path, more information of the non-uniform flow field can be obtained. In this paper, based on multispectral absorption technology, the reconstructed model of detonation flow external field distribution was established according to the simulation results of space-time conservation element and solution element method, and a diagnostic method of detonation flow external field was given. The model deviation and calculation error of the least squares method adopted were studied by simulation, and the maximum concentration and temperature calculation error was 20.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Four absorption lines of H2O were chosen and detonation flow was scanned at the same time. The detonation external flow testing system was set up for the valveless gas-liquid continuous pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. Through scanning H2O absorption lines with a high frequency of 10 kHz, the on-line detection of detonation external flow was realized by direct absorption method combined with time-division multiplexing technology, and the reconstruction of dynamic temperature distribution was realized as well for the first time, both verifying the feasibility of the test method. The test results

  9. Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum and superluminescent diode sources.

    Aalto, Antti; Genty, Goëry; Laurila, Toni; Toivonen, Juha

    2015-09-21

    We investigate incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a tailored supercontinuum source. By tailoring the supercontinuum spectrum to match the high reflectivity bandwidth of the mirrors, we achieve an unprecedented spectral brightness of more than 7 dBm/nm at wavelengths where the effective absorption path length in the cavity exceeds 40 km. We demonstrate the potential of the source in spectrally broadband measurement of weak overtone transitions of carbon dioxide and methane in the near-infrared 1590 nm - 1700 nm range and evaluate its performance against that of a typical superluminescent diode source. Minimum detectable absorption coefficients (3σ) of 2.2 × 10(-9) cm(-1) and 6.2 × 10(-9) cm(-1) are obtained with the supercontinuum and the superluminescent diode sources, respectively. We further develop a spectral fitting method based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy to fully and properly account for the combined effect of absorption line saturation and limited spectral resolution of the detection. The method allows to cope with high dynamic range of absorption features typical of real-world multi-component measurements. PMID:26406720

  10. Development and application of UV-visible and mid-IR differential absorption spectroscopy techniques for pollutant trace gas monitoring

    Jiménez Pizarro, Rodrigo; Calpini, Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    Spatial representativeness is an important quality criterion in trace gas monitoring, especially if measurements are intended for regulatory and model validation purposes. Open-path absorption spectroscopy techniques meet the representativeness requirement by providing concentrations averaged over atmospheric paths ranging from some hundred meters to some kilometers. This research concerns the characterization and application of a UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)...

  11. Development and application of UV-visible and mid-IR differential absorption spectroscopy techniques for pollutant trace gas monitoring

    Jiménez Pizarro, Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    Spatial representativeness is an important quality criterion in trace gas monitoring, especially if measurements are intended for regulatory and model validation purposes. Open-path absorption spectroscopy techniques meet the representativeness requirement by providing concentrations averaged over atmospheric paths ranging from some hundred meters to some kilometers. This research concerns the characterization and application of a UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)...

  12. Picosecond absorption spectroscopy of an intense ultrafast laser produced plasma; Spectroscopie d'absorption picoseconde d'un plasma produit par un laser intense ultra bref

    Renaudin, P.; Gary, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Audebert, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Geindre, J.P. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), Unite Mixte de recherche n. 7605 CNRS - CEA - Ecole Polytechnique - Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (France); Gauthier, J.C. [Le Centre Laser Intense et application (CELIA) est une unite mixte de recherche CNRS-CEA-UB1, 33 - Talence (France); Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    By using high-intensity sub-picosecond lasers, it is possible to heat a solid up to million degrees with very shallow gradients. We present an experiment where a thin foil is irradiated by a sub-picosecond laser. Frequency domain interferometry measures the velocity of the rear critical density using a pomp-probe method. The recombination dynamics of the transient plasma is measured by point-projection absorption spectroscopy. The good agreement between the experimental data, atomic physics calculations, and hydrodynamic modelling demonstrates the capability of the codes to reproduce the ultra fast evolution of plasmas in the sub-picosecond regime. (authors)

  13. Comparison of Nitric Oxide Concentrations in μs- and ns-Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas by UV Absorption Spectroscopy

    Peters, F.; Hirschberg, J.; Mertens, N.; Wieneke, S.; Viöl, W.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an absorption spectroscopy measurement method was applied on two atmospheric pressure plasma sources to determine their production of nitric oxide. The concentrations are essential for evaluating the plasma sources based on the principle of the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) for applications in plasma medicine. The described method is based on a setup with an electrodeless discharge lamp filled with a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. One of the emitted wavelengths is an important resonance wavelength of nitric oxide (λ = 226.2 nm). By comparing the absorption behaviour at the minimum and maximum of the spectral absorption cross section of nitric oxide around that wavelength, and measuring the change in intensity by the absorbing plasma, the concentration of nitric oxide inside the plasma can be calculated. The produced nitric oxide concentrations depend on the pulse duration and are in the range of 180 ppm to 1400 ppm, so that a distance of about 10cm to the respiratory tract is enough to conform to the VDI Guideline 2310.

  14. [Measurement of atmospheric NO3 radical with long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy based on red light emitting diodes].

    Li, Su-Wen; Liu, Wen-Qing; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Xie, Pin-Hua; Wang, Xu-De

    2013-02-01

    Nitrate radical (NO3) is the most important oxidant in the tropospheric nighttime chemistry. Due to its high reactivity and low atmospheric concentrations, modern red light emitting diodes (LEDs) was proposed as light source in long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) to measure NO3 radical in the atmosphere. The spectral properties of Luxeon LXHL-MD1D LEDs were analyzed in the present paper. The principle of LEDs-DOAS system to measure nitrate radical was studied in this paper. The experimental setup and retrieval method of NO3 radical were discussed in this paper. The retrieved example of NO3 was given and the time series of NO3 concentrations was performed for a week. The results showed that the detection limits of LEDs-DOAS system were 12 ppt for atmospheric NO3 radical when the optical path of LEDs-DOAS system was 2.8 km. PMID:23697129

  15. First-Principles Calculation of Principal Hugoniot and K-Shell X-ray Absorption Spectra for Warm Dense KCl

    Zhao, Shijun; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Li, Zi; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-01-01

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. Pressure ionization and thermal smearing are shown as the major factors to pr...

  16. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy of inductively coupled chlorine plasma

    Marinov, Daniil; Foucher, Mickaël; Campbell, Ewen; Brouard, Mark; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method to measure the densities of vibrationally excited Cl2(v) molecules in levels up to v  =  3 in pure chlorine inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs). The absorption continuum of Cl2 in the 250–450 nm spectral range is deconvoluted into the individual components originating from the different vibrational levels of the ground state, using a set of ab initio absorption cross sections. It is shown that gas heating at constant pressure is the major depletion mechanism of the Cl2 feedstock in the plasma. In these line-integrated absorption measurements, the absorption by the hot (and therefore rarefied) Cl2 gas in the reactor centre is masked by the cooler (and therefore denser) Cl2 near the walls. These radial gradients in temperature and density make it difficult to assess the degree of vibrational excitation in the centre of the reactor. The observed line-averaged vibrational distributions, when analyzed taking into account the radial temperature gradient, suggest that vibrational and translational degrees of freedom in the plasma are close to local equilibrium. This can be explained by efficient vibrational-translational (VT) relaxation between Cl2 and Cl atoms. Besides the Cl2(v) absorption band, a weak continuum absorption is observed at shorter wavelengths, and is attributed to photodetachment of Cl‑ negative ions. Thus, line-integrated densities of negative ions in chlorine plasmas can be directly measured using broad-band absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Infrared-laser spectroscopy using a long-pathlength absorption cell

    The absorption measurements in an ordinary cell may require typically a few torr pressure of sample gas. At these pressures the absorption lines are usually pressure-broadened and, therefore, closely spaced transitions are poorly resolved even at diode-laser resolution. This situation is greatly improved in Doppler-limited spectroscopy at extremely low sample pressures. Two very long-pathlength absorption cells were developed to be used in conjunction with diode lasers. They were designed to operate at controlled temperatures with the optical pathlength variable up to approx. 1.5 km. Not only very low sample pressures are used for studies with such cells but also the spectroscopic sensitivity is enhanced over conventional methods by a factor of 103 to 104, improving the analytical capability of measuring particle densities to the order of 1 x 10'' molecules/cm3. This paper presents some analytical aspects of the diode laser spectroscopy using the long-pathlength absorption cells in the areas of absorption line widths, pressure broadening coefficients, isotope composition measurements and trace impurity analysis

  18. NO2 measurements in Hong Kong using LED based long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Chan, K. L.; Pöhler, D.; G. Kuhlmann; Hartl, A.; Platt, U.; M. O. Wenig

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the first long term measurements of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using a LED based Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instrument. This instrument is measuring continuously in Hong Kong since December 2009, first in a setup with a 550 m absorption path and then with a 3820 m path at about 30 m to 50 m above street level. The instrument is using a high power blue light LED with peak intensity at 450 nm coupled into t...

  19. Hydrogenated carbon nanotubes: x-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio simulation analysis

    The paper presents the results of investigation of the chemical bond formation in hydrogenated single-walled carbon nanotubes using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. All measurements were performed with the use of synchrotron radiation at BESSY II. The C1s absorption spectra point to formation of covalent chemical bonding between the hydrogen and carbon atoms in H-SWNTs. The investigation of the H-SWNT local structure has been carried out on the basis of the semi-empirical PM6 method (MOPAC 2009) and Finite Difference method. The possibility of H-SWNTs dehydrogenation was also investigated.

  20. Characterization of Metalloproteins and Biomaterials by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl

    and R6) were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) to 1.40 Å, 1.30 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The zinc coordination in each conformation was studied by XAS including both extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure...... the zinc coordination in the T3-sites, in particular. Furthermore, XANES spectra for the zinc sites in T6 and R6 insulin were successfully calculated using finite difference methods, and the bond distances and angles were optimized from a quantitative XANES analysis. T6 insulin was furthermore...

  1. Linear cavity optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser.

    Bergin, A G V; Hancock, G; Ritchie, G A D; Weidmann, D

    2013-07-15

    A cw distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) coupled to a two-mirror linear optical cavity has been used to successfully demonstrate optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) at 5.5 μm. The noise-equivalent absorption coefficient, α(min), was 2.4×10(-8) cm(-1) for 1 s averaging, limited by etalon-fringing. The temporal stability of the instrument allows NO detection down to 5 ppb in 2 s. PMID:23939085

  2. Precise shear waves absorption measurements by the Elasto-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy method

    Klinkosz, T

    2003-01-01

    The essential feature of the method is the employment of elasto-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (EMRS) for precise measurement of the absorption of transverse elastic waves introduced into a biological sample. Such a measurement can be accomplished by combining the EMRS method with such methods, in which collective dislocations of spins are induced by external physical factors, e.g. variable electric field, strong magnetic field gradient or longitudinal elastic wave. This has been illustrated herein on the example of Electrical Mobility Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EMMRS).

  3. Quasiparticle and Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Semiconductors Pentacene and PTCDA from First Principles

    Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Biller, Ariel; Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2011-01-01

    The broad use of organic semiconductors for optoelectronic applications relies on quantitative understanding and control of their spectroscopic properties. Of paramount importance are the transport gap - the difference between ionization potential and electron affinity - and the exciton binding energy - inferred from the difference between the transport and optical absorption gaps. Transport gaps are commonly established via photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (PES/IPES). How...

  4. Capturing molecular structural dynamics by 100 ps time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    An experimental set-up for time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 100 ps time resolution at beamline NW14A at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring is presented. An experimental set-up for time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 100 ps time resolution at beamline NW14A at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring is presented. The X-ray positional active feedback to crystals in a monochromator combined with a figure-of-merit scan of the laser beam position has been utilized as an essential tool to stabilize the spatial overlap of the X-ray and laser beams at the sample position. As a typical example, a time-resolved XAFS measurement of a photo-induced spin crossover reaction of the tris(1,10-phenanthrorine)iron(II) complex in water is presented

  5. Undistorted X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Using s-Core-Orbital Emissions.

    Golnak, Ronny; Xiao, Jie; Atak, Kaan; Unger, Isaak; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Aziz, Emad F

    2016-05-12

    Detection of secondary emissions, fluorescence yield (FY), or electron yield (EY), originating from the relaxation processes upon X-ray resonant absorption has been widely adopted for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements when the primary absorption process cannot be probed directly in transmission mode. Various spectral distortion effects inherent in the relaxation processes and in the subsequent transportation of emitted particles (electron or photon) through the sample, however, undermine the proportionality of the emission signals to the X-ray absorption coefficient. In the present study, multiple radiative (FY) and nonradiative (EY) decay channels have been experimentally investigated on a model system, FeCl3 aqueous solution, at the excitation energy of the Fe L-edge. The systematic comparisons between the experimental spectra taken from various decay channels, as well as the comparison with the theoretically simulated Fe L-edge XA spectrum that involves only the absorption process, indicate that the detection of the Fe 3s → 2p partial fluorescence yield (PFY) gives rise to the true Fe L-edge XA spectrum. The two key characteristics generalized from this particular decay channel-zero orbital angular momentum (i.e., s orbital) and core-level emission-set a guideline for obtaining undistorted X-ray absorption spectra in the future. PMID:27101344

  6. Diagnosis of laser ablated carbon particles measured by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    The time and space resolved properties of laser ablated carbon particles were measured by X-ray absorption spectroscopy using LPX as an X-ray source. The energy density of the irradiation laser on the sample was in the range of 0.5-20J/cm2 and the time delay was varied between 0 and 120ns. The absorption spectra exhibited several peaks originated from level to level transitions and an intense broad absorption in the energy range of C-K edge. At a delay time of 120ns, the absorption peak from 1s→2p transition of neutral carbon atom (C0), C-, C+ and C2+ ions were observed. The absorption peak from C0 was stronger as the probing position was closer to the sample surface and decreased rapidly with distance from the sample surface. The absorption peak C2+ ion was observed only at comparatively distant positions from surface. The maximum speeds of highly charged ions were faster than that of neutral atoms and negative charged ions. The neutral atom and lower charged ions were emitted from the sample even after laser irradiation. The spatial distributions of the laser ablated carbon particles in the localized helium gas environment were measured. In the helium gas environment, the ablation plume was depressed by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume. (author)

  7. Time-resolved tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of pulsed plasma

    Adámek, Petr; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 14 (2013), s. 2428-2430. ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12045; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA MŠk LD12002; GA MŠk LH12043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode lasers * plasma diagnostics * absorption spectroscopy * time resolved Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2013

  8. Elemental analysis of hair samples using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Elemental analysis of hair samples was performed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The ion exchange preconcentration technique was employed. The capacity of the exchanger used-cellulose hyphan at different pH was investigated to determine the optimum pH for the resin. The capacity of the resin to take up elements of interest from mixed solutions was also analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  9. Differential Optical-absorption Spectroscopy (doas) System For Urban Atmospheric-pollution Monitoring

    Edner, H; Ragnarson, P; Spannare, S; Svanberg, Sune

    1993-01-01

    We describe a fully computer-controlled differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric air pollution monitoring. A receiving optical telescope can sequentially tune in to light beams from a number of distant high-pressure Xe lamp light sources to cover the area of a medium-sized city. A beam-finding servosystem and automatic gain control permit unattended long-time monitoring. Using an astronomical code, we can also search and track celestial sources. Selected wavelength ...

  10. Ultrafast Strong-Field Vibrational Dynamics Studied by Femtosecond Extreme-Ultraviolet Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    Hosler, Erik Robert

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet core-level absorption spectroscopy has developed into a powerful tool for investigating chemical dynamics due to its sensitivity for detecting changes in electronic structure. By probing the core-levels of atoms and molecules, dynamics may be monitored with elemental specificity, as well as localized sensitivity to the oxidation state around the atomic absorber. Previous experiments with this technique demonstrated the capability to quantitatively...

  11. Application of FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy to Characterize Waste and Biofuels for Pyrolysis and Gasification

    KALISZ Sylwester; Svoboda, Karel; ROBAK Zbigniew; Baxter, David; Andersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the various applications of FTIR absorption spectroscopy as a tool for characterizing waste biofuels for pyrolysis and gasification. The FTIR spectrometer used in the study allows for analysis of solid and liquid waste and biofuel samples. Further, an attached dedicated gas cell is used in the characterization of gases evolving during pyrolysis in a versatile pyrolyser/gasifier attached to the FTIR. The pyrolyser operates in a batch mode and generates large quantities o...

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy beyond the core-hole lifetime

    A new technique to overcome the core-hole lifetime broadening in x-ray absorption spectroscopy is presented. It utilizes a high resolution fluorescence spectrometer which can be used to analyze the fluorescence photon energy with better resolution than the natural lifetime width. Furthermore, the high resolution spectrometer can also be used to select the final state in the fluorescence process which can offer spin selectivity even without long range magnetic order in the sample

  13. Energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy at LNLS: investigation on strongly correlated metal oxides

    Cezar, Julio C.; Souza-Neto, Narcizo,; Piamonteze, Cınthia; Tamura, Edilson; Garcia, Flavio; Carvalho, Edson J.; Neueschwander, Régis T.; Ramos, Aline Y.; Tolentino, Hélio; Caneiro, Alberto; Massa, Nestor E.; Jesus Martinez-Lope, Maria; Antonio Alonso, Jose; Itié, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline mainly dedicated to X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and material science under extreme conditions has been implemented in a bending-magnet port at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. Here the beamline technical characteristics are described, including the most important aspects of the mechanics, optical elements and detection set-up. The beamline performance is then illustrated through two case studies on strongly co...

  14. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic tool: an overview

    Jürgen Röpcke; Norbert Lang; Marko Hübner; Frank Hempel; Stefan Welzel; Davies, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide ...

  15. Simultaneous detection of potassium, water vapor and temperature with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Norén, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Existing tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) sensors for potassium (K) and for water vapor (H2O) and temperature were combined to enable simultaneous measurements in combustion and gasification processes. In-situ real-time detection of the above mentioned combustion parameters will improve the understanding of ash-formation during thermochemical conversion of biomass. Simultaneous measurements facilitate the experimental procedure and decrease the methodological uncertainty in...

  16. Third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of fluorescein-containing polymers determined by electro-absorption spectroscopy

    Gomez-Sosa, Gustavo; Beristain, Miriam F.; Ortega, Alejandra; Martínez-Viramontes, Jaquelin; Ogawa, Takeshi; Fernández-Hernández, Roberto C.; Tamayo-Rivera, Lis; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Isoshima, Takashi; Hara, Masahiko

    2012-03-01

    Novel polymers containing xanthene groups with high dye concentrations were prepared, and their third order nonlinear optical properties were studied by electroabsorption spectroscopy technique. The polymers were amorphous with refractive indices above 1.6 in the non-resonant region. The UV-Visible absorption spectra indicate the fluoresceins molecules in the polymers are H-aggregated. They showed third order nonlinear susceptibility, χ(3) (-ω:ω, 0, 0), of 2.5-3.5 × 10-12 esu.

  17. Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy

    Dongxing Wang; Wenqi Zhu; Michael D Best; Camden, Jon P.; Kenneth B. Crozier

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostruc...

  18. Self-absorption influence on the optical spectroscopy of zinc oxide laser produced plasma

    De Posada, E; Arronte, M A; Ponce, L; Rodriguez, E; Flores, T [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada-Unidad Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Lunney, J G, E-mail: edeposada@ipn.mx [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy is used to study the laser ablation process of ZnO targets. It is demonstrated that even if Partial Local Thermal Equilibrium is present, self absorption process leads to a decrease of recorded lines emission intensities and have to be taken into account to obtain correct values of such parameters. It is presented a method that combines results of both Langmuir probe technique and Anisimov model to obtain correct values of plasma parameters.

  19. Self-absorption influence on the optical spectroscopy of zinc oxide laser produced plasma

    Optical spectroscopy is used to study the laser ablation process of ZnO targets. It is demonstrated that even if Partial Local Thermal Equilibrium is present, self absorption process leads to a decrease of recorded lines emission intensities and have to be taken into account to obtain correct values of such parameters. It is presented a method that combines results of both Langmuir probe technique and Anisimov model to obtain correct values of plasma parameters.

  20. Procedure for intercomparison study for trace elements determination in soil samples by absorption spectroscopy

    In the environmental sampling analysis there is very important to establish an adequate methodologies on the laboratories for improvement the quality of the results obtained, so the establishment of a qualified laboratories network for environmental analysis. The objective of this work is to show the working plan for the analysis of eight elements on a Russian soil sample for an interlaboratory comparison with IAEA, by the Absorption spectroscopy technique using flame. (Author)

  1. Characterization of metalloproteins by high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Shi, W.; Punta, M.; J. Bohon; J.M. Sauder; R D'Mello; Sullivan, M.; Toomey, J.; Abel, D; Lippi, M.; Passerini, A.; P. Frasconi; Burley, S K; B. Rost; Chance, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to measure transition metal content based on quantitative detection of X-ray fluorescence signals for 3879 purified proteins from several hundred different protein families gen- erated by the New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics. Approximately 9% of the proteins analyzed showed the presence of transition metal atoms (Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, or Mn) in stoichiometric amounts. The method is highly automated and highly reliable ba...

  2. Determination of vanadium in food and traditional Chinese medicine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    2003-01-01

    Various experimental conditions were described for the vanadium determination by graphite furnace atomic ab-sorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). The experiments showed that when atomization took place under the conditions where thecombination of a pyrolytic coating graphite tube and fast raising temperature were used and the temperature was stable, thesignal peak shapes could be improved, the sensitivity was enhanced, and the memory effect was removed. The vanadium infood and traditional Chinese medicinal herbs can be accurately determined using the standard curve method.

  3. In situ x-ray-absorption spectroscopy study of hydrogen absorption by nickel-magnesium thin films

    Structural and electronic properties of co-sputtered Ni-Mg thin films with varying Ni to Mg ratio were studied by in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the Ni L-edge and Mg K-edge regions. Codeposition of the metals led to increased disorder and decreased coordination around Ni and Mg compared to pure metal films. Exposure of the metallic films to hydrogen resulted in formation of hydrides and increased disorder. The presence of hydrogen as a near neighbor around Mg caused a drastic reduction in the intensities of multiple scattering resonances at higher energies. The optical switching behavior and changes in the x-ray spectra varied with Ni to Mg atomic ratio. Pure Mg films with Pd overlayers were converted to MgH2: The H atoms occupy regular sites as in bulk MgH2. Although optical switching was slow in the absence of Ni, the amount of H2 absorption was large. Incorporation of Ni in Mg films led to an increase in the speed of optical switching but decreased maximum transparency. Significant shifts in the Ni L3 and L2 peaks are consistent with strong interaction with hydrogen in the mixed films

  4. Spectroscopy of PTCDA attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy

    Dvorak, M.; Müller, M; Knoblauch, T.; Bünermann, O.; Rydlo, A.; Minniberger, S.; Harbich, W.; Stienkemeier, F.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon a...

  5. An approach of open-path gas sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Hui Xia; Wenqing Liu; Yujun Zhang; Ruifeng Kan; Min Wang; Ying He; Yiben Cui; Jun Ruan; Hui Geng

    2008-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a new method to detect trace-gas qualitatively or quantificationally based on the scan characteristic of the diode laser to obtain the absorption spectroscopy in the characteristic absorption region. A time-sharing scanning open-path TDLAS system using two near infrared distributed feedback (DFB) tunable diode lasers is designed to detect CH4 and H2S in leakage of natural gas. A low-cost Fresnel lens is used in this system as receiving optics which receives the laser beam reflected by a solid corner cube reflector with a distance of up to about 60 m. High sensitivity is achieved by means of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection. The minimum detection limits of 1.1 ppm·m for CH4 and 15 ppm·m for H2S are demonstrated with a total optical path of 120 m. The simulation monitoring experiment of nature gas leakage was carried out with this system. According to the receiving light efficiency of optical system and detectable minimum light intensity of detection, the detectable optical path of the system can achieve 1 - 2 km. The sensor is suitable for natural gas leakage monitoring application.

  6. Structural study of tungstate fluorophosphate glasses by Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Transparent glasses were synthesized in the NaPO3-BaF2-WO3 ternary system and several structural characterizations were performed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) at the tungsten LI and LIII absorption edges and by Raman spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to the coordination state of tungsten atoms in the vitreous network. XANES investigations showed that tungsten atoms are only six-fold coordinated (octahedra WO6) and that these glasses are free of tungstate tetrahedra (WO4). In addition, Raman spectroscopy allowed to identify a break in the linear phosphate chains as the amount of WO3 increases and the formation of P-O-W bonds in the vitreous network indicating the modifier behavior of WO6 octahedra in the glass network. Based on XANES data, we suggested a new attribution of several Raman absorption bands which allowed to identify the presence of W-O- and W=O terminal bonds and a progressive apparition of W-O-W bridging bonds for the most WO3 concentrated samples (30% molar) due to the formation of WO6 clusters

  7. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of petroleum asphaltenes and model compounds

    The utility of sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the determination and quantification of sulfur forms in petroleum asphaltenes has been investigated. Both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were obtained for a selected group of model compounds and for several petroleum asphaltene samples. For the model compounds the sulfur XANES was found to vary widely from compound to compound and to provide a fingerprint for the form of sulfur involved. The use of third derivatives of the spectra enabled discrimination of mixtures of sulfidic and thiophenic model compounds and allowed approximate quantification of the amount of each component in the mixtures and in the asphaltene samples. These results represent the first demonstration that nonvolatile sulfur forms can be distinguished and approximately quantified by direct measurement

  8. X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopy theory and applications

    Lamberti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, remarkable and often spectacular progress has been made in the methodological and instrumental aspects of x–ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. This progress includes considerable technological improvements in the design and production of detectors especially with the development and expansion of large-scale synchrotron reactors All this has resulted in improved analytical performance and new applications, as well as in the perspective of a dramatic enhancement in the potential of x–ray based analysis techniques for the near future. This comprehensive two-volume treatise features articles that explain the phenomena and describe examples of X–ray absorption and emission applications in several fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, catalysis, amorphous and liquid systems, synchrotron radiation, and surface phenomena. Contributors explain the underlying theory, how to set up X–ray absorption experiments, and how to analyze the details of the resulting spectra. X-R...

  9. Aspects of UV-absorption spectroscopy on ozone in effluents of plasma jets operated in air

    Cold plasmas operating under atmospheric conditions have been in the focus of scientific attention not only due to their use in plasma medicine. Many of these plasma sources most notably produce ozone. This work presents a detailed ozone analysis on an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet operated in ambient air using ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. A special focus is placed on the question whether other species are involved, or is the absorption signal due to ozone. For this, the wavelength dependence of the optical depth was measured and compared with the theoretical optical depth including the cross section of ozone. The results show that in the case of a MHz frequency driven atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet the absorption signal in the UV range is solely due to ozone. Furthermore, this finding is verified by spectroscopic measurements in the IR spectral range. Additional space-resolved ozone density measurements are performed in the effluent of this jet with small oxygen admixtures by means of UV absorption spectroscopy. A funnel-shaped spatial ozone profile is found for all investigated oxygen admixtures. The highest ozone density develops on the effluent axis and in close vicinity to the jet nozzle. The maximal detected value is 1.5 × 1016 cm-3 for an oxygen admixture of 1%. In order to compare the results with non-space-resolved ozone detection methods the ozone net production rate is calculated.

  10. Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy

    Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (“metasurfaces”) can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

  11. An energy dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline, X6A, at NSLS

    An energy dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy instrument has been built at the X6A beam port of the x-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This instrument allows the collection of extended x-ray-absorption fine structure and/or x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra for many elements on the millisecond time scale. The beamline employs a four-point crystal bender and a rectangular Si 220 crystal to access incident energies between 6.5 and 21 keV. Because the polychromator focuses the synchrotron beam to a narrow 100-μm line, this experimental apparatus is ideal for x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments in special environments such as at high pressures, for in situ experiments, and/or for very small samples. In this manuscript we will describe the instrument design and present data with which to evaluate the instrument. This beamline is available through the NSLS user proposal system

  12. Probing local and electronic structure in Warm Dense Matter: single pulse synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy on shocked Fe

    Torchio, Raffaella; Occelli, Florent; Mathon, Olivier; Sollier, Arnaud; Lescoute, Emilien; Videau, Laurent; Vinci, Tommaso; Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Headspith, Jon; Helsby, William; Bland, Simon; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David; Pascarelli, Sakura; Loubeyre, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Understanding Warm Dense Matter (WDM), the state of planetary interiors, is a new frontier in scientific research. There exists very little experimental data probing WDM states at the atomic level to test current models and those performed up to now are limited in quality. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experiment that makes microscopic investigations of materials under dynamic compression easily accessible to users and with data quality close to that achievable at ambient. Using a single 100 ps synchrotron x-ray pulse, we have measured, by K-edge absorption spectroscopy, ns-lived equilibrium states of WDM Fe. Structural and electronic changes in Fe are clearly observed for the first time at such extreme conditions. The amplitude of the EXAFS oscillations persists up to 500 GPa and 17000 K, suggesting an enduring local order. Moreover, a discrepancy exists with respect to theoretical calculations in the value of the energy shift of the absorption onset and so this comparison should help to refine the approximations used in models.

  13. Oxidation of CO over RuO2(110): a reflection-absorption IR spectroscopy study

    Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions present a powerful potential for unraveling the reaction mechanism at molecular level. The spatial distribution of the reactants at the catalyst surface can be computed even for pressures which fall outside the scope of standard ultra-high vacuum (UHV) experimental methods. Reflection-Absorption IR Spectroscopy (RAIRS) has been used to study the oxidation of CO over the model catalyst RuO2(110), under experimental conditions entailing a variation by four orders of magnitude in the reactant pressure (from 10-7 to 10-3 mbar). A careful analysis of high pressure RAIRS spectra has led to a rather complete picture of the steady state at the catalyst surface under reaction conditions at 350 K. While an elementary kMC approach has been found satisfactory in accounting for the experimental results, more elaborated first principles (ab initio) kMC treatments have failed to do so. The sources of discrepancy between experiment and first principles theory will be critically discussed.

  14. [Study on removing the lamp spectrum structure in differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Qu, Xiao-ying; Li, Yu-jin

    2010-11-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique has been used to measure trace gases in the atmosphere by their strongly structured absorption of radiation in the UV and visible spectral range, and nowadays this technique has been widely utilized to measure trace polluted gases in the atmosphere e.g. SO2, NO2, O3, HCHO, etc. However, there exists lamp (xenon lamp or deuteriumlamp) spectrum structure in the measured band (300-700 nm) of the absorption spectra of atmosphere, which badly impacts on precision of retrieving the concentration of trace gases in the atmosphere. People home and abroad generally employ two ways to handle this problem, one is segmenting band retrieving method, another is remedial retrieving method. In the present paper, a new retrieving method to deal with this trouble is introduced. The authors used moving-window average smoothing method to obtain the slow part of the absorption spectra of atmosphere, then achieved the lamp (xenon lamp in the paper) spectrum structure in the measured band of the absorption spectra of atmosphere. The authors analyzed and retrieved the measured spectrum of the atmosphere, and the result is better than the forenamed ways. Chi-square of residuum is 2.995 x 10(-4), and this method was proved to be able to avoid shortcoming of choosing narrowband and disadvantage of discovering the new component of atmosphere in retrieving the concentration of air pollutants and measuring the air pollutants. PMID:21284148

  15. Broadband Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS – applicability and corrections

    D. Pöhler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric trace gas measurements by cavity assisted long-path absorption spectroscopy are an emerging technology. An interesting approach is the combination of CEAS with broadband light sources, the broadband CEAS (BB-CEAS. BB-CEAS lends itself to the application of the DOAS technique to analyse the derived absorption spectra. While the DOAS approach has enormous advantages in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the measurement, an important implication is the reduction of the light path by the trace gas absorption, since cavity losses due to absorption by gases reduce the quality (Q of the cavity. In fact, at wavelength, where the quality of the BB-CEAS cavity is dominated by the trace gas absorption (especially at very high mirror reflectivity, the average light path will vary nearly inversely with the trace gas concentration and the strength of the band will become only weakly dependent on the trace gas concentration c in the cavity, (the differential optical density being proportional to the logarithm of the trace gas concentration. Only in the limiting case where the mirror reflectivity determines Q at all wavelength, the strength of the band as seen by the CE-DOAS instrument becomes directly proportional to the concentration c. We investigate these relationships in detail and present methods to correct for the cases between the two above extremes, which are of course the important ones in practice.

  16. Broadband Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS – applicability and corrections

    D. Pöhler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric trace gas measurements by cavity assisted long-path absorption spectroscopy are an emerging technology. An interesting approach is the combination of CEAS with broad band light sources, the broad-band CEAS (BB-CEAS. BB-CEAS lends itself to the application of the DOAS technique to analyse the derived absorption spectra. While the DOAS approach has enormous advantages in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the measurement, an important implication is the reduction of the light path by the trace gas absorption, since cavity losses due to absorption by gases reduce the quality (Q of the cavity. In fact, at wavelength, where the quality of the BB-CEAS cavity is dominated by the trace gas absorption (esp. at very high mirror reflectivity, the light path will vary inversely with the trace gas concentration and the strength of the band will become nearly independent of the trace gas concentration c in the cavity, rendering the CEAS Method useless for trace gas measurements. Only in the limiting case where the mirror reflectivity determines Q at all wavelength, the strength of the band as seen by the BB-CEAS instrument becomes proportional to the concentration c. We investigate these relationships in detail and present methods to correct for the cases between the two above extremes, which are of course the important ones in practice.

  17. Spectroscopy

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  18. Polarization and absorption principle of corona virus in the electric field

    LIANG Zhen; XIAO Deng-ming

    2008-01-01

    The polarization anti absorption principle of corona virus in the electric field is presented. It is ex-pressed by the mathematic differential equation based on the physical model. According to the parameters of the dipole moment of virus, the electric field force exerted by the external electric field can be calculated. Accord-ing to the parameters of size, mass and elastic modular, etc. , the moment of inertia of virus can be calculated.According to the viscosity of tissues, the resistant force when virus rotates can be calculated. According to the balance condition of relaxation polarization, when the drive force equals to the resistant force, the rotating or swaying frequency of virus can be calculated. According to the heat producing condition such as friction, the temperature rising of virus can be calculated. When the temperature exceeds a certain threshold, virus would be inactivated. Through the calculation, it is found that the movement type of the virus depends on the intensity and frequency of the external electric field, which are the effects of "intensity widows" and "frequency win-dows". It also gives approximate calculation of the temperature rising of the virus according to this model. The vitro experiment confirms the reasonability of this model. The electric fields of different densities of a certain frequency are applied to the solution of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Through the toxicity experiment of the SPF chicken embryo, it is found that the toxicity is decreased exceedingly with a certain intensity of the applied voltage. EID50 decreases from 6. 70/0. 2 mL to 2. 66/0. 2 mL. It is proved that the avian infectious bronchitis virus can be inactivated with a certain low frequency and low-density electric field.

  19. Spectroscopy of PTCDA attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy

    Dvorak, M; Knoblauch, T; Bünermann, O; Rydlo, A; Minniberger, S; Harbich, W; Stienkemeier, F

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure and has not liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  20. Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy with a red LED source for NOx trace analysis

    Ventrillard Courtillot, I.; Sciamma O'Brien, E.; Méjean, G.; Romanini, D.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents a high sensitivity absorption system using a red LED source emitting at 625 nm and a small CCD spectrometer as detector [1]. This system is based on IBB-CEAS (Incoherent Broad Band Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy). The expected application is the measurement of NO2 and NO3 in urban concentration (ppbv and ppmv levels). The IBB-CEAS was firstly developed with arc lamps and then with LED. Systems based on this technique are easy to use, highly sensitive, compact and robust. They also are inexpensive. Existent techniques to measure NO2 and NO3 are generally slow or not sensitive enough and need frequently calibrations (chemical luminescent) or are characterized by a low spatial resolution (Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy). Previous works based on diodes lasers emitting around 410 nm and coupled with High Finess Cavity proved a highest sensibility than ppbv and a time measurement of 0.1 s [2]. This sensibility is necessary for measurements in unpolluted environment but a more expensive and more complex system is needed. NO2 is chosen for testing as it is stable and available in calibrated diluted samples. An excellent agreement in the range from 610 nm to 630 nm was gotten between an absorption spectrum obtained by IBB-CEAS and a spectrum calculated using a reference NO2 absorption cross section by Voigt et al [3] (after convolution with a 2.05-nm FWHM Gaussian simulating our spectrometer response function). The reflectivity of the mirrors was determined with a commercial spectrophotometer and was used to deduce the absorption spectrum of NO2 from the transmission spectrum of the cavity. We obtained by estimating the sensitivity of our setup from the noise in a baseline measurement of absorption, (standard deviation = 2E-10 cm-1). This corresponds (under atmospheric conditions) to a sensitivity about 0.5 ppbv. NO3 cross-section absorption is 600 times higher than the NO2 (at 623 nm), so a detection limit of 1 pptv is

  1. Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS

    J. Meinen; J. Thieser; U. Platt; T. Leisner

    2008-01-01

    Cavity enhanced methods in absorption spectroscopy have seen a considerable increase in popularity during the past decade. Especially Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) established itself in atmospheric trace gas detection by providing tens of kilometers of effective light path length using a cavity as short as 1 m. In this paper we report on the construction and testing of a compact and power efficient light emitting diode based broadband Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Abso...

  2. X-ray-induced photo-chemistry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biological samples

    George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pushie, M. Jake; Nienaber, Kurt; Hackett, Mark J.; Ascone, Isabella; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Aitken, Jade B.; Levina, Aviva; Glover, Christopher; Lay, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray-induced photo-chemistry of metal sites within biological molecules is a concern for X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and other techniques in which samples are illuminated with X-rays. The effects of X-ray-induced photo-chemistry are reviewed and the methods used to mitigate these in X-ray absorption spectroscopy are outlined.

  3. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ogi, Yoshihiro [Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshinori [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  4. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10−3), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10−3, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution

  5. Real time tracing of valence-shell electronic coherences with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    Wirth, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Santra, R. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); Goulielmakis, E., E-mail: elgo@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-03-12

    Highlights: ► Detailing the technique of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. ► Tracing the charge state time-resolved ionization of atoms. ► Real-time observation and reconstruction of valence electron motion in Kr{sup +} ions. ► Observation of coherences in correlated multi-hole systems: Kr{sup 2+} and xenon ions. - Abstract: The chemical properties of atoms, molecules and of more complex systems such as clusters, nanoparticles or condensed matter systems are determined by valence electrons. Real-time control of these properties requires the capability of tracing as well as of driving valence electrons on their native temporal scale of motion, that is, within tens to thousands of attoseconds. Here we detail the technique of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. It combines the extreme sensitivity of core-level spectroscopy with the unprecedented temporal resolution offered by the tools of attosecond technology. We use the technique to demonstrate real-time tracing and complete characterization of coherent electron motion triggered by single, double or multiple ionization of atoms exposed to intense, few-cycle pulses. Our work opens the door to high fidelity, time-domain studies and control of electron dynamics in the microcosm.

  6. First-principles calculation of principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense KCl

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. It is shown that approximate description of ionization in FPMD has small influence on Hugoniot pressure due to mutual compensation of electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the 3p electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter

  7. First-Principles Calculation of Principal Hugoniot and K-Shell X-ray Absorption Spectra for Warm Dense KCl

    Zhao, Shijun; Kang, Wei; Li, Zi; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-01-01

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. Pressure ionization and thermal smearing are shown as the major factors to prevent the deviation of pressure from global accumulation along the Hugoniot. In addition, cancellation between electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure further reduces the deviation. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the $3p$ electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter.

  8. First-principles calculation of principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense KCl

    Zhao, Shijun; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei, E-mail: weikang@pku.edu.cn [HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Zi [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhang, Ping [HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, Xian-Tu, E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. It is shown that approximate description of ionization in FPMD has small influence on Hugoniot pressure due to mutual compensation of electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the 3p electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter.

  9. Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions.

    Qu, Zhechao; Steinvall, Erik; Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M

    2016-04-01

    Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer-Lambert's law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950-1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor. PMID:26938713

  10. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Parker, Ron; Carr, Zak; MacLean, Matthew; Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement of several water transitions that were interrogated during a hot-fire testing of the Space Launch Systems (SLS) sub-scale vehicle installed in LENS II. The temperature of the recirculating gas flow over the base plate was found to increase with altitude and is consistent with CFD results. It was also observed that the gas above the base plate has significant velocity along the optical path of the sensor at the higher altitudes. The line-by-line analysis of the H2O absorption features must include the effects of the Doppler shift phenomena particularly at high altitude. The TDLAS experimental measurements and the analysis procedure which incorporates the velocity dependent flow will be described.

  11. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Roller, C. B.; Holland, B. P.; McMillen, G.; Step, D. L.; Krehbiel, C. R.; Namjou, K.; McCann, P. J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07 cm-1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be ˜330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

  12. Ground-based imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric gases.

    Lohberger, Falko; Hönninger, Gerd; Platt, Ulrich

    2004-08-20

    We describe a compact remote-sensing instrument that permits spatially resolved mapping of atmospheric trace gases by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and present our first applications of imaging of the nitrogen dioxide contents of the exhaust plumes of two industrial emitters. DOAS permits the identification and quantification of various gases, e.g., NO2, SO2, and CH2O, from their specific narrowband (differential) absorption structures with high selectivity and sensitivity. With scattered sunlight as the light source, DOAS is used with an imaging spectrometer that is simultaneously acquiring spectral information on the incident light in one spatial dimension (column). The second spatial dimension is scanned by a moving mirror. PMID:15352396

  13. [Measurement and retrieval of indicators for fast VOCs atmospheric photochemistry with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Peng, Fu-Min; Xie, Pin-Hua; Shao, Shi-Yong; Li, Yu-Jin; Lin, Yi-Hui; Li, Su-Wen; Qin, Min; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2008-03-01

    Featuring excellent response characteristics and detection sensitivity and with much lower operational cost, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) can be a powerful tool to trace concentration variation of trace indicators -O3, Ox (O3 + NO2) and HCHO for fast VOCs atmospheric photochemistry. But it's difficult to measure those gases accurately because of trace concentration. Here using a self-made DOAS system, the accurate measurement of those indicators was achieved through improving the ratio of signal to noise ratio and correcting the background scattering light; the retrieving method of those indicators was developed through eliminating the temperature effect of absorption cross section, accurately removing the intrinsic structure and lamp structure of spectrum. The preference of different spectral windows that could be used for the concentration retrieval of those indicators was analyzed and compared including interfering factors, results retrieved and the accuracy. PMID:18536400

  14. Constraining Variable High Velocity Winds from Broad Absorption Line Quasars with Multi-Epoch Spectroscopy

    Haggard, Daryl; Green, Paul J; Aldcroft, Tom; Anderson, Scott F

    2012-01-01

    Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars probe the high velocity gas ejected by luminous accreting black holes. BAL variability timescales place constraints on the size, location, and dynamics of the emitting and absorbing gas near the supermassive black hole. We present multi-epoch spectroscopy of seventeen BAL QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) using the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory's 1.5m telescope's FAST Spectrograph. These objects were identified as BALs in SDSS, observed with Chandra, and then monitored with FAST at observed-frame cadences of 1, 3, 9, 27, and 81 days, as well as 1 and 2 years. We also monitor a set of non-BAL quasars with matched redshift and luminosity as controls. We identify significant variability in the BALs, particularly at the 1 and 2 year cadences, and use its magnitude and frequency to constrain the outflows impacting the broad absorption line region.

  15. Sensitive CH4 detection applying quantum cascade laser based optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Lang, N; Macherius, U; Wiese, M; Zimmermann, H; Röpcke, J; van Helden, J H

    2016-03-21

    We report on sensitive detection of atmospheric methane employing quantum cascade laser based optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS). An instrument has been built utilizing a continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) with a V-shaped cavity, a common arrangement that reduces feedback to the laser from non-resonant reflections. The spectrometer has a noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2 for a spectral scan of CH4 at 7.39 μm. From an Allan-Werle analysis a detection limit of 39 parts per trillion of CH4 at atmospheric pressure within 50 s acquisition time was found. PMID:27136874

  16. Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy of Thin Films Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-02-04

    We present experimental demonstrations using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) to perform Reflection-Absorption InfraRed Spectroscopy (RAIRS) of thin layers and residues on surfaces. The ECQCL compliance voltage was used to measure fluctuations in the ECQCL output power and improve the performance of the RAIRS measurements. Absorption spectra from self-assembled monolayers of a fluorinated alkane thiol and a thiol carboxylic acid were measured and compared with FTIR measurements. RAIRS spectra of the explosive compounds PETN, RDX, and tetryl deposited on gold substrates were also measured. Rapid measurement times and low noise were demonstrated, with < 1E-3 absorbance noise for a 10 second measurement time.

  17. The nature of arsenic in uranium mill tailings by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    In order to understand the evolving world of environmental issues, the ability to characterize and predict the stability and bioavailability of heavy metal contaminants in mine waste is becoming increasingly more important. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies were used to characterize a series of synthetic and natural samples associated with mine tailings processing. XANES was shown to be excellent as a tool to rapidly differentiate oxidation states of arsenic within the samples. The EXAFS spectra provided information on the mineralogy of the precipitated raffinate and tailings and showed that these samples are composed of a mixture of amorphous ferric arsenates, adsorbed arsenates and a mixture of other poorly ordered arsenates. (authors)

  18. Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    Cheng, Yan; Chini, Michael; Wang, Xiaowei; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Palacios, Alicia; Argenti, Luca; Martín, Fernando; Chang, Zenghu

    2016-08-01

    Attosecond science promises to allow new forms of quantum control in which a broadband isolated attosecond pulse excites a molecular wave packet consisting of a coherent superposition of multiple excited electronic states. This electronic excitation triggers nuclear motion on the molecular manifold of potential energy surfaces and can result in permanent rearrangement of the constituent atoms. Here, we demonstrate attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS) as a viable probe of the electronic and nuclear dynamics initiated in excited states of a neutral molecule by a broadband vacuum ultraviolet pulse. Owing to the high spectral and temporal resolution of ATAS, we are able to reconstruct the time evolution of a vibrational wave packet within the excited B'Σ1u+ electronic state of H2 via the laser-perturbed transient absorption spectrum.

  19. Measurement of temperature profiles in flames by emission-absorption spectroscopy

    Simmons, F. S.; Arnold, C. B.; Lindquist, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the use of infrared and ultraviolet emission-absorption spectroscopy for determination of temperature profiles in flames. Spectral radiances and absorptances were measured in the 2.7-micron H2O band and the 3064-A OH band in H2/O2 flames for several temperature profiles which were directly measured by a sodium line-reversal technique. The temperature profiles, determined by inversion of the infrared and ultraviolet spectra, showed an average disagreement with line-reversal measurements of 50 K for the infrared and 200 K for the ultraviolet at a temperature of 2600 K. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed in some detail.

  20. [Measurement of OH radicals in flame with high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Liu, Yu; Liu, Wen-Qing; Kan, Rui-Feng; Si, Fu-Qi; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Ren-Zhi; Xie, Pin-Hua

    2011-10-01

    The present paper describes a new developed high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument used for the measurement of OH radicals in flame. The instrument consists of a Xenon lamp for light source; a double pass high resolution echelle spectrometer with a resolution of 3.3 pm; a multiple-reflection cell of 20 meter base length, in which the light reflects in the cell for 176 times, so the whole path length of light can achieve 3 520 meters. The OH radicals'6 absorption lines around 308 nm were simultaneously observed in the experiment. By using high resolution DOAS technology, the OH radicals in candles, kerosene lamp, and alcohol burner flames were monitored, and their concentrations were also inverted. PMID:22250529

  1. Simulating systematic errors in X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments: Sample and beam effects

    The article presents an analytical model to simulate experimental imperfections in the realization of an X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment, performed in transmission or fluorescence mode. Distinction is made between sources of systematic errors on a time-scale basis, to select the more appropriate model for their handling. For short time-scale, statistical models are the most suited. For large time-scale, the model is developed for sample and beam imperfections: mainly sample inhomogeneity, sample self-absorption, beam achromaticity. The ability of this model to reproduce the effects of these imperfections is exemplified, and the model is validated on real samples. Various potential application fields of the model are then presented

  2. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.;

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver short (<100 fs) and intense (similar to 10(12) photons) pulses of hard X-rays, making them excellent sources for time-resolved studies. Here we show that, despite the inherent instabilities of current (SASE based) XFELs, they can be used for measuring high......-quality X-ray absorption data and we report femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements of a spin-crossover system, iron(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) in water. The data indicate that the low-spin to high-spin transition can be modeled by single-exponential kinetics...

  3. Strontium Localization in Bone Tissue Studied by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Raffalt, Anders Christer; Ståhl, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Strontium has recently been introduced as a pharmacological agent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. We determined the localization of strontium incorporated into bone matrix from dogs treated with Sr malonate by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A new approach for analyzing the X......-ray absorption spectra resulted in a compositional model and allowed the relative distribution of strontium in the different bone components to be estimated. Approximately 35–45 % of the strontium present is incorporated into calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) by substitution of some of the calcium ions occupying...... highly ordered sites, and at least 30 % is located at less ordered sites where only the first solvation shell is resolved, suggesting that strontium is sur- rounded by only oxygen atoms similar to Sr2? in solution. Strontium was furthermore shown to be absorbed in collagen in which it obtains a higher...

  4. Picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of ultrafast aluminum plasmas.

    Audebert, P; Renaudin, P; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Geindre, J-P; Chenais-Popovics, C; Tzortzakis, S; Nagels-Silvert, V; Shepherd, R; Matsushima, I; Gary, S; Girard, F; Peyrusse, O; Gauthier, J-C

    2005-01-21

    We have used point-projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy to infer the ionization and recombination dynamics of transient aluminum plasmas. Two femtosecond beams of the 100 TW laser at the LULI facility were used to produce an aluminum plasma on a thin aluminum foil (83 or 50 nm), and a picosecond x-ray backlighter source. The short-pulse backlighter probed the aluminum plasma at different times by adjusting the delay between the two femtosecond driving beams. Absorption x-ray spectra at early times are characteristic of a dense and rather homogeneous plasma. Collisional-radiative atomic physics coupled with hydrodynamic simulations reproduce fairly well the measured average ionization as a function of time. PMID:15698184

  5. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  6. Saturation dynamics and working limits of saturated absorption cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

    Sadiek, Ibrahim; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2016-08-17

    Cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) in the linear absorption regime is a well-established method for sensitive trace gas detection, but only a few studies have addressed quantitative measurements in the presence of a saturated sample. In fact, saturation is usually avoided in order to escape from the required complex modeling of the saturation process that depends on the characteristics of the absorbing species, its interaction with the surrounding gas as well as on the temporal and spectral characteristics of the cavity excitation. Conversely, the novel saturated-absorption cavity ringdown spectroscopy approach (SCAR/Sat-CRDS) takes advantage of sample saturation in order to allow one to extract both the gas absorption and the empty cavity loss rates from a single ringdown event. Using a new continuous-wave infrared CRD spectrometer equipped with a tunable narrow-bandwidth high-power OPO laser system and a 18 bit digitizer, the transient dynamics of absorption saturation and the working limits of the Sat-CRDS approach in terms of its ability to extract reliable trace gas concentrations have been experimentally studied in this work. Using a strong methane transition as a test case, the excitation power P0 and saturation power PS have been systematically varied to explore a wide range of saturation regimes. At pressures 5 μbar γc, a pronounced coupling between the two parameters has been observed. Finally, a standard error analysis was performed revealing that the Sat-CRDS approach holds its advantages over conventional CRDS implementations in particular when the attainable ultimate detection sensitivity is limited by uncertainties in the empty cavity ringdown constant. PMID:27488884

  7. Absorption spectroscopy of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water species for applications in combustion diagnostics

    Mei, Anhua

    Laser absorption spectroscopy has been a useful tool applied in combustion diagnostics because of its capability to measure the species' concentration, particularly to measure concentration, temperature, and pressure simultaneously. These measurements provide the necessary information for dynamic combustion control. Due to its advantages such as fast response, non-intrusive nature and applicability under harsh environment like high temperature and high pressure, absorption laser spectroscopy makes it possible to monitor combustion system on-line and in situ. Since its development for more than thirty years, laser spectroscopy has matured, and the novel and advanced laser sensors have pushed it to be applied fast. On the other hand, industry still needs cheaper and more operable spectroscopy, which becomes an important consideration in the development and application of modern laser spectroscopy. This study presents an instrumental structure including the algorithm of the spectrum computation and the hardware configuration. The algorithm applied the central maximum value of the spectrum to simplify the computation. The whole calculation was done extensively using Beer-Lambert theory and HITRAN database which makes it efficient and applicable. This research conducted the simulations of high temperature species, such as CO2, H2O to carry out the algorithm, which were compared with published data. Also, this research designed and performed the experiments of measuring oxygen and its mixture with Helium by using a 760 nm diode laser and a 655 nm Helium/Neon laser sensor with fixed wavelength structures. The results of this research also conclude the following: (1) extensive literature survey, field research and laboratory work; (2) studying the significant theories and experimental methods of the laser spectroscopy; (3) developing efficient and simplified algorithm for spectrum calculation; (4) simulating high temperature species H2O and CO2; (5) designing and building

  8. Picosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy: application to coordination chemistry compounds in solution

    Saes, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    The photocycle of aqueous ruthenium-(trisbipyridine) [Ru(bpy)3]2+ was studied under high laser excitation intensities and high sample concentrations with picosecond resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In a pump-probe scheme a femtosecond laser pulse promotes a 4d electron from the ruthenium to the ligand orbitals, thus creating a metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) complex. A hard x-ray pulse from a synchrotron source probes the ruthenium L3 and L2 edges, monitoring the electronic and ...

  9. Picosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy: application to coordination chemistry compounds in solution

    Saes, Melanie; Chergui, Majed

    2005-01-01

    The photocycle of aqueous ruthenium-(trisbipyridine) [Ru(bpy)3]2+ was studied under high laser excitation intensities and high sample concentrations with picosecond resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In a pump-probe scheme a femtosecond laser pulse promotes a 4d electron from the ruthenium to the ligand orbitals, thus creating a metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) complex. A hard x-ray pulse from a synchrotron source probes the ruthenium L3 and L2 edges, monitoring the electronic and ...

  10. Optical Absorption and Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Fluorinated Double-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Gevko, Pavel N.; Bulusheva, Lyubov Gennadievna; Okotrub, Alexander Vladimirovich; Yudanov, Nikolay Fedorovich; Yushina, I. V.; Grachev, K. A.; Pugachev, A. M.; Surovtsev, N. V.; Flahaut, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Double-wall carbon nanotube (DWNT) samples have been fluorinated at room temperature with varied concentration of a fluorinating agent BrF3. Content of the products estimated from X-ray photoelectron data was equal to CF0.20 and CF0.29 in the case of deficit and excess of BrF3. Raman spectroscopy showed considerable decrease of carbon nanotube amount in the fluorinated samples. Analysis of optical absorption spectra measured for pristine and fluorinated DWNT samples revealed a selectivity of ...

  11. Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy on the Light-Adaptation of Living Plants

    Müller, M. G.; Jahns, P.; Holzwarth, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    The photoprotection reaction of the photosynthetic system under excessive sun light has been resolved for the first time by femtosecond absorption spectroscopy from the visible to near-infrared in intact leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The light-adaptation process was measured and a prominent non-photochemical quenching (npq) behavior located in photosystem II was observed. Among the various npq quenching mechanisms which have been discussed so far the most likely is the formation of chlorophyll-chlorophyll charge-transfer states which create a powerful energy dissipation pathway for the quenching.

  12. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    Jürgen Röpcke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry.

  13. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B.; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry. PMID:22163581

  14. 30% improvement in absorption spectroscopy detectivity achieved by the detuned loading of a quantum cascade laser.

    Michel, Florian; Juretzka, Carsten; Carras, Mathieu; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    We perform a direct absorption spectroscopy experiment of carbon monoxide at 2193  cm(-1) by exploring the detectivity improvement potential of an intensity noise (IN)-reduced distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser. This was achieved by a detuned loading approach via a short, phase-sensitive optical feedback cavity. Under optimum IN reduction conditions, we obtain an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio from 733 to 1048, which transfers into a detection limit improvement from 1.2 ppm to 840 ppb. Therefore, we achieve a 30% lower detection limit, with the IN reduced when compared to the free-running case. PMID:25361352

  15. Vacuum UV broad-band absorption spectroscopy: a powerful diagnostic tool for reactive plasma monitoring

    Cunge, G; Fouchier, M; Brihoum, M; Bodart, P.; Touzeau, M.; N. Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Broad band UV-visible absorption spectroscopy is widely used to measure the concentration of radicals in reactive plasmas. We extended the applicability of this technique to the VUV (115 nm to 200 nm), the spectral range in which the electronic transitions from the ground state to the Rydberg or pre-dissociated states of many closed shell molecules are located. This gives access to the absolute densities of species which do not, or weakly absorb in the UV/visible range. The techni...

  16. Behaviors of harmonic signals in wavelength-modulated spectroscopy under high absorption strength

    Yuntao Wang; Haiwen Cai; Jianxin Geng; Zhengqing Pan; Dijun Chen; Zujie Fang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Behaviors of harmonic signals in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) for gas detection with Lorentzian line under high absorption strength are investigated. Approximate analytic expressions of the second, fourth, and sixth harmonics on the strength are presented in concise forms. Simulations show that the expressions are in agreement with the Fourier expansion by numerical integration. It is expected theoretically and experimentally in a WMS system for methane detection that there are not only a maximum, but also a null point in the harmonics versus strength relations, which should be of practical importance in methane sensing applications.

  17. Determination of heavy metals in solid emission and immission samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Fara, M.; Novak, F. [EGU Prague, PLC, Bichovice, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Both flame and electrothermal methods of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been applied to the determination of Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, TI, Se, V and Zn in emission and emission (deposition) samples decomposed in open PTFE test-tubes by individual fuming-off hydrofluoric, perchloroic and nitric acid. An alternative hydride technique was also used for As and Se determination and Hg was determined using a self-contained AAS analyzer. A graphite platform proved good to overcome non-spectral interferences in AAS-ETA. Methods developed were verified by reference materials (inc. NBS 1633a).

  18. Two attosecond pulse transient absorption spectroscopy and extraction of the instantaneous AC Stark shift in helium

    Bækhøj, Jens E.; Bojer Madsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    In two attosecond pulse absorption spectroscopy (TAPAS) the use of two attosecond XUV pulses allows the extraction of atomic and molecular quantum mechanical dipole phases from spectroscopic measurements. TAPAS relies on interference between processes that individually only include a single XUV photon, and therefore does not rely on high intensity attosecond pulses. To show the usefulness and limitations of the TAPAS method we investigate its capability of capturing the instantaneous AC Stark shift induced by a midinfrared 3200 nm pulse in the | 1{{s}}2{{p}}> state of helium.

  19. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Miaja-Avila, L.; G. C. O'Neil; Uhlig, J.; C. L. Cromer; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary opti...

  20. A quality control technique based on UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy for tequila distillery factories

    Barbosa Garcia, O.; Ramos Ortiz, G.; Maldonado, J. L.; Pichardo Molina, J.; Meneses Nava, M. A.; Landgrave, Enrique; Cervantes, M. J.

    2006-02-01

    A low cost technique based on the UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is presented for the quality control of the spirit drink known as tequila. It is shown that such spectra offer enough information to discriminate a given spirit drink from a group of bottled commercial tequilas. The technique was applied to white tequilas. Contrary to the reference analytic methods, such as chromatography, for this technique neither special personal training nor sophisticated instrumentations is required. By using hand-held instrumentation this technique can be applied in situ during the production process.

  1. Hydrogen bond networks: Structure and dynamics via first-principles spectroscopy

    Schiffmann, Christoph; Sebastiani, Daniel [Department of Physics, Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Free University Berlin (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Different hydrogen bonding networks, same principle: hydrogen bonds are the most common fundamental structural driving forces, which determine structural and dynamical properties of numerous functional materials. First-principles calculations of spectroscopic parameters can help to understand local geometric motifs, but also more complex processes such as hydrogen bond lifetimes and ion transport processes in condensed phases. In this feature article, we review the relevance of structure-spectroscopy-relationships, we discuss recent ab initio calculations eludicating the structure of supramolecular assemblies, and highlight the importance of incorporating atomic and molecular mobility by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Complex hydrogen bonding networks: vinyl-phosphonic acid polymers (left) and aqueous hydrochloric acid (right). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF ADULTERANT AND ALCOHOL ROUTE IN BIODIESEL USING MID-INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Maryleide Ventura da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze soybean oil, ethylic and methylic soybean biodiesel, and blends prepared with soybean oil mixed with biodiesel, in order to evaluate this method as an alternative to assess oil as impurities or adulterant in biodiesel. We also aimed to determine whether the biodiesel was prepared by the ethyl or methyl routes, by inspecting the infrared spectra. The C-O functional groups between 1100 and 1200 cm-1 are different for oil and biodiesel, which allows them to be used to distinguish impurities (residual oil in biofuel. The peak C-O-C at 1017 cm-1 is characteristic for methylic biodiesel, and the peak O-C-C at 1035 cm-1 for ethylic biodiesel. These vibrational modes can therefore be used to indicate the route used to prepare the biofuel. Results indicated that infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for monitoring the quality of biofuel for commercial sale.

  3. Microscale X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the GSECARS Sector 13 at the APS

    Stephen-Sutto

    2000-01-01

    GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) is a national user facility for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotrons radiation at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotrons light source. The research conducted at this facility will advance our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials, the processes they control and the processes that produce them. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems: (1) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell; (2) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography using the large-volume press; (3) powder, single crystal and interface diffraction; (4) x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy; (5) x-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis and microspectroscopy; and (6) mic...

  4. Investigation of titanium germanide formation by Raman scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    This paper reports on the reactions of titanium on germanium that were studied using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Samples used in this study were produced in a custom MBE system with dual E-gun sources, two filament sources, and base pressure -10 Torr. Ge(100) substrates were prepared by chemical cleaning and homoepitaxial deposition of 500 Angstrom--1000 Angstrom Ge at 550 degrees C. Ti was deposited and subsequently annealed at 50 degrees C intervals from 500 degrees C to 700 degrees C. Raman and XANES spectra of the titanium germanides were obtained and used to examine the evolution of the crystalline structures which form by the interface reactions of Ti on Ge. low-order phase formed by diffusion controlled growth prior to the formation of TiGe2 (isomorphous with TiSi2 [C54]) by nucleation controlled growth

  5. In situ characterization of few-cycle laser pulses in transient absorption spectroscopy

    Blättermann, Alexander; Kaldun, Andreas; Ding, Thomas; Stooß, Veit; Laux, Martin; Rebholz, Marc; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy has thus far been lacking the capability to simultaneously characterize the intense laser pulses at work within a time-resolved quantum-dynamics experiment. However, precise knowledge of these pulses is key to extracting quantitative information in strong-field highly nonlinear light-matter interactions. Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast metrology tool based on the time-delay-dependent phase shift imprinted on a strong-field driven resonance. Since we analyze the signature of the laser pulse interacting with the absorbing spectroscopy target, the laser pulse duration and intensity are determined in situ. As we also show, this approach allows for the quantification of time-dependent bound-state dynamics in one and the same experiment. In the future, such experimental data will facilitate more precise tests of strong-field dynamics theories.

  6. Combining solid-state NMR spectroscopy with first-principles calculations - a guide to NMR crystallography.

    Ashbrook, Sharon E; McKay, David

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in the application of first-principles calculations of NMR parameters to periodic systems have resulted in widespread interest in their use to support experimental measurement. Such calculations often play an important role in the emerging field of "NMR crystallography", where NMR spectroscopy is combined with techniques such as diffraction, to aid structure determination. Here, we discuss the current state-of-the-art for combining experiment and calculation in NMR spectroscopy, considering the basic theory behind the computational approaches and their practical application. We consider the issues associated with geometry optimisation and how the effects of temperature may be included in the calculation. The automated prediction of structural candidates and the treatment of disordered and dynamic solids are discussed. Finally, we consider the areas where further development is needed in this field and its potential future impact. PMID:27117884

  7. A Complete Overhaul of the Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Database: eelsdb.eu.

    Ewels, Philip; Sikora, Thierry; Serin, Virginie; Ewels, Chris P; Lajaunie, Luc

    2016-06-01

    The electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) database has been completely rewritten, with an improved design, user interface, and a number of new tools. The database is accessible at https://eelsdb.eu/ and can now be used without registration. The submission process has been streamlined to encourage spectrum submissions and the new design gives greater emphasis on contributors' original work by highlighting their papers. With numerous new filters and a powerful search function, it is now simple to explore the database of several hundred EELS and XAS spectra. Interactive plots allow spectra to be overlaid, facilitating online comparison. An application-programming interface has been created, allowing external tools and software to easily access the information held within the database. In addition to the database itself, users can post and manage job adverts and read the latest news and events regarding the EELS and XAS communities. In accordance with the ongoing drive toward open access data increasingly demanded by funding bodies, the database will facilitate open access data sharing of EELS and XAS spectra. PMID:26899024

  8. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Winter, Jörn; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90∘ off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s5) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  9. Characterization of the Pore Filling of Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Photoinduced Absorption Spectroscopy

    Carol Olson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Near steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the pore filling of spiro-MeOTAD (2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine9,9′-spirobifluorene into the nanoparticulate TiO2 electrode of a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSC. The volumetric ratio of filled to unfilled pore volumes, as well as the optical signature of interacting chemical species, that is, the hole-transfer yield (HTY, are investigated. PIA spectroscopy is used to measure the HTY, relative to the amount of spiro-MeOTAD present, without needing to determine the extinction coefficients of the dye and spiro-MeOTAD cation species. The Beer-Lambert law is used to relate the relative PIA signal to the penetration length of the hole-conductor in the TiO2 film. For the sample thickness range of 1.4–5 μm investigated here, the optimum characteristic penetration length is determined to be 3.1+0.46 μm, which is compared to 1.4 μm for the 200 mg mL−1 concentration of spiro-MeOTAD conventionally used. Therefore, doubling the effective penetration of spiro-MeOTAD is necessary to functionalize all the dye molecules in a ssDSC.

  10. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on magnetic nanoscale systems for modern applications.

    Schmitz-Antoniak, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy facilitated by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation technology is presented as a powerful tool to study nanoscale systems, in particular revealing their static element-specific magnetic and electronic properties on a microscopic level. A survey is given on the properties of nanoparticles, nanocomposites and thin films covering a broad range of possible applications. It ranges from the ageing effects of iron oxide nanoparticles in dispersion for biomedical applications to the characterisation on a microscopic level of nanoscale systems for data storage devices. In this respect, new concepts for electrically addressable magnetic data storage devices are highlighted by characterising the coupling in a BaTiO(3)/CoFe(2)O(4) nanocomposite as prototypical model system. But classical magnetically addressable devices are also discussed on the basis of tailoring the magnetic properties of self-assembled ensembles of FePt nanoparticles for data storage and the high-moment material Fe/Cr/Gd for write heads. For the latter cases, the importance is emphasised of combining experimental approaches in x-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory to gain a more fundamental understanding. PMID:26029938

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    Vitova, Tonya

    2008-02-15

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu{sup 1+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and Fe (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu{sup 1+}) and sixfold (Cu{sup 2+}) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu1+ and Cu2+) and Fe (Fe2+ and Fe3+) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn2+ and Mn3+ in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu1+) and sixfold (Cu2+) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with 3He2+ ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  13. Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of optically pumped Si by using fs-laser plasma x-ray

    Femtosecond laser-produced plasmas emit ultrashort x-ray pulse that is synchronized to a femtosecond laser pulse. By utilizing this feature, we demonstrated time-resolved soft x-ray absorption measurements of optically pumped silicon near its LII,III absorption edge by means of pump-probe spectroscopy. As a result, we observed more than 10% increase in the absorption near absorption edge caused by laser pulse irradiation, which means that the transition of core-electrons was rapidly modified by excitation of valence electrons. The recovery time constant of this change was measure to be about 20 ps. (author)

  14. Broadband fitting approach for the application of supercontinuum broadband laser absorption spectroscopy to combustion environments

    Göran Blume, Niels; Ebert, Volker; Dreizler, Andreas; Wagner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel broadband fitting approach for quantitative in-flame measurements using supercontinuum broadband laser absorption spectroscopy (SCLAS) is presented. The application and verification of this approach in an atmospheric, laminar, non-premixed CH4/air flame (Wolfhard-Parker burner, WHP) is discussed. The developed fitting scheme allows for an automatic recognition and fitting of a B-spline curve reference intensity for SCLAS broadband measurements while automatically removing the influence of absorption peaks. This approach improves the fitting residual locally (in between absorption lines) and globally by 23% and 13% respectively, while improving the in-flame SNR by a factor of 2. Additionally, the approach inherently improves the time-wavelength-correlation based on recorded in-flame measurements itself in combination with a theoretical spectrum of the analyte. These improvements have allowed for the recording of complete spatially resolved methane concentration profiles in the WHP burner. Comparison of the measured absolute mole fraction profile for methane with previously measured reference data shows excellent agreement in position, shape and absolute values. These improvements are a prerequisite for the application of SCLAS in high-pressure combustion systems.

  15. Identification of Uranyl Minerals Using Oxygen K-Edge X Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Ward, Jesse D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Resch, Charles T.; Smith, Steven C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Duffin, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Uranium analysis is consistently needed throughout the fuel cycle, from mining to fuel fabrication to environmental monitoring. Although most of the world’s uranium is immobilized as pitchblende or uraninite, there exists a plethora of secondary uranium minerals, nearly all of which contain the uranyl cation. Analysis of uranyl compounds can provide clues as to a sample’s facility of origin and chemical history. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one technique that could enhance our ability to identify uranium minerals. Although there is limited chemical information to be gained from the uranium X-ray absorption edges, recent studies have successfully used ligand NEXAFS to study the physical chemistry of various uranium compounds. This study extends the use of ligand NEXAFS to analyze a suite of uranium minerals. We find that major classes of uranyl compounds (carbonate, oxyhydroxide, silicate, and phosphate) exhibit characteristic lineshapes in the oxygen K-edge absorption spectra. As a result, this work establishes a library of reference spectra that can be used to classify unknown uranyl minerals.

  16. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Bean Seeds Investigated Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Sanchez-Hernandez, G.; Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Perez-Reyes, M. C. J.; Martinez, E. Moreno

    2015-06-01

    A knowledge about seed optical parameters is of great relevance in seed technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which could be useful for biostimulation processes, by light sources, in early stages of seed germination. In the present research photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and the Rosencwaig and Gersho model were used to determine the optical absorption coefficient () of five varieties of bean seeds ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of different productive cycles; the seeds were biostimulated by laser treatment to evaluate the effects of biostimulation pre-sowing. It was found that the bean varieties V1, V2, V4, and V5 were optically opaque in the visible spectrum; in the case of the V3 variety, this sample was optically transparent from 680 nm. The varieties of the studied bean seeds showed significant statistical differences in sizes and also in their optical absorption spectra. The biostimulation effects showed that the seed samples with a higher optical penetration length had a positive biostimulation, in the percentage of germination, obtaining an enhancement of 47 % compared to the control sample. The utility of PAS for the optical characterization of seeds has been demonstrated in this study of the laser biostimulation process of this kind of samples.

  17. A new flexible monochromator setup for quick scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    A new monochromator setup for quick scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the subsecond time regime is presented. Novel driving mechanics allow changing the energy range of the acquired spectra by remote control during data acquisition for the first time, thus dramatically increasing the flexibility and convenience of this method. Completely new experiments are feasible due to the fact that time resolution, edge energy, and energy range of the acquired spectra can be changed continuously within seconds without breaking the vacuum of the monochromator vessel and even without interrupting the measurements. The advanced mechanics are explained in detail and the performance is characterized with x-ray absorption spectra of pure metal foils. The energy scale was determined by a fast and accurate angular encoder system measuring the Bragg angle of the monochromator crystal with subarcsecond resolution. The Bragg angle range covered by the oscillating crystal can currently be changed from 0 deg. to 3.0 deg. within 20 s, while the mechanics are capable to move with frequencies of up to ca. 35 Hz, leading to ca. 14 ms/spectrum time resolution. A new software package allows performing programmed scan sequences, which enable the user to measure stepwise with alternating parameters in predefined time segments. Thus, e.g., switching between edges scanned with the same energy range is possible within one in situ experiment, while also the time resolution can be varied simultaneously. This progress makes the new system extremely user friendly and efficient to use for time resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy at synchrotron radiation beamlines.

  18. Microscale X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the GSECARS Sector 13 at the APS

    GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) is a national user facility for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotrons radiation at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotrons light source. The research conducted at this facility will advance our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials, the processes they control and the processes that produce them. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems: (1) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell; (2) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography using the large-volume press; (3) powder, single crystal and interface diffraction; (4) x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy; (5) x-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis and microspectroscopy; and (6) microtomography. This grant supported the design and construction of dedicated microspectroscopy instrumentation (x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy techniques, e.g., EXAFS and XANES, applied with ∼ micrometer spatial resolution) as part of the GeoSoilEnviroCARS national user facility. This new APS instrumentation offers dramatically improved capabilities over existing facilities in terms of spatial resolution and elemental sensitivity. MicroXAFS is essential in cases where sample size is limited (such as fluid inclusions in minerals, fine-grained minerals and samples in diamond anvil, high pressure cells) and/or chemical speciation is heterogeneous (fine-grained, polymineralic sediments and rocks, zoned crystals, and products of non-equilibrium reactions). The new instrumentation is applicable to studies of hydrothermal fluid processes, migration and encapsulation of toxic and radioactive wastes, for example. The availability of quantitative

  19. Absorption spectroscopy characterization measurements of a laser-produced Na atomic beam

    Ching, C.H.; Bailey, J.E.; Lake, P.W.; Filuk, A.B.; Adams, R.G.; McKenney, J.

    1996-06-01

    This work describes a pulsed Na atomic beam source developed for spectroscopic diagnosis of a high-power ion diode on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. The goal is to produce a {approximately} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3}-density Na atomic beam that can be injected into the diode acceleration gap to measure electric and magnetic fields from the Stark and Zeeman effects through laser-induced-fluorescence or absorption spectroscopy. A {approximately} 10 ns fwhm, 1.06 {micro}m, 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} laser incident through a glass slide heats a Na-bearing thin film, creating a plasma that generates a sodium vapor plume. A {approximately} 1 {micro}sec fwhm dye laser beam tuned to 5,890 {angstrom} is used for absorption measurement of the Na I resonant doublet by viewing parallel to the film surface. The dye laser light is coupled through a fiber to a spectrograph with a time-integrated CCD camera. A two-dimensional mapping of the Na vapor density is obtained through absorption measurements at different spatial locations. Time-of-flight and Doppler broadening of the absorption with {approximately} 0.1 {angstrom} spectral resolution indicate that the Na neutral vapor temperature is about 0.5 to 2 eV. Laser-induced-fluorescence from {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3} Na I 3s-3p lines observed with a streaked spectrograph provides a signal level sufficient for {approximately} 0.06 {angstrom} wavelength shift measurements in a mock-up of an ion diode experiment.

  20. Optical absorption and emission of α-Sn nanocrystals from first principles

    We investigate the optical properties of hydrogenated α-Sn nanocrystals up to diameters of 3.6 nm in the framework of an ab initio pseudopotential method including spin–orbit interaction (SOI) and the repeated supercell approximation. The fundamental absorption and emission edges are determined including quasiparticle effects and electron–hole interaction. The atomic geometries in the ground and excited electronic states follow from total energy optimization. We discuss the oscillator strengths of the optical absorption near the fundamental gaps for the most important transitions. We demonstrate that the spectra can only be correctly described including SOI. The strongly size-dependent Stokes shifts between optical absorption and emission are shown to be mainly a consequence of the different atomic geometries. (paper)

  1. Link between K absorption edges and thermodynamic properties of warm dense plasmas established by an improved first-principles method

    Zhang, Shen; Zhao, Shijun; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2016-03-01

    A precise calculation that translates shifts of x-ray K absorption edges to variations of thermodynamic properties allows quantitative characterization of interior thermodynamic properties of warm dense plasmas by x-ray absorption techniques, which provides essential information for inertial confinement fusion and other astrophysical applications. We show that this interpretation can be achieved through an improved first-principles method. Our calculation shows that the shift of K edges exhibits selective sensitivity to thermal parameters and thus would be a suitable temperature index to warm dense plasmas. We also show with a simple model that the shift of K edges can be used to detect inhomogeneity inside warm dense plasmas when combined with other experimental tools.

  2. First-principles calculation of multiphoton absorption cross section of α-quartz under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Yu, Dong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Qu, Liangti; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-05-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory-based first-principles calculations have been used to study the ionization process and electron excitation. The results show that the number of excited electrons follows the power law σ k I k at peak intensities of I employing the calculated cross section value in the plasma model, the damage threshold fluences are theoretically estimated, being consistent with the experimental data, which validates the calculated value of multiphoton absorption cross section. The preliminary multiscale model shows great potential in the simulation of laser processing.

  3. Auto-oligomerization and hydration of pyrrole revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Advanced Light Source; Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice H.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

    2009-05-29

    Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra have been measured at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges of the prototypical aromatic molecule, pyrrole, both in the gas phase and when solvated in water, and compared with spectra simulated using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and first principles density functional theory in the excited state core hole approximation. The excellent agreement enabled detailed assignments. Pyrrole is highly reactive, particularly in water, and reaction products formed by the auto-oligomerization of pyrrole are identified. The solvated spectra have been measured at two different temperatures, indicating that the final states remain largely unaffected by both hydration and temperature. This is somewhat unexpected, since the nitrogen in pyrrole can donate a hydrogen bond to water.

  4. Auto-oligomerization and hydration of pyrrole revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra have been measured at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges of the prototypical aromatic molecule, pyrrole, both in the gas phase and when solvated in water, and compared with spectra simulated using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and first principles density functional theory in the excited state core hole approximation. The excellent agreement enabled detailed assignments. Pyrrole is highly reactive, particularly in water, and reaction products formed by the auto-oligomerization of pyrrole are identified. The solvated spectra have been measured at two different temperatures, indicating that the final states remain largely unaffected by both hydration and temperature. This is somewhat unexpected, since the nitrogen in pyrrole can donate a hydrogen bond to water.

  5. Pump-flow-probe x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a tool for studying aintermediate states of photocatalytic systems

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Guda, Alexander; Zhang, Xiaoyi;

    2013-01-01

    A new setup for pump-flow-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been implemented at the SuperXAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source. It allows recording X-ray absorption spectra with a time resolution of tens of microseconds and high detection efficiency for samples with sub-millimolar concentr......A new setup for pump-flow-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been implemented at the SuperXAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source. It allows recording X-ray absorption spectra with a time resolution of tens of microseconds and high detection efficiency for samples with sub...... measurement technique that utilizes a 1 kHz repetition rate laser and multiple X-ray probe pulses. Such an experiment was performed at beamline 11ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. Advantages, limitations, and potential for improvement of the pump-flow-probe setup are discussed by analyzing the photon...

  6. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy: A new probe of subgap absorption in amorphous solids

    The use of high resolution electron energy spectroscopy (HREELS) as a new method for studies of subgap absorption in thin films of amorphous semiconductors is demonstrated. For a-Si films, the α(ω) values extracted from the measured loss spectra are in quantitative agreement with previous optical measurements. The method is also applied to both threefold and diamond-like amorphous carbon films, yielding α(ω) down to considerably lower energies (∼50 meV) than previously reported. The HREELS method is shown to be complementary to existing techniques in that it can access the regime of low energies and ultrathin films which is difficult to investigate with the conventional methods. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Concurrent multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for the measurement of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide.

    Leigh, Roland J; Corlett, Gary K; Friess, Udo; Monks, Paul S

    2006-10-01

    The development of a new concurrent multiaxis (CMAX) sky viewing spectrometer to monitor rapidly changing urban concentrations of nitrogen dioxide is detailed. The CMAX differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique involves simultaneous spectral imaging of the zenith and off-axis measurements of spatially resolved scattered sunlight. Trace-gas amounts are retrieved from the measured spectra using the established DOAS technique. The potential of the CMAX DOAS technique to derive information on rapidly changing concentrations and the spatial distribution of NO2 in an urban environment is demonstrated. Three example data sets are presented from measurements during 2004 of tropospheric NO2 over Leicester, UK (52.62 degrees N, 1.12 degrees W). The data demonstrate the current capabilities and future potential of the CMAX DOAS method in terms of the ability to measure real-time spatially disaggregated urban NO2. PMID:16983440

  8. Active differential optical absorption spectroscopy for NO2 gas pollution using blue light emitting diodes

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz; Gasmi, Khaled; Al-Basheer, Watheq

    2015-05-01

    Availability of high intensity light emitting diodes in the blue region offer excellent opportunity for using them in active Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to detect air pollution. Their smooth and relatively broad spectral emissions as well as their long life make them almost ideal light sources for active DOAS. In this study, we report the usage of a blue light emitting diode in an active DOAS setup to measure traces of NO2 gas and achieving few parts per billion detection limit for a path length of 300 m. Details of the setup will be presented along with the effects on measurement accuracy due to shifts in the measured spectra calibration and due to using theoretical instrument Gaussian function instead of the measured instrument function.

  9. [Air pollutants study by differential optical absorption spectroscopy with transmit-receive fibers].

    Wei, Yong-Jie; Geng, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Cui-Cui; Chen, Wen-Liang

    2013-10-01

    The differential optical absorption spectroscopy system is presented to monitor air pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, etc. The system employs a reflective telescope to collimate light source and focus absorbed light. A combined transmitting and receiving fiber bundle is set to the focus of a concave mirror. A Xenon lamp works as the light source. The light is coupled into the transmitting fiber, and then collimated by the reflective telescope system. After absorbed by the pollutants, the light is reflected by a pyramid mirror far away the telescope. Then the absorbed light is incident on the concave mirror the second time, and focused on the focal plane again. The receiving fiber induces the light which carries the information of the measured gas into a spectrometer. We can get the concentration of the pollutants by DOAS algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be adopted to measure some pollutants in air quality monitoring. PMID:24409736

  10. Optical absorption spectroscopy on a metal-halide high intensity discharge arc lamp using synchrotron radiation

    Bonvallet, G A; Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2003-07-07

    A sensitive, spatially resolved optical absorption spectroscopy experiment using synchrotron radiation on metal-halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps was performed. This experiment was used to measure the absolute column densities of ground and excited level Sc atoms, ground level Sc{sup +} ions, and ground level Na atoms in a 250 W MH-HID lamp during operation. The column densities were Abel inverted and used to determine the arc temperature as a function of radius and the absolute electron density as a function of radius. Although most of these measurements were made using a one-dimensional spectrally-multiplexed experiment, a two-dimensional spatially and spectrally multiplexed experiment has also been demonstrated. The absolute density and temperature maps from this experiment were used to determine the absolute near-infrared output power from the MH-HID lamp as described in the companion paper (Smith et al 2003)