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Sample records for absorption intestinal

  1. Exercise, Intestinal Absorption, and Rehydration

    2001-01-01

    @@ KEYPOINTS 1. The proximal small intestine (duodenum & jejunum) is the primary site of fluid absorption. It absorbs about 50% to 60% of any given fluid load. The colon or large intestine absorbs approximately 80 to 90% of the fluid it receives, but accounts for only about 15% of the total fluid load.

  2. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J.

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  3. The intestinal absorption of folates.

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  4. Circadian regulators of intestinal lipid absorption

    Hussain, M. Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Among all the metabolites present in the plasma, lipids, mainly triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, show extensive circadian rhythms. These lipids are transported in the plasma as part of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are synthesized primarily in the liver and intestine and their production exhibits circadian rhythmicity. Studies have shown that various proteins involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein biosynthesis show circadian expression. Further, intestinal epithelial cells express circa...

  5. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the intestinal absorption pathway of medium-chain fatty acids from MMM-type structured triaclyglycerols containing both medium- and long-chain fatty acids, we studied the lymphatic transport of 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn- glycerol (8:0/18:2/8:0), 1,3-didecanoyl-2-linoleoyl...... activated into CoA, and reacylated into triacylglycerols in the enterocyte, The hydrolysis of MLM-type STAG is predominantly partial hydrolysis, whereas part of the STAG can also be hydrolyzed to free glycerol and free fatty acids. - Mu, H., and CE. Hoy. Intestinal absorption of specific structured...

  6. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)₂D₃] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)₂D₃ production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2

  7. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin

  8. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  9. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

    Sally Tandy; Chung, Rosanna W. S.; Elaine Wat; Alvin Kamili; Cohn, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol uptake by the gut mucosa. Further research is however required to establish whether the abili...

  10. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal Ca2+ absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca2+ homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca2+ across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca2+ movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca2+ affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca2+ extrusion into the ...

  11. Intestinal absorption of biotin in the rat

    We examined the absorption of biotin using the in vivo intestinal loop technique. Jejunal segments from male rats were filled with solutions containing [3H]biotin and [14C]inulin in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Absorption was determined on the basis of luminal tritium disappearance after correction for inulin recovery. At biotin concentrations of 0.1 and 5.0 microM, luminal biotin disappearance was linear for at least 10 min. At biotin concentrations ranging from 2.3 nM to 75 microM, 10-28% of the administered dose was absorbed in 10 min. The concentration dependence of luminal biotin disappearance is consistent with the presence of both saturable and nonsaturable (linear) components of biotin uptake, with estimated Km = 9.6 microM and Jmax = 75.2 pmol/(2.5 cm loop X min). The rate constant for nonsaturable uptake is 3.1 pmol/(2.5 cm loop X min X microM). We conclude that at biotin concentrations less than 5 microM, biotin absorption proceeds largely by the saturable process, whereas at concentrations above 25 microM, nonsaturable uptake predominates. Additional studies demonstrated significantly less biotin uptake in the ileum than in the jejunum, a finding in agreement with previous in vitro studies

  12. Drug absorption from the irradiated rat small intestine in situ

    The absorption of acidic drugs phenobarbitone and sulphafurazole, basic drugs mecamylamine and quinidine, and a neutral drug isoniazid was studied in situ. Rats were irradiated 750 rad whole-body with 60Co and the absorption experiment was done three and six days thereafter using the cannulated small intestine of urethane-anaesthetized rats. Drug disappearance from the intestinal lumen and drug levels in the whole blood and intestinal wall were measured. In control rats phenobarbitone showed the most rapid absorption and mecamylamine the slowest. Irradiation retarded the disappearance of all drugs from the intestinal lumen on the third postirradiation day. Fluid absorption was also diminished. On the sixth postirradiation day the absorption of phenobarbitone, sulphafurazole and mecamylamine had returned to the control level, but the absorption of quinidine and isoniazid was still retarded. After i.v. administration of drugs they were not significantly excreted into the intestinal contents and irradiation did not modify excretion. The distribution of drugs between the intestinal fluid and the intestinal wall was complete in the first 10 min of experiment. Mecamylamine and quinidine were lowered in the whole blood by irradiation. Blood levels of drugs did not correlate well to the rate of disappearance of drugs from the intestinal lumen. The reversible changes in absorption induced by irradiation are probably secondary effects of irradiation on intestinal morphology, permeability and transport capacity, composition, and possibly blood flow. (orig.)

  13. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Research highlights: → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. → The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [14C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [14C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather than

  14. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  15. Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements.

    Fine, K D; Santa Ana, C A; Porter, J L; Fordtran, J S

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure magnesium absorption over the wide range of intakes to which the intestine may be exposed from food and/or magnesium-containing medications. Net magnesium absorption was measured in normal subjects after they ingested a standard meal supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mEq of magnesium acetate. Although absorption increased with each increment in intake, fractional magnesium absorption fell progressively (from 65% at the lowest to 11% at the highes...

  16. [Intestinal absorption kinetics of Polygonum capitatum extract in rats].

    Yang, Wu; Hou, Jia; Lu, Yuan; Chen, Peng-cheng; Liao, Shang-gao; Huang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was used to determinate the main active fractions gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, myricetrin, hyperoside and quercitrin in Polygonum capitatum extracts by in situ intestinal perfusion models; the absorption rate constants and cumulative penetration rate of absorption were calculated. The effect of different drug concentrations, different intestine segments, bile and P-gp inhibitors on the absorption mechanism of Gallic acid and other compositions in P. capitatum extracts. The experimental results showed that gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, myricetrin and quercitrin were observed saturated at high concentration (P inhibition effect on protocatechuic acid absorption and had promotion effect on myricetrin and hyperoside absorption (P colon. This indicated that the absorption mechanism of P. capitatum extracts in rat intestine was in line with fist-order kinetics characteristics. The composition could be absorbed in all of the different intestinal segments, and the absorption was mainly concentrated in small intestine. The protocatechuic acid may be the substrate of P-gp. PMID:27071271

  17. In vivo and In vitro Evaluations of Intestinal Gabapentin Absorption

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Frølund, Sidsel; Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Garmer, Mats; Kreilgaard, Mads; Holm, René

    2015-01-01

    cells. The effect of co-application of the LAT-inhibitor, BCH, and the b(0,+)-substrate, L-lysine, on intestinal transport of gabapentin was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Gabapentin showed dose-dependent oral absorption kinetics and dose-independent disposition kinetics. Co-application of BCH...... inhibited intestinal absorption in vivo and apical uptake in vitro, whereas no effect was observed following co-application of L-lysine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows for the first time that BCH was capable of inhibiting intestinal absorption of gabapentin in vivo. Furthermore, in Caco-2 cell...... experiments BCH inhibited apical uptake of gabapentin. These findings may imply that a BCH-sensitive transport-system was involved in the apical and possibly the basolateral transport of gabapentin across the intestinal wall....

  18. Dietary protein absorption of the small intestine in human neonates

    Schaart, Maaike W.; de Bruijn, Adrianus C. J. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Renes, Ingrid B.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The intestine plays a key role in the absorption of dietary proteins, which determines growth of human neonates. Bowel resection in the neonatal period brings loss of absorptive and protective surface and may consequently lead to malabsorption of dietary nutrients. However, there are no

  19. Kinetics of gastro-intestinal absorption

    Knowledge of the kinetics of gastrointestinal absorption is required for reliable dose estimates for ingested radionuclides. A method is described by which absorption rates as a function of time as well as the total fraction absorbed (f1 value) can be determined by analysis of tracer concentrations in blood after oral and intravenous administration. The method was applied to study the absorption dynamics of Ca, Fe, and Mo in humans and is adapted to Ru, Zr, Sr and lanthanides. Radioactive or stable isotopes of the respective elements were used as tracers. The absorption kinetics and the total fractional absorption differ considerably for different elements. For a particular element, the absorption rates as well as the f1 values vary considerably with respect to the chemical form and the amount administered. Absorption patterns are characteristically different for uptake from solutions or from whole meals. This information may be used to improve the dosimetric model for the gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  20. Modulation of intestinal absorption of calcium

    Absorption of ingested calcium (2ml of a 10mM CaCl2 solution + 45Ca) by the adult rat was shown to be facilitated by the simultaneous ingestion of an active carbohydrate, L-arabinose. As the carbohydrate concentration is increased from 10 to 200mM, the absorption of calcium is maximised at a level corresponding to about twice the control absorption level. A similar doubling of calcium absorption is obtained when a 100mM concentration of any one of a number of other carbohydrates is ingested simultaneously with a 10mM CaCl2 solution. Conversely, the simultaneous ingestion of increasing doses (10 to 100mM) of phosphate (NaH2PO4) with a 10mM CaCl2 solution results in decreased 45Ca absorption and retention by the adult rat. The maximum inhibition of calcium absorption by phosphate is independent of the concentration of the ingested calcium solution (from 5 to 50mM CaCl2). The simultaneous ingestion of CaCl2 (10mM) with lactose and sodium phosphate (50 and 10mM respectively) shows that the activation effect of lactose upon 45Ca absorption may be partly dissimulated by the presence of phosphate. These various observations indicate that, within a large concentration range (2 to 50mM CaCl2) calcium absorption appears to be a precisely modulated diffusion process. Calcium absorption varies (between minimum and maximum levels) as a function of the state of saturation by the activators (carbohydrates) and inhibitors (phosphate) of the calcium transport system

  1. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing (3H)-biotin and (14C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 μM biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host

  2. Gastric, intestinal and colonic absorption of metoprolol in the rat

    Doménech, J.; M. Alba; Morera, J. M.; Obach, R.; Delfina, J. M. Plá

    1985-01-01

    1 The absorption of metoprolol from the stomach, small intestine and colon of anaesthetized rats has been evaluated using an in situ technique. Absorption rates were measured in terms of the rate of disappearance of metoprolol fumarate from the lumen between 5 and 30 min after dosing. Adsorption was estimated from the initial rapid fall in luminal content within the first 5 min after drug administration.

  3. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2001-01-01

    -sn-glycerol (10:0/18:2/10:0), and 1,3-didodecanoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol (12:0/18:2/12:0) in a rat model. Safflower oil was used in the absorption study in order to compare the absorption of medium- chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, The triacylglycerol species of lymph Lipids were separated on a...... lymph lipids after administration of the specific structured triacylglycerols (STAG), The recoveries of 8:0/18:2/8:0, 10:0/18:2/10:0, and 12:0/18:2/12:0 were 0.6%, 12%, and 5%, respectively, Several new triacylglycerol species were detected in the lymph Lipids, including MLL-, LLL-, and MMM...

  4. Molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal iron absorption

    Paul Sharp; Surjit Kaila Srai

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential trace metal in the human diet due to its obligate role in a number of metabolic processes.In the diet, iron is present in a number of different forms, generally described as haem (from haemoglobin and myoglobin in animal tissue) and non-haem iron (including ferric oxides and salts, ferritin and lactoferrin).This review describes the molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the absorption of iron from the diet and its release into the circulation. While many components of the iron transport pathway have been elucidated, a number of key issues still remain to be resolved. Future work in this area will provide a clearer picture regarding the transcellular flux of iron and its regulation by dietary and humoral factors.

  5. Rates of intestinal absorption of molybdenum in humans

    The intestinal absorption of molybdenum in healthy human volunteers has been measured by simultaneous oral and intravenous administration of the stable isotopes 95Mo and 96Mo, and the results were analysed using the convolution integral technique. The results showed that molybdenum ingested in liquid form was rapidly and totally absorbed into the circulation under ordinary intake regimes. The rates and extent of absorption were lower for composite meals, and also for increasing levels of administration. This information can be helpful in the application of the new ICRP model of the human alimentary tract

  6. Rates of intestinal absorption of molybdenum in humans

    Giussani, Augusto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: augusto.giussani@gsf.de; Arogunjo, Adeseye M. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); Claire Cantone, Marie [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Tavola, Federico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Veronese, Ivan [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    The intestinal absorption of molybdenum in healthy human volunteers has been measured by simultaneous oral and intravenous administration of the stable isotopes {sup 95}Mo and {sup 96}Mo, and the results were analysed using the convolution integral technique. The results showed that molybdenum ingested in liquid form was rapidly and totally absorbed into the circulation under ordinary intake regimes. The rates and extent of absorption were lower for composite meals, and also for increasing levels of administration. This information can be helpful in the application of the new ICRP model of the human alimentary tract.

  7. Effects of macromolecular chelators on intestinal cadmium absorption in mice

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.; Bulman, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Suppression of absorption by macromolecular chelators have been sucessful with several metals. In this paper a series of immobilized chelators ranging from DTPA to S-containing soft bases have been synthetized and investigated for ability to suppress intestinal uptake of /sup 109/Cd/sup 2+/ in mice. Dextran-O-ethyl-mercaptan, xanthates derived from polysaccharides and polyvinyl alcohol, dithiocarbamates of polyethylene imine and aminoethyl cellulose, and DTPA immobilized on aminopropyl silica were all ineffective. DTPA immobilized on aminoethyl cellulose even enhanced the intestinal uptake. The macromolecular chelators were without extensive effect on organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, except for dithiocarbamate immobilized on polyethylene imine, which enhanced the deposition of cadmium in several organs including the brain. Although the results are discouragign, they indicate that desing and synthesis of immobilized vicinal dithio compounds may represent an avenue for development of non-absorbable chelators with high affinity for cadmium.

  8. Effect of lactose on intestinal absorption of calcium

    Calcium absorption was immediately increased when lactose was administered in large amounts in the intestine of standard rats fed on a vitamin D diet. The same effect could be reproduced with lactulose, a glucid un-hydrolyzed by lactase and unabsorbed. The occurrence of a saturation process for high doses of calcium agrees with a biochemical process through a carrier; this process was not inhibited by actinomycin D, which does not agree with a 'de novo' synthesis of a calcium binding protein; yet activation of the preexisting protein cannot be excluded. The intestinal effect of lactose resulted in an inhibition of bone catabolism in the adult normocalcemic rat indicating a possible interference of thyrocalcitonin. Finally in the young rat, hypocalcemic by lack of vitamin D, on account of the lactose effect, calcium can be considered as a 'third messenger' in the chain of intracellular events between the interaction of the parathyroid hormone with the bone receptor and the expression of its activity. (author)

  9. Increased intestinal marker absorption due to regional permeability changes and decreased intestinal transit during sepsis in the rat

    The intestinal barrier properties are impaired during inflammation and sepsis, but the mechanisms behind this are unknown and were therefore investigated during experimental sepsis in rats. The different-sized intestinal absorption markers 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ovalbumin were gavaged to rats made septic by intra-abdominal bacterial implantation and to sham-operated rats. Regional tissue permeability was measured in diffusion chambers, and intestinal transit was evaluated by intestinal accumulation of gavaged 51Cr-EDTA. In comparison with the sham-operated rats, septic rats had higher 51Cr-EDTA levels in blood and urine and showed a prolonged intestinal transit. Septic rats also had a lower tissue permeability to both markers in the small intestines but higher permeability to ovalbumin in the colon. Rats receiving morphine to decrease intestinal motility showed similar changes, with a decreased intestinal transit and increased marker absorption. Thr results suggest that the increased intestinal absorption during sepsis was due to regional permeability changes and prolonged intestinal transit. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Intestinal absorption of chromium as affected by wheat bran

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary fiber, as found in wheat bran, on the absorption of chromium. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 10. The control was fed a semi-purified diet containing casein, methionine, cornstarch, sucrose, corn oil, mineral and vitamin mix, and choline bitartrate. The experimental group was fed the same diet but with soft red winter wheat bran added to a level of 35% of the diet at the expense of sucrose. To determine chromium absorption and uptake by selected tissues, rats were fasted for 24 hr, fed 5 g of the respective diet, 2 hr later intubated with 100μCi of Cr-51of sacrificed 24 hr later. The rats wee housed in metabolic cages after the Cr-51 intubation. The addition of wheat brand to the diet did not significantly affect chromium absorption as measured by percent dose of Cr-51 in the 24 hr urine. The percent dose in the control group was 0.68 +/- 0.20% (mean +/- SEM) and in the experimental group 0.63 +/- 0.24% (mean +/-SEM) (N.S.). The cr-51 uptake of liver, spleen, jejunum, and blood was not statistically different between groups. These results indicate that dietary fiber as found in wheat bran does not impair intestinal absorption of chromium

  11. The combined 169Yb-DTPA/mannitol intestinal absorption test in small intestine enteropathies

    The value of the combined D-mannitol 169Yb-DTPA test for intestinal absorption was checked in patients with different damages of the small bowel (dysbiosis, gluten sensitive enteropathia, Crohn's disease), with colitis ulcerosa and in a group of controls. (Prospective study with a total of 106 patients). The ratio of recovery of D-mannitol 169Yb-DTPA showed better results in comparison to usual resorption tests (D-xylose, lactose, Schilling's test). A positive classification in all groups of intestinal diseases was possible. The lower limit for D-mannitol recovery was 13.5% of applicated dose and 1.1% for the urinary recovery rate of 169Yb-DTPA. (author)

  12. Defective small intestinal anion secretion, dipeptide absorption, and intestinal failure in suckling NBCe1-deficient mice.

    Yu, Qin; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Yongjian; Riederer, Brigitte; Li, Taolang; Tian, De-An; Tuo, Biguang; Shull, Gary; Seidler, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    The electrogenic Na(+)HCO3 (-) cotransporter NBCe1 (Slc4a4) is strongly expressed in the basolateral enterocyte membrane in a villous/surface predominant fashion. In order to better understand its physiological function in the intestine, isolated mucosae in miniaturized Ussing chambers and microdissected intestinal villi or crypts loaded with the fluorescent pH-indicator BCECF were studied from the duodenum, jejunum, and colon of 14- to 17-days-old slc4a4-deficient (KO) and WT mice. NBCe1 was active in the basal state in all intestinal segments under study, most likely to compensate for acid loads imposed upon the enterocytes. Upregulation of other basolateral base uptake mechanism occurs, but in a segment-specific fashion. Loss of NBCe1 resulted in severely impaired Cl(-) and fluid secretory response, but not HCO3 (-) secretory response to agonist stimulation. In addition, NBCe1 was found to be active during transport processes that load the surface enterocytes with acid, such as Slc26a3 (DRA)-mediated luminal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange or PEPT1-mediated H(+)/dipeptide uptake. Possibly because of the high energy demand for hyperventilation in conjunction with the fluid secretory and nutrient absorptive defects and the relative scarcity of compensatory mechanisms, NBCe1-deficient mice developed progressive jejunal failure, worsening of metabolic acidosis, and death in the third week of life. Our data suggest that the electrogenic influx of base via NBCe1 maintains enterocyte anion homeostasis and pHi control. Its loss impairs small intestinal Cl(-) and fluid secretion as well as the neutralization of acid loads imposed on the enterocytes during nutrient and electrolyte absorption. PMID:27228994

  13. Intestinal Water Absorption Varies with Expected Dietary Water Load among Bats but Does Not Drive Paracellular Nutrient Absorption.

    Price, Edwin R; Brun, Antonio; Gontero-Fourcade, Manuel; Fernández-Marinone, Guido; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Rapid absorption and elimination of dietary water should be particularly important to flying species and were predicted to vary with the water content of the natural diet. Additionally, high water absorption capacity was predicted to be associated with high paracellular nutrient absorption due to solvent drag. We compared the water absorption rates of sanguivorous, nectarivorous, frugivorous, and insectivorous bats in intestinal luminal perfusions. High water absorption rates were associated with high expected dietary water load but were not highly correlated with previously measured rates of (paracellular) arabinose clearance. In conjunction with these tests, we measured water absorption and the paracellular absorption of nutrients in the intestine and stomach of vampire bats using luminal perfusions to test the hypothesis that the unique elongated vampire stomach is a critical site of water absorption. Vampire bats' gastric water absorption was high compared to mice but not compared to their intestines. We therefore conclude that (1) dietary water content has influenced the evolution of intestinal water absorption capacity in bats, (2) solvent drag is not the only driver of paracellular nutrient absorption, and (3) the vampire stomach is a capable but not critical location for water absorption. PMID:26658415

  14. Microbiota regulate intestinal absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the zebrafish.

    Semova, Ivana; Carten, Juliana D; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mackey, Lantz C; Knight, Rob; Farber, Steven A; Rawls, John F

    2012-09-13

    Regulation of intestinal dietary fat absorption is critical to maintaining energy balance. While intestinal microbiota clearly impact the host's energy balance, their role in intestinal absorption and extraintestinal metabolism of dietary fat is less clear. Using in vivo imaging of fluorescent fatty acid (FA) analogs delivered to gnotobiotic zebrafish hosts, we reveal that microbiota stimulate FA uptake and lipid droplet (LD) formation in the intestinal epithelium and liver. Microbiota increase epithelial LD number in a diet-dependent manner. The presence of food led to the intestinal enrichment of bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes. Diet-enriched Firmicutes and their products were sufficient to increase epithelial LD number, whereas LD size was increased by other bacterial types. Thus, different members of the intestinal microbiota promote FA absorption via distinct mechanisms. Diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition might influence fat absorption, providing mechanistic insight into how microbiota-diet interactions regulate host energy balance. PMID:22980325

  15. Enhancement of Sodium Caprate on Intestine Absorption and Antidiabetic Action of Berberine

    Lv, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chun-Mei; Fan, Zheng; Wang, Chun-Yan; Li CHEN

    2010-01-01

    Berberine, a plant alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, has a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions, but the poor bioavailability limits its clinical use. The present aim was to observe the effects of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption and antidiabetic action of berberine. The in situ, in vitro, and in vivo models were used to observe the effect of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption of berberine. Intestinal mucosa morphology was measured to evaluate the toxic ef...

  16. Reciprocal regulation of the primary sodium absorptive pathways in rat intestinal epithelial cells

    Coon, Steven; Kekuda, Ramesh; Saha, Prosenjit; Sundaram, Uma

    2010-01-01

    Sodium absorption in the mammalian small intestine occurs predominantly by two primary pathways that include Na/H exchange (NHE3) and Na-glucose cotransport (SGLT1) on the brush border membrane (BBM) of villus cells. However, whether NHE3 and SGLT1 function together to regulate intestinal sodium absorption is unknown. Nontransformed small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) were transfected with either NHE3 or SGLT1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and were grown in confluent monolayers on tr...

  17. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum. PMID:25993803

  18. Expression patterns of intestinal calcium transport factors and ex-vivo absorption of calcium in horses

    Sprekeler Nele; Müller Tobias; Kowalewski Mariusz P; Liesegang Annette; Boos Alois

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In many species, the small intestine is the major site of calcium (Ca2+) absorption. The horse differs considerably from most other species with regard to the physiology of its Ca2+ metabolism and digestion. Thus, this study was performed to get more information about the transcellular Ca2+ absorption in the horse. Two mechanisms of intestinal Ca2+ absorption are described: the passive paracellular pathway and the active, vitamin D-dependent transcellular pathway. The latt...

  19. Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, pmix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D. PMID:27041321

  20. Update: The Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrate and Protein: Role of the Small Intestine.

    Leese, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of the small intestine in the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and proteins. Indicates as outdated the view that these materials must be broken down to monomeric units before absorption and that the gut secretes a mixture of digestive juices which brings about absorption. (JN)

  1. Developments in Methods for Measuring the Intestinal Absorption of Nanoparticle-Bound Drugs

    Wei Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nanotechnology, novel drug delivery systems comprising orally administered nanoparticles (NPs have been paid increasing attention in recent years. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs has significant influence on drug efficacy and therapeutic dosage, and it is therefore imperative that the intestinal absorption of oral NPs be investigated. This review examines the various literature on the oral absorption of polymeric NPs, and provides an overview of the intestinal absorption models that have been developed for the study of oral nanoparticles. Three major categories of models including a total of eight measurement methods are described in detail (in vitro: dialysis bag, rat gut sac, Ussing chamber, cell culture model; in situ: intestinal perfusion, intestinal loops, intestinal vascular cannulation; in vivo: the blood/urine drug concentration method, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are contrasted and elucidated. In general, in vitro and in situ methods are relatively convenient but lack accuracy, while the in vivo method is troublesome but can provide a true reflection of drug absorption in vivo. This review summarizes the development of intestinal absorption experiments in recent years and provides a reference for the systematic study of the intestinal absorption of nanoparticle-bound drugs.

  2. Developments in Methods for Measuring the Intestinal Absorption of Nanoparticle-Bound Drugs.

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Hao; Zhang, Caiyun; Zhao, Liling; Zhao, Ruixia; Zhu, Yongtao; Pan, Weisan

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, novel drug delivery systems comprising orally administered nanoparticles (NPs) have been paid increasing attention in recent years. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs has significant influence on drug efficacy and therapeutic dosage, and it is therefore imperative that the intestinal absorption of oral NPs be investigated. This review examines the various literature on the oral absorption of polymeric NPs, and provides an overview of the intestinal absorption models that have been developed for the study of oral nanoparticles. Three major categories of models including a total of eight measurement methods are described in detail (in vitro: dialysis bag, rat gut sac, Ussing chamber, cell culture model; in situ: intestinal perfusion, intestinal loops, intestinal vascular cannulation; in vivo: the blood/urine drug concentration method), and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are contrasted and elucidated. In general, in vitro and in situ methods are relatively convenient but lack accuracy, while the in vivo method is troublesome but can provide a true reflection of drug absorption in vivo. This review summarizes the development of intestinal absorption experiments in recent years and provides a reference for the systematic study of the intestinal absorption of nanoparticle-bound drugs. PMID:27455239

  3. Determination of Site of Absorption of Propranolol in Rat Gut Using In Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion

    Nagare, N.; Damre, Anagha; Singh, K. S.; Mallurwar, S. R.; Iyer, Seethalakshmi; Naik, A.; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2010-01-01

    Previously, permeability and site of intestinal absorption of propranolol have been reported using the Ussing chamber. In the present study, the utility of Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion to study permeability and site of intestinal absorption of propranolol was evaluated in rats. Drug permeability in different regions of rat intestine viz. duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was measured. Propranolol (30 μg/ml) solution was perfused in situ in each intestinal segment of rats. Effective perme...

  4. Inhibitory effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracts on glucose absorption using a perfused rat intestinal preparation.

    Sokeng, S D; Rokeya, B; Hannan, J M A; Junaida, K; Zitech, P; Ali, L; Ngounou, G; Lontsi, D; Kamtchouing, P

    2007-12-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of Ipomoea aquatica aqueous and dichloromethane/methanol extracts on the glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. Extracts orally tested at the dose of 160 mg/kg exerted a significant inhibitory effect on glucose absorption when compared with control animals. The most pronounced effect was observed with the aqueous extract. Ouabain used as reference inhibitor strongly inhibited glucose absorption. On the other hand both plant extracts inhibited the gastrointestinal motility suggesting that the inhibition of glucose absorption is not due to the acceleration of intestinal transit. PMID:17651914

  5. Intestinal Npt2b Plays a Major Role in Phosphate Absorption and Homeostasis

    Sabbagh, Yves; O'Brien, Stephen P.; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Stockmann, Adam; Arbeeny, Cynthia; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal phosphate absorption occurs through both a paracellular mechanism involving tight junctions and an active transcellular mechanism involving the type II sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter NPT2b (SLC34a2). To define the contribution of NPT2b to total intestinal phosphate absorption, we generated an inducible conditional knockout mouse, Npt2b−/− (Npt2bfl/fl:Cre+/−). Npt2b−/− animals had increased fecal phosphate excretion and hypophosphaturia, but serum phosphate remained unchan...

  6. QSAR Study and VolSurf Characterization of Human Intestinal Absorption of Druge

    胡桂香; 商志才; 等

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of human intestinal absorption is a major goal in the design,optimization,and selection of candidates for the develoment of oral drugs.In this study,a computerized method(VolSurf with GRID) was used as a novel tool for predicting human intestinal absorption of test compound,and for determining the critical molecular properties needed for human intestinal absorption.The tested molecules consisted of 20 diverse drug-like compounds.Partial least squares(PLS) discriminant analysis was used to correlate the experimental data with the theoretical molecular properties of human intestinal absorption.A good correlation(r2=0.95,q2=0.86) between the molecular modeling results and the experimental data demonstrated that human intestinal absorption could be predicted from the three-dimensional(3D) molecular structure of a compound .Favorable structureal properties identified for the potent intestinal absorption of drugs included strong imbalance between the center of mass of a molecule and the barycentre of its hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and a definitive hydrophobic region as well as less hydrogen bonding donors and acceptors in the molecule.

  7. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism.

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-03-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation. PMID:25231105

  8. Kinetics of intestinal iron absorption and its implications for the dosimetric model of the gastro-intestinal tract

    In the present ICRP model for the gastro-intestinal tract the uptake of substances into the systematic circulation is represented by a direct transfer from the small intestine compartment without consideration of any details of the absorptive process. This study was aimed at the investigation of transfer kinetics of substances across the gut wall. The kinetic behaviour of the essential trace element iron was chosen as example. A total of 23 healthy volunteers were given orally test doses of radioiron in aqueous solution. Whole body retention was measured for a period of at least three weeks after injestion. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Mechanisms and Regulation of Intestinal Absorption of Water-soluble Vitamins: Cellular and Molecular Aspects

    Nexø, Ebba; Said, Hamid M

    2012-01-01

    The water-soluble vitamins represent a group of structurally and functionally unrelated compounds that share the common feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth, and development. With the exception of some endogenous production of niacin, human cells cannot synthesize thes...... deficiency. An impaired absorptive function occurs in a variety of conditions including congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive processes, intestinal diseases, drug interaction, and chronic alcohol use....... micronutrients, and thus, must obtain them from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine, therefore, plays a critical role in maintaining and regulating normal body homeostasis of these essential nutrients, and interference with its normal absorptive function could lead to suboptimal states or...

  10. Molecular characterisation of non-absorptive and absorptive enterocytes in human small intestine

    Gassler, N; Newrzella, D; Böhm, C; Lyer, S; Li, L; Sorgenfrei, O; van Laer, L; Sido, B; Mollenhauer, J; Poustka, A; Schirmacher, P; Gretz, N

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Perturbation of differentiation of the crypt-villus axis of the human small intestine is associated with several intestinal disorders of clinical importance. At present, differentiation of small intestinal enterocytes in the crypt-villus axis is not well characterised. SUBJECTS...... about the physiology of the crypt-villus architecture in human small intestine and provide new insights into pathophysiological phenomena, such as villus atrophy, which is clinically important....

  11. Study on the absorption site of divalent cations in the intestinal loop, using the multitracer technique

    The duodenum is thought to be the principal site for Ca absorption, which showed a significant increase in Ca absorption during pregnancy. The active transport of Mg in the colon may occur in a nonpregnant state, while no such evidence was observed during gestation. The present data suggest that each part of the intestinal loop is responsible for the absorption of a particular cation. (author)

  12. Absorption-enhancing effects of gemini surfactant on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic drugs including peptide and protein drugs in rats.

    Alama, Tammam; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-02-29

    In general, the intestinal absorption of small hydrophilic molecules and macromolecules like peptides, after oral administration is very poor. Absorption enhancers are considered to be one of the most promising agents to enhance the intestinal absorption of drugs. In this research, we focused on a gemini surfactant, a new type of absorption enhancer. The intestinal absorption of drugs, with or without sodium dilauramidoglutamide lysine (SLG-30), a gemini surfactant, was examined by an in situ closed-loop method in rats. The intestinal absorption of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FDs) was significantly enhanced in the presence of SLG-30, such effect being reversible. Furthermore, the calcium levels in the plasma significantly decreased when calcitonin was co-administered with SLG-30, suggestive of the increased intestinal absorption of calcitonin. In addition, no significant increase in the of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or in protein release from the intestinal epithelium was observed in the presence of SLG-30, suggestive of the safety of this compound. These findings indicate that SLG-30 is an effective absorption-enhancer for improving the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed drugs, without causing serious damage to the intestinal epithelium. PMID:26707414

  13. Study on the receptor required for vitamin B12 intestinal absorption in the small intestinal mucous membrane

    One and half hours after feeding of ''Co-vitamin B12 to rats, small intestines were extirpated. Using Weiser's method, gradient isolation of the intestinal epithelial cells from villus to crypt areas were carried out and five different levels of the villus and crypt areas were obtained. The uptakes of 57Co-vitamin B12 and the formations of Receptor-Intrinsic factor-57Co-vitamin B12 complex were measured, indicating that the upper villus cells have a higher uptake of 57Co-vitamin B12 and more increased formation of it than crypt cells of showing a gradient from crypt to villus. Alkaline phosphatase activity of these levels of epithelial cells also showed the same pattern. These results suggest that the receptor activity for vitamin B12 absorption in the intestinal epithelial cells indicate a gradient increase from crypt to villus areas. (auth.)

  14. Intestinal absorption of forsythoside A in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vitro Caco-2 cell models

    Wei ZHOU; Liu-qing DI; Juan WANG; Jin-jun SHAN; Shi-jia LIU; Wen-zheng JU; Bao-chang CAI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of the major bioactive component forsythoside A (FTA) extracted from Forsythiae fructus.Methods:An in vitro Caco-2 cell model and a single-pass intestinal perfusion in situ model in SD rats were used.Results:In the in vitro Caco-2 cell model,the mean apparent permeability value (Papp-value) was 4.15x 107 cm/s in the apical-tobasolateral (AP-BL) direction.At the concentrations of 2.6-10.4 μg/mL,the efflux ratio of FTA in the bi-directional transport experiments was approximately 1.00.After the transport,>96% of the apically loaded FTA was retained on the apical side,while >97% of the basolaterally loaded FTA was retained on the basolateral side.The Papp-values of FTA were inversely correlated with the transepithelial electrical resistance.The paracellular permeability enhancers sodium caprate and EDTA,the P-gp inhibitor verapamil and the multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) inhibitors cyclosporine and MK571 could concentration-dependently increase the Papp-values,while the uptake (OATP) transporter inhibitors diclofenac sodium and indomethacin could concentration-dependently decrease the Papp-values.The intake transporter SGLT1 inhibitor mannitol did not cause significant change in the Papp-values.In the in situ intestinal perfusion model,both the absorption rate constant (Ka) and the effective permeability (Peff-values) following perfusion of FTA 2.6,5.2,and 10.4 μg/mL via the duodenum,jejunum and ileum had no significant difference,although the values were slightly higher for the duodenum as compared to those in the jejunum and ileum.The low,medium and high concentrations of verapamil caused the largest increase in the Peff-values for duodenum,jejunum and ileum,respectively.Sodium caprate,EDTA and cyclosporine resulted in concentration-dependent increase in the Peff-values.Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin caused concentration-dependent decrease in the Peff-values.Mannitol did

  15. Mechanisms underlying the effects of inulin-type fructans on the intestinal calcium absorption

    Raschka, Ladislav

    2005-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans in a diet are selectively fermented by the large intestinal microflora which causes a multitude of effects that are considered as beneficial for human health and well-being. One of these well documented actions is an increased intestinal calcium absorption, similarly observed in experimental animals and in humans. Since the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood, various in vivo and in vitro experiments with rats were conducted to elucidate the molecular actions of ...

  16. Regulation of homeostasis in the process of protein absorption from small intestine to blood

    Akmal Yuldashev; Ravshan Rahmanov; Mukaddas Rahmatova; Margarita Tarinova; Aziza Nishanova; Gulnara Islamova

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopic and immunоfluorescent study in rats aged 1 and 3 days after birth allowed to establish a process of absorption of protein from the small intestine into the lymph and blood. Blood homeostasis was provided by the proteins filtrated from glomerular capillaries of nephrons and reabsorbed by the epithelial cells in canaliculi of nephrons. The absorbed natural heterologous protein was depleted by lysosomes of epithelial cells of intestine and kidneys and macrophages. It support...

  17. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and fat digestion and absorption in cystic fibrosis patients

    Aleksandra Lisowska; Andrzej Pogorzelski; Grzegorz Oracz; Wojciech Skorupa; Szczepan Cofta; Jerzy Socha; Jarosław Walkowiak

    2010-01-01

    Background. Available data suggests that small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may frequently occur in cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. SIBO may result in synthesis of enterotoxic and unabsorbable metabolites which may cause mucosal damage and – additionally – interfere with digestion and absorption. Such a relationship was documented in CF mouse model. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to assess the influence of bacterial overgrowth in small intestine in CF pat...

  18. Increased intestinal absorption in the era of teduglutide and its impact on management strategies in patients with short bowel syndrome-associated intestinal failure.

    Seidner, Douglas L; Schwartz, Lauren K; Winkler, Marion F; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Boullata, Joseph I; Tappenden, Kelly A

    2013-03-01

    Short bowel syndrome-associated intestinal failure (SBS-IF) as a consequence of extensive surgical resection of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract results in a chronic reduction in intestinal absorption. The ensuing malabsorption of a conventional diet with associated diarrhea and weight loss results in a dependency on parenteral nutrition and/or intravenous fluids (PN/IV). A natural compensatory process of intestinal adaptation occurs in the years after bowel resection as the body responds to a lack of sufficient functional nutrient-processing intestinal surface area. The adaptive process improves bowel function but is a highly variable process, yielding different levels of symptom control and PN/IV independence among patients. Intestinal rehabilitation is the strategy of maximizing the absorptive capacity of the remnant GI tract. The approaches for achieving this goal have been limited to dietary intervention, antidiarrheal and antisecretory medications, and surgical bowel reconstruction. A targeted pharmacotherapy has now been developed that improves intestinal absorption. Teduglutide is a human recombinant analogue of glucagon-like peptide 2 that promotes the expansion of the intestinal surface area and increases the intestinal absorptive capacity. Enhanced absorption has been shown in clinical trials by a reduction in PN/IV requirements in patients with SBS-IF. This article details the clinical considerations and best-practice recommendations for intestinal rehabilitation, including optimization of fluids, electrolytes, and nutrients; the integration of teduglutide therapy; and approaches to PN/IV weaning. PMID:23343999

  19. Competition between selenomethionine and methionine absorption in the intestinal tract of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris)

    L-Selenomethionine (SeMet) is a dominant form of selenium (Se) found in organisms at all levels of aquatic food chains and a key source of Se bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity. In mammals, intestinal absorption of SeMet is at least partly via the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The mechanism of SeMet absorption and competitive effects of other dietary components on SeMet absorption in fish are unknown. Thus the in vitro uptake rates of L-methionine (Met) and the competitive effect of SeMet on Met absorption, an indicator that SeMet uses the same nutrient transporter(s) for absorption, in the various regions of the green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) intestine were investigated using intact tissues (a modified everted sleeve method). Intestinal tissue was incubated in Ringer's solution containing 0-10 mmol L-1 Met or SeMet (n = 5 for each substrate's concentration and intestinal region), respectively, as well as constant tracer levels of isotope-labeled Met. The data indicate that SeMet uptake was mediated by the same transporter(s) as Met and that the absorption kinetics were similar for both substrates. When there were differences in absorption they appeared to be mostly due to higher permeability (passive uptake) of the tissue for Met than for SeMet, particularly in the pyloric caeca (PC) and distal intestine (DI). Maximum rates of absorption, on the other hand, tended to be higher for SeMet than Met in the mid intestine and DI, whereas differences in affinity for the transporters varied between these tissues but were very similar in the PC. These differences may be due to differences in regional intestinal characteristics such as amount of mucus secreted and degree of tissue contraction, and/or substrate differences regarding solubility in and movement through the mucus, influence on tissue contraction, permeability through membranes or between cells, intracellular metabolism, as well as basolateral transport. Interestingly, an increasing proximal

  20. Regulation of Electroneutral NaCl Absorption by the Small Intestine

    Kato, Akira; Romero, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Na+ and Cl− movement across the intestinal epithelium occurs by several interconnected mechanisms: (1) nutrient coupled Na+ absorption; (2) electroneutral NaCl absorption; (3) electrogenic Cl− secretion by CFTR; and (4) electrogenic Na+ absorption by ENaC. All of these transport modes require a favorable electrochemical gradient maintained by the basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase, a Cl− channel and K+ channels. Electroneutral NaCl absorption is observed from the small intestine to distal colon. This transport is mediated by apical Na+/H+ (NHE2/3) and Cl−/HCO3 − (Slc26a3/a6, others) exchangers that provide the major route of NaCl absorption. Electroneutral NaCl absorption and Cl− secretion by CFTR are oppositely regulated by the autonomic nerve system, immune system, and endocrine system via PKAα, PKCα, cGKII, and/or SGK1. This integrated regulation requires the formation of macromolecular complexes, which mediated by NHERF family of scaffold proteins, and involve internalization of NHE3. Using knockout mice and human mutations, a more detailed understanding of the integrated as well as subtle regulation of electroneutral NaCl absorption by the mammalian intestine has emerged. PMID:21054167

  1. The Effect of Indium on Intestinal Absorption of Iron Using Everted Gut Sac Method

    M. A. Ghaffari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential metal which involves in more cell activities in the form of enzymes and / or other metaloproteins . Indium is one of the toxic elements that may be interfered with iron metabolism . Using this element has increased recently by different industry. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to study interfer of indium on first phase of iron metabolism (absorption intestinal by everted gut sac (E.G.S . Preliminary results showed that the optimum concentration of iron and indium for best intestinal absorption were 102 and 70 mg/L , respectively . Addition of glucose to incubation media caused increase in iron and / or indium absorption and reduction was seen where ouabain was added to the media , suggest a probable active transport of the element across of the intestinal mucosal cell . Iron absorption was reduced almost by 28% when indium was presented in incubation media . Results obtained from this study indicated that indium might be able to interfer with iron metabolism , at intestinal absorption .

  2. Developments in Methods for Measuring the Intestinal Absorption of Nanoparticle-Bound Drugs

    Wei Liu; Hao Pan; Caiyun Zhang; Liling Zhao; Ruixia Zhao; Yongtao Zhu; Weisan Pan

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, novel drug delivery systems comprising orally administered nanoparticles (NPs) have been paid increasing attention in recent years. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs has significant influence on drug efficacy and therapeutic dosage, and it is therefore imperative that the intestinal absorption of oral NPs be investigated. This review examines the various literature on the oral absorption of polymeric NPs, and provides an overview of...

  3. Assessment of intestinal permeability and absorption in cirrhotic patients with ascites using combined sugar probes.

    Zuckerman, Marc J; Menzies, Ian S; Ho, Hoi; Gregory, Gavin G; Casner, Nancy A; Crane, Roger S; Hernandez, Jesus A

    2004-04-01

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis may contribute to complications such as malnutrition and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. To determine whether cirrhotic patients with ascites have altered intestinal function, we compared intestinal permeability and absorption in patients with liver disease and normal subjects. Intestinal permeability and absorption were investigated in 66 cirrhotic patients (48 with ascites, 18 without ascites) and 74 healthy control subjects. Timed recovery of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose in urine following oral administration was measured in order to assess active and passive carrier-mediated, and nonmediated, absorptive capacity, as well as intestinal large-pore/small-pore (lactulose/rhamnose) permeability. Test sugars were measured by quantitative thin-layer chromatography and results are expressed as a percentage of test dose recovered in a 5-h urine collection. Sugar excretion ratios relating to small intestinal permeability (lactulose/rhamnose) and absorption (rhamnose/3-O-methyl-D-glucose) were calculated to avoid the effects of nonmucosal factors such as renal clearance, portal hypertension, and ascites on the recovery of sugar probes in urine. Compared with normal subjects, the mean lactulose/rhamnose permeability ratio in cirrhotic patients with ascites was significantly higher (0.058 vs. 0.037, P < 0.001) but not in cirrhotic patients without ascites (0.041 vs. 0.037). Cirrhotic patients with ascites had significantly lower mean recoveries of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (23.0 vs. 49.1%; P < 0.001), D-xylose (18.8 vs. 34.5%; P < 0.001), L-rhamnose (4.0 vs. 9.1%; P < 0.001), and lactulose (0.202 vs. 0.337%; P < 0.001) than normal subjects. However, the mean rhamnose/3-O-methyl-D-glucose ratio was the same in cirrhotic patients with ascites as normal subjects (0.189 vs. 0.189), indicating that the reduction in probe recovery was due to nonmucosal factors. Compared with normal subjects

  4. Heme in intestinal epithelial cell turnover, differentiation,detoxification, inflammation, carcinogenesis, absorption and motility

    Phillip S Oates; Adrian R West

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a simple epithelium that undergoes constant renewal involving cell division,differentiation and cell death. In addition, the epithelial lining separates the hostile processes of digestion and absorption that occur in the intestinal lumen from the aseptic environment of the internal milieu by defensive mechanisms that protect the epithelium from being breached. Central to these defensive processes is the synthesis of heme and its catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO). Dietary heme is also an important source of iron for the body which is taken up intact by the enterocyte.This review describes the recent literature on the diverse properties of heme/HO in the intestine tract.The roles of heme/HO in the regulation of the cell cycle/apoptosis, detoxification of xenobiotics, oxidative stress,inflammation, development of colon cancer, hemeiron absorption and intestinal motility are specifically examined.

  5. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3, the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  6. Consensus hologram QSAR modeling for the prediction of human intestinal absorption.

    Moda, Tiago L; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2012-04-15

    Consistent in silico models for ADME properties are useful tools in early drug discovery. Here, we report the hologram QSAR modeling of human intestinal absorption using a dataset of 638 compounds with experimental data associated. The final validated models are consistent and robust for the consensus prediction of this important pharmacokinetic property and are suitable for virtual screening applications. PMID:22425566

  7. Expression patterns of intestinal calcium transport factors and ex-vivo absorption of calcium in horses

    Sprekeler Nele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species, the small intestine is the major site of calcium (Ca2+ absorption. The horse differs considerably from most other species with regard to the physiology of its Ca2+ metabolism and digestion. Thus, this study was performed to get more information about the transcellular Ca2+ absorption in the horse. Two mechanisms of intestinal Ca2+ absorption are described: the passive paracellular pathway and the active, vitamin D-dependent transcellular pathway. The latter involves the following elements: vitamin D receptors (VDR, transient receptor potential vanilloid channel members 5 and 6 (TRPV5/6, calbindin-D9k (CB, the Na/Ca exchanger (NCX1 and the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase (PMCA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein and mRNA expression patterns of VDR, CB and TRPV6 and the ex-vivo Ca2+ absorption in horses, assessed by qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry and the Ussing chamber technique. Results Highest CB and TRPV6 mRNA levels were detected in the duodenum as compared to the middle parts of the jejunum and ileum and several sites of the large intestine. VDR mRNA levels did not change significantly throughout the intestine. TRPV5 mRNA was not detectable in the horse intestine. The highest VDR and CB protein levels were measured in the duodenum. Ussing chamber studies revealed ex-vivo Ca2+ absorption only in the duodenum, but not in cecum and specific sites of the colon. Conclusion The present findings suggest that TRPV6, CB and VDR may be involved in active intestinal Ca2+ absorption in horses, as described for other mammals. TRPV5 may not play a major role in this process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of these Ca2+ transport elements and the results of the Ussing chamber procedure indicate that a significant part of active intestinal Ca2+ absorption occurs in the duodenum in this species.

  8. Inhibitory effect and mechanism of acarbose combined with gymnemic acidon maltose absorption in rat intestine

    Hong Luo; Le Feng Wang; Toshiaki Imoto; Yasutaka Hiji

    2000-01-01

    AIM The control of diet regimen and nutrient intake, aiming to avoid the evaggerated levels of glucose andanabolic hormone is broadly accepted as basic treatment of diabetes mellitus. Maltose is an importanthydrolysate of starch, main source of nutrition. Acarbose is an alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitor but with a shortinhibitory duration. Gymnemic acid (GA), a group of triterpene glucuronides, inhibits glucose absorptionwith a longer effective duration but it needs a longer time to achieve its maximum effect. To determinewhether nutrient control in diabetic care can be improved by combination of them, we compared thecombinative and individual effect of acarbose and GA on maltose absorption and hydrolysis in smallintestine.METHODS The absorption and hydrolysis of maltose were studied by re-cyclic perfusion of intestinal loopsin situ and motility of the intestine was recorded with the intestinal loop in vitro, of Wistar rat.RESULTS The total inhibitory rate of maltose absorption was improved by the combination of GA (0.1 -1.0 mg/mL) and acarbose (0.1- 2.0 mmol/L) throughout their effective duration (P<0.05, U test ofMann-Whitney), although the improvement only could be seen in the low dosages during the first hour. Withthe combination, inhibitory duration of acarbose on maltose absorption was prolonged to 3 hours and theonset of GA inhibitory effect was fastened to 15 minutes. GAsuppressed the intestinal mobility with a goodcorrelation (r = 0.98) to the inhibitory effect of GA on maltose absorption and the inhibitory effect of2 mmol/L (higher dose) acarbose on maltose hydrolysis was dual modulated by 1 mg/mL GA in vivoindicating that the combined effects involved the functional alteration of intestinal barriers.CONCLUSION There are augmented effects of acarbose and GA, which involve pre-cellular andparacellular barriers. Furthermore, diabetic care can be improved by employing this combination.

  9. Mechanistic and regulatory aspects of intestinal iron absorption

    Gulec, Sukru; Anderson, Gregory J.; Collins, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential trace mineral that plays a number of important physiological roles in humans, including oxygen transport, energy metabolism, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Iron absorption by the proximal small bowel is a critical checkpoint in the maintenance of whole-body iron levels since, unlike most other essential nutrients, no regulated excretory systems exist for iron in humans. Maintaining proper iron levels is critical to avoid the adverse physiological consequences of either l...

  10. Role of Physiological Intestinal Water in Oral Absorption

    Sutton, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Water volume has impact when the compound has low aqueous solubility. For example, the absorption of compounds with a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class 2 or 4 is likely to be solubility-limited. Provided the formulation does not contribute to a dissolution-limited condition (e.g., particle size, Waterman and Sutton, J Control Release 86:293–304, 2003) and permeability is rapid, any impact on solubility factors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract will directly impact the fraction abs...

  11. Dietary fat assimilation and bile salt absorption in the killifish intestine

    Radiolabeled taurocholate (TC) and triolein were used to study fat assimilation and bile salt absorption in the stomachless saltwater killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Fat absorption occurred primarily in the proximal intestine with approximately 87% of a single dose (9 mg fat/8 g fish) absorbed in 2 h. Luminal triolein hydrolysis and enterocyte triolein resynthesis were tightly coupled. Killifish gallbladder bile contains taurocholate and cholate in an equal molar ratio at a combined concentration of 237 +/- 25 mM (n = 10) in 24-h-fasted fish. During fat assimilation luminal bile salt and fatty acid concentrations ranged between 10 and 30 mM. Between and during meals the total concentration of bile salts in the intestinal tissue remained roughly constant (4-6 mM) with the proximal one-third of the intestine containing 40% of the total and the remainder equally distributed between the mid and distal regions. All three regions of the intestine rapidly incorporated ingested TC in vivo, with the amount incorporated proportional to the pool size. In contrast, in vitro at low TC concentrations (60 nM), the distal one-third of the intestine incorporated 10 times as much TC in 2-min uptake experiments as the proximal and mid regions. Although there are many similarities between fat and bile salt assimilation in killifish and mammals, overall the processes are much simpler in killifish

  12. Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous salmonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins

    Kristina eSundell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The anadromous salmonid life cycle includes both fresh water (FW and seawater (SW stages. The parr-smolt transformation (smoltification pre–adapt the fish to SW while still in FW. The osmoregulatory organs change their mode of action from a role of preventing water inflow in FW, to absorb ions to replace water lost by osmosis in SW. During smoltification, the drinking rate increases, in the intestine the ion and fluid transport increases and is further elevated after SW entry. In SW, the intestine absorbs ions to create an inwardly directed water flow which is accomplished by increased Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA activity in the basolateral membrane, driving ion absorption via ion channels and/or co-transporters. This review will aim at discussing the expression patterns of the ion transporting proteins involved in intestinal fluid absorption in the FW stage, during smoltification and after SW entry. Of equal importance for intestinal fluid absorption as the active absorption of ions, is the permeability of the epithelium to ions and water. During the smoltification the increase in NKA activity and water uptake in SW is accompanied by decreased paracellular permeability suggesting a redirection of the fluid movement from a paracellular route in FW, to a transcellular route in SW. Increased transcellular fluid absorption could be achieved by incorporation of aquaporins (AQPs into the enterocyte membranes and/or by a change in fatty acid profile of the enterocyte lipid bilayer. An increased incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into the membrane phospholipids will increase water permeability by enhancing the fluidity of the membrane. A second aim of the present review is therefore to discuss the presence and regulation of expression of AQPs in the enterocyte membrane as well as to discuss the profile of fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids during different stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

  13. Whey protein hydrolysates enhance water absorption in the perfused small intestine of anesthetized rats.

    Ito, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Noma, Teruyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on the water absorption rate in the small intestine using a rat small intestine perfusion model. The rate was significantly higher with 5 g/L WPH than with 5 g/L soy protein hydrolysates or physiological saline (p < 0.05). WPH dose-dependently increased the water absorption rate in the range of 1.25-10.0 g/L. WPH showed a significantly higher rate than an amino acid mixture whose composition was equal to that of WPH (p < 0.05). The addition of 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid, an inhibitor of PepT1, significantly suppressed WPH's enhancement of water absorption (p < 0.05). The rate of water absorption was significantly correlated with that of peptides/amino acids absorption in WPH (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). These data suggest that WPH have a high water absorption-promoting effect, to which PepT1 contributes. PMID:27055721

  14. Determination of site of absorption of propranolol in rat gut using In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion

    Nagare N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, permeability and site of intestinal absorption of propranolol have been reported using the Ussing chamber. In the present study, the utility of Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion to study permeability and site of intestinal absorption of propranolol was evaluated in rats. Drug permeability in different regions of rat intestine viz. duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was measured. Propranolol (30 μg/ml solution was perfused in situ in each intestinal segment of rats. Effective permeability (Peff of propranolol in each segment was calculated and site of absorption was determined. The Peff of propranolol in rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon was calculated to be 0.3316Χ10 -4 cm/s, 0.4035Χ10 -4 cm/s, 0.5092Χ10 -4 cm/s and 0.7167Χ10 -4 cm/s, respectively. The above results suggest that permeability of propranolol was highest through colon compared to other intestinal sites, which is in close agreement to that reported previously. In conclusion, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion can be used effectively to study intestinal permeability as well as site of intestinal absorption of compounds in rats.

  15. Iron Regulatory Proteins Control a Mucosal Block to Intestinal Iron Absorption

    Bruno Galy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian iron metabolism is regulated systemically by the hormone hepcidin and cellularly by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that orchestrate a posttranscriptional regulatory network. Through ligand-inducible genetic ablation of both IRPs in the gut epithelium of adult mice, we demonstrate that IRP deficiency impairs iron absorption and promotes mucosal iron retention via a ferritin-mediated “mucosal block.” We show that IRP deficiency does not interfere with intestinal sensing of body iron loading and erythropoietic iron need, but rather alters the basal expression of the iron-absorption machinery. IRPs thus secure sufficient iron transport across absorptive enterocytes by restricting the ferritin “mucosal block” and define a basal set point for iron absorption upon which IRP-independent systemic regulatory inputs are overlaid.

  16. Intestinal absorption in lysinuric protein intolerance: impaired for diamino acids, normal for citrulline.

    Rajantie, J.; Simell, O.; Perheentupa, J

    1980-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an autosomal recessive defect of diamino acid transport characterised by massive diaminoaciduria, especially lysinuria, with hyperammonaemia after heavy nitrogen intake. The defect has previously been demonstrated in the kidney, and is probably present in the liver cells. To evaluate the effect of the LPI gene on the net intestinal absorption of the diamino acids and citrulline, separate oral loads of each were given to controls, and to subjects heterozy...

  17. Intestinal Absorption of Fibrinolytic and Proteolytic Lumbrokinase Extracted from Earthworm, Eisenia andrei

    Yan, Xiang Mei; Kim, Chung-Hyo; Lee, Chul Kyu; Shin, Jang Sik; Cho, Il Hwan; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the intestinal absorption of a fibrinolytic and proteolytic lumbrokinase extracted from Eisenia andrei, we used rat everted gut sacs and an in situ closed-loop recirculation method. We extracted lumbrokinase from Eisenia andrei, and then raised polyclonal antibody against lumbrokinase. Fibrinolytic activity and proteolytic activity in the serosal side of rat everted gut sacs incubated with lumbrokinase showed dose- and time-dependent patterns. Immunological results obtained by ...

  18. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    de Mello Maria; Ventrucci Gislaine; Gomes-Marcondes Maria

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rat...

  19. Effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable sugars on intestinal calcium absorption in humans

    The effects of glucose, galactose, and lactitol on intestinal calcium absorption and gastric emptying were studied in 9, 8, and 20 healthy subjects, respectively. Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by a deconvolution method. The gastric emptying rate was determined with /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. Each subject was studied under two conditions: (a) with calcium alone and (b) with calcium plus sugar. Glucose and galactose increased the calcium mean transit time and improved the total fractional calcium absorption by 30% (p less than 0.02). Lactitol decreased the mean rate of absorption (p less than 0.001) and reduced the total fractional calcium absorption by 15% (p less than 0.001). The gastric emptying rate did not appear to influence directly the kinetic parameters of calcium absorption. These results show that both glucose and galactose exert the same stimulatory effect as lactose on calcium absorption in subjects with normal lactase whereas lactitol mimics the effects of lactose in lactase-deficient patients. Thus the absorbability of sugars determines their effect on calcium absorption

  20. Importance of intestinal absorption of amino acids in regard to the efficiency of feed proteins in poultry

    The absorption of 14C(U) L-lysine was studied in vivo (perfusion of isolated intestinal folds) and in vitro (incubation of fragments of intestine) in the chicken and duck during growth. Factors that increase the nutritional efficiency of proteins, e.g. amino-acid deficiency, accelerate intestinal absorption. On the other hand, factors that reduce protein efficiency, be they nutritional (excess amino acids), physiological (age; sex: female compared with male; species: duck compared with chicken) or pathological (experimental coccidiosis), slow down the absorption of lysine. The results are discussed bearing in mind that the absorption rate has a double significance. It plays a part in digestive utilization; it may also reflect metabolic utilization to the extent that transfer through the intestinal mucosa is comparable to incorporation in the cells of the organism. (author)

  1. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and fat digestion and absorption in cystic fibrosis patients

    Aleksandra Lisowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Available data suggests that small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO may frequently occur in cystic fibrosis (CF subjects. SIBO may result in synthesis of enterotoxic and unabsorbable metabolites which may cause mucosal damage and – additionally – interfere with digestion and absorption. Such a relationship was documented in CF mouse model. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to assess the influence of bacterial overgrowth in small intestine in CF patients on lipid digestion and absorption. Material and methods. The study comprised 60 pancreatic insufficient CF patients, 30 children and 30 adults. All enrolled CF subjects were tested for the presence of SIBO using hydrogen/methane breath test with glucose loading. According to the obtained results CF patients were divided into SIBO positive and negative subgroups. Subsequently, 13C-labelled mixed triglyceride breath test was performed to assess lipid digestion and absorption. Cumulative percentage dose recovery (cPDR was considered to reflect digestion and absorption of lipids. Results. SIBO was detected in 12 (40.0% children and 11 (36.7% adults with CF. The cPDR did not differ between SIBO positive and negative subgroups, neither when assessed separately for children (mean ±SEM: 5.5 ±0.8 vs. 7.4 ±1.0% and adults (4.9 ±0.8 vs. 7.1 ±0.7% nor for the entire studied population. Conclusions. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth does not seem to play a key role in lipid digestion and absorption in cystic fibrosis patients.

  2. Novel norcantharidin-loaded liver targeting chitosan nanoparticles to enhance intestinal absorption

    Bei YY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yong-yan Bei1, Xiao-yan Chen1, Yang Liu1, Jing-yu Xu1, Wen-juan Wang1, Zong-lin Gu1, Kong-lang Xing1, Ai-jun Zhu1, Wei-liang Chen1, Lin-seng Shi1, Qin Wang1, Xue-nong Zhang1, Qiang Zhang21College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this paper, two novel liver-targeting nanoparticles, norcantharidin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (NCTD-CS-NPs and norcantharidin-associated galactosylated chitosan nanoparticles (NCTD-GC-NPs, were prepared using ionic cross-linkage. The physical properties, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release characteristics of the nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. To investigate the intestinal absorption mechanisms of the two preparations, a series of experiments was carried out, including in situ circulation method, in vitro everted gut sacs, and Ussing chamber perfusion technique. The absorption rate constants (Ka of NCTD at different segments were found to be duodenum > jejunum > ileum > colon. The concentration had no distinctive effect on absorption kinetics, suggesting that drug absorption is not dose-dependent. The transport of NCTD was found to be inhibited by P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitor, indicating that NCTD might be the substrate of P-gp. The order of the absorption enhancer effects were as follows: low molecular weight chitosan (CS-8kDa . high molecular weight chitosan (CS-30kDa > Poloxamer > sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS > sodium deoxycholate (SDCh. The results indicate that the chitosan nanoparticles can improve intestinal absorption of NCTD.Keywords: P-glycoprotein, absorption enhancers

  3. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones

  4. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  5. Absorption of magnesium in intestinal loop studied by the multitracer technique

    We investigated Mg absorption in the intestine, and pregnancy-associated changes in Mg absorption by the rat everted gut sac method. Heavy ion beam accelerated by ring-cyclotron was irradiated to a titanium target and the radioactive multitracer solution which includes 28Mg was made. 9 weeks old female Wistar rats (non-pregnancy, 6∼20th day of the pregnancy) were fasted overnight and anesthetized. Four segments of the intestine were isolated and everted to prepare sac specimens with mucosa outside. Each specimen was filled with multitracer solution and was immersed in the same solution. After incubation the multitracer solutions in both of inside and outside the sacs were removed. The radioactivity of the each sample was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. In non-pregnant state, the active transport of Mg from mucosal side into serosal side exists only in colon. This active transport of Mg in colon during pregnancy was significantly decreased than in non-pregnant state. The mechanism and importance of the decrease in Mg absorption during pregnancy are still unclear. In humans, the intracellular and extracellular Mg concentrations decrease with the normal pregnancy course, especially in preeclampsia. The association between the changes in active Mg absorption during pregnancy and the pathogenesis should be clarified as early as possible. (author)

  6. Melatonin not only restores but also prevents the inhibition of the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption caused by glutathione depleting drugs.

    Areco, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Valeria; Marchionatti, Ana; Carpentieri, Agata; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2016-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that melatonin (MEL) blocks the inhibition of the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption caused by menadione (MEN). The purpose of this study were to determine whether MEL not only restores but also prevents the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption inhibited either by MEN or BSO, two drugs that deplete glutathione (GSH) in different ways, and to analyze the mechanisms by which MEN and MEL alter the movement of Ca(2+) across the duodenum. To know this, chicks were divided into four groups: 1) controls, 2) MEN treated, 3) MEL treated, and 4) treated sequentially with MEN and MEL or with MEN and MEL at the same time. In a set of experiments, chicks treated with BSO or sequentially with BSO and MEL or with BSO and MEL at the same time were used. MEL not only restored but also prevented the inhibition of the chick intestinal Ca(2+) absorption produced by either MEN or BSO. MEN altered the protein expression of molecules involved in the transcellular as well as in the paracellular pathway of the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. MEL restored partially both pathways through normalization of the O2(-) levels. The nitrergic system was not altered by any treatment. In conclusion, MEL prevents or restores the inhibition of the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption caused by different GSH depleting drugs. It might become one drug for the treatment of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption under oxidant conditions having the advantage of low or null side effects. PMID:26970583

  7. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:25656339

  8. Effect of undernutrition and hormone treatments on the absorption of proteins in suckling rat intestine

    The absorption of 125I-labeled BSA and gamma-globulin was significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated in UN pups compared to the controls. Administration of pharmacological doses of cortisone, thyroxine, and insulin markedly (P less than 0.001) reduced the absorption of BSA and gamma-globulin in UN pups. There was no significant difference in the binding of 125I-labeled BSA and gamma-globulin to microvillus membrane in the control and experimental animals. However, the degradation of labeled BSA and gamma-globulin by luminal content was considerably higher (55-70%) in controls compared to UN pups. This suggested that observed increase in the absorption of proteins in nutritionally deprived pups was unrelated to their binding to the microvillus surface but presumably it is a consequence of reduced luminal degradation together with delayed maturational development as suggested by the pattern of brush border enzymes in the UN intestinal tissue

  9. Inhibition of intestinal absorption and decorporation of radiocaesium in humans by hexacyanoferrates(II)

    The effect of hexacyanoferrate (II) preparations, KFe[Fe(CN)6], (KFeHCF) anol Fe4[Fe(N)6 ]3, (FeHCF) on intestinal radiocaesium absorption was studied in two male volunteers. The 134Cs absorption was decreased from 100 to 3-10% when 500-1000 mg KFeHCF or FeHCF were administered 10 min before the 134Cs-labelled test meal. However, when HCF was administered simultaneously with the test meal, the 134Cs absorption was decreased to only 38-63%. The biological half-time of previously absorbed 134Cs was reduced from 106 (73) to 44 (46) days by daily administration of 3 times 0.5 g KFeHCF. The 134Cs dose conversion factors lie below the values recommended by IRCP 30, indicating that the IRCP model represents a cautious description of the Cs biokinetics in our study. (author)

  10. Amino acid absorption and homeostasis in mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1.

    Nässl, Anna-Maria; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Fenselau, Henning; Marth, Mena Katharina; Kottra, Gabor; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-07-01

    The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 mediates the uptake of di- and tripeptides derived from dietary protein breakdown into epithelial cells. Whereas the transporter appears to be essential to compensate for the reduced amino acid delivery in patients with mutations in amino acid transporter genes, such as in cystinuria or Hartnup disease, its physiological role in overall amino acid absorption is still not known. To assess the quantitative importance of PEPT1 in overall amino acid absorption and metabolism, PEPT1-deficient mice were studied by using brush border membrane vesicles, everted gut sacs, and Ussing chambers, as well as by transcriptome and proteome analysis of intestinal tissue samples. Neither gene expression nor proteome profiling nor functional analysis revealed evidence for any compensatory changes in the levels and/or function of transporters for free amino acids in the intestine. However, most plasma amino acid levels were increased in Pept1(-/-) compared with Pept1(+/+) animals, suggesting that amino acid handling is altered. Plasma appearance rates of (15)N-labeled amino acids determined after intragastric administration of a low dose of protein remained unchanged, whereas administration of a large protein load via gavage revealed marked differences in plasma appearance of selected amino acids. PEPT1 seems, therefore, important for overall amino acid absorption only after high dietary protein intake when amino acid transport processes are saturated and PEPT1 can provide additional absorption capacity. Since renal amino acid excretion remained unchanged, elevated basal concentrations of plasma amino acids in PEPT1-deficient animals seem to arise mainly from alterations in hepatic amino acid metabolism. PMID:21350187

  11. A genetic dissection of intestinal fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption.

    Widjaja-Adhi, M Airanthi K; Lobo, Glenn P; Golczak, Marcin; Von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    Carotenoids are currently investigated regarding their potential to lower the risk of chronic disease and to combat vitamin A deficiency. Surprisingly, responses to dietary supplementation with these compounds are quite variable between individuals. Genome-wide studies have associated common genetic polymorphisms in the BCO1 gene with this variability. The BCO1 gene encodes an enzyme that is expressed in the intestine and converts provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A-aldehyde. However, it is not clear how this enzyme can impact the bioavailability and metabolism of other carotenoids such as xanthophyll. We here provide evidence that BCO1 is a key component of a regulatory network that controls the absorption of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins. In this process, conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A by BCO1 induces via retinoid signaling the expression of the intestinal homeobox transcription factor ISX. Subsequently, ISX binds to conserved DNA-binding motifs upstream of the BCO1 and SCARB1 genes. SCARB1 encodes a membrane protein that facilitates absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. In keeping with its role as a transcriptional repressor, SCARB1 protein levels are significantly increased in the intestine of ISX-deficient mice. This increase results in augmented absorption and tissue accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids and tocopherols. Our study shows that fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption is controlled by a BCO1-dependent negative feedback regulation. Thus, our findings provide a molecular framework for the controversial relationship between genetics and fat-soluble vitamin status in the human population. PMID:25701869

  12. Elucidation of the Intestinal Absorption Mechanism of Celastrol Using the Caco-2 Cell Transwell Model.

    Li, Hong; Li, Jie; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Yichuan; Luo, Yili; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Manna; Yu, Weifeng; Qu, Shen

    2016-08-01

    Celastrol, a triterpenoid isolated from stem (caulis) of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. (Celastraceae), has been known to have various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant activities. However, the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of celastrol is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption of celastrol using the Caco-2 cell transwell model. First, the bidirectional transport of celastrol in Caco-2 cell monolayers was observed. Then, the effects of time, concentration, temperature, paracellular pathway, and efflux transport inhibition on the transport of celastrol across the Caco-2 cell monolayers were investigated. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil and cyclosporin A, the multidrug resistance protein 2 inhibitor MK571, and the breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor reserpine were used. Additionally, the effects of celastrol on the activity of P-glycoprotein were evaluated using the rhodamine 123 uptake assay. In this study, we found that the intestinal transport of celastrol was a time- and concentration-dependent active transport. The paracellular pathway was not involved in the transport of celastrol, and the efflux of celastrol was energy dependent. The results indicated that celastrol is a substrate of P-glycoprotein but not multidrug resistance protein 2 or the breast cancer resistance protein. In addition, celastrol could not affect the uptake of rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 cells, which indicated that celastrol could not inhibit or induce the activity of P-glycoprotein. PMID:27159672

  13. Translating molecular physiology of intestinal transport into pharmacologic treatment of diarrhea: stimulation of Na+ absorption.

    Singh, Varsha; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Tiane-e; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Verkman, Alan S; Donowitz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in developing countries, while representing an important cause of morbidity worldwide. The World Health Organization recommended that low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions plus zinc save lives in patients with acute diarrhea, but there are no approved, safe drugs that have been shown to be effective against most causes of acute diarrhea. Identification of abnormalities in electrolyte handling by the intestine in diarrhea, including increased intestinal anion secretion and reduced Na(+) absorption, suggest a number of potential drug targets. This is based on the view that successful drug therapy for diarrhea will result from correcting the abnormalities in electrolyte transport that are pathophysiologic for diarrhea. We review the molecular mechanisms of physiologic regulation of intestinal ion transport and changes that occur in diarrhea and the status of drugs being developed to correct the transport abnormalities in Na(+) absorption that occur in diarrhea. Mechanisms of Cl(-) secretion and approaches to anti-Cl(-) secretory therapies of diarrhea are discussed in a companion review. PMID:24184676

  14. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks

  15. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    Since the iron balance is maintained by regulated intestinal absorption rather than regulated excretion, there have been many reports concerning the factors which may influence the intestinal iron absorption. As the liver is the largest iron storage organ of the body, any hepatocellular damage may result in disturbances in iron metabolism, e,g., frequent co-existence of haemochromatosis and liver cirrhosis, or elevated serum iron level and increased iron absorption rate in patients with infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis. In one effort to demonstrate the influence of hepatocellular damage on intestinal iron absorption, the iron absorption rate was measured in the rabbits whose livers were injured by a single subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.5 cc per kg of body weight) or by a single irradiation of 2, 000 to 16, 000 rads with Co on the liver locally. A single oral dose of 1μCi of Fe-citrate with 0.5 mg of ferrous citrate was fed in the fasting state, 24 hours after hepatic damage had been induced, without any reducing or chelating agents, and stool was collected for one week thereafter. Serum iron levels, together with conventional liver function teats, were measured at 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after liver damage had been induced. All animals were sacrificed upon the completing of the one week's test period and tissue specimens were prepared for H-E and Gomori's iron stain. Following are the results. 1. Normal iron absorption rate of the rabbit was 41.72±3.61% when 0.5 mg of iron was given in the fasting state, as measured by subtracting the amount recovered in stool collected for 7 days from the amount given. The test period of 7 days is adequate, for only 1% of the iron given was excreted thereafter. 2. The intestinal iron absorption rate and serum iron level were significantly increased when the animal was poisoned by a single subcutaneous injection of 0.15 cc, per kg. of body weight of carbon tetrachloride or

  16. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    Since the iron balance is maintained by regulated intestinal absorption rather than regulated excretion, there have been many reports concerning the factors which may influence the intestinal iron absorption. As the liver is the largest iron storage organ of the body, any hepatocellular damage may result in disturbances in iron metabolism, e,g., frequent co-existence of haemochromatosis and liver cirrhosis, or elevated serum iron level and increased iron absorption rate in patients with infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis. In one effort to demonstrate the influence of hepatocellular damage on intestinal iron absorption, the iron absorption rate was measured in the rabbits whose livers were injured by a single subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.5 cc per kg of body weight) or by a single irradiation of 2, 000 to 16, 000 rads with Co on the liver locally. A single oral dose of 1muCi of Fe-citrate with 0.5 mg of ferrous citrate was fed in the fasting state, 24 hours after hepatic damage had been induced, without any reducing or chelating agents, and stool was collected for one week thereafter. Serum iron levels, together with conventional liver function teats, were measured at 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after liver damage had been induced. All animals were sacrificed upon the completing of the one week's test period and tissue specimens were prepared for H-E and Gomori's iron stain. Following are the results. 1. Normal iron absorption rate of the rabbit was 41.72+-3.61% when 0.5 mg of iron was given in the fasting state, as measured by subtracting the amount recovered in stool collected for 7 days from the amount given. The test period of 7 days is adequate, for only 1% of the iron given was excreted thereafter. 2. The intestinal iron absorption rate and serum iron level were significantly increased when the animal was poisoned by a single subcutaneous injection of 0.15 cc, per kg. of body weight of carbon

  17. Characterization of the oral absorption of several aminopenicillins: determination of intrinsic membrane absorption parameters in the rat intestine in situ

    Sinko, P. J.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The absorption mechanism of several penicillins was characterized using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in the rat. The intrinsic membrane parameters were determined using a modified boundary layer model (fitted value +/- S.E.): Jmax* = 11.78 +/- 1.88 mM, Km = 15.80 +/- 2.92 mM, Pm* = 0, Pc* = 0.75 +/- 0.04 for ampicillin; Jmax* = 0.044 +/- 0.018 mM, Km = 0.058 +/- 0.026 mM, Pm* = 0.558 +/- 0.051, Pc* = 0.757 +/- 0.088 for amoxicillin; and Jmax* = 16.30 +/- 3.40 mM, Km = 14.00 +/- 3.30 mM, Pm* = 0, Pc* = 1.14 +/- 0.05 for cyclacillin. All of the aminopenicillins studied demonstrated saturable absorption kinetics as indicated by their concentration-dependent wall permeabilities. Inhibition studies were performed to confirm the existence of a nonpassive absorption mechanism. The intrinsic wall permeability (Pw*) of 0.01 mM ampicillin was significantly lowered by 1 mM amoxicillin and the Pw* of 0.01 mM amoxicillin was reduced by 2 mM cephradine consistent with competitive inhibition.

  18. Evidence and mechanism for pectin-reduced intestinal inorganic iron absorption in idiopathic hemochromatosis.

    Monnier, L; Colette, C; Aguirre, L; Mirouze, J

    1980-06-01

    The intestinal absorption of iron was measured in 13 patients suffering from idiopathic hemochromatosis by using a double radiotracer technique. For each patient, iron absorption was determined in the fasting state, i.e., under basal conditions, and after an oral indigestible fiber load (9 g/m2 of body surface) with either pectin (group I: eight patients) or cellulose (group II: five patients). The results were compared with those from a group of seven normal control subjects investigated under basal conditions. The patients with haemochromatosis (groups I and II) had a significant increase in the basal value of fractional iron absorption as compared with controls. In the patients of group I, the pectin induced a significant fall in fractional iron absorption (P less than 0.02). In group II, iron absorption rates remained unchanged whether or not cellulose was given. Furthermore, we found in vitro that pectin had a high iron binding activity, while cellulose bound none. From the present study, we conclude that pectin but not cellulose reduces iron absorption by forming unabsorbable complexes with dietary iron. Thus, enrichment of the diet with foods providing significant amounts of noncellulosic dietary fibers, such as pectin, may be useful in the management of hemochromatosis patients. PMID:6247906

  19. Effects of Fructus Psoraleae Extract on the Intestinal Absorption Kinetics of Geniposide and Geniposidic Acid in Rat

    Yan Huo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortex Eucommia has been used as a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of compatibility with Fructus Psoraleae. Geniposide (GP and geniposidic acid (GPA are the two main chemical components in Cortex Eucommia. In the present study, the effects of Fructus Psoraleae extract (FPE on intestinal absorption kinetics of GP and GPA in rat were investigated. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups which were treated with GP, GPA, GP mixed with FPE and GPA mixed with FPE, respectively, by in situ intestinal perfusion for 3 h. The samples of intestinal perfusion solutions were collected every 30 min, and analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC. The curves of time and residual quantities of GP and GPA (lnx in the intestinal perfusion solution and the cumulative absorption rate were obtained. The results showed that FPE exhibited different effects on the intestinal absorption of GP and GPA in rat: it increased the intestinal absorption of GP (p < 0.05, while demonstrated no significant effect on the absorption of GPA.

  20. A comparison of absorption of glycerol tristearate and glycerol trioleate by rat small intestine

    Bergstedt, S.E.; Hayashi, H.; Kritchevsky, D.; Tso, P. (Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Generally, fats rich in saturated fatty acids raise serum cholesterol, whereas fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids lower it. There appear to be exceptions; e.g., stearic acid (18:0)-rich fats have little or no effect on serum cholesterol concentrations. This apparent lack of cholesterolemic effect of stearic acid-rich fat could be because intestinal absorption of fat is poor or subsequent plasma and/or tissue metabolism of fat is different. To investigate mechanisms involved, we compared intestinal digestion, uptake, and lymphatic transport of glycerol tristearate (TS) and glycerol trioleate (TO, 18:1). Two groups of rats bearing intestinal lymph fistulas were used. TO rats were fed intraduodenally for 8 h at a constant rate a lipid emulsion of 25 mumols/h of TO (labeled with glycerol tri(9,10 (n)-3H)oleate), 7.8 mumols of egg phosphatidylcholine, and 57 mumols of sodium taurocholate in 3 ml of phosphate-buffered saline. TS rats were fed the same lipid emulsion except that TS replaced TO and the emulsion was labeled with glyceryl (1,3-14C)tristearate. The lymph triglyceride and radioactivity were determined. After infusion, the luminal and mucosal radioactive lipid content was analyzed. The results showed that there was significantly less lipid transported in the lymph of TS rats compared with TO rats. The results also showed a significant decrease in the absorption of TS as compared with TO. This was due in part to poor lipolysis. In addition, the lipid absorbed by the intestine of the TS rats was transported into lymph less efficiently than in TO rats.

  1. A comparison of absorption of glycerol tristearate and glycerol trioleate by rat small intestine

    Generally, fats rich in saturated fatty acids raise serum cholesterol, whereas fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids lower it. There appear to be exceptions; e.g., stearic acid (18:0)-rich fats have little or no effect on serum cholesterol concentrations. This apparent lack of cholesterolemic effect of stearic acid-rich fat could be because intestinal absorption of fat is poor or subsequent plasma and/or tissue metabolism of fat is different. To investigate mechanisms involved, we compared intestinal digestion, uptake, and lymphatic transport of glycerol tristearate (TS) and glycerol trioleate (TO, 18:1). Two groups of rats bearing intestinal lymph fistulas were used. TO rats were fed intraduodenally for 8 h at a constant rate a lipid emulsion of 25 mumols/h of TO (labeled with glycerol tri[9,10 (n)-3H]oleate), 7.8 mumols of egg phosphatidylcholine, and 57 mumols of sodium taurocholate in 3 ml of phosphate-buffered saline. TS rats were fed the same lipid emulsion except that TS replaced TO and the emulsion was labeled with glyceryl [1,3-14C]tristearate. The lymph triglyceride and radioactivity were determined. After infusion, the luminal and mucosal radioactive lipid content was analyzed. The results showed that there was significantly less lipid transported in the lymph of TS rats compared with TO rats. The results also showed a significant decrease in the absorption of TS as compared with TO. This was due in part to poor lipolysis. In addition, the lipid absorbed by the intestine of the TS rats was transported into lymph less efficiently than in TO rats

  2. Intestinal absorption of calcium from foodstuffs as compared to a pharmaceutical preparation.

    Werner, E; Hansen, Ch; Roth, P; Kaltwasser, J P

    1999-01-01

    Only few data are available on intestinal calcium absorption from foodstuffs and composite meals in humans. The aim of the study was to compare intraindividually the calcium absorption from milk and from a breakfast with that from a pharmaceutical calcium preparation of equal calcium content. In 8 healthy volunteers between 44 and 58 years of age, the intestinal calcium absorption was measured in randomized order applying the double isotope technique from: (1) 500ml of fresh milk (equivalent to 620mg Ca), (2) a test meal composed of 250 g curd, 150g yoghurt, 3 slices pineapple, 2 breakfast rolls, 2 cups of coffee, 10g of coffee cream, 20g butter, 50g jam and 20g honey (equivalent to 580mg Ca), and (3) a lactogluconate effervescent tablet (equivalent to 500mgCa). All test doses were given on an empty stomach and labelled with 20mg 44Ca. Simultaneously, 5mg 42Ca in a sterile isotonic solution were injected intravenously. The mean values of the absorbed fractions are 24.0% +/- 5.4% (mean +/-SD), 17.9% +/- 7.1%, and 28.7% +/- 9.1% for the milk, for the meal and for the tablet respectively. The data show that less calcium is absorbed from foodstuffs as compared to a preparation of optimal bioavailability. But in this study only the difference between absorption from the milk and from the meal was statistically significant. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a sufficient calcium supply of the human body also by properly selected foodstuffs. PMID:10902536

  3. Acetaminophen Changes Intestinal Epithelial Cell Membrane Properties, Subsequently Affecting Absorption Processes

    Christine Schäfer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acetaminophen (APAP effects on intestinal barrier properties are less investigated. APAP may lead to a changed bioavailability of a subsequently administered drug or diet in the body. We investigated the influence of APAP on enterocytic cell membrane properties that are able to modify the net intestinal absorption of administered substances across the Caco-2 barrier model. Methods: The effect of APAP on cytotoxicity was measured by LDH assay, TER value and cell capacitance label-free using impedance monitoring, membrane permeability by FITC-dextrans, and efflux transporter MDR1 activity by Rh123. APAP levels were determined by HPLC analysis. Cell membrane topography and microvilli were investigated using SEM and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (Alpi and tight junction protein 1 (TJP1 expression by western blot analysis. Results: APAP changed the apical cell surface, reduced the number of microvilli and protein expression of Alpi as a brush border marker and TJP1, increased the membrane integrity and concurrently decreased cell capacitance over time. In addition, APAP decreased the permeability to small molecules and increased the efflux transporter activity, MDR1. Conclusion: APAP alters the Caco-2 cell membrane properties by different mechanisms and reduces the permeability to administered substances. These findings may help to optimize therapeutic implications.

  4. Estimation of the Intestinal Absorption and Metabolism Behaviors of 2- and 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters.

    Kaze, Naoki; Watanabe, Yomi; Sato, Hirofumi; Murota, Kaeko; Kotaniguchi, Miyako; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Inui, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The regioisomers of the di- and mono-oleate of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) have been synthesized and subsequently hydrolyzed with pancreatic lipase and pancreatin to estimate the intestinal digestion and absorption of these compounds after their intake. The hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC using a corona charged aerosol detection system, which allowed for the separation and detection of the different regioisomers of the MCPD esters. The hydrolysates were also analyzed by GC-MS to monitor the free MCPD. The results indicated that the two acyl groups of 2-MCPD-1,3-dioleate were smoothly hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase and pancreatin to give free 2-MCPD. In contrast, the hydrolysis of 3-MCPD-1,2-dioleate proceeded predominantly at the primary position to produce 3-MCPD-2-oleate. 2-MCPD-1-oleate and 3-MCPD-1-oleate were further hydrolyzed to free 2- and 3-MCPD by pancreatic lipase and pancreatin, although the hydrolysis of 3-MCPD-2-oleate was 80 % slower than that of 3-MCPD-1-oleate. The intestinal absorption characteristics of these compounds were evaluated in vitro using a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The results revealed that the MCPD monooleates, but not the MCPD dioleates, were hydrolyzed to produce the free MCPD in the presence of the Caco-2 cells. The resulting free MCPD permeated the Caco-2 monolayer most likely via a diffusion mechanism because their permeation profiles were independent of the dose. Similar permeation profiles were obtained for 2- and 3-MCPDs. PMID:27023203

  5. Evaluation of intestinal absorption and mucosal toxicity using two promoters. II. Rat instillation and perfusion studies.

    Maher, Sam; Wang, Xuexuan; Bzik, Victoria; McClean, Siobhan; Brayden, David J

    2009-11-01

    We compared the effectiveness of two absorption promoters, sodium caprate (C(10)) and melittin, in increasing the bioavailability (F) of poorly absorbed paracellular flux markers across the intestinal mucosae of rats in situ, together with examination of their effects on morphology. C(10) (100 mM) and melittin (50 microM) significantly increased absorption of FITC-dextran-4 kDa (FD4) following jejunal and colonic instillations. F of FD4 following jejunal instillations with C(10) was increased from 0.07% to 2.3%, while it was increased from 0.07% to 0.53% in the presence of melittin. F of FD4 following colonic instillations with C(10) was increased from 1% to 33% while melittin increased it from 1% to 7%. F of FD70 was unchanged in colonic instillations in the presence of either of the two agents, indicating size limitations of the permeability enhancement effects. In rat jejunal perfusions, C(10) (50 mM) and melittin (50 microM) significantly increased [(14)C]-mannitol permeability by 9- and 1.9-fold respectively. C(10) was more effective than melittin in increasing fluxes in all models. Histology of intestinal sections exposed to either promoter showed mild mucosal damage at those concentrations effective at promoting absorption. Electron microscopy revealed epithelial cell damage induced by both enhancers accompanied by truncation of microvilli, and sloughing. Overall, both melittin and C(10) improved bioavailability of polar sugars across the jejunum and colon of rats in situ, which was associated with some degree of mucosal damage. PMID:19664704

  6. Regional distribution and variation of gamma-globulin absorption from the small intestine of the neonatal calf

    125I-labeled immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 in colostral whey was used to determine the region of maximum absorption of Ig from the small intestine of the neonatal calf and the variation in Ig absorption among calves at the intestinal level. In experiment 1, 5 segments (approx 5%, 35%, 60%, 80%, and 95% of the duodenocecal length) were formed in the small intestine of 9 colostrum-deprived calves shortly after birth. These segments were injected with colostral whey containing 125I-IgG1 4 hours after birth, and uptake, transfer, and absorption (defined as uptake plus transfer) were determined for each segment 2 hours later. Raw data were adjusted for the milligrams of IgG1 injected per gram of intestinal tissue to obtain the least squares mean (LSM) value. The LSM values for absorption of IgG1 from distal segments 3, 4, and 5 were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those values for proximal segments 1 and 2. The region of the maximum IgG1 absorption was the lower small intestine, 60% to 80% of the duodenocecal length. There was also an indication of independence between uptake and transfer in each of the segments. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) were present among calves in the LSM values for uptake and absorption, but not for transfer. In experiment 2, thoracic ducts of 8 newborn calves were cannulated 4 to 5 hours after birth. At 6 hours after birth, colostral whey with 125I-IgG1 was injected into an intestinal segment (approx 60% to 80% of the duodenocecal length)

  7. Diet effects on glucose absorption in the small intestine of neonatal calves: importance of intestinal mucosal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters.

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Zitnan, Rudolf; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hudakova, Monika; Metges, Cornelia C; Hammon, Harald M

    2014-10-01

    Colostrum (C) feeding in neonatal calves improves glucose status and stimulates intestinal absorptive capacity, leading to greater glucose absorption when compared with milk-based formula feeding. In this study, diet effects on gut growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters were investigated in several gut segments of the small intestine. Fourteen male German Holstein calves received either C of milkings 1, 3, and 5 (d 1, 2, and 3 in milk) or respective formulas (F) twice daily from d 1 to d 3 after birth. Nutrient content, and especially lactose content, of C and respective F were the same. On d 4, calves were fed C of milking 5 or respective F and calves were slaughtered 2h after feeding. Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid-, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were taken to determine protein content, and mRNA expression and activity of lactase and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT2) were determined from mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and BBMV were determined, as well as immunochemically localized GLUT2 in the intestinal mucosa. Villus circumference, area, and height were greater, whereas crypt depth was smaller in C than in F. Lactase activity tended to be greater in C than in F. Protein expression of SGLT1 was greater in F than in C. Parameters of villus size, lactase activity, SGLT1 protein expression, as well as apical and basolateral GLUT2 localization in the enterocytes differed among gut segments. In conclusion, C feeding, when compared with F feeding, enhances glucose absorption in neonatal calves primarily by stimulating mucosal growth and increasing absorptive capacity in the small intestine, but not by stimulating abundance of intestinal glucose transporters. PMID:25108868

  8. Intestinal bile acid absorption : ileal transport and the kinetics of 75SeHCAT in gastro-intestinal disease

    Tilburg, Antonie

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe work described in this thesis deals with the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in relation to intestinal disease. Active bile add transport in the intestine, exclusively occurring in the distal ileum and playing a major role in the enterohepatic circulation, was specifically studied

  9. Solid dispersions with hydrogenated castor oil increase solubility, dissolution rate and intestinal absorption of praziquantel

    Marco Vinicius Chaud

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The solubility behavior of drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects in formulation development. Solid Dispersion (SD has tremendous potential for improving drug solubility. Although praziquantel (PZQ is the first drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, its poor solubility has restricted its delivery oral route. In spite of its poor solubility, PZQ is well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, but large doses are required to achieve adequate concentration at the target sites. The aim of this study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of PZQ and to evaluate its intestinal absorption. SDs were formulated with PEG-60 castor oil hydrogenated (CR-60 using a fusion and evaporation method. Pure PZQ and physical mixtures (PM and PZQ-CR-60 (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 ratios were compared as regards their solubility, dissolution and intestinal absorption. The experimental results demonstrated the improvement in the solubility, dissolution rate and intestinal absorption. In addition, the solubility behavior showed pH dependency and that the solubility of PZQ was slower in acidic medium than in neutral and basic mediums. The increase in PZQ solubility of the SD with the CR-60 could be attributed to several factors such as improved wettability, local solubilization, drug particle size reduction and crystalline or, interstitial solid solution reduction.A solubilidade de fármacos ainda é um dos principais desafios no desenvolvimento de formulações farmacêuticas. As dispersões sólidas (DS apresentam grande potencial para melhorar a solubilidade de fármacos. O praziquantel é o fármaco de primeira escolha no tratamento da esquistossomose, contudo a baixa solubilidade em água restringe seu uso à administração pela via oral. Apesar da baixa solubilidade, o PZQ é bem absorvido através do trato gastrintestinal, mas doses orais elevadas são requeridas para garantir concentrações suficientes de fármaco para o tecido alvo. O

  10. Effect of Cryptosporidium parvum infection on the absorptive capacity and paracellular permeability of the small intestine in neonatal calves

    Klein, P.; Kleinová, T.; Volek, Z.; Šimůnek, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 152, 1-2 (2008), s. 53-59. ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : calves * cryptosporidium parvum * intestinal absorption Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2008

  11. Biliary phospholipid secretion is not required for intestinal absorption and plasma status of linoleic acid in mice

    Minich, DM; Voshol, PJ; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Vonk, RJ; Verkade, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Biliary phospholipids have been hypothesized to be important for essential fatty acid homeostasis. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the intestinal absorption and the status of linoleic acid in mdr2 Pgp-deficient mice which secrete phospholipid-free bile. In mice homozygous (-/-) for disrup

  12. Effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women

    Deficiency of oestrogen at menopause decreases intestinal Ca absorption, contributing to a negative Ca balance and bone loss. Mg deficiency has also been associated with bone loss. The purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that treatment with a spray-dried mixture of chicor...

  13. Comparison of two methods for determining in vitro intestinal absorption of nutrients using rats fed different diets

    Absorption of sucrose, glucose, leucine and aspartate was studied using intestinal everted sac of rats fed on french bean diets namely PDR-14, HUR-137 and HUR-15 using casein as a control. Absorption of nutrients was monitored spectrophotometrically and by 14C radio assay of metabolites using scientillation counting. The absorption pattern of amino acids was found to be similar but of glucose and sucrose differed. Glucose was found to be more absorbed than sucrose in spectrophotometer assay and the pattern reversed in radio assay. Absorption of sucrose and leucine were higher by rats fed on HUR-137 diet and similarly, more aspartate was absorbed when fed on HUR-15 diet as demonstrated by both the methods. Rats fed on HUR-137 diet exhibited higher glucose absorption as shown by spectrophotometric assay, but rats on HUR-15 diet by radio assay. Absorption of nutrients differed significantly between casein and french beans

  14. Influence of peppermint oil on absorptive and secretory processes in rat small intestine.

    Beesley, A; HARDCASTLE, J; Hardcastle, P T; Taylor, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peppermint oil is used to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, relaxing intestinal smooth muscle by reducing the availability of calcium, but its effects on intestinal transport are unknown. AIMS: To determine the effect of peppermint oil on intestinal transport processes. METHODS: The influence of peppermint oil on intestinal transport was investigated in rat jejunum using both intestinal sheets mounted in Ussing chambers and brush border membrane vesicles. RESULTS: ...

  15. Sex and Food Influence on Intestinal Absorption of Ketoprofen Gastroresistant Formulation.

    Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Ibarra, Manuel; Guevara, Natalia; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 women and 8 men) participated in a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study. A delayed-release gastroresistant formulation of ketoprofen was administered under fasting and fed conditions. Cmax , AUC, Cmax /AUC, and kel obtained after food coadministration did not differ from those calculated under fasting administration. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals for fed/fasting geometric mean ratio of Cmax /AUC and AUC were 0.80-1.14 and 0.80-1.23, respectively. A significant difference (P food intake (5.5 vs 2.5 hours). Also, a significant difference between the medians of Tmax was found (P food coadministration and 4.0 hours under fasting administration, but this difference disappeared once T0 was subtracted from Tmax . Cmax /AUC, which is related to drug absorption rate, showed significant differences between sexes. Men showed higher (P =.006) Cmax /AUC means (0.468 ± 0.094 vs 0.361 ± 0.087 h(-1) . Tmax was also significantly different (P Food coadministration extended the gastric residence time of formulation but exerted no effect on its intestinal absorption pattern. PMID:27163498

  16. The effect of haem biosynthesis inhibitors and inducers on intestinal iron absorption and liver haem biosynthetic enzyme activities

    The relation between haem biosynthesis and intestinal iron absorption is not well understood, we therefore investigated the effect of compounds that alter haem metabolism on duodenal iron absorption. CD1 mice were treated with either an inhibitor (succinyl acetone (SA)) or stimulator (2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide (AIA)) of haem biosynthesis. 5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase and urinary ALA and porphobilinogen (PBG) levels, were determined. Intestinal iron absorption was assayed with in vivo and in vitro techniques. Liver hepcidin (Hamp1) and duodenal iron transporter mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR. AIA caused increased hepatic ALA synthase (1.6-fold) and ALA dehydratase (1.4-fold, both p < 0.005) activities and increased urinary ALA and PBG excretion (2.1- and 1.4-fold, p < 0.005, p < 0.05, respectively). In vivo intestinal iron absorption was reduced to 49% of control (p < 0.005). Mice treated with SA showed decreased urinary ALA and PBG levels (75 and 55% control, both p < 0.005) and reductions in both ALA synthase and ALA dehydratase activities (77 and 56% control, p < 0.05, p < 0.005, respectively) in the liver. Liver and duodenal haem and cytochrome oxidase levels were not significantly decreased. Iron absorption was enhanced (1.26-fold, p < 0.05) and hepatic Hamp1 mRNA was reduced (53% of control, p < 0.05). In vitro duodenal iron uptake after mice were injected with SA also demonstrated an increase in Fe(III) reduction and uptake (1.27- and 1.41-fold, p < 0.01 respectively). Simultaneous injections of SA and ALA blocked the enhancing effect on iron absorption seen with SA alone. We conclude that alterations in haem biosynthesis can influence iron absorption and in particular, the intermediate ALA seems to be an inhibitor of iron absorption

  17. Bioavailability of dietary (poly)phenols: a study with ileostomists to discriminate between absorption in small and large intestine.

    Borges, Gina; Lean, Michael E J; Roberts, Susan A; Crozier, Alan

    2013-04-30

    A feeding study was carried out in which six healthy ileostomists ingested a juice drink containing a diversity of dietary (poly)phenols derived from green tea, apples, grapes and citrus fruit. Ileal fluid and urine collected at intervals over the ensuing 24 h period were then analysed by HPLC-MS. Urinary excretions were compared with results obtained in an earlier study in which the juice drink was ingested by ten healthy control subjects with an intact colon. Some polyphenol components, such as (epi)catechins and (epi)gallocatechin(s), were excreted in urine in similar amounts in ileostomists and subjects with an intact colon, demonstrating that absorption took place principally in the small intestine. In the urine of ileostomists, there were reduced levels of other constituents, including hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and dihydrochalcones, indicating their absorption in both the small and large intestine. Ileal fluid analysis revealed that even when absorption occurred in the small intestine, in subjects with a functioning colon a substantial proportion of the ingested components still pass from the small into the large intestine, where they may be either absorbed before or after catabolism by colonic bacteria. PMID:23471276

  18. Determination of Heavy Metals in Meat, Intestine, Liver, Eggs, and Chicken Using Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    The elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, se and Zn in meat, intestine, and liver of cow and goat, as well as in broiler, local breed chicken and eggs have been determined using Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Mercury was determined after being separated radiochemically. The results showed that concentration of the essential elements studied i.e. Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Co, and Ni were higher in liver and intestine than in the meat, but still in the normal range, while toxic elements As, Cd, and Pb were undetectable in all samples. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Na+-d-glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 is Pivotal for Intestinal Glucose Absorption and Glucose-Dependent Incretin Secretion

    Gorboulev, Valentin; Schürmann, Annette; Vallon, Volker; Kipp, Helmut; Jaschke, Alexander; Klessen, Dirk; Friedrich, Alexandra; Scherneck, Stephan; Rieg, Timo; Cunard, Robyn; Veyhl-Wichmann, Maike; Srinivasan, Aruna; Balen, Daniela; Breljak, Davorka; Rexhepaj, Rexhep

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the physiological role of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in small intestine and kidney, Sglt1−/− mice were generated and characterized phenotypically. After gavage of d-glucose, small intestinal glucose absorption across the brush-border membrane (BBM) via SGLT1 and GLUT2 were analyzed. Glucose-induced secretion of insulinotropic hormone (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in wild-type and Sglt1−/− mice were compared. The impact of SGLT1 on renal glucose handling was inves...

  20. Mass balance approaches for estimating the intestinal absorption and metabolism of peptides and analogues: theoretical development and applications

    Sinko, P. J.; Leesman, G. D.; Amidon, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical analysis for estimating the extent of intestinal peptide and peptide analogue absorption was developed on the basis of a mass balance approach that incorporates convection, permeability, and reaction. The macroscopic mass balance analysis (MMBA) was extended to include chemical and enzymatic degradation. A microscopic mass balance analysis, a numerical approach, was also developed and the results compared to the MMBA. The mass balance equations for the fraction of a drug absorbed and reacted in the tube were derived from the general steady state mass balance in a tube: [formula: see text] where M is mass, z is the length of the tube, R is the tube radius, Pw is the intestinal wall permeability, kr is the reaction rate constant, C is the concentration of drug in the volume element over which the mass balance is taken, VL is the volume of the tube, and vz is the axial velocity of drug. The theory was first applied to the oral absorption of two tripeptide analogues, cefaclor (CCL) and cefatrizine (CZN), which degrade and dimerize in the intestine. Simulations using the mass balance equations, the experimental absorption parameters, and the literature stability rate constants yielded a mean estimated extent of CCL (250-mg dose) and CZN (1000-mg dose) absorption of 89 and 51%, respectively, which was similar to the mean extent of absorption reported in humans (90 and 50%). It was proposed previously that 15% of the CCL dose spontaneously degraded systematically; however, our simulations suggest that significant CCL degradation occurs (8 to 17%) presystemically in the intestinal lumen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Disposition of enalapril in the perfused rat intestine-liver preparation: absorption, metabolism and first-pass effect.

    Pang, K S; Cherry, W F; Ulm, E H

    1985-06-01

    A new procedure, namely the in situ perfused rat intestine-liver preparation, was introduced to examine the roles of the intestine and the liver in the elimination of enalapril, a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The in situ perfused rat intestine preparation was used to determine the rate and extent of enalapril absorption after an-intraduodenal dose. In the former technique, enalapril in blood perfusate (10 ml/min) was delivered via the superior mesenteric artery into the once-through perfused rat intestine-liver preparation, with sampling effected in reservoir, portal vein and hepatic vein. The ease of sampling, proximal and distal to the intestine and liver, allowed the direct estimation of the extraction ratios by the intestine and the liver. The steady-state intestinal extraction ratio of enalapril was small (0.04 +/- 0.066) compared to that for the liver (0.74 +/- 0.06), indicating that the liver was responsible for most of the hydrolytic conversion of enalapril to its pharmacologically active diacid metabolite, enalaprilat. Moreover, no trend in the values of the extraction ratios by both organs was apparent among the input concentrations of enalapril (0.55, 2.6 and 13.3 microM) used. Portal venous plasma consisted mainly of enalapril and was devoid of enalaprilat, whereas both enalapril and enalaprilat were detected in bile and hepatic venous plasma. With the latter technique, an intraduodenal injection of a tracer dose of [14C]enalapril (0.14-0.39 mumol) was made close to the pyloric sphinctor, whereas the intestine preparation was recirculated (7.5 ml/min) with blank perfusate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2989498

  2. Human intestinal absorption of imidacloprid with Caco-2 cells as enterocyte model

    In order to assess the risk to mammals of a chronic exposure to imidacloprid (IMI), we investigated its absorption with the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Measurements of transepithelial transport revealed an apparent permeability coefficient of 21.6 x 10-6 ± 3.2 x 10-6 cm/s reflecting a 100% absorption. The comparison of apical to basal (A-B) and basal to apical (B-A) transports showed that the monolayer presents a basal to apical polarized transport. Studies of apical uptake demonstrated that the transport was concentration-dependent and not saturable from 5 to 200 μM. Arrhenius plot analysis revealed two apparent activation energies, Ea(4-12deg.C) = 63.8 kJ/mol and Ea(12-37deg.C) 18.2 kJ/mol, suggesting two temperature-dependent processes. IMI uptake was equivalent when it was performed at pH 6.0 or 7.4. Depletion of Na+ from the transport buffer did not affect the uptake, indicating that a sodium-dependent transporter was not involved. Decrease of uptake with sodium-azide or after cell surface trypsin (Ti) treatment suggested the involvement of a trypsin-sensitive ATP-dependent transporter. Investigations on apical efflux demonstrated that initial velocities paralleled the increase of loading concentrations. A cell surface trypsin treatment did not affect the apical efflux. The lack of effect when the efflux was performed against an IMI concentration gradient suggested that an energy-dependent transporter was involved. However, the inhibition of P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) by taxol, vincristine, and daunorubicine had no effect on IMI intracellular accumulation suggesting the involvement of transporters distinct from classical ATP binding cassette transport (ABC-transport) systems. All results suggest that IMI is strongly absorbed in vivo by inward and outward active transporters

  3. Techniques and problems in studying intestinal absorption with radioactive isotopes in children

    Radioactive isotopes give substantial promise for assisting the study of gastrointestinal absorption in children in that they allow reduction or elimination of the collection of blood, urine and faeces specimens. These operations are particularly difficult and unreliable in infants, on whom greatest interest in paediatric gastroenterology is centred in the tropics. Here intestinal malabsorption is most commonly associated with malnutrition, lactose intolerance, gastroenteritis, parasitic infestation and iron-deficiency anaemia. Two general techniques that have been employed are whole-body counting and analyses of 14CO2 exhaled in the breath after the feeding of 14C-labelled nutrients. The former is advantageous if radionuclides suitable for the test at hand exist; the latter may be hard to interpret because of problems in the distribution and metabolism of the nutrient and intermediary products. Proper selection and understanding of the tests is particularly important in paediatric work, where the use of radioactive tracer techniques is unacceptable merely for the convenience of the investigator. (author)

  4. Surface functional modification of self-assembled insulin nanospheres for improving intestinal absorption.

    Shi, Kai; Fang, Yan; Kan, Qiming; Zhao, Jian; Gan, Yanqiu; Liu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    In this work we fabricated therapeutic protein drugs such as insulin as free-carrier delivery system to improve their oral absorption efficiency. The formulation involved self-assembly of insulin into nanospheres (INS) by a novel thermal induced phase separation method. In consideration of harsh environment in gastrointestinal tract, surface functional modification of INS with ɛ-poly-L-lysine (EPL) was employed to form a core-shell structure (INS@EPL) and protect them from too fast dissociation before their arriving at target uptake sites. Both INS and INS@EPL were characterized as uniformly spherical particles with mean diameter size of 150-300 nm. The process of transient thermal treatment did not change their biological potency retention significantly. In vitro dissolution studies showed that shell cross-linked of INS with EPL improved the release profiles of insulin from the self-assembled nanospheres at intestinal pH. Confocal microscopy visualization and transport experiments proved the enhanced paracellular permeability of INS@EPL in Caco-2 cells. Compared to that of INS, enteral administration of INS@EPL at 20 IU/kg resulted in more significant hypoglycemic effects in diabetic rats up to 12 h. Accordingly, the results indicated that surface functional modification of self-assembled insulin nanospheres with shell cross-linked polycationic peptide could be a promising candidate for oral therapeutic protein delivery. PMID:25433129

  5. Amyloid-β colocalizes with apolipoprotein B in absorptive cells of the small intestine

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β is recognized as the major constituent of senile plaque found in subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, there is increasing evidence that in a physiological context amyloid-β may serve as regulating apolipoprotein, primarily of the triglyceride enriched lipoproteins. To consider this hypothesis further, this study utilized an in vivo immunological approach to explore in lipogenic tissue whether amyloid-β colocalizes with nascent triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Results In murine absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine, amyloid-β had remarkable colocalization with chylomicrons (Manders overlap coefficient = 0.73 ± 0.03 (SEM, the latter identified as immunoreactive apolipoprotein B. A diet enriched in saturated fats doubled the abundance of both amyloid-β and apo B and increased the overlap coefficient of the two proteins (0.87 ± 0.02. However, there was no evidence that abundance of the two proteins was interdependent within the enterocytes (Pearson's Coefficient Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the possibility that amyloid-β is secreted by enterocytes as an apolipoprotein component of chylomicrons. However, secretion of amyloid-β appears to be independent of chylomicron biogenesis.

  6. Postprandial hyperoxaluria and intestinal oxalate absorption in idiopathic renal stone disease

    Calcium and oxalate were studied in daily, fasting and postprandial urine specimens from healthy subjects and patients with idiopathic renal calcium stones in response to a test meal free of oxalate, and supplemented with calcium and 14carbon-oxalic acid. The data showed that the amount of oxalate in fasting urine of patients with stones did not differ from that in controls. Generally, patients with stones had considerable postprandial hyperoxaluria in terms of excretion and concentration, associated with a significantly higher degree of supersaturation with regard to calcium oxalate compared to controls. These findings were paralleled by decreased intestinal absorption of 14carbon-oxalate and by unchanged 24-hour urinary oxalate. Although the source of increased postprandial oxalate in patients with stones is not clear the possibility of enhanced de novo synthesis from oxalate precursors is discussed. In patients with different types of calciuria the 2 main risk factors (hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria) for the process of stone formation are recognizable more readily in the postprandial urine specimens than in fasting or daily urine specimens

  7. Small & Large Intestine

    ... the large intestine produces no digestive enzymes. Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine. Functions of the large intestine include the absorption of water and electrolytes and the elimination of ...

  8. Intestinal absorption of the antiepileptic drug substance vigabatrin is altered by infant formula in vitro and in vivo

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2014-01-01

    formula and selected amino acids on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin was investigated after oral coadministration to male Sprague–Dawley rats using acetaminophen as a marker for gastric emptying. The presence of infant formula significantly reduced the uptake rate and permeability of vigabatrin....... The infant formula decreased the rate of gastric emptying. Here we provide experimental evidence for an in vivo role of PAT1 in the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The effect of infant formula on the oral absorption of vigabatrin was found to be due to delayed gastric emptying, however, it seems...

  9. [The current concepts on the absorption of monosaccharides, amino acids and peptides in the mammalian small intestine].

    Timofeeva, N M; Iezuitova, N N; Gromova, L V

    2000-01-01

    The review is mainly devoted to the development of ideas about absorption, or transport, of basic nutrients in the small intestine in humans and higher animal. The absorption processes have been characterized on the example of such substances, vital for organism, as carbohydrates and proteins. The review considers a molecular structure of transporters--protein molecules, which take part in a transfer of the products of lumenal and membrane digestion of carbohydrates (glucose, galactose, fructose) and proteins (amino acids, oligopeptides) across the enterocyte membranes. An information is presented about genetic disturbances of transport of certain amino acids during such diseases as Hartnup disease, cystinuria, and iminoglycineuria. PMID:11094795

  10. Intestine-specific MTP and global ACAT2 deficiency lowers acute cholesterol absorption with chylomicrons and HDLs

    Iqbal, Jahangir; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal cholesterol absorption involves the chylomicron and HDL pathways and is dependent on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and ABCA1, respectively. Chylomicrons transport free and esterified cholesterol, whereas HDLs transport free cholesterol. ACAT2 esterifies cholesterol for secretion with chylomicrons. We hypothesized that free cholesterol accumulated during ACAT2 deficiency may be secreted with HDLs when chylomicron assembly is blocked. To test this, we studied cholest...

  11. MGAT2 deficiency ameliorates high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by inhibiting intestinal fat absorption in mice

    Tsuchida Takuma; Fukuda Sayaka; Aoyama Hisanori; Taniuchi Nobuhiko; Ishihara Tomomi; Ohashi Noriko; Sato Hiroko; Wakimoto Koji; Shiotani Masaharu; Oku Akira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Resynthesis of triglycerides in enterocytes of the small intestine plays a critical role in the absorption of dietary fat. Acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) is highly expressed in the small intestine and catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol from monoacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. To determine the physiological importance of MGAT2 in metabolic disorders and lipid metabolism in the small intestine, we constructed and analyzed Mgat2-deficient mice. Results ...

  12. Membrane proteomics characterization of brush border membrane proteins of mice intestinal mucosa : case study: cholesterol absorption

    Tsirogianni, Eirini

    2009-01-01

    The epithelial absorbing cells of the small intestinal villi, the enterocytes, are the main protagonists for the transport of nutrients from the intestinal lumen to the interstitial fluids. The oriented flow of nutrients is carried out by different and complementary transport systems present in the apical and the basolateral domains of the enterocyte’s plasma membrane. One of the distinctive characteristics of those intestinal cells is the presence of numerous structurally distinct protrusion...

  13. Soybean β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish.

    Jin-Xiu Zhang

    Full Text Available β-Conglycinin has been identified as one of the major feed allergens. However, studies of β-conglycinin on fish are scarce. This study investigated the effects of β-conglycinin on the growth, digestive and absorptive ability, inflammatory response, oxidative status and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian in vivo and their enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR, feed intake, and feed efficiency were reduced by β-conglycinin. In addition, activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, creatine kinase, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestine showed similar tendencies. The protein content of the hepatopancreas and intestines, and the weight and length of the intestines were all reduced by β-conglycinin. β-Conglycinin increased lipid and protein oxidation in the detected tissues and cells. However, β-conglycinin decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GR activities and glutathione (GSH content in the intestine and enterocytes. Similar antioxidant activity in the hepatopancreas was observed, except for GST. The expression of target of rapamycin (TOR gene was reduced by β-conglycinin. Furthermore, mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β genes were increased by β-conglycinin. However, β-conglycinin increased CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GPx1b gene expression. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation, and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish, and finally reduces fish growth. The results of this study provide some information to the mechanism of β-conglycinin-induced negative effects.

  14. Sweet taste receptor expression in ruminant intestine and its activation by artificial sweeteners to regulate glucose absorption.

    Moran, A W; Al-Rammahi, M; Zhang, C; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

    2014-01-01

    Absorption of glucose from the lumen of the intestine into enterocytes is accomplished by sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the majority of mammalian species, expression (this includes activity) of SGLT1 is upregulated in response to increased dietary monosaccharides. This regulatory pathway is initiated by sensing of luminal sugar by the gut-expressed sweet taste receptor. The objectives of our studies were to determine (1) if the ruminant intestine expresses the sweet taste receptor, which consists of two subunits [taste 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and 3 (T1R3)], and other key signaling molecules required for SGLT1 upregulation in nonruminant intestines, and (2) whether T1R2-T1R3 sensing of artificial sweeteners induces release of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and enhances SGLT1 expression. We found that the small intestine of sheep and cattle express T1R2, T1R3, G-protein gustducin, and GLP-2 in enteroendocrine L-cells. Maintaining 110-d-old ruminating calves for 60d on a diet containing a starter concentrate and the artificial sweetener Sucram (consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone; Pancosma SA, Geneva, Switzerland) enhances (1) Na(+)-dependent d-glucose uptake by over 3-fold, (2) villus height and crypt depth by 1.4- and 1.2-fold, and (3) maltase- and alkaline phosphatase-specific activity by 1.5-fold compared to calves maintained on the same diet without Sucram. No statistically significant differences were observed for rates of intestinal glucose uptake, villus height, crypt depth, or enzyme activities between 50-d-old milk-fed calves and calves maintained on the same diet containing Sucram. When adult cows were kept on a diet containing 80:20 ryegrass hay-to-concentrate supplemented with Sucram, more than a 7-fold increase in SGLT1 protein abundance was noted. Collectively, the data indicate that inclusion of this artificial sweetener enhances SGLT1 expression and mucosal growth in ruminant animals. Exposure of ruminant sheep

  15. MRP2 mediated drug-drug interaction: indomethacin increases sulfasalazine absorption in the small intestine, potentially decreasing its colonic targeting.

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-02-15

    We have recently shown that efflux transport, mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is responsible for sulfasalazine low-permeability in the small intestine, thereby enabling its colonic targeting and therapeutic action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between indomethacin and sulfasalazine, in the mechanism of efflux transporter competition. The concentration-dependent effects of indomethacin on sulfasalazine intestinal epithelial transport were investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers, in both apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and BL-AP directions. The interaction was then investigated in the in situ single-pass rat jejunal perfusion model. Sulfasalazine displayed 30-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. Indomethacin significantly increased AP-BL and decreased BL-AP sulfasalazine Caco-2 transport, in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 75 and 196 microM respectively. In the rat model, higher sulfasalazine concentrations resulted in higher intestinal permeability, consistent with saturation of efflux transporter. Without indomethacin, sulfasalazine demonstrated low rat jejunal permeability (vs. metoprolol). Indomethacin significantly increased sulfasalazine P(eff), effectively shifting it from BCS (biopharmaceutics classification system) Class IV to II. In conclusion, the data indicate that concomitant intake of indomethacin and sulfasalazine may lead to increased absorption of sulfasalazine in the small intestine, thereby reducing its colonic concentration and potentially altering its therapeutic effect. PMID:19944137

  16. In vitro-in vivo correlation of the effect of supersaturation on the intestinal absorption of BCS Class 2 drugs.

    Higashino, Haruki; Hasegawa, Tsubasa; Yamamoto, Mari; Matsui, Rie; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro method for evaluating the effect of supersaturation on oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs in vivo. Albendazole, dipyridamole, gefitinib, and ketoconazole were used as model drugs. Supersaturation of each drug was induced by diluting its stock solution by fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) (solvent-shift method), then dissolution and precipitation profile of the drug was observed in vitro. The crystalline form of the precipitate was checked by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For comparison, control suspension was prepared by suspending a drug powder directly into FaSSIF (powder-suspending method). In vivo intestinal absorption of the drug was observed in rats by determined the plasma concentration after intraduodenal administration of drug suspensions. For all drugs, suspensions prepared by solvent-shift method showed significantly higher dissolved concentration in vitro than that prepared by powder-suspending method, clearly indicated the induction of supersaturation. DSC analysis revealed that crystalline form of the precipitate profoundly affects the extent and the duration of supersaturation. A rat in vivo study confirmed that the supersaturation of these drugs increased the fraction absorbed from the intestine, which corresponded well to the in vitro dissolution and precipitation profile of drugs except for ketoconazole. For ketoconazole, an in vivo absorption study was performed in rats pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP mediated metabolism. CYP inhibition study suggested that the high luminal concentration of ketoconazole caused by supersaturation saturated the metabolic enzymes and further increased the systemic exposure of the absorbed drug. The additional effects of supersaturation on the absorption of ketoconazole are consistent with previous studies in humans under differing gastric pH conditions. In conclusion, effects of supersaturation on

  17. Improvement of intestinal absorption of peptides: adsorption of B1-Phe monoglucosylated insulin to rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    Hashimoto, T; Nomoto, M; Komatsu, K; Haga, M; Hayashi, M

    2000-09-01

    In a previous study we glycosylated insulin to improve its intestinal absorption. When the glycosylated product, p-(succinylamido)-phenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (SAPG)-substituted insulin (SAPG-INS), was administered intra-intestinally to rats, it showed a greater hypoglycemic effect than native bovine insulin. The enhanced hypoglycemic effect of SAPG-INS was considered to be due to an increase in membrane permeability as well as an increase in resistance to enzymatic degradation. In particular, membrane permeability may be related to an interaction with the Na(+)-dependent D-glucose transporter (SGLT-1) which is located in the brush-border membrane of epithelial cells. The insulin product used in the previous study, however, comprised a mixture of mono-, di- and tri-SAPG-substituted insulin. In this study SAPG-INS with a defined substitution number and position was synthesized to examine the interaction between the transporter and glycosylated insulin in more detail. The new product was mono-SAPG-substituted insulin substituted at the B1-phenylalanine position (B1-SAPG-INS) and was selectively synthesized after protection of the A1-glycine and varepsilonB29-lysine amino acids. The hypoglycemic effect of B1-SAPG-INS in rats after an intravenous dose of 71 microg/kg was almost the same as that of native bovine insulin at a dose of 1 U/kg and B1-SAPG-INS retained about 60% of the immunoreactivity of native bovine insulin. The interaction of B1-SAPG-INS with the intestinal transporter was examined by a rapid filtration technique using (125)I-labeled B1-SAPG-INS and brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) which were prepared from rat small intestine by the Mg-precipitation method. The amount of B1-SAPG-INS adsorbed or absorbed by BBMVs in the presence of an inward Na(+)-gradient into BBMVs was greater than that of native bovine insulin. This adsorption/absorption was significantly inhibited by the presence of 1 mM phloridzin. A similar inhibition was observed when Na

  18. Supplementation with difructose anhydride III promotes passive calcium absorption in the small intestine immediately after calving in dairy cows.

    Teramura, M; Wynn, S; Reshalaitihan, M; Kyuno, W; Sato, T; Ohtani, M; Kawashima, C; Hanada, M

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hypocalcemia increases in high-parity dairy cows because resorption of bone Ca is delayed in these animals, and they appear to have a reduced ability to absorb Ca from the intestine during the early postpartum period. Difructose anhydride (DFA) III has been shown to promote the absorption of intestinal Ca via a paracellular pathway. However, past studies have not reported this effect in peripartum dairy cows. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DFA III supplementation on Ca metabolism during the peripartum period to determine whether DFA III promotes intestinal Ca absorption via this route. Seventy-four multiparous Holstein cows were separated into DFA and control groups based on their parity and body weight. The feed of the DFA group was supplemented with 40g/d of DFA III from -14 to 6d relative to calving. The control group did not receive DFA III. At calving (0h relative to calving), serum Ca declined below 9mg/dL in both groups. However, serum Ca concentrations were greater in the DFA group than in the control group at 6, 12, 24, and 48h relative to calving, and the time required for serum Ca to recover to 9mg/dL during the postpartum period was shorter in the high-parity cows in the DFA group than in those in the control group. Parathyroid hormone concentrations increased immediately after calving in both groups and were greater in the control group than in the DFA group at 12 and 24h relative to calving. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations increased at 0 and 12h relative to calving in both groups and were higher in the control group than in the DFA group at 72h relative to calving. Serum concentrations of the bone-resorption marker cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were not different between the groups during peripartum period, and serum NTX in all cows was lower at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h relative to calving than at -21, 4, and 5d relative to calving. Thus, DFA treatment induced faster recovery of serum Ca

  19. Rapid conversion of the ester prodrug abiraterone acetate results in intestinal supersaturation and enhanced absorption of abiraterone: in vitro, rat in situ and human in vivo studies.

    Stappaerts, Jef; Geboers, Sophie; Snoeys, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal disposition of abiraterone acetate, an ester prodrug of the anticancer agent abiraterone. Stability of the prodrug and solubility and dissolution characteristics of both abiraterone and abiraterone acetate were monitored in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo intraluminal concentrations of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate upon intake of one tablet of 250 mg abiraterone acetate were assessed in healthy volunteers. The intestinal absorption resulting from the intraluminal behavior of the ester prodrug was determined using the rat in situ intestinal perfusion technique with mesenteric blood sampling. Simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluids of the fasted state were used as solvent systems. Upon incubation of abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids in vitro, rapid hydrolysis of the prodrug was observed, generating abiraterone concentrations largely exceeding the apparent solubility of abiraterone, suggesting the existence of intestinal supersaturation. These findings were confirmed in vivo, by intraluminal sampling of duodenal fluids upon oral intake of an abiraterone acetate tablet by healthy volunteers. Rat in situ intestinal perfusion experiments performed with suspensions of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids of the fasted state revealed significantly higher flux values upon perfusion with the prodrug than with abiraterone. Moreover, rat in situ intestinal perfusion with abiraterone acetate suspensions in simulated fluids of the fasted state in presence or absence of esterases demonstrated that increased hydrolytic activity of the perfusion medium was beneficial to the intestinal absorption of abiraterone. In conclusion, the rapid hydrolysis of abiraterone acetate in the intraluminal environment appears to result in fast and extensive generation of abiraterone supersaturation, creating a strong driving force for abiraterone absorption. PMID:25592324

  20. Absorption characteristic of paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats.

    Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Ma, Yong; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    1. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) was synthesized to improve the poor oral absorption of paeoniflorin (Pae). 2. This study was performed to investigate the absorptive behavior and mechanism of CP-25 in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats, using Pae as a control. 3. The results showed that intestinal absorption of CP-25 was neither segmental nor sex dependent. However, the main segment of intestine that absorbed Pae was the duodenum. Furthermore, passive transport was confirmed to be the main absorption pattern of CP-25. More importantly, the absorption of CP-25 was much higher than Pae in the small intestine. 4. Among the ABC transporter inhibitors, the absorption rate of Pae increased in the presence of P-gp inhibitors verapamil and GF120918, which indicated that Pae was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), however, such was not observed in the presence of breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Finally, the ABC transporter inhibitors did not have any significant impact on CP-25 as demonstrated in the parallel studies. 5. CP-25 could improve the poor absorption of Pae, which may be attributed to both the lipid solubility enhancement and its resistance to P-gp-mediated efflux. PMID:26711120

  1. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  2. Rapid conversion of the ester prodrug abiraterone acetate results in intestinal supersaturation and enhanced absorption of abiraterone: In vitro, rat in situ and human in vivo studies

    Stappaerts, Jef; Geboers, Sophie; Snoeys, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal disposition of abiraterone acetate, an ester prodrug of the anticancer agent abiraterone. Stability of the prodrug and solubility and dissolution characteristics of both abiraterone and abiraterone acetate were monitored in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo intraluminal concentrations of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate upon intake of one tablet of 250mg abiraterone acetate were assessed in healthy volunteers. The intestinal absorption result...

  3. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    The large intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible ... the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the cecum. Material passes through the ...

  4. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  5. First-pass metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of enteral alpha-ketoglutarate in young pigs

    Our results in a previous study indicated that the portal absorption of intragastrically fed alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) was limited in young pigs. Our aim was to quantify the net portal absorption, first-pass metabolism, and whole-body flux of enterally infused AKG. In study 1, we quantified the net ...

  6. Translating Molecular Physiology of Intestinal Transport into Pharmacologic Treatment of Diarrhea: Stimulation of Na+ Absorption

    Singh, Varsha; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Tiane-e; Zachos, Nick; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Verkman, Alan; Donowitz, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in developing countries while representing an important cause of morbidity worldwide. The WHO recommended low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions plus zinc save lives in patients with acute diarrhea1, but there are no approved, safe drugs which have been shown to be effective against most causes of acute diarrhea. Identification of abnormalities in electrolyte handling by the intestine in diarrhea, including i...

  7. Pathophysiology of intestinal uptake and absorption of antigens in food allergy.

    Walker, W A

    1987-11-01

    An important adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract to the extrauterine environment is its development of a mucosal barrier against the penetration of proteins and protein fragments. To combat the potential danger of invasion across the mucosal barrier, the infant must develop within the lumen and on the luminal mucosal surface an elaborate system of defense mechanisms that act to control and maintain the epithelium as an impermeable barrier to the uptake of macromolecular antigens. These defenses include a unique local immunologic system adapted to function in the complicated milieu of the intestine as well as other nonimmunologic processes such as a gastric barrier, intestinal surface secretions, peristaltic movement, etc, all of which help to provide maximum protection for the intestinal surface. Unfortunately, during the immediate postpartum period, especially for premature and "small-for-date" infants, this elaborate local defense system is incompletely developed. As a result of the delay in the maturation of the mucosal barrier, newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to pathologic penetration by harmful intraluminal substances. The consequences of altered defense are susceptibility to infection and the potential for hypersensitivity reactions and the formation of immune complexes. With these reactions comes the potential for developing life-threatening diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and hepatitis. Fortunately, nature has provided a means for passively protecting the "vulnerable" newborn against the dangers of a deficient intestinal defense system: human milk. It is now increasingly apparent that human milk contains not only antibodies and viable leukocytes, but many other substances that can interfere with bacterial colonization and prevent antigen penetration. PMID:3318588

  8. Enhancement of intestinal absorption of few cox-2 inhibitors through interaction with β-cyclodextrin

    Rawat Swati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexing a drug may alter the rate and extent of drug absorption. The complex formation is very well applied in the administration of poorly water-soluble drugs. The drugs selected for the study are cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, are potent anti-inflammatory drugs with very low water solubility. The water solubility of these drugs was enhanced by complexing with β -cyclodextrin. In vitro absorption studies using isolated inverted bovine gut technique showed greater rate of transport of these drugs when complexed with β -cyclodextrin. The increase in the rate of transport is due to the formation of inclusion complexes with β -cyclodextrin that in turn increases the absorption. Studies also reveal that as the concentration of complexing agent increases the rate of absorption also increases proportionately. A statistical correlation was attempted between the mean percent drug dissolved at time ′t′ and quantity of drug absorbed at time ′t/2′. When relation of in vitro drug dissolution and in vitro drug absorptions were studied, it was found that the r 2 -values for all formulations are within 0.947 to 0.997. This indicates a strong positive correlation between the in vitro drug dissolution and absorption of the drug through everted gut.

  9. Evaluation of intestinal absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 incorporated in microemulison using parallel artificial membrane permeability assay.

    Han, Min; Fu, Shao; Gao, Jian-Qing; Fang, Xiao-Ling

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, ginsenoside Rg(1) (Rg(1)), a naturally occurring drug which is hardly absorbed in gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to its high hydrophilicity and low membrane permeability, was incorporated in different compositions of water-in-oil microemulsions (MEs). And parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) that have been mainly utilized for the evaluation of in vitro permeability of early drug candidates was introduced in present study, as well as rat in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro permeability measurements, to investigate the effect of w/o ME on Rg(1) absorption. Correlation between various models as mentioned above was further performed to estimate the feasibility of PAMPA in the application of pharmaceutical preparation studies. After being administrated intraduodenally to rats, most of MEs can enhance the intestinal absorption of Rg(1) to various extents with relative bioavailability (F(re)) ranging from 268 to 1270% using drug solution as control. This enhanced absorption of Rg(1) may be related to its increased membrane permeability induced by ME as exhibited in the PAMPA and rat in vitro permeability measurements. Meanwhile, rat in vivo pharmacokinetics-PAMPA correlation (r(2)=0.6082) is significant (ppreparation in some conditions. PMID:19483317

  10. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J;

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and GIP is implicated in the regulation of energy storage. The capacity of carbohydrates to induce secretion of these incretin hormones could be one of the...... factors determining the metabolic quality of different types of carbohydrates. We analyzed the correlation between the rate of intestinal absorption of (starch-derived) glucose and plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP after ingestion of glucose and starchy foods with a different content of rapidly and...... slowly available glucose. In a crossover study, glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were monitored for 6 h after consumption of glucose, uncooked cornstarch (UCCS) or corn pasta in 7 healthy men. All test meals were naturally labeled with 13C. Using a primed, continuous D-[6,6-2H2]glucose...

  11. Slc2a5 (Glut5) Is Essential for the Absorption of Fructose in the Intestine and Generation of Fructose-induced Hypertension*

    Barone, Sharon; Fussell, Stacey L.; Singh, Anurag Kumar; Lucas, Fred; Xu, Jie; Kim, Charles; Wu, Xudong; Yu, Yiling; Amlal, Hassane; Seidler, Ursula; Zuo, Jian; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2009-01-01

    The identity of the transporter responsible for fructose absorption in the intestine in vivo and its potential role in fructose-induced hypertension remain speculative. Here we demonstrate that Glut5 (Slc2a5) deletion reduced fructose absorption by ∼75% in the jejunum and decreased the concentration of serum fructose by ∼90% relative to wild-type mice on increased dietary fructose. When fed a control (60% starch) diet, Glut5-/- mice had normal blood pressure and displa...

  12. The effect of canola meal tannins on the intestinal absorption capacity of broilers using a D-xylose test.

    Mansoori, B; Rogiewicz, A; Slominski, B A

    2015-12-01

    In three D-xylose absorption experiments, the effect of 1% HCl/methanol, 70% methanol or 70% acetone extracts of canola meal (CM) or 70% acetone extract of soybean meal (SBM) containing polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and phytic acid on intestinal absorption capacity of broilers was determined. In Exp. 1, the experimental groups received orally D-xylose solution alone or with methanol/HCl, methanol or acetone extracts of CM. In Exp. 2, the experimental groups received D-xylose alone or with acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exp. 3, the experimental groups received D-xylose plus sucrose solution or D-xylose plus acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exps. 2 and 3, the CM extracts contained 2.7 and 2.6, 2.4 and 2.3, 3.2 and 3.2, and 2.4 and 2.2 times higher polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and condensed tannins than the corresponding SBM extracts respectively. Blood samples were collected in 40-min intervals, and plasma D-xylose was measured. Compared to the Control, plasma D-xylose in Exp. 1 was lower (p < 0.001) by 81, 69 and 73% at 40-min, by 41, 44 and 37% at 80-min and by 22, 31, and 23% at 120-min post-ingestion of the HCl/methanol, methanol and acetone extracts respectively. In both Exps. 2 and 3, plasma D-xylose level was lower (p < 0.001) in groups dosed with CM extract or SBM extract at each time of blood collection, when compared to the respective Control group. However, in Exp. 3, birds dosed with SBM extract had higher plasma D-xylose than CM extract-dosed birds by 28, 8 and 21% at 40, 80 and 120 min respectively (p < 0.01). In conclusion, although CM extract caused a lower absorption of D-xylose, based on 5 to 10% of CM inclusion levels in practical broiler rations, the soluble bioactive components of CM will likely have minor impact on the absorption capacity of the chicken intestine. PMID:25865561

  13. Enhancement of intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds by simultaneous use of mucolytic agent and non-ionic surfactant.

    Takatsuka, Shinya; Kitazawa, Takeo; Morita, Takahiro; Horikiri, Yuji; Yoshino, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    The effect of co-administration of a mucolytic agent with a penetration enhancer was assessed on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran with average molecular weight of ca. 4.4 kDa (FD-4) was used as a model compound, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as a mucolytic agent. Sodium caprate (C10), tartaric acid (TA), sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), p-t-octyl phenol polyoxyethylene-9.5 (Triton X-100, TX-100) were selected as penetration enhancers with different mechanisms of action. Various dosing solutions containing a penetration enhancer in the absence or in the presence of NAC were directly administered into the exposed rat jejunum, and the bioavailability of FD-4 up to 2 h was determined. The extent of improvement by co-administration was highly dependent on the penetration enhancer species applied. The observed enhancement was thought to result from the mucolytic activity of NAC, which can reduce the mucus viscosity and facilitate the penetration of FD-4 to mucosal membrane. Among the combinations tested, the simultaneous administration of NAC and TX-100 provided the highest enhancement (22.5-fold) of intestinal FD-4 absorption compared to the control. Although the detailed mechanism for the observed drastic improvement is unclear, one possible reason was thought to be due to the improved diffusivity of TX-100 micellar system in the mucus layer. All these results suggest that the combination of a mucolytic agent and a non-ionic surfactant may have potential as an enhancing system for peroral delivery of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds like protein and peptide drugs. PMID:16289777

  14. Aqueous extracts of husks of Plantago ovata reduce hyperglycaemia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes by inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption.

    Hannan, J M A; Ali, L; Khaleque, J; Akhter, M; Flatt, P R; Abdel-Wahab, Y H A

    2006-07-01

    Plantago ovata has been reported to reduce postprandial glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. In the present study, the efficacy and possible modes of action of hot-water extracts of husk of P. ovata were evaluated. The administration of P. ovata (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly improved glucose tolerance in normal, type 1 and type 2 diabetic rat models. When the extract was administered orally with sucrose solution, it suppressed postprandial blood glucose and retarded small intestinal absorption without inducing the influx of sucrose into the large intestine. The extract significantly reduced glucose absorption in the gut during in situ perfusion of small intestine in non-diabetic rats. In 28 d chronic feeding studies in type 2 diabetic rat models, the extract reduced serum atherogenic lipids and NEFA but had no effect on plasma insulin and total antioxidant status. No effect of the extract was evident on intestinal disaccharidase activity. Furthermore, the extract did not stimulate insulin secretion in perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat islets or clonal beta cells. Neither did the extract affect glucose transport in 3T3 adipocytes. In conclusion, aqueous extracts of P. ovata reduce hyperglycaemia in diabetes via inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption and enhancement of motility. These attributes indicate that P. ovata may be a useful source of active components to provide new opportunities for diabetes therapy. PMID:16870001

  15. Binding of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin to the intestinal cells of the rat and its effect on the absorption of glucose

    The main objectives of this investigation were to study the binding of a lectin from navy beans with the epithelial cells of the rat intestine and to assess the effect of such binding on the ability of the intestine to absorb glucose. A Scatchard plot, based on the binding of 125I-labeled lectin to isolated intestinal epithelial cells, was used to calculate an association constant (Ka) of 15 x 10(6)M-1 and the number of binding sites per cell, 12 x 10(6). Metabolic studies were conducted over a period of 5 d on groups of rats fed raw or autoclaved navy bean flour and casein with or without the purified lectin. Growth, protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization were significantly lower in animals that had been fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin than in control groups fed diets containing autoclaved navy bean flour or casein alone. Vascular perfusion was used to measure the rate of uptake of glucose by the intestines of rats that had received the various dietary treatments. The rate of absorption of [14C]glucose by intestines from rats fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin was approximately one-half that of their counterparts fed the autoclaved flour or casein alone. These results provide evidence that the lectin, by virtue of its interference with intestinal absorption, is responsible, at least in part, for the nutritional inferiority of raw navy beans

  16. The absorption and retention of plutonium in the small intestine of neonate rat

    Ligated segments of rat intestine were used to study the effect of age on the jejunal transfer and retention of different chemical forms of soluble Pu(IV). After instillation of Pu-carbonate a 5-fold increase of transfer was observed for 1 week old animals as compared to adults. This transfer value decreased gradually until weaning. Such an age-related decrease was also observed after the instillation of Pu-transferrin for 2 weeks as compared to 12 week-old rats, but in the same range of age, no significant modification could be demonstrated after the instillation of Pu-DTPA complex. Similar modifications related to the age of animals were observed after either perfusion or instillation of the Pu-carbonate and Pu-DTPA chemical forms. Measurement of the area of the intestinal lumen allowed to establish that, in the jejunum, for the chemical forms of Pu studied, no increase of Pu retention could be observed in neonates as compared to adults. Therefore, no relationship could be established between transfer of Pu and its jejunal retention. 9 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Intestinal absorption and biliary secretion of ursodeoxycholic acid and its taurine conjugate

    Rudolph, G; Kloeters-Plachky, P; Sauer, P; Stiehl, A

    2002-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine conjugate (TUDCA) exert a protective effect in cholestatic liver diseases. A greater hepatoprotective effect of TUDCA has been suggested. Absorption appears to be a limiting factor and up to now has not been studied in man. Methods We studied ab

  18. Intestinal absorption of end products from digestion of carbohydrates and proteins in the pig.

    Rerat, A A

    1985-07-01

    The kinetics of appearance of various nutrients in the portal vein during the postprandial period was studied in conscious pigs by means of a technique based on measurement of the porto-arterial differences in nutrient concentrations simultaneously with that of the portal blood flow rate. The rate and level of appearance of sugars in the portal vein varied with the carbohydrate ingested. It was very rapid after intake of glucose and sucrose, slower after that of maize starch and very slow after that of lactose. The absorption of the latter became very rapid again if it was hydrolysed prior to its ingestion. During absorption, some sugars (fructose or galactose) released from the corresponding sucrose and lactose, respectively during digestion, were partly metabolized into glucose by the enterocyte. The rate of absorption of amino acids released in the digestive tract varied according to the origin of the food ingested, i.e. it was more rapid after intake of wheat or fish proteins than after that of barley. In the case of barley the absorption rate of amino acids differed from that of glucose of the starch. The profile of the amino acid mixtures appearing in the portal vein during absorption differed a little from the profiles of those present in the ingested proteins in the case of essential amino acids and differed much in the case of non essential amino acids. Some essential amino acids (histidine, aromatic amino acids) appeared more rapidly and others more slowly, (lysine, sulphur amino acids, arginine). Because of transaminations, only small amounts of glutamic acid occurred in the portal vein whereas the amounts of alanine as compared to those ingested, were very large. The hierarchy of amino acid absorption was the same whatever the protein studied (fish, wheat, barley). The appearance in the portal vein of alpha-amino nitrogen from enzyme hydrolysates perfused through the duodenum was more rapid than after perfusion of a mixture of free amino acids. During

  19. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: selective endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border during fat absorption

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte; Immerdal, Lissi;

    2007-01-01

    explants. By immunofluorescence microscopy, fat absorption caused a translocation of IAP from the enterocyte brush border to the interior of the cell, whereas other brush-border enzymes were unaffected. By electron microscopy, the translocation occurred by a rapid (5 min) induction of endocytosis via...... clathrin-coated pits. By 60 min, IAP was seen in subapical endosomes and along membranes surrounding fat droplets. IAP is a well-known lipid raft-associated protein, and fat absorption was accompanied by a marked change in the density and morphology of the detergent-resistant membranes harboring IAP. A...... IAP and may contribute to the appearance of the enzyme in serum and surfactant-like particles....

  20. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  1. Characterization of intestinal absorption of C-glycoside flavonoid vicenin-2 from Lychnophora ericoides leafs in rats by nonlinear mixed effects modeling

    Gabriela A. Buqui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVicenin-2 (apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-d-glucopyranoside is present in hydroalcoholic extracts of the Brazilian species Lychnophora ericoides Mart., Asteraceae, leaves, and the biological effects of this compound have been demonstrated including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects in rat models. Given the potential of this compound as a pharmacological agent, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the extent of intestinal absorption of vicenin-2, and to determine the intestinal permeation profile using an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion technique. A validated HPLC–UV method was applied to measure the amount of unabsorbed vicenin-2 in the gut after an oral administration of 180 mg kg-1 in five rats. A nonlinear mixed effects model was used to determine the absorption pharmacokinetic parameters assuming a first order absorption and active secretion processes for this compound, wherein the active secretion was characterized by a zero-order process. The population pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were 0.274 min-1 for the first-order absorption rate constant, 16.3% min-1 for the zero-order rate constant; the final percentage of the original dose that was absorbed in vivo was 40.2 ± 2.5%. These parameters indicated that vicenin-2 was rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. In contrast to literature information indicating no absorption of vicenin-2 in Caco-2 cells, our results suggested that vicenin-2 can be absorbed in the small intestine of rats. The finding supports further investigation of vicenin-2 as a viable oral phytopharmaceutical agent for digestive diseases.

  2. Inhibitory actions of loperamide on absorptive processes in rat small intestine.

    HARDCASTLE, J; Hardcastle, P T; COOKSON, J

    1986-01-01

    Mucosal loperamide caused a dose dependent reduction in the absorption of actively transported hexoses and amino acids, together with the associated rise in short circuit current. Na+ and fluid movement were also inhibited. Serosal application of the drug was without effect on these processes. The passive movement of fructose across the gut was not affected by loperamide which is therefore unlikely to act by reducing tissue permeability. In low Na+ conditions the inhibitory actions of loperam...

  3. Effect of gastric anacidity on the intestinal absorption of liver bound 57Co-labelled cobalamins

    57Co-labelled cyanocobalamin injected in rabbit was transformed within the liver to 57Co-labelled desoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcovalamin. The absorption of 57Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins could be determined with acceptable accuracy by the double isotope fecal excretion method. Treatment with the H 2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, did not result in decreased absorption of 57Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins in healthy individuals. R-protein and the R-proteincobalamin complex were determined by the FPLC Mono S chromatography method with a high degree of correlation to the charcoal method in saliva, gastric and duodenal juice, and with a high degree of reproducibility. Omeprazole markedly inhibited the gastric acid and pepsin secretion, but did nor inhibit the IF secretion. Omeprazole treatment resulted in anacidity in 14 of 17 individuals, but did not reduce the absorption of liver bound 57Co-labelled cobalamins. The intrinsic factor concentration in gastric aspirates measured during the study was unchanged during omeprazole treatment. The release of cobalamins from liver homogenate was markedly inhibited by neutralized gastric juice in vitro, probably due to decreased pepsin mediated proteolysis. In vivo the cobalamin release from liver homogenate was modestly inhibited in the stomach but was unaffected in jejunum during omeprazole treatment. The major part of 57Co-labelled liver cobalamins bound to R-protein in acid and neutral gastric juice in vitro, and omeprazole induced anacidity, did not influence the cobalamin binding either in gastric or jejunal juice in vivo

  4. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (75Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of [75Se]selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium

  5. SGLT-1 Transport and Deglycosylation inside Intestinal Cells Are Key Steps in the Absorption and Disposition of Calycosin-7-O-β-d-Glucoside in Rats.

    Shi, Jian; Zheng, Haihui; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Lijun; Yan, Tongmeng; Wu, Peng; Lu, Linlin; Wang, Ying; Hu, Ming; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2016-03-01

    Hydrolysis by lactase-phloridzin hydrolase (LPH) is the first and critical step in the absorption of isoflavonoid glucosides. However, the absorption characteristics of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) slightly differ from other isoflavonoid glucosides. In this study, we used the rat intestinal perfusion model and performed pharmacokinetic studies and in vitro experiments to determine the factors influencing CG absorption and disposition. After oral administration of isoflavonoid glucosides, LPH was found to play minimal or no role on the hydrolysis of CG, in contrast to that of daidzin. CG was mainly transported into the small intestinal cells by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) as intact. This pathway could be the main mechanism underlying the high permeability of CG in the small intestine. CG was likely to be hydrolyzed in enterocytes to its aglycone calycosin by broad-specific β-glucuronides (BSβG) and glucocerebrosidase or rapidly metabolized. Calycosin was also rapidly and extensively metabolized to 3'-glucuronide in the enterocytes and liver, and the glucuronidation rates of calycosin and CG were much higher in the former. The metabolites were also transported into lumen by breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. In conclusion, the enterocytes could be an important site for CG absorption, deglycosylation, and metabolism in rats. This study could contribute to the theoretical foundation and mechanism of absorption and disposition of flavonoid compounds. PMID:26658676

  6. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D level does not reflect intestinal calcium absorption: an assay using strontium as a surrogate marker.

    Camargo, Marília Brasilio Rodrigues; Vilaça, Tatiane; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Rocha, Olguita G Ferreira; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2015-05-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to the optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration for intestinal calcium absorption (Abs-Ca). Our purpose was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and Abs-Ca in postmenopausal women. Fifty volunteers with low bone mass were grouped according to their serum 25(OH)D concentration as follows: mild deficient, DEF) and sufficient, ≥75 nmol/L (SUF). The subjects were submitted to an oral strontium overload test to assess their Abs-Ca. Fasting blood samples were obtained to perform the relevant hormonal and biochemical tests. After the subjects received the test solution, blood samples were drawn at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min to determine the strontium concentrations. Abs-Ca was indirectly expressed as the area under the serum strontium concentration curve (AUC). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine the differences among the groups. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to study the associations between the variables. The mean 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations differed between the groups (SUF vs. DEF) as follows: 98.7 ± 18.2 vs. 38.4 ± 8.5 nmol/L (p < 0.001) and 36.2 ± 10.2 vs. 24.9 ± 4.6 pg/mL (p < 0.001), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for parathyroid hormone and AUC. Only 1,25(OH)2D influenced the strontium absorption in the last 2 h of the test. In the studied population, no correlation between levels of 25(OH)D and Abs-Ca was found. Only 1,25(OH)2D influenced Abs-Ca as measured by a strontium absorption test. PMID:24858975

  7. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  8. Can serum isotope levels accurately measure intestinal calcium absorption compared to gold-standard methods?

    Vreede, Andrew P; Jones, Andrea N; Hansen, Karen E

    2015-01-01

    Background Low fractional calcium absorption (FCA) contributes to osteoporosis but is not measured clinically, as the gold-standard method requires administration of two calcium tracers and a subsequent 24-h urine collection. We evaluated alternate methods to measure FCA, compared to the gold standard method. Methods We administered two stable calcium isotope tracers (~8 mg oral 44Ca and ~3 mg intravenous 42Ca) with breakfast to 20 fasting post-menopausal women (Cohort 1) 59 ± 7 years old wit...

  9. MGAT2 deficiency ameliorates high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by inhibiting intestinal fat absorption in mice

    Tsuchida Takuma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resynthesis of triglycerides in enterocytes of the small intestine plays a critical role in the absorption of dietary fat. Acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2 is highly expressed in the small intestine and catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol from monoacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. To determine the physiological importance of MGAT2 in metabolic disorders and lipid metabolism in the small intestine, we constructed and analyzed Mgat2-deficient mice. Results In oral fat tolerance test (OFTT, Mgat2-deficient mice absorbed less fat into the circulation. When maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD, Mgat2-deficient mice were protected from HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Heterozygote (Mgat2+/− mice had an intermediate phenotype between Mgat2+/+ and Mgat2−/− and were partially protected from metabolic disorders. Despite of a decrease in fat absorption in the Mgat2-deficient mice, lipid levels in the feces and small intestine were comparable among the genotypes. Oxygen consumption was increased in the Mgat2-deficient mice when maintained on an HFD. A prominent upregulation of the genes involved in fatty acid oxidation was observed in the duodenum but not in the liver of the Mgat2-deficient mice. Conclusion These results suggest that MGAT2 has a pivotal role in lipid metabolism in the small intestine, and the inhibition of MGAT2 activity may be a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  10. Absorption of protein and protein fragments in the developing intestine: role in immunologic/allergic reactions.

    Walker, W A

    1985-01-01

    An important adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract to the extrauterine environment is its development of a mucosal barrier against the penetration of proteins and protein fragments. To combat the potential danger of invasion across the mucosal barrier the newborn infant must develop within the lumen and on the luminal mucosal surface an elaborate system of defense mechanisms which act to control and maintain the epithelium as an impermeable barrier to the uptake of macromolecular antigens. As a result of a delay in the maturation of the mucosal barrier, newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to pathologic penetration by harmful intraluminal substances. The consequences of altered defense are susceptibility to infection and the potential for hypersensitivity reactions and the formation of immune complexes. With these reactions comes the potential for developing life-threatening diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and hepatitis. Fortunately, "nature" has provided a means for passively protecting the "vulnerable" newborn against the dangers of a deficient intestinal defense system, namely human milk. It is now increasingly apparent that human milk contains not only antibodies and viable leukocytes but many other substances that can interfere with bacterial colonization and prevent antigen penetration. PMID:3966050

  11. Studies on digestion and absorption in the intestines of growing pigs. 6. Measurements of the flow of amino acids.

    Low, A G

    1979-01-01

    1. Digesta were collected from seventeen pigs initially of 30 kg live weight fitted with single re-entrant cannulas in either the duodenum, jejunum or ileum. A further twenty-four pigs were used in a conventional digestibility trial. 2. The pigs received three types of diet containing: barley, fine wheat offal, white fish meal, minerals and vitamins (diet BWF); starch, sucrose, maize, oil, cellulose, minerals and vitamins and either groundnut (diet SSG) or casein (diet SSC). 3. Amino acids were measured in samples representative of the digesta flow in 24 h periods and in the faeces collected in 5 d periods. 4. For each diet the total flow in 24 h periods in the duodenum for aspartic acid, threonine, serine and glycine exceeded or equalled intake, while the amounts of the other amino acids were usually rather less than intake. 5. For each diet in the jejunum, the amounts of glycine and cystine exceeded intake in 24 h periods, while methionine, arginine and tyrosine were the most rapidly absorbed amino acids anterior to the cannula site. On average 0.22, 0.25 and 0.31 of the dietary amino acids were absorbed anterior to the cannula site for diets BWF, SSG and SSC, respectively. 6. For each diet in the ileum, the least apparently absorbed dietary amino acids were glycine and cystine. On average 0.81, 0.83 and 0.95 of the dietary amino acids were absorbed anterior to the cannula site for diets BWF, SSG and SSC, respectively. 7. There was net disappearance of most amino acids in the large intestine, but some net accumulation occurred in this region. 8. The results are discussed in relation to the amino acid composition of endogenous secretions (particularly glycine in bile), protease and peptidase specificity, free amino acid absorption and the role of the microflora in the large intestine. PMID:420746

  12. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  13. Secretin receptor-knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity and exhibit impaired intestinal lipid absorption.

    Sekar, Revathi; Chow, Billy K C

    2014-08-01

    Secretin, a classical gastrointestinal hormone released from S cells in response to acid and dietary lipid, regulates pleiotropic physiological functions, such as exocrine pancreatic secretion and gastric motility. Subsequent to recently proposed revisit on secretin's metabolic effects, we have confirmed lipolytic actions of secretin during starvation and discovered a hormone-sensitive lipase-mediated mechanistic pathway behind. In this study, a 12 wk high-fat diet (HFD) feeding to secretin receptor-knockout (SCTR(-/-)) mice and their wild-type (SCTR(+/+)) littermates revealed that, despite similar food intake, SCTR(-/-) mice gained significantly less weight (SCTR(+/+): 49.6±0.9 g; SCTR(-/-): 44.7±1.4 g; Pfat content. These SCTR(-/-) mice have corresponding alleviated HFD-associated hyperleptinemia and improved glucose/insulin tolerance. Further analyses indicate that SCTR(-/-) have impaired intestinal fatty acid absorption while having similar energy expenditure and locomotor activity. Reduced fat absorption in the intestine is further supported by lowered postprandial triglyceride concentrations in circulation in SCTR(-/-) mice. In jejunal cells, transcript and protein levels of a key fat absorption regulator, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), was reduced in knockout mice, while transcript of Cd36 and fatty-acid uptake in isolated enterocytes was stimulated by secretin. Based on our findings, a novel positive feedback pathway involving secretin and CD36 to enhance intestinal lipid absorption is being proposed. PMID:24769669

  14. Biophenols from Table Olive cv Bella di Cerignola: Chemical Characterization, Bioaccessibility, and Intestinal Absorption.

    D'Antuono, Isabella; Garbetta, Antonella; Ciasca, Biancamaria; Linsalata, Vito; Minervini, Fiorenza; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Logrieco, Antonio F; Cardinali, Angela

    2016-07-20

    In this study, the naturally debittered table olives cv Bella di Cerignola were studied in order to (i) characterize their phenolic composition; (ii) evaluate the polyphenols bioaccessibility; (iii) assess their absorption and transport, across Caco2/TC7. LC-MS/MS analysis has confirmed the presence of hydroxytyrosol acetate, caffeoyl-6'-secologanoside, and comselogoside. In vitro bioaccessibility ranged from 7% of luteolin to 100% of tyrosol, highlighting the flavonoids sensitivity to the digestive conditions. The Caco2/TC7 polyphenols accumulation was rapid (60 min) with an efficiency of 0.89%; the overall bioavailability was 1.86% (120 min), with hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol the highest bioavailables, followed by verbascoside and luteolin. In the cells and basolateral side, caffeic and coumaric acids metabolites, probably derived from esterase activities, were detected. In conclusion, the naturally debittered table olives cv Bella di Cerignola can be considered as a source of bioaccessible, absorbable, and bioavailable polyphenols that, for their potential health promoting effect, permit inclusion of table olives as a functional food suitable for a balanced diet. PMID:27355793

  15. Improved intestinal absorption of a poorly water-soluble oral drug using mannitol microparticles containing a nanosolid drug dispersion.

    Nishino, Yukiko; Kubota, Aya; Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    A nozzle for a spray dryer that can prepare microparticles of water-soluble carriers containing various nanoparticles in a single step was previously developed in our laboratory. To enhance the solubility and intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, we used probucol (PBL) as a poorly water-soluble drug, mannitol (MAN) as a water-soluble carrier for the microparticles, and EUDRAGIT (EUD) as a polymer vehicle for the solid dispersion. PBL-EUD-acetone-methanol and aqueous MAN solutions were simultaneously supplied through different liquid passages of the spray nozzle and dried together. PBL-EUD solid dispersion was nanoprecipitated in the MAN solution using an antisolvent mechanism and rapidly dried by surrounding it with MAN. PBL in the dispersion vehicle was amorphous and had higher physical stability according to powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The bioavailability of PBL in PBL-EUD S-100-MAN microparticles after oral administration in rats was markedly higher (14- and 6.2-fold, respectively) than that of the original PBL powder and PBL-MAN microparticles. These results demonstrate that the composite microparticles containing a nanosized solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug prepared using the spray nozzle developed by us should be useful to increase the solubility and bioavailability of drugs after oral administration. PMID:22864998

  16. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of molecules containing the polar guanidino functionality: a double-targeted prodrug approach.

    Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-01-28

    A prodrug strategy was applied to guanidino-containing analogues to increase oral absorption via hPEPT1 and hVACVase. l-Valine, l-isoleucine, and l-phenylalanine esters of [3-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl]guanidine (3-HPG) were synthesized and evaluated for transport and activation. In HeLa/hPEPT1 cells, Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG exhibited high affinity to hPEPT1 (IC(50): 0.65 and 0.63 mM, respectively), and all three l-amino acid esters showed higher uptake (2.6- to 9-fold) than the parent compound 3-HPG. Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG demonstrated remarkable Caco-2 permeability enhancement, and Val-3-HPG exhibited comparable permeability to valacyclovir. In rat perfusion studies, Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG permeabilities were significantly higher than 3-HPG and exceeded/matched the high-permeability standard metoprolol, respectively. All the l-amino acid 3-HPG esters were effectively activated in HeLa and Caco-2 cell homogenates and were found to be good substrates of hVACVase (k(cat)/K(m) in mM(-1) x s(-1): Val-3-HPG, 3370; Ile-3-HPG, 1580; Phe-3-HPG, 1660). In conclusion, a prodrug strategy is effective at increasing the intestinal permeability of polar guanidino analogues via targeting hPEPT1 for transport and hVACVase for activation. PMID:19957998

  17. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer. PMID:27191052

  18. Short bowel patients treated for two years with glucagon-like Peptide 2: effects on intestinal morphology and absorption, renal function, bone and body composition, and muscle function

    Jeppesen, P B; Lund, P; Gottschalck, I B; Nielsen, H B; Holst, Jens Juul; Mortensen, J; Poulsen, S S; Quistorff, B; Mortensen, P B

    2009-01-01

    offered, to eleven SBS patients keeping parenteral support constant. 72-hour nutritional balance studies were performed at baseline, weeks 13, 26, 52 during two years intermitted by an 8-week washout period. In addition, mucosal morphometrics, renal function (by creatinine clearance), body composition and......, GLP-2 significantly reduced the fecal wet weight from approximately 3.0 to approximately 2.0 kg/day. This was accompanied by a decline in the oral wet weight intake, maintaining intestinal wet weight absorption and urinary weight constant. Renal function improved. No significant changes were...... demonstrated in energy intake or absorption, and GLP-2 did not significantly affect mucosal morphology, body composition, bone mineral density or muscle function. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-2 treatment reduces fecal weight by approximately 1000 g/d and enables SBS patients to maintain their intestinal fluid and...

  19. [The stabilizing effect of enterosgel on the structural bases of membrane digestion and absorption in the small intestine in severe thermal skin burns].

    Pasechka, N V

    1996-01-01

    Enterosgel effect on morphofunctional indices of the small intestine has been ascertained in experiments on animals, histochemical, electron-microscopic and morphometric methods being used. Enterosorbent in the dose of 0.3 g/kg body weight was injected orally to the guinea-pigs for 14 days. The results of the investigations prove the severe burn traumas to result in sufficient structural changes in the small intestine wall which causes impairment of membranous digestion processes and absorption of nutrients. It is to be noted that the developing burn disease results in the increase of changes severity and reaches the highest values at the stage of septicotoxemia. The enterosorbent assessed positively affects morphofunctional values of the small intestine. The enterosorbent does not enhance conventional development of the pathologic process but considerably decreases its manifestation. The enterosgel promotes the improvement of membranous digestion and absorption in the small intestine, increasing alkaline phosphatase action and rising the number of endocellular vesicles in epitheliocytes having brush margins. PMID:9044818

  20. Predicting both passive intestinal absorption and the dissociation constant toward albumin using the PAMPA technique.

    Bujard, Alban; Sol, Marine; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Martel, Sophie

    2014-10-15

    The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) is a high-throughput screening (HTS) method that is widely used to predict in vivo passive permeability through biological barriers, such as the skin, the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The PAMPA technique has also been used to predict the dissociation constant (Kd) between a compound and human serum albumin (HSA) while disregarding passive permeability. Furthermore, the assay is based on the use of two separate 5-point kinetic experiments, which increases the analysis time. In the present study, we adapted the hexadecane membrane (HDM)-PAMPA assay to both predict passive gastrointestinal absorption via the permeability coefficient logPe value and determine the Kd. Two assays were performed: one in the presence and one in the absence of HSA in the acceptor compartment. In the absence of HSA, logPe values were determined after a 4-h incubation time, as originally described, but the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) percentage and pH were altered to be compatible with the protein. In parallel, a second PAMPA assay was performed in the presence of HSA during a 16-h incubation period. By adding HSA, a variation in the amount of compound crossing the membrane was observed compared to the permeability measured in the absence of HSA. The concentration of compound reaching the acceptor compartment in each case was used to determine both parameters (logPe and logKd) using numerical simulations, which highlighted the originality of this method because these calculations required only two endpoint measurements instead of a complete kinetic study. It should be noted that the amount of compound that reaches the acceptor compartment in the presence of HSA is modulated by complex dissociation in the receptor compartment. Only compounds that are moderately bound to albumin (-3companies to obtain permeability measurements; moreover, this approach is fast (96-well plate format), economical and easy

  1. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract on degree of hydration, fructose, sulphur and phosphorus contents of rat eyelens and intestinal absorption of nutrients

    Sood, D. R.; CHHOKAR, VINOD; Shilpa

    2003-01-01

    Influence of aqueous garlic extract on degree of hydration, fructose, sulphur and phosphorus contents of rat eyelens and intestinal absorption of nutrients were assessed. Inclusion of garlic extract in culture medium containing glucose and xylose inhibited the hydration of rat eyelens, whereas galactose evinced the reverse trend. Aqueous garlic extract in general decreased the concentration of fructose and phosphorus, whereassulphur concentration increased when rat eyelenses, were incubated w...

  2. Improvement of Intestinal Absorption of Forsythoside A and Chlorogenic Acid by Different Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Chito-oligosaccharide, Application to Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae Herb Couple Preparations

    Wei Zhou; Haidan Wang; Xuanxuan Zhu; Jinjun Shan; Ailing Yin; Baochang Cai; Liuqing Di

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan derivatives on the intestinal absorption and bioavailabilities of forsythoside A (FTA) and Chlorogenic acid (CHA), the major active components in Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae herb couple. Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics properties of the two compounds have been characterized in vitro, in situ as well as in rats. Based on the identified biopharmaceutics characteristics of the two compounds, the effect of chitosan derivat...

  3. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract. PMID:26677717

  4. Short communication: Casein hydrolysate and whey proteins as excipients for cyanocobalamin to increase intestinal absorption in the lactating dairy cow.

    Artegoitia, V M; de Veth, M J; Harte, F; Ouellet, D R; Girard, C L

    2015-11-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B12 is low in humans and animals. Improving vitamin B12 absorption is important for optimal performance in dairy cows and for increasing vitamin B12 concentrations in milk for human consumption. However, when supplemented in the diet, 80% of synthetic vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL), is degraded in the rumen of dairy cows and only 25% of the amount escaping destruction in the rumen disappears from the small intestine between the duodenal and ileal cannulas. In pigs, vitamin B12 from milk is more efficiently absorbed than synthetic CN-CBL. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of casein hydrolysate and whey proteins as excipients for CN-CBL to increase portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of the vitamin in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows (237 ± 17 DIM) equipped with a rumen cannula and catheters in the portal vein and a mesenteric artery were used in a randomized Youden square design. They were fed every 2 h to maintain steady digesta flow. On experimental days, they received a postruminal bolus of (1) CN-CBL alone (0.1 g), (2) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + casein hydrolysate (10 g), or (3) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + whey proteins (10 g). Starting 30 min after the bolus, blood samples were taken simultaneously from the 2 catheters every 15 min during the first 2 h and then every 2 h until 24 h postbolus. Milk yield, DMI, and vitamin B12 portal-arterial difference and PDV flux were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Milk yield and DMI were not affected by treatments. The portal-arterial difference of vitamin B12 during the 24-h period following the bolus of vitamin was greater when the vitamin was given in solution with casein hydrolysate (2.9 ± 4.6 pg/mL) than alone (-17.5 ± 5.2 pg/mL) or with whey protein (-13.4 ± 4.2 pg/mL). The treatment effects were similar for the PDV flux. The present results suggest that CN-CBL given with casein hydrolysate increases vitamin B12 absorption as compared with

  5. Mechanisms of mercurial and arsenical inhibition of tyrosine absorption in intestine of the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectus americanus

    Musch, M.W.; Chauncey, B.; Schmid, E.C.; Kinne, R.K.; Goldstein, L. (Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Effects of HgCl2 (100 microM) para-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS) (1 mM), and oxophenylarsine (OPA) (250 microM) were determined on (a) the rate of Na pump activity in intact winter flounder intestine; (b) activity of Na-K-ATPase in tissue homogenates; and (c) Na-dependent and Na-independent uptake of tyrosine in brush border membrane vesicles. Initial rate of uptake (influx) of 86Rb from the serosal solution of tissues mounted in Ussing chambers, a measure of Na-K-ATPase activity in the intact cell, was inhibited by all three agents with differing time courses. Rapidly permeating HgCl2 inhibited influx to the same degree as ouabain at 30 min, whereas the effects of PCMBS and OPA required 90 min. Cell potassium was also measured as an indirect indicator of ATPase activity and cell membrane permeability. All three agents decreased cell K, although effects on cell K lagged behind those for inhibition of the ATPase. At the concentrations used in the Ussing chamber (or at one-tenth concentration), all agents completely inhibited Na-K-ATPase activity in enzyme assays performed with tissue homogenates. In contrast, only HgCl2 decreased Na-dependent uptake of tyrosine by brush border membrane vesicles. These results suggest that mercurial and arsenical effects on tyrosine absorption are due to inhibition of the Na-K-ATPase thus decreasing the driving force for the cellular uptake by the Na-tyrosine cotransport system. Direct effects on Na-tyrosine cotransport may play a role in the inhibition observed with HgCl2, but not for PCMBS or OPA.

  6. Improvement of intestinal absorption of forsythoside A and chlorogenic acid by different carboxymethyl chitosan and chito-oligosaccharide, application to Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations.

    Wei Zhou

    Full Text Available The current study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan derivatives on the intestinal absorption and bioavailabilities of forsythoside A (FTA and Chlorogenic acid (CHA, the major active components in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple. Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics properties of the two compounds have been characterized in vitro, in situ as well as in rats. Based on the identified biopharmaceutics characteristics of the two compounds, the effect of chitosan derivatives as an absorption enhancer on the intestinal absorption and pharmacokinetics of FTA and CHA in pure compound form as well as extract form were investigated in vitro, in situ and in vivo. Both FTA and CHA demonstrated very limited intestinal permeabilities, leading to oral bioavailabilities being only 0.50% and 0.13% in rats, respectively. Results from both in vitro, in situ as well as in vivo studies consistently indicated that Chito-oligosaccharide (COS at dosage of 25 mg/kg could enhance intestinal permeabilities significantly as well as the in vivo bioavailabilities of both FTA and CHA than CMCs in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations with COS at the dosage of 25 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation, which was significantly better than control. The current findings not only identified the usefulness of COS for the improved delivery of Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae preparations but also demonstrated the importance of biopharmaceutical characterization in the dosage form development of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. 小檗碱微乳的制备及大鼠在体肠吸收%Study on preparation of berberine microemulsion and its absorption in intestine

    桂双英; 吴蕾; 潘君; 温志强; 开伟华; 王均

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To prepare berberine microemulsion, and to investigate its properties and the absorption character in rat intestine in situ. Method: The optimum formulation of the blank microemulsion selected by pseudo tertiary phase diagrams and the berberine microemulsion was prepared based on the blank microemulsion. The viscosity, conductance, refraction rate and particle size of berberine microemulsion were surveyed. An in situ rat perfusion method was used to investigate the intestinal absorption of berberine microemulsion. A UV method for determination of berberine in the intestinal flux was established. Result: The viscosity, conductance, refraction rate and particle size ofberberine microemulsion were 2.11 cPa·s, 125.5 Μω,1.363 and 24.0 nm, respectively. The absorption rate of berberine at the ileum was the best. The absorption of berberine microemulsion at the ileum was significantly higher than that of raw medicine (P <0.01) . Conclusion: The microemulsion system might improve the absorption of berberine in the intestinal tract.%目的:制备小檗碱微乳,考察其理化性质及大鼠在体肠吸收.方法:利用伪3元相图得到空白微乳的优化处方,制得小檗碱微乳;考察了小檗碱微乳的黏度、电导率、折光率、粒径;运用大鼠在体肠回流模型,采用紫外分光光度法测定回流液中小檗碱含量,分析其肠吸收特性.结果:小檗碱微乳的黏度、电导率、折光率、平均粒径分别为2.11 cPa·s,125.5μΩ,1.363,24.0 nm.小檗碱在回肠段的吸收速率最快,小檗碱微乳在回肠段的吸收较小檗碱原料药明显增加(P<0.01).结论:微乳能促进小檗碱在大鼠小肠的吸收.

  8. Multiple efflux pumps are involved in the transepithelial transport of colchicine: combined effect of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 leads to decreased intestinal absorption throughout the entire small intestine.

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to thoroughly characterize the efflux transporters involved in the intestinal permeability of the oral microtubule polymerization inhibitor colchicine and to evaluate the role of these transporters in limiting its oral absorption. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on colchicine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibiting one versus multiple transporters simultaneously. Colchicine permeability was then investigated in different regions of the rat small intestine by in situ single-pass perfusion. Correlation with the P-gp/MRP2 expression level throughout different intestinal segments was investigated by immunoblotting. P-gp inhibitors [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), verapamil, and quinidine], and MRP2 inhibitors [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), indomethacin, and p-aminohippuric acid (p-AH)] significantly increased apical (AP)-basolateral (BL) and decreased BL-AP Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was obtained by the BCRP inhibitors fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole. P-gp/MRP2 inhibitors combinations greatly reduced colchicine mucosal secretion, including complete abolishment of efflux (GF120918/MK571). Colchicine displayed low (versus metoprolol) and constant permeability along the rat small-intestine. GF120918 significantly increased colchicine permeability in the ileum with no effect in the jejunum, whereas MK571 augmented jejunal permeability without changing the ileal transport. The GF120918/MK571 combination caused an effect similar to that of MK571 alone in the jejunum and to that of GF120918 alone in the ileum. P-gp expression followed a gradient increasing from

  9. The effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium.

    Ognik, Katarzyna; Stępniowska, Anna; Cholewińska, Ewelina; Kozłowski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles used as a dietary supplement for poultry could affect the absorption of mineral elements. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium. The experiment was carried out on 126 chicks assigned to seven experimental groups of 18 birds each (3 replications of 6 individuals each). The control group (G-C) did not receive copper nanoparticles. Groups: Cu-5(7), Cu-10(7), and Cu-15(7) received gold nanoparticles in their drinking water in the amounts of 5 mg/L for group Cu-5(7), 10 mg/L for group Cu-10(7), and 15 mg/L for group Cu-15(7) during 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 36 of 42 days of the life of the chicks. The birds in groups Cu-5(3), Cu-10(3), and Cu-15(3) received copper nanoparticles in the same amounts, but only during 8 to 10, 22 to 24, and 36 to 38 days of life. Blood for analysis was collected from the wing vein of all chicks at the age of 42 days. After the rearing period (day 42), six birds from each experimental group with body weight similar to the group average were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected and samples of the jejunum were collected for analysis of absorption of selected minerals. Mineral absorption was tested using the in vitro gastrointestinal sac technique. Oral administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in the amount of 5, 10, and 15 mg/L led to accumulation of this element in the intestinal walls. The highest level of copper nanoparticles applied increased Cu content in the blood plasma of the birds. The in vitro study suggests that copper accumulated in the intestines reduces absorption of calcium and zinc, but does not affect iron absorption. PMID:27307476

  10. Reduced intestinal lipid absorption and body weight-independent improvements in insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed Park2 knockout mice.

    Costa, Diana K; Huckestein, Brydie R; Edmunds, Lia R; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali; Butrico, Gina M; Abulizi, Abudukadier; Harmon, Daniel B; Lu, Canying; Mantell, Benjamin S; Hartman, Douglas J; Camporez, João-Paulo G; O'Doherty, Robert M; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Jurczak, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many human diseases and results from mismatch of damage and repair over the life of the organelle. PARK2 is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates mitophagy, a repair mechanism that selectively degrades damaged mitochondria. Deletion of PARK2 in multiple in vivo models results in susceptibility to stress-induced mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction. Surprisingly, Park2 knockout (KO) mice are protected from nutritional stress and do not develop obesity, hepatic steatosis or insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). However, these phenomena are casually related and the physiological basis for this phenotype is unknown. We therefore undertook a series of acute HFD studies to more completely understand the physiology of Park2 KO during nutritional stress. We find that intestinal lipid absorption is impaired in Park2 KO mice as evidenced by increased fecal lipids and reduced plasma triglycerides after intragastric fat challenge. Park2 KO mice developed hepatic steatosis in response to intravenous lipid infusion as well as during incubation of primary hepatocytes with fatty acids, suggesting that hepatic protection from nutritional stress was secondary to changes in energy balance due to altered intestinal triglyceride absorption. Park2 KO mice showed reduced adiposity after 1-wk HFD, as well as improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. These studies suggest that changes in intestinal lipid absorption may play a primary role in protection from nutritional stress in Park2 KO mice by preventing HFD-induced weight gain and highlight the need for tissue-specific models to address the role of PARK2 during metabolic stress. PMID:27166280

  11. Hypolipidemic Effect of a Blue-Green Alga (Nostoc commune) Is Attributed to Its Nonlipid Fraction by Decreasing Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Weller, Curtis L; Carr, Timothy P; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that Nostoc commune var. sphaeroids Kützing (NO), a blue-green alga (BGA), exerts a hypolipidemic effect in vivo and its lipid extract regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic effect of NO is attributed to an algal lipid or a delipidated fraction in vivo compared with Spirulina platensis (SP). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93M diet containing 2.5% or 5% of BGA (w/w) or a lipid extract equivalent to 5% of BGA for 4 weeks to measure plasma and liver lipids, hepatic gene expression, intestinal cholesterol absorption, and fecal sterol excretion. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in 2.5% and 5% NO-fed groups, while plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased in the 5% NO group compared with controls. However, neither NO organic extract (NOE) nor SP-fed groups altered plasma lipids. Hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 were induced in 5% NO-fed mice, while there were no significant changes in hepatic lipogenic gene expression between groups. NO, but not NOE and SP groups, significantly decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. When HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with NOE and SP organic extract (SPE), there were marked decreases in protein levels of HMGR, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and fatty acid synthase. In conclusion, the nonlipid fraction of NO exerts TC and TG-lowering effects primarily by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and by increasing hepatic fatty acid oxidation, respectively. PMID:26161942

  12. In vitro solubility, dissolution and permeability studies combined with semi-mechanistic modeling to investigate the intestinal absorption of desvenlafaxine from an immediate- and extended release formulation

    Franek, F; Jarlfors, A; Larsen, F.;

    2015-01-01

    pH down the small intestine. Consequently, desvenlafaxine absorption from an IRF appears rate-limited by low Peff in the upper small intestine, which “delays” the predicted time to the maximal plasma concentration (tmax), consistent with clinical data. Conversely, desvenlafaxine absorption from the...... ERF appears rate-limited by dissolution due to the formulation, which tends to negate the influence of pH-dependent permeability on absorption. We suggest that desvenlafaxine Peff is mainly driven by transcellular diffusion of the unionized form. In the case of desvenlafaxine, poor metabolism does not...

  13. 大鼠在体单向肠灌流法对核黄素肠吸收的研究%Intestine absorption study on riboflavin with rat single pass intestinal perfusion technique

    王丽峰; 国大亮; 黄富强; 李涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the absorption of riboflavin in rat intestine.Methods The absorption of riboflavin in the small intestine (duodenum,jejunum and ileum)of rat was investigated using the gravimetry of the rat single pass intes-tinal perfusion technique.The drug concentration was measured by HPLC to acquire drug Pef and Ka .Results The Pef(× 10 -4 cm·s -1 )in duodenum,jejunum and ileum were 1.002 ±0.630,0.818 ±0.386,0.796 ±0.372.The Ka (×10 -3 s -1 )were 1.114 ±0.625,0.905 ±0.452,0.873 ±0.369.Conclusion The riboflavin could be absorbed in all the intesti-nal segments.The best part of intestine to absorb riboflavin was duodenum.%目的:研究核黄素在大鼠肠道的在体吸收情况。方法应用大鼠在体肠灌流技术中的重量法研究核黄素在大鼠的十二指肠、空肠、回肠的吸收情况,用高效液相色谱法测定肠灌流液中核黄素的含量,计算核黄素的有效渗透系数(Pef)及药物吸收速率常数(Ka )。结果核黄素在大鼠各肠段的 Pef(×10-4 cm·s -1)按十二指肠、空肠、回肠顺序依次分别为1.002±0.630、0.818±0.386、0.796±0.372;Ka (×10-3 s -1)依次为1.114±0.625、0.905±0.452、0.873±0.369。结论核黄素在大鼠肠段不同部位吸收存在差异,核黄素在十二指肠的吸收显著高于空肠和回肠段。

  14. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h ...

  15. In Silico Prediction of Drug Dissolution and Absorption with variation in Intestinal pH for BCS Class II Weak Acid Drugs: Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen§

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS Class III and BCS class II have been proposed, particularly, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo- BE results and in vitro- dissolution results for a BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH=6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in the low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol L-1/pH) was dramatically reduced compared to the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol L -1/pH). Thus these predictions for oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns largely depend on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be carefully considered for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. PMID:22815122

  16. In silico prediction of drug dissolution and absorption with variation in intestinal pH for BCS class II weak acid drugs: ibuprofen and ketoprofen.

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-10-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS class III and BCS class II have been proposed, in particular, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo BE results and in vitro dissolution results for BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH of 6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in a low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol l (-1) /pH) was dramatically reduced compared with the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol l (-1) /pH). Thus these predictions for the oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns depend largely on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be considered carefully for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be a very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. PMID:22815122

  17. Intestinal solute carriers

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Eriksson, André Huss; Andersen, Rikke; Frokjaer, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  18. Effect of colchicine on rat small intestinal absorptive cells. II. Distribution of label after incorporation of [3H]fucose into plasma membrane glycoproteins

    By means of radioautography the influence was tested of various periods (5, 15, 30, 40 min, 2 hr) of pretreatment with colchicine, administered intraperitoneally to rats at a dosage of 0.5 mg/100 g of body weight, on the intracellular pathway of [3H]fucose in absorptive cells of the small intestine. Administration of colchicine for 30 min and longer time intervals causes delay in the insertion of [3H]fucose into the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates in the Golgi apparatus, and results in redistribution of the label apparent over the different portions of the plasma membrane. In controls, at 2 and 4 hr after administration of [3H]fucose the apical plasma membrane is strongly labeled. Colchicine causes equalization of the reaction of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane: the number of silver grains attributable to the apical plasma membrane is reduced; following treatment with colchicine, apical portions of the plasma membrane comprise 31.6 +/- 1.8% of the silver grains, 38.6 +/- 3.8% are attributable to basolateral membrane regions. The colchicine-induced equalization of the density of label of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane, in addition to the occurrence of basolateral microvillus borders, suggests microtubules to be important in the maintenance of the polar organization of small intestinal absorptive cells

  19. Absorption of Iron from Ferritin Is Independent of Heme Iron and Ferrous Salts in Women and Rat Intestinal Segments123

    Theil, Elizabeth C.; Chen, Huijun; Miranda, Constanza; Janser, Heinz; Elsenhans, Bernd; Núñez, Marco T.; Pizarro, Fernando; Schümann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Ferritin iron from food is readily bioavailable to humans and has the potential for treating iron deficiency. Whether ferritin iron absorption is mechanistically different from iron absorption from small iron complexes/salts remains controversial. Here, we studied iron absorption (RBC 59Fe) from radiolabeled ferritin iron (0.5 mg) in healthy women with or without non-ferritin iron competitors, ferrous sulfate, or hemoglobin. A 9-fold excess of non-ferritin iron competitor had no significant e...

  20. Lactoferrin supplementation of the neonatal calf has no impact on immunoglobulin G absorption and intestinal development in the first days of life.

    Connelly, R A; Erickson, P S

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if newborn calves receiving supplemental lactoferrin (LF) had improved IgG uptake and if supplemental LF enhanced intestinal development through estimation of xylose uptake. Twenty-four newborn Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 0 or 1 g/d of supplemental LF. Calves were fed pooled maternal colostrum from 9 cows in 2 feedings: at birth and 12 h later. Calves consumed in excess of 200 g of IgG. Blood samples were taken before colostrum feeding (0 h) and at 12, 18, and 24 h after birth. Blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration. On d 2 of life, calves were fed milk replacer with the added LF and 0.5 g/kg of BW xylose to determine if supplemental LF affected intestinal development. Blood was sampled at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after the xylose dose. All calves attained passive transfer and supplemental LF did not affect IgG uptake ( ≥ 0.36) or apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG ( = 0.49). Lactoferrin did not enhance rate of absorption at any time point ( ≥ 0.36). There were no differences in xylose ( = 0.28) or glucose ( = 0.27) area under the curve values in calves supplemented with either 0 or 1 g/d LF. Lactoferrin did not enhance IgG uptake during the first 24 h or intestinal development in calves on the second day of life. PMID:26812326

  1. Coassimilation of dietary fat and benzo(a)pyrene in the small intestine: an absorption model using the killifish

    Vetter, R.D.; Carey, M.C.; Patton, J.S.

    1985-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) was dissolved in dietary fat and fed in a single dose to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Fluorescence microscopic examinations of small intestinal content and frozen sections of whole small intestine revealed that during fat digestion BP was codispersed in liquid crystalline product phases produced during lipolysis and then coabsorbed with dietary lipid followed by its reappearance in intracellular fat droplets. During the time that the absorbed fat remained in the enterocytes, BP fluorescence was initially concentrated in the intracellular fat droplets and then spread throughout the cytosol of the enterocytes. Tissue analyses showed that BP was rapidly metabolized in the intestine and transported to the gallbladder. These studies show that separation of a dissolved hydrophobic carcinogen from dietary fat occurs primarily after the fat has been digested, dispersed, absorbed, and reassembled in the enterocyte. The inability of the enterocyte to discriminate between dietary fat and dissolved carcinogenic compounds may be a partial explanation of the observed link between high fat diets and the incidence of some cancers. In vertebrates, the intestine and not the liver, appears to be the major site of metabolism of dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  2. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable...

  3. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers. PMID:25865420

  4. Property profiling of biosimilar mucus in a novel mucus-containing in vitro model for assessment of intestinal drug absorption

    Bøgh, Marie; Baldursdóttir, Stefania G; Müllertz, Anette; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2014-01-01

    Oral delivery of drugs, including peptide and protein therapeutics, can be impeded by the presence of the mucus surface-lining the intestinal epithelium. The aim of the present project was to design and characterize biosimilar mucus compatible with Caco-2 cell monolayers cultured in vitro to esta...... of the biorelevance of the Caco-2 cell culture model by application of mucus, resulting in an in vitro model of oral mucosa suitable for future assessment of innovative drug delivery approaches....

  5. Absorção de anticorpos do colostro em bezerros: I. Estudo no intestino delgado proximal Colostral antibodies absorption in dairy calves: I. Proximal small intestine study

    Rosana Bessi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a morfologia e determinar a localização da enzima fosfatase ácida na região anterior do intestino delgado, do nascimento ao fechamento intestinal, foram coletadas amostras de 15 bezerros machos em três idades: ao nascer sem que houvesse a ingestão de colostro; três horas após a ingestão da primeira refeição de colostro e aos três dias de idade. Observou-se a presença de células vacuoladas do duodeno ao jejuno médio no recém-nascido, preenchidas por material absorvido após a ingestão de colostro. Foram verificadas mudanças nas características morfológicas aos três dias de idade, com o início da detecção de reação da fosfatase ácida em lisossomos, indicando ação enzimática sobre o material absorvido. A morfologia aos três dias de idade pode representar o diferente estádio de maturação das células epiteliais do intestino delgado de bezerros, indicando que o processo depende das características da primeira geração de células desta região do intestino.The objective of this study was to study the morphology and the localization of acid phosphatase at calves anterior small intestine, from birth to intestinal closure. Fifteen male dairy calves were used in this study, which were aged: unsuckled neonatal, three hours after colostrum ingestion and three days old. Vacuolated cells from duodenum to medium jejunum could be found in the newborn calf, which have shown absorbed material after colostrum ingestion. Changes at the morphological characteristics and the initiation of phosphatase acid reaction in lysosomes were observed in calves aged three days old. The three days old morphology can represent a different phase of epithelium cells maturation of calves small intestine indicating that the absorption process is dependent of the first generation of cells from this intestinal region.

  6. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    ... the area where the intestine was reconnected N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure treated? The diet needs to be adjusted according to the intestine’s ...

  7. Human microsomal cyttrochrome P450-mediated reduction of oxysophocarpine, an active and highly toxic constituent derived from Sophora flavescens species, and its intestinal absorption and metabolism in rat.

    Wu, Lili; Zhong, Wanping; Liu, Junjin; Han, Weichao; Zhong, Shilong; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Shuwen; Tang, Lan

    2015-09-01

    Oxysophocarpine (OSC), an active and toxic quinolizidine alkaloid, is highly valued in Sophora flavescens Ait. and Subprostrate sophora Root. OSC is used to treat inflammation and hepatitis for thousands of years in China. This study aims to investigate the CYP450-mediated reduction responsible for metabolizing OSC and to evaluate the absorption and metabolism of OSC in rat in situ. Four metabolites were identified, with sophocarpine (SC) as the major metabolite. SC formation was rapid in human and rat liver microsomes (HLMs and RLMs, respectively). The reduction rates in the liver are two fold higher than in the intestine, both in humans and rats. In HLMs, inhibitors of CYP2C9, 3A4/5, 2D6, and 2B6 had strong inhibitory effects on SC formation. Meanwhile, inhibitors of CYP3A and CYP2D6 had significant inhibition on SC formation in RLMs. Human recombinant CYP3A4/5, 2B6, 2D6, and 2C9 contributed significantly to SC production. The permeability in rat intestine and the excretion rates of metabolites were highest in the duodenum (pCYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. In conclusion, the liver was the main organ responsible for OSC metabolism. First-pass metabolism via CYP3A4/5, 2B6, 2D6, and 2C9 may be the main reason for the poor OSC bioavailability. PMID:26045316

  8. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  9. The absorption and retention of plutonium in the small intestine of neonate rat. Effects of chemical forms

    Ligated segments of rat intestine were used to study the effect of age on the jejunal transfer and retention of different chemical forms of soluble Pu(IV). After instillation of Pu-carbonate a 5-fold increase of transfer was observed for 1 week old animals as compared to adults. This transfer value decreased gradually until weaning. Such an age-related decrease was also observed after the instillation of Pu-transferrin for 2 weeks as compared to 12 weeks-old rats, but in the same range of age, no significant modification could be demonstrated after the instillation of Pu-DTPA complex. Similar modifications related to the age of animals were observed after either perfusion or instillation of the Pu-carbonate and Pu-DTPA chemical forms. Measurement of the area of the intestinal lumen allowed to establish that, in the jejunum, for the chemical forms of Pu studied, no increase of Pu retention could be observed in neonates as compared to adults. Therefore, no relationship could be established between transfer of Pu and its jejunal retention

  10. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    Yang, Cuiping, E-mail: yangsophia76@hotmail.com; Zhang, Tianhong, E-mail: wdzth@sina.com; Li, Zheng, E-mail: lizh2524@126.com; Xu, Liang, E-mail: wj24998@163.com; Liu, Fei, E-mail: liufeipharm@163.com; Ruan, Jinxiu, E-mail: ruanjx1936@yahoo.com.cn; Liu, Keliang, E-mail: keliangliu55@126.com; Zhang, Zhenqing, E-mail: zhangzhenqingpharm@163.com

    2013-12-15

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup −5} to 2.85 × 10{sup −5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max

  11. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10−5 to 2.85 × 10−5 cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–12h) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the Cmax and AUC of aconitine. • P

  12. Absorção de anticorpos do colostro em bezerros: II. Estudo no intestino delgado distal Colostral antibodies absorption in calves: II. Distal small intestine

    Rosana Bessi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a morfologia e determinar a localização da enzima fosfatase ácida na região distal do intestino delgado de bezerros, do nascimento ao fechamento intestinal, foram coletadas amostras de 15 animais machos em três idades: ao nascer sem que houvesse a ingestão de colostro; três horas após a ingestão da primeira refeição de colostro e aos três dias de idade. Observou-se, ao nascimento, a presença de um grande vacúolo, que dominava todo o citoplasma das células epiteliais do jejuno distal e íleo. Após a ingestão de colostro, verificou-se o acúmulo de material absorvido nesses vacúolos. Foi detectada a reação de fosfatase ácida nas células absortivas de bezerros recém-nascidos, antes e após a ingestão de colostro. Aos três dias de idade, uma nova população de células geralmente não vacuoladas, com sistema endocítico apical reduzido, foi observada recobrindo as vilosidades intestinais. Portanto, em bezerros a maturação do epitélio absortivo do intestino delgado distal pode iniciar-se com o aumento da atividade enzimática nos vacúolos absortivos, culminando com a rápida substituição das células fetais por células diferenciadas não pinocíticas, o que determinaria o término da transferência de anticorpos maternos.The localization of acid phosphatase at distal small intestine and its morphology were studied f0rom birth to intestinal closure from fifteen male dairy calves aged: unsuckled neonatal, three hours after colostrum ingestion and three days old. At birth, the presence of a large vacuole was found and it expanded all over the epithelial cells cytoplasm at distal jejunum and ileum. For colostrum fed calves, ingested material could be observed in the vacuole. The phosphatase acid reaction was detected in the absorptive cells of suckled and unsuckled newborn calves. Calves aged three days old, a new population of non-vacuolated cells and reduced apical endocytic system were found

  13. Investigation of Absorption Characteristics of Total Saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis in Rat Intestinal Valgus Test%白头翁总皂苷在大鼠肠外翻试验中吸收特性考察

    陈振华; 管咏梅; 张妮; 欧水平; 朱卫丰; 杨明; 杨世林

    2012-01-01

    目的:考察白头翁总皂苷的肠吸收特性.方法:采用离体外翻肠囊模型研究白头翁总皂昔在不同肠段、不同药物浓度下的肠吸收特性,采用HPLC测定样品中指标成分常春藤皂苷元3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖-(1→2)-[β-D-吡喃葡萄糖-(1→4)]-L-吡喃阿拉伯糖苷的质量浓度.结果:白头翁总皂苷指标成分在各个肠段的吸收无显著性差异,各肠段累积吸收量均随药物质量浓度的增加而增加.结论:白头翁总皂苷在大鼠肠道内小存在特殊的“吸收窗”,可能为被动扩散吸收.%Objective; To study on intestinal absorption characteristics of total saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis. Method; Isolated everted gut sac model was used to study on intestinal absorption of total saponins from P. chinensis in different segments and different drug concentration, concentration of ivy sapogenin 3-0-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1→2) - [β-D]-glucopyranosyl- (1->4)] -L-pyran Arab glucoside in samples were determined by HPLC. Result: Absorption of index components for total saponins from P. chinensis in different intestinal segments had no significant difference, every intestine segments cumulative absorption increased along with concentration of total saponins from P. chinensis. Conclusion; Absorption of total saponins from P. chinensis may be passive diffusion absorption and didn' t be a special absorption window.

  14. Soybean β-Conglycinin Induces Inflammation and Oxidation and Causes Dysfunction of Intestinal Digestion and Absorption in Fish

    Zhang, Jin-xiu; Guo, Lin-Ying; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    β-conglycinin has been identified as one of the major feed allergens. However, studies of β-conglycinin on fish are scarce. This study investigated the effects of β-conglycinin on the growth, digestive and absorptive ability, inflammatory response, oxidative status and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and their enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake, and feed efficiency were reduced by β-conglycinin...

  15. D-xylose absorption

    D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine how well the intestines absorb a simple sugar (D-xylose). The test ... test is primarily used to determine if nutrient absorption problems are due to a disease of the ...

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 Prevents Atherosclerosis via Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice

    Huang, Ying; WANG, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE−/− mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption cau...

  17. Enabling the intestinal absorption of highly polar antiviral agents: ion-pair facilitated membrane permeation of zanamivir heptyl ester and guanidino oseltamivir.

    Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-01

    Antiviral drugs often suffer from poor intestinal permeability, preventing their delivery via the oral route. The goal of this work was to enhance the intestinal absorption of the low-permeability antiviral agents zanamivir heptyl ester (ZHE) and guanidino oseltamivir (GO) utilizing an ion-pairing approach, as a critical step toward making them oral drugs. The counterion 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNAP) was utilized to enhance the lipophilicity and permeability of the highly polar drugs. HNAP substantially increased the log P of the drugs by up to 3.7 log units. Binding constants (K(11(aq))) of 388 M(-1) for ZHE-HNAP and 2.91 M(-1) for GO-HNAP were obtained by applying a quasi-equilibrium transport model to double-reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus HNAP concentration. HNAP enhanced the apparent permeability (P(app)) of both compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner, as substantial P(app) (0.8-3.0 x 10(-6) cm/s) was observed in the presence of 6-24 mM HNAP, whereas no detectable transport was observed without counterion. Consistent with a quasi-equilibrium transport model, a linear relationship with slope near 1 was obtained from a log-log plot of Caco-2 P(app) versus HNAP concentration, supporting the ion-pair mechanism behind the permeability enhancement. In the rat jejunal perfusion assay, the addition of HNAP failed to increase the effective permeability (P(eff)) of GO. However, the rat jejunal permeability of ZHE was significantly enhanced by the addition of HNAP in a concentration-dependent manner, from essentially zero without HNAP to 4.0 x 10(-5) cm/s with 10 mM HNAP, matching the P(eff) of the high-permeability standard metoprolol. The success of ZHE-HNAP was explained by its >100-fold stronger K(11(aq)) versus GO-HNAP, making ZHE-HNAP less prone to dissociation and ion-exchange with competing endogenous anions and able to remain intact during membrane permeation. Overall, this

  18. In utero and postnatal exposure to long chain (n-3) PUFA enhances intestinal glucose absorption and energy stores in weanling pigs.

    Gabler, Nicholas K; Spencer, Joel D; Webel, Doug M; Spurlock, Michael E

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether feeding gestating and lactating sows (n-3) PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexenoic acid (DHA)] or coconut fat (saturated fat) influences ex vivo glucose absorption in the proximal jejunum and glucose and glycogen concentration of liver and muscle of their offspring at weaning. Sows were fed 1 of 4 diets for 150 d, which included the entire gestation and lactation periods. The diets consisted of basal corn/soybean meal (CONT), CONT + protected EPA and DHA-rich fish oil (PFO), CONT + DHA Gold fat (DHAGF), and CONT + coconut fat (COCO). All tissues were collected from piglets (n = 4 per treatment) following a 24-h period of food deprivation, which was initiated at weaning. Proximal jejunum samples were mounted in modified Ussing chambers for transport determinations. Relative to the CONT (7 muA/cm(2)), active glucose transport was greater (P = 0.013) in piglets from sows fed the PFO (30 microA/cm(2)) and DHAGF (40 microA/cm(2)) diets, but not the COCO diet (19 microA/cm(2); pooled SEM = 5). Likewise, jejunum expression of glucose transporter 2 and sodium glucose transporter 1 protein tended (P < 0.10) to be greater in piglets from dams fed the PFO and DHAGF diets, as did AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Piglets' muscle glycogen was greater than in CONT (34 +/- 5.2 mg/g wet tissue) only in piglets from dams fed the DHAGF (46 +/- 5.2 mg/g wet tissue; P < 0.05). These results indicate that (n-3) PUFA, particularly DHA, improves intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glycogen concentrations in newly weaned pigs. These findings may also have important implications for human mothers and infants. PMID:17951469

  19. Structural characterisation of the polysaccharides from endemic Mongolian desert plants and their effect on the intestinal absorption of ovalbumin.

    Golovchenko, Victoria V; Khramova, Daria S; Shashkov, Alexandre S; Otgonbayar, Dorjgoo; Chimidsogzol, Aria; Ovodov, Yury S

    2012-07-15

    Using successive extractions with water and 0.7% aqueous ammonium oxalate, pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the following plants growing in the arid climate of Mongolia (Gobi): saxaul Haloxylon ammodendron Maxim., rhubarb Rheum nanum Sievers, Nitraria sibirica Pall., Peganum harmala L. and almond Amygdalus mongolica Maxim. The data obtained exhibited the primary synthesis of the cell wall pectic polysaccharides but not the middle lamellae water-soluble pectins in plants growing in the dry climatic zone. Both α-(1→4)-D-galacturonan and α-(1→4)-D-galacturonan, which was substituted with methyl groups, were found to be backbone of pectins. The L-arabinofuranose residues were identified as the main components of ramified regions. The pectins from almond differed from other pectins due to a high arabinose content. The data from NMR spectroscopy and methylation analyses demonstrated that pectic polysaccharides from almond included terminal, (1→5)-, (1→3)-linked and 3,5-substituted L-arabinofuranose residues and a small terminal D-galactopyranose and 2,5- and 2,3,5-substituted L-arabinofuranose residue content. The pectic polysaccharides were found to decrease the absorption of ovalbumin (OVA) in the blood from the gut lumen. The serum OVA level was lower in mice fed with OVA mixed with the pectins compared with the control group, which was administered OVA alone. PMID:22549013

  20. Inclusion of ancient Latin-American crops in bread formulation improves intestinal iron absorption and modulates inflammatory markers.

    Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

    2016-02-01

    This study compares iron (Fe) absorption in Fe-deficient animals from bread formulations prepared by substitution of white wheat flour (WB) by whole wheat flour (WWB), amaranth flour (Amaranthus hypochondriacus, 25%) (AB) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa, 25%) (QB), or chia flour (Salvia hispanica L, 5%) (ChB). Hematological parameters of Fe homeostasis, plasmatic active hepcidin peptide production (LC coupled to Ms/Ms), and liver TfR-2 and IL-6 expression (RT-qPCR) were determined. The different bread formulations increased Fe content between 14% and 83% relative to white bread. Only animals fed with WWB, AB and ChB increased haemoglobin concentrations significantly. Feeding the different bread formulations did not increase hepcidin levels, but down-regulated transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) (apart from WWB) and IL-6 (apart from QB) expression levels. Only AB and ChB had a significant influence on Fe bioavailability at the investigated level of substitution. The potential contribution of these flours would not differ considerably from that of WWB. PMID:26787109

  1. Intestine Transplant

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Intestine Transplant Although it is possible for a living donor to donate an intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ ...

  2. The intestine is a blender

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  3. 氨基酸螯合锌在奶山羊肠道消化吸收规律的研究%Digestion and Absorption of Zinc Amino Acid Chelate in the Intestinal Tract of Dairy Goats

    杨改青; 朱河水; 王林枫; 贺翠婷; 张振; 高建伟; 邵其斌; 冯亚强; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究氨基酸螯合锌(Zn-AA)在奶山羊体内的消化吸收规律及其在饲粮中的适宜添加水平.试验选取2.5~3.0岁,体重40~45 kg的关中奶山羊母羊6只,安装永久性瘤胃、十二指肠及回肠瘘管,首先从瘤胃灌注40 mg/kg的Zn-AA溶液,分别在灌注后的24、48、72、96、120、144和168 h采集十二指肠食糜、回肠食糜、粪样和血样,测定样品中锌含量,计算锌在小肠和全肠道消化率,检测血清锌水平,确定最佳采样时间.在此基础上,分别灌注0、20、60、80、100和200 mg/kg的Zn-AA溶液,测定不同水平的Zn-AA在小肠和全肠道的消化率及血清锌水平.结果表明,Zn-AA全肠道消化率在48和96 h分别出现吸收高峰,120 h后Zn-AA在小肠、全肠道的消化率和血清锌水平基本平衡并保持稳定;不同时间和水平的Zn-AA在全肠道的消化率均高于小肠,小肠是Zn-AA吸收的主要部位,大肠对Zn-AA也有不同程度地吸收;60 mg/kg时Zn-AA在全肠道消化率和血清中水平均达到最大值.研究得出,成年奶山羊饲粮中Zn-AA的最适宜添加水平为60 mg/kg,小肠是Zn-AA消化的主要部位,大肠对Zn-AA也表现出较强的消化吸收能力.%This trial was conducted to study the digestion and absorption of zinc amino acid chelate (Zn-AA) in intestinal tract of dairy goats and to determine the optimal supplemental level of Zn-AA in the diet. Six Guanzhong daffy goats aged 2. 5 to 3.0 years old with the body weight of 40 to 45 kg were selected and fixed with permanent fistulas in rumen, duodenum and ileum. At the beginning of the trial, 40 mg/kg Zn-AA solution was infused into the rumen, and samples were collected at 24, 48, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h after infusion. Digesta samples from the duodenum and ileum, and feces samples were collected to detect the zinc levels and calculate the digestibility in the small intestine, entire intestine and large intestine. At the same time, blood samples were

  4. 脂质制剂体外动态肠吸收模型的建立及评价%Establishment and evaluation of a dynamic in vitro intestinal absorption model of lipid formulations

    刘颖; 易涛; 宦娣; 肖璐; 何吉奎

    2011-01-01

    A new dynamic in vitro intestinal absorption model for screening and evaluating lipid formulations was established by means of the characteristics of the intestinal digestion and absorption of the lipid formulations. This model was composed of two systems, including intestinal digestion and the intestinal tissue culture, which drew the evaluation method of intestinal absorption into the in vitro lipolysis model. The influence of several important model parameters such as Ca2+, D-glucose, K+ on the two systems of this model has been investigated. The results showed that increasing of Ca2+ concentration could be significantly conductive to intestinal digestion. The increasing of .D-glucose concentration could stepped significantly down the decay of the intestinal activity. K+ was able to maintain intestinal activity, but the influence of different concentration levels on the decay of the intestinal activity was of no significant difference. Thus the model parameters were set up as follows: Ca2+ for 10 mmol-L-1, D-glucose for 15 mmol-L-1 and K+ for 5.5 mmol-L-1. Type I lipid formulation was evaluated with this model, and there was a significant correlation between the absorption curve in vitro and absorption curve in vivo of rats (r = 0.995 6, P < 0.01). These results demonstrated that this model can be an attractive and great potential method for the screening, evaluating and predicting of the lipid formulations.%根据脂质制剂肠消化吸收的特性,本文在体外脂解模型基础上,引入肠吸收评价方法,建立了一种用于筛选评价脂质制剂的新型体外动态肠吸收模型,包括肠消化和肠组织培养两大体系.探究模型重要参数(Ca2+、葡萄糖、K+)的影响,发现Ca2+浓度的增加能显著增强脂质制剂的肠消化;葡萄糖浓度的递增能显著减慢肠组织活性衰减;K+虽能维持肠组织的活性,但其浓度变化对肠组织活性衰减并无显著性影响;最终选择Ca2+l0 mmol·L-1、葡萄糖15 mmol

  5. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

  6. Evaluation of intestinal absorption enhancement and local mucosal toxicity of two promoters. I. Studies in isolated rat and human colonic mucosae.

    Maher, Sam; Kennelly, Rory; Bzik, Victoria A; Baird, Alan W; Wang, Xuexuan; Winter, Desmond; Brayden, David J

    2009-11-01

    The effects of two absorption promoters, (sodium caprate (C(10)) and melittin), on intestinal permeability and viability were measured in intact rat and human colonic epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Apical-side addition of C(10) (10 mM) and melittin (10-50 microM) rapidly reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increased the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [(14)C]-mannitol and FITC-dextran-4 kDa (FD4) across colonic mucosae from both species. Effects of C(10) on flux were greater than those of melittin at the concentrations selected. C(10) irreversibly decreased TEER, but the effects of melittin were partially reversible. Enhanced permeability of polar sugars (0.18-70 kDa) in colonic mucosae with C(10) was accompanied by significant release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the luminal surface as well as by inhibition of electrogenic chloride secretion induced by the muscarinic agonist, carbachol (0.1-10 microM). Although melittin did not alter electrogenic chloride secretion in rat or human colonic mucosae, it caused leakage of LDH from rat tissue. Gross histology and electron microscopy of rat and human colonic mucosae demonstrated that each permeation enhancer can induce colonic epithelial damage at concentrations required to increase marker fluxes. C(10) led to more significant mucosal damage than melittin, characterised by sloughing and mucosal erosion. Overall, these results indicate that while C(10) and melittin increase transport of paracellular flux markers across isolated human and rat colonic mucosae in vitro, these effects are associated with some cytotoxicity. PMID:19737613

  7. Estado nutricional e absorção intestinal de ferro em crianças com doença hepática crônica com e sem colestase Nutritional status and intestinal iron absorption in children with chronic hepatic disease with and without cholestasis

    Regina Helena Guedes da Motta Mattar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ingestão alimentar, a ocorrência de desnutrição energético-protéica e de anemia e a absorção intestinal de ferro em crianças com doença hepática crônica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 25 pacientes com doença hepática crônica, sendo 15 com colestase e 11 sem colestase. A idade variou entre 6,5 meses e 12,1 anos. A absorção intestinal de ferro foi avaliada pela elevação do ferro sérico uma hora após a ingestão de 1 mg/kg de ferro elementar e pela resposta à ferroterapia oral. A absorção intestinal de ferro foi comparada com um grupo de crianças com anemia ferropriva. RESULTADOS: A ingestão média de energia e proteínas nos pacientes com doença hepática com colestase foi maior do que nos pacientes sem colestase. O déficit nutricional foi mais grave nos pacientes com colestase, predominando os déficits de estatura-idade e peso-idade. A anemia foi freqüente tanto nas crianças com doença hepática com colestase (11/14; 78,6% como nas sem colestase (7/11; 63,6%. Na doença hepática com colestase, observou-se menor (p OBJECTIVES: to evaluate food intake, occurrence of energy-protein malnutrition and anemia, and intestinal iron absorption in children with chronic liver disease. METHODS: The study included 25 children with chronic liver disease, 15 with cholestasis and 11 without cholestasis. The age varied between 6.5 months and 12.1 years. Intestinal iron absorption was evaluated by the increment of serum iron one hour after the ingestion of 1 mg/kg of elemental iron and by the response to oral iron therapy. Iron intestinal absorption was compared to a group with iron deficiency anemia (without liver disease. RESULTS: The mean intake of energy and protein in the cholestatic group was higher than in patients without cholestasis. The nutritional deficit was more severe in cholestatic patients, especially with regard to height-for-age and weight-for-age indices. Anemia was found in both

  8. 香青兰黄酮类化合物的大鼠在体肠吸收%Study on the intestinal absorption of Dracocephalum total flavones in situ

    袁勇; 邢建国; 王新春; 鲁萍; 苏红; 文志萍

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究香青兰总黄酮在大鼠各肠段的吸收动力学特征.方法:采用大鼠在体肠灌流模型,利用HPLC法测定灌流液中田蓟苷的浓度,研究田蓟苷和香青兰总黄酮在大鼠各肠段的吸收特性.结果:香青兰总黄酮中田蓟苷在大鼠各肠段的吸收速率常数Ka值按结肠、空肠、十二指肠、回肠顺序依次分别为5.7651×101,4.4081×101,4.3873×10-2,3.9899×10-2;田蓟苷在大鼠各肠段的吸收速率常数Ka值按十二指肠、回肠、空肠、结肠顺序依次分别为6.7897×10-2,6.3018× 10-2,5.8011×10-2,5.6765×10-2.结论:田蓟苷单体与香青兰总黄酮中田蓟苷在大鼠各肠段的吸收特征相一致,二者在大鼠小肠段不同部位的吸收均不存在差异.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the absorption characteristics and its mechanism of Dracocephalum total flavones in various intestinal segments. METHODS In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model and HPLC were used to study the intestinal absorption of tilianin in the four intestinal segments. RESULTS The absorption rate constants (Ka) of tilianin in total Dracocephalum flavones were 5. 7651 × 10-2、4. 4081 × 10-2、4. 3873 × 10-2、3. 9899 × 10-2 at colon, jejunum, duodenum and ileum respectively; and K8 of tilianin were 6. 7897 × 10-2、6. 3018 × 10-2、5. 8011 × 10-1、5. 6765 × 10-1 at duodenum, ileum, jejunum and colon respectively. CONCLUSION The absorption characteristics of tilianin at small intestine segments has no difference with tilianin in the flavones.

  9. MODÉLISATION DU TRANSPORT, DE LA DÉGRADATION ET DE L'ABSORPTION DES ALIMENTS DANS L'INTESTIN GRÊLE

    Taghipoor, Masoomeh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to represent a generic model of digestion in the small intestine. In the first part of this work, a model based on ordinary differential equations is used to represent the digestion : the equations describe the evolution of the position and composition of the bolus coming from the stomach. Each bolus is identified as a cylinder. This model considers simultaneously the different aspects of digestion i.e. transport of the bolus all along the small intestine, feedstu...

  10. Intestinal Cancer

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  11. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I and its analogue, long-R3-IGF-I, on intestinal absorption of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose are less pronounced than gut mucosal growth responses.

    Garnaut, Sonja M; Howarth, Gordon S; Read, Leanna C

    2002-03-01

    The relationship between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) peptide-induced increases in bowel mass and functional improvement is unclear. We utilised three independent methods to investigate the effects of IGF-I peptides on intestinal absorption of the glucose analogue, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3MG) in rats. Rats received vehicle, IGF-I or the more potent analogue, long-R3-IGF-I via subcutaneously implanted mini-pump, for 7 days, at which time intestinal absorption was assessed by: (1) plasma 3MG appearance following oral gavage, (2) single-pass- or (3) recirculating-perfusion of a jejunal segment. 3MG (320 or 800 mg) was gavaged on day 7 to rats treated with vehicle, IGR-I or long-R3-IGF-I. With the lower 3MG dose, only long-R3-IGF-I increased (40%) the initial rate of 3MG appearance in plasma. IGF-I had no significant effect, whilst at the higher 3MG dose neither peptide was effective. Utilising perfusion techniques, long-R3-IGF-I, but not IGF-I, significantly increased 3MG uptake per cm of jejunum by up to 69%, although significance was lost when expressed as a function of tissue weight. Long-R3-IGF-I, but not native IGF-I, enhanced 3MG absorption from the intestinal lumen, presumably reflecting an increased mucosal mass rather than an up-regulation of specific epithelial glucose transporters. PMID:11999215

  12. 冰糖增加口服四环素吸收作用机理的初步研究%Primary Study on the Mechanism of Enhanced Absorption of Tetracycline by Crystal Sugar in the Rat Intestine

    韦玉先; 陈海东; 唐祖年

    2001-01-01

    Aims:To study the mechanism by which crystal sugar enhances absorption of tetracycline in the rat intestine. Methods:Animal experiments were performed following the methods described by Fukahori at al;rats fasted for 24h were gavaged with tetracycline hydrochloride with or without concomitant of different concentrations of crystal sugar, i.e, 20%,40%,60% and 80% crystal sugar solution. Blood sample was collected then animal was sacrificed for intestinal content collection. Tetracycline in plasma and intestinal content was determined by fluorespectro-photometry method. Results:Theoretical plasma peak concentrations of tetracycline were significantly elevated by coadministration of crystal sugar (P<0.05),and the tetracycline remaining in the intestine decreased (P<0.05),showing a well correlation with concentrations of crystal sugar used. The intestinal contents. however, did not show correlation with the concentrations of crystal sugar.Conclusions:Co-administration of crystal sugar enhances absorption of tetracycline in rat intestine, and the intestinal content may not be affected by the concentrations of crystal sugar, indicating that the enhancing effect of crystal sugar on tetracycline absorption in intestine may be mediated by an active transport process.%目的:对中药冰糖增加口服四环素吸收作用机理进行初步的实验研究。方法:参考Masahiro Fukahori等介绍的方法,分别给大白鼠单独口服(灌胃)四环素或合并不同浓度冰糖溶液(20%、40%、60%、80%)口服(灌胃)后,采用改进的荧光光度法测定血药浓度及肠内液药物浓度及含量,并称量与比较肠内容物量。结果:合并使用冰糖可使大白鼠血中四环素的浓度明显提高(P<0.05),并在20%~60%范围内呈明显的线性关系,而肠道内液四环素的含量则明显降低(P<0.05)。但肠道内容物量与冰糖浓度并无明显相关性。结论:冰糖可明显增加大白鼠口服四环素在肠

  13. Transport of radiolabelled glycoprotein to cell surface and lysosome-like bodies of absorptive cells in cultured small-intestinal tissue from normal subjects and patients with a lysosomal storage disease

    The transport of 3H-fucose and 3H-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins in the absorptive cells of cultured human small-intestinal tissue was investigated with light- and electron-microscopical autoradiography. The findings showed that these glycoproteins were completed in the Golgi apparatus and transported in small vesicular structures to the apical cytoplasm of these cells. Since this material arrived in the cell coat on the microvilli and in the lysosome-like bodies simultaneously, a crinophagic function of these organelles in the regulation of the transport or secretion of cell-coat material was supported. In the absorptive cells of patients with fucosidosis or Hunter's type of lysosomal storage disease, a similar transport of cell-coat material to the lysosome-like bodies and a congenital defect of a lysosomal hydrolase normally involved in the degradation of cell-coat material, can explain the accumulation of this material in the dense bodies. (orig.)

  14. The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells.

    Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle

    2013-11-01

    The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols. PMID:24056541

  15. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. PMID:24853104

  16. Transcriptional analysis of porcine intestinal mucosa infected with Salmonella Typhimurium revealed a massive inflammatory response and disruption of bile acid absorption in ileum

    Uribe, Juber Herrera; Collado-Romero, Melania; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Arce, Cristina; Bautista, Rocío; Carvajal, Ana; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Claros, M. Gonzalo; Garrido, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    intestine during infection with Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as post-transcriptional gene modulation by microRNAs (miRNA). Sixteen piglets were orally challenged with S. Typhimurium. Samples from jejunum, ileum and colon, collected 1, 2 and 6 days post infection (dpi) were hybridized to mRNA and mi...

  17. Everted Intestinal Sacs As In vitro Model For Assessing Absorptivity Of L Histidine Under The Effect Of Aspirine And Gum Acacia In Male Rats

    Mahmoud Rabeh Mahmoud

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal permeability changes over a range of physiologically relevant intestinal injury. The experiments were performed in 80 rats subdivided into four groups as aspirin (400 mg/kg b.w., gum Acacia ( 1g./day and aspirin with gum Acacia groups for 21 days compared with control group. Relative reabsorption of L-Histidine was greater(p<0.001 in the aspirin in 10 min of incubation compared with that of the control rats. In aspirin in combination with gum Acacia, the relative reabsorption were significantly (p<0.001 decrease in 10, 20 and 30 min. of incubation compared with that of the control rats. Moreover, the relative reabsorption of L-histidine was significantly (p<0.01 reduced by the aspirin at 45 min of time of the incubation buffer compared with that of the control. However, gum acacia treatment was increased at 10 min (p<0.01 ,30 min (p<0.01 and 45 min (p<0.001 respectively compared with that of the control rats. Relative reabsorption of L-histidine record a nonsignificant increase of aspirin at 20 min and 30 min of incubation compared with that of the control. Gum and aspirin with gum at 20min and 45min of incubation resulted an increase and decrease in relative reabsorption of L-histidine respectively compared with that of the control. Aspirin and aspirin in combination with gum acacia treatment increased body, intestinal weights and mucosal total protein significantly with percent changes ranged from 8% to 40% compared with that of the control. On the other hand, gum treatment decreased body, intestinal weights and mucosal total protein significantly with percent changes ranged from 8% to 35% compared with that of the control. These results demonstrated that L-histidine is actively taken up by a gum Acacia system in intestinal everted sac mechanism of rat with energy supplied by glucose and Na+in incubation buffer. Moreover, aspirin system had an inhibitory effect on L-histidine uptake in

  18. Intestinal absorption of berberine alone and in combinations by rats single pass intestinal perfusion in situ%在体单向肠灌流模型研究小檗碱及其在复方配伍环境中的大鼠肠吸收特性

    张燕; 朱华旭; 郭立玮

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of concentration, intestinal segments, pH, inhibitors of proteins (P-gp), Na+-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1) on the intestinal absorption of berberine, and to compare intestinal absorption of berberine in combinations. With phenol red as the indicator, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model was used and intestinal absorption of pure berberine at concentrations of 36.70, 46.17 and 92.33 μg·mlL-1, simulated system of HLJDT (mixture of berberine, baicalin and geniposide), HLJDT with the concentration of berberine 92.33 μg·mL-1 in perfusion solution of different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) were determined by HPLC in combination with diode array detection (DAD). The results indicated that Ka values of berberine at different concentrations had little significant difference among that obtained after perfusing via duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon indicating that the absorption of berberine was mainly the passive diffusion. It was also suggested that SGLT1 and P-gp might exert some effects on the absorption of berberine. Ka and Peff values of berberine in a mixture of pure compounds and HLJDT for different intestine segments of rat showed an increasing tendency and was significantly different (P< 0.05) indicating that berberine in a mixture of pure compounds and HLJDT was assimilated better in small intestine. These results indicate that the intestinal absorption of berberine may be affected by compatibility of compounds. Additionally, berberine has wide absorption window and better absorption in colon.%本实验主要考察药物浓度、肠段、pH、P-糖蛋白(P-glycoprotein,P-gp)及Na+依赖型葡萄糖转运体(Na+-dependent glucose transporter,SGLT1)对小檗碱肠吸收的影响,并探索复方配伍环境中小檗碱的肠吸收情况.实验以酚红为标示物,采用大鼠在体单向肠灌流模型,运用高效液相色谱法考察小檗碱单体(36.70

  19. Intestinal obstruction

    ... of the major causes of intestinal obstruction in infants and children. Causes of paralytic ileus may include: Bacteria or viruses that cause intestinal infections ( gastroenteritis ) Chemical, electrolyte, or mineral imbalances (such as decreased ...

  20. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    C.I. González; M. Cires; F. J. Jiménez; Rubio, T.

    2008-01-01

    La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada). En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuen...

  1. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    C.I. González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada. En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo.Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation. In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment

  2. Inhibition of Intestinal α-Glucosidase and Glucose Absorption by Feruloylated Arabinoxylan Mono- and Oligosaccharides from Corn Bran and Wheat Aleurone

    Malunga, Lovemore Nkhata; Eck, Peter; Beta, Trust

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides (FAXmo) on mammalian α-glucosidase and glucose transporters was investigated using human Caco-2 cells, rat intestinal acetone powder, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. The isolated FAXmo from wheat aleurone and corn bran were identified to have degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 and 1, respectively, by HPLC-MS. Both FAXmo extracts were effective inhibitors of sucrase and maltase functions of the α-glucosidase. The IC50 for FAXmo extracts on Caco-2 cells and rat intestinal α-glucosidase was 1.03–1.65 mg/mL and 2.6–6.5 mg/mL, respectively. Similarly, glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells was inhibited up to 40%. The inhibitory effect of FAXmo was dependent on their ferulic acid (FA) content (R = 0.95). Sodium independent glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) activity was completely inhibited by FAXmo in oocytes injected to express GLUT2. Our results suggest that ferulic acid and feruloylated arabinoxylan mono-/oligosaccharides have potential for use in diabetes management. PMID:27073693

  3. Intestinal absorption of the antiepileptic drug substance vigabatrin in Göttingen mini-pigs is unaffected by co-administration of amino acids

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Holm, René; Thale, Zia Irene;

    2014-01-01

    the rate of gastric emptying or an effect directly on the absorption of vigabatrin, possibly via inhibition of PAT1 or another drug transporter. In conclusion, co-administration of PAT1-ligands together with vigabatrin did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin....

  4. Sensitivity of a hyperosmolar or "low"-osmolar test solution for sugar absorption in recognizing small intestinal mucosal damage in coeliac disease.

    Uil, J J; van Elburg, R M; Janssens, P M; Mulder, C J; Heymans, H S

    2000-04-01

    Reliability of differential sugar absorption tests is hampered by a lack of standardization of the content and osmolarity of the test solutions. We evaluated the effect of osmolarity of the test solution of the sugar absorption test on the 5 hour urine excretion of orally administered lactulose and mannitol. A group of 28 controls and 14 coeliacs, with villous atrophy grade II to IV, ingested a hyperosmolar sugar absorption test solution and a "low"-osmolar solution, respectively. After an overnight fast, each subject ingested hyperosmolar sugar absorption test solution (2 g mannitol, 5 g lactulose and 40 g sucrose/100 ml (around 1,560 mmol/l)). After two days, this procedure was repeated with low-osmolar solution (2 g mannitol and 5 g lactulose/100 ml (around 375 mmol/l). The influence of the sequence of the tests on the results had previously been excluded. All urine from the 5 h-period following ingestion of the test solution was collected. To calculate the low-osmolar solution ratio, samples were analysed for lactulose and mannitol concentrations by gas chromatography The sensitivity of hyperosmolar SAT solution and low-osmolar solution for the detection of mucosal abnormalities in coeliacs was 64% and 43%, respectively. In conclusion, a hyperosmolar solution discriminates better between normal and damaged mucosa of the small bowel such as villous atrophy due to a relative increase in permeability for lactulose. PMID:10975768

  5. New approaches to increase intestinal length: Methods used for intestinal regeneration and bioengineering

    Shirafkan, Ali; Montalbano, Mauro; McGuire, Joshua; Rastellini, Cristiana; Cicalese, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate absorptive surface area poses a great challenge to the patients suffering a variety of intestinal diseases causing short bowel syndrome. To date, these patients are managed with total parenteral nutrition or intestinal transplantation. However, these carry significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, by emergence of tissue engineering, anticipations to utilize an alternative method to increase the intestinal absorptive surface area are increasing. In this paper, we will review t...

  6. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  7. Absorção de anticorpos do colostro em bezerros: I. Estudo no intestino delgado proximal Colostral antibodies absorption in dairy calves: I. Proximal small intestine study

    Rosana Bessi; Patricia Pauletti; Raul Dantas D'Arce; Raul Machado Neto

    2002-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estudar a morfologia e determinar a localização da enzima fosfatase ácida na região anterior do intestino delgado, do nascimento ao fechamento intestinal, foram coletadas amostras de 15 bezerros machos em três idades: ao nascer sem que houvesse a ingestão de colostro; três horas após a ingestão da primeira refeição de colostro e aos três dias de idade. Observou-se a presença de células vacuoladas do duodeno ao jejuno médio no recém-nascido, preenchidas por material absorvido...

  8. Absorção de anticorpos do colostro em bezerros: II. Estudo no intestino delgado distal Colostral antibodies absorption in calves: II. Distal small intestine

    Rosana Bessi; Patricia Pauletti; Raul Dantas D'Arce; Raul Machado Neto

    2002-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estudar a morfologia e determinar a localização da enzima fosfatase ácida na região distal do intestino delgado de bezerros, do nascimento ao fechamento intestinal, foram coletadas amostras de 15 animais machos em três idades: ao nascer sem que houvesse a ingestão de colostro; três horas após a ingestão da primeira refeição de colostro e aos três dias de idade. Observou-se, ao nascimento, a presença de um grande vacúolo, que dominava todo o citoplasma das células epiteliais ...

  9. Intestinal failure:Pathophysiological elements and clinical diseases

    Lian-An Ding; Jie-Shou Li

    2004-01-01

    There are two main functions of gastrointestinal tract,digestion and absorption, and barrier function. The latter has an important defensive effect, which keeps the body away from the invading and damaging of bacteria and endotoxin. It maintains the systemic homeostasis. Intestinal dysfunction would happen when body suffers from diseases or harmful stimulations. The lesser dysfunction of GI tract manifests only disorder of digestion and absorption,whereas the more serious intestinal disorders would harm the intestinal protective mechanism, or intestinal barrier function, and bacterial/endotoxin translocation, of intestinal failure (IF) would ensue. This review disscussed the theory of the intestinal failure, aiming at attracting recognition and valuable comments by clinicians.

  10. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    that may impact drug absorption. Thus absorptive transporters may facilitate BA of APIs that are substrates/victims for the transporters and have permeability-limited absorption, i.e. those that are classified in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Class 3 and 4. On the other hand, exsorptive...... transporters may restrict BA of APIs that are victims for these efflux transporters, especially those APIs classified to have solubility-limited absorption, i.e. compounds in BCS Class 2 and 4. The aim of the present Chapter is to review drug transporters (DTs) present within the intestine and to discuss...... and exemplify their roles in drug absorption/exsorption and in drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Although focus in the present Chapter is on DTs that are mentioned in American and European regulatory guidances, the intestinal transporters for nutrients and endogens (endogenous compounds) are also briefly...