WorldWideScience

Sample records for absolute renal uptake

  1. Reduction of 4 hours absolute DMSA uptake when renal damage is bilateral

    Introduction: There is currently controversy concerning the use of absolute DMSA uptake (AU) as an indicator of renal function, with the literature containing articles either supporting or questioning the use of DMSA scans in this way. This paper offers some additional data, and a possible explanation of how best to use DMSA if absolute function is desired. Method: Absolute DSMA uptake was measured in patients referred for DMSA renal scan. These uptakes required corrections for the injected dose (MBq), the camera sensitivity (c/s/MBq), the delay after injection, and the renal depths. The results were grouped according to the (visual) status of the kidneys. Results: The total AU (R + L kidneys) for each group are presented, and indicate that if there is one normal kidney, or if renal parenchymal damage is minor, the 4 hour AU is normal. The 4 hour AU is only reduced when both kidneys show significant parenchymal renal damage. Conclusion: At 4 hours, AU is only useful when renal damage is severe. An explanation is proposed, whereby the value of AU would be greatest early, e.g. at 20 minutes when there would be the maximum separation between patients with normal and abnormal renal function

  2. Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children

    Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)

  3. 99Tcm-DMSA absolute uptake an indicator of true renal function: normal paediatric values at 2-4 hours

    Full text: Absolute uptake of Dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA] gives additional information about the functional status of the kidneys and correlates well with creatinine clearance rates. Most investigators recommend quantitative measurements should be carried out at least six hours post injection, however for imaging, a time interval of between two to four hours is optimal. This study aims to determine if the normal absolute uptake values can be accurately predicted over this range of post injection imaging times. 88 normal kidneys were analysed from 44 children with a mean age of 5.4 years (range 0.4 - 15.0). The mean time between injection and scan was 171.7 minutes (range 105 - 230). The absolute uptake as a percentage of the administered activity was found and from this the absolute uptake of DMSA in mg was calculated for each kidney. Absolute uptake of DMSA versus time between injection and scan showed no linear relationship graphically. The Pearson's correlation coefficient [corr] was 0.223 (p = 0.036). When all measured factors were analysed a strong positive linear relationship was found between the absolute uptake of DMSA and the amount of DMSA injected in mg (corr 0.940 (p<0.005)), and the age of the child. (corr = 0.770 (p<0.005)) Multiple linear regression showed that these two factors accounted for 91.9% of the change in absolute DMSA uptake. The F value was 479.21 (p<0.005) indicating very strong evidence for rejection of the null hypothesis that no linear relationship exists. In conclusion time between injection and scan appears to play little role in the absolute uptake of DMSA over two to four hours. The absolute uptake can be accurately predicted using a linear regression equation incorporating the amount of DMSA injected in mg and the patient's age. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA in children; Padronizacao do metodo para calculo da captacao renal absoluta do {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA em criancas

    Ono, Carla Rachel; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Watanabe, Tomoco; Costa, Paulo Luiz Aguirre; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: crachelo@usp.br; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; Machado, Marcia Melo Campos [Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital Universitario; Liberato Junior, Waldyr de Paula

    2006-01-15

    Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)

  5. Uptake of trimethoprim by renal cortex.

    Cacini, W; Myre, S A

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms involved in the uptake of the urinary antibacterial drug trimethoprim by incubated slices of rat renal cortex. Concentration-dependent studies of the uptake process demonstrated that a saturable component was involved. The results of inhibitor studies as well as the time-course pattern support the conclusion that at least two processes are involved in the uptake of trimethoprim. These include active transport via the organic cation system, accounting for about 40% of the total uptake, and a second component that continues to operate under conditions of inhibited cellular metabolism. Chromatographic examination of post-incubation bathing medium and slice extracts failed to demonstrate renal cortex metabolism of trimethoprim. PMID:4052093

  6. Renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate in renal amyloidosis due to Familiar Mediterranean Fever

    Banzo-Marraco, J.; Abos-Olivares, M.D.; Iribar-Ibabe, M.C.; Prats-Rivera, E.; Banzo-Marraco, J.I.; Teijeiro-Vidal, J.; Nerin-Mora, E.; Nerin de la Puerta, I.

    1981-06-01

    Renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate is described in a patient with biopsy-proven amyloidosis of the kidneys, due to Familiar Mediterranean Fever. After administration 150 MBq (4mCi) /sup 67/Ga-citrate, scans were done at 48, 72, and 120 h. Intense uptake was noted in both kidneys. A renal biopsy done 5 days after the /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan revealed a pattern typical of amyloidosis. Gallium scanning can be useful in patients with fever of unknown origin. Renal amyloidosis can be considered when renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate associated with nephrotic syndrome is observed.

  7. Measurement of split glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, filtration fraction by fractional renal uptake

    The total and split glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated from the previously reported formula of linear regression analysis between the renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA within 2 to 3 minutes following the radionuclide appearance into the kidneys and sodium thiosulfate clearance, accordingly: GFR (ml/min) = 8.775 x (% total renal uptake) + 9.685. On the other hand, the total and split effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) was also determined by the modified Schlegel's method of fractional renal uptake of intravenously administered I-131 hippuran within 1 to 2 minutes following radionuclide appearance into the kidneys. After correcting the obtained renal uptake by depth and dose, the ERPF was computed from the significant correlation with paraaminohippuric acid (PAH) clearance (r = 0.867, ERPF = 17.2 x (% total renal uptake) + 49.7). And the total and split filtration fraction (FF) was determined by dividing the GFR with Tc-99m DTPA by the ERPF with I-131 hippuran. In the 24 patients without functional impairement of kidney, the split GFR, ERPF and FF of right kidney were 50.9 ± 9.5 ml/min, 209.1 ± 33.8 ml/min and 0.241 ± 0.037, and those of left kidney were 52.8 ± 10.5 ml/min, 214.2 ± 42.3 ml/min and 0.248 ± 0.034. In unilateral renal disease of 14 patients with obstructive uropathy and 9 patients with renovascular hypertension, the FF of the affected side did not show any significant changes compared to that of the unaffected side, and the alterations of GFR were well accorded with those of ERPF. Among three patients following the treatment of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, however, some disparities between GFR and ERPF alterations were found in the affected side. (author)

  8. Sonographic Measurement of Absolute and Relative Renal Length in Healthy Isfahani Adults

    A Hekmatnia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no information on renal size and its relation to age, sex and height in the area of Isfahan. The aim of this study was to define sonographically measured absolute renal lengths and their relations to height in normal Isfahani adults. Methods: 400 healthy Isfahani subjects aged 20 to 69 years with normal blood pressure, no history of renal disease in them or their first degree relatives and with normal sonographic appearance were chosen in 2002-2003. The study was cross-sectional. With real-time sonography, absolute renal length was measured. Results: Four hundred healthy adults (230 men and 170 women aged 20 to 69 years (39.6 ± 13.6 year were evaluated. The length of left kidney was longer than the right one (111 ± 9.8 mm vs. 109 ± 8.4 mm in right kidney; P < 0.01. Renal length was significantly greater in males compared to females (P < 0.01. Renal length decreased with age and the rate of decrease was accelerated at the age of 60 years and older. There was a significant correlation between kidney length and the subject's height (P < 0.01. Conclusion: The result of this study shows the normal values for renal length in Iranian males and females, which may be helpful in assessing the size of patients’ kidneys in different clinical settings. Keywords: Kidney size, Renal length, Ultrasonography, Normal values.

  9. Is the renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA decreased in microalbuminuric diabetic patient?

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease and the incidence is progressively increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake among diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria, and then to determine the clinical usefulness of 99mTc-DMSA in predicting early diabetic nephropathy. 99mTc-DMSA scan was performed and a total renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA was measured in 145 diabetic patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the amount of 24 hour urinary albumin excretion as Group I (normoalbuminuria, 74 cases ), Group II (microalbuminuria, 39 cases), and Group III (overt proteinuria, 32 cases). The differences of 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake among the 3 groups and the correlation between the renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA and other clinical parameters were analyzed. The total renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA of Group II (40.8±11.0%) was significantly lower than that of Group I (54.4±6.3%, p99mTc-DMSA total renal uptakes correlated negatively with serum creatinine level (r=0.629, p99mTc-DMSA total renal uptake of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria was significantly decreased compared with that of patients of normoalbuminuria. Therefore, 99mTc-DMSA scan can be used as a diagnostic study for early detection of the diabetic nephropathy

  10. A comparison of deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak plot in parenchymal renal uptake rate

    Deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak (R-P) plot are two of the most commonly used methods for analyzing dynamic radionuclide renography. Both methods allow estimation of absolute and relative renal uptake of radiopharmaceutical and of its rate of transit through the kidney. Seventeen patients (32 kidneys) were referred for further evaluation by renal scanning. All patients were positioned supine with their backs to the scintillation gamma camera, so that the kidneys and the heart are both in the field of view. Approximately 5-7 mCi of 99mTc-DTPA (diethylinetriamine penta-acetic acid) in about 0.5 ml of saline is injected intravenously and sequential 20 s frames were acquired, the study on each patient lasts for approximately 20 min. The time-activity curves of the parenchymal region of interest of each kidney, as well as the heart were obtained for analysis. The data were then analyzed with deconvolution and the R-P plot. A strong positive association (n = 32; r = 0.83; R2 = 0.68) was found between the values that obtained by applying the two methods. Bland-Altman statistical analysis demonstrated that ninety seven percent of the values in the study (31 cases from 32 cases, 97% of the cases) were within limits of agreement (mean ± 1.96 standard deviation). We believe that R-P analysis method is expected to be more reproducible than iterative deconvolution method, because the deconvolution technique (the iterative method) relies heavily on the accuracy of the first point analyzed, as any errors are carried forward into the calculations of all the subsequent points, whereas R-P technique is based on an initial analysis of the data by means of the R-P plot, and it can be considered as an alternative technique to find and calculate the renal uptake rate

  11. On the method for calculating unilateral renal clearance using 99mTc-MAG3 renal uptake ratio

    It has been reported that the renal clearance of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3), a newly developed 99mTc-labeled renal tubular agent, effectively reflects renal plasma flow and serves as a useful parameter of renal function. In this study, we investigated on the method for calculating unilateral renal clearance of 99mTc-MAG3 using renal uptake ratio (RUR) and the conversion formula between RUR and renal clearance. Renography by 99mTc-MAG3 was performed in 38 cases with various renal functions and the renal clearance was estimated by three reported methods of one-point-venous-sampling. The results by Bubeck method were most consistent with the individual clinical data. The difference in the methodology of sample measurement or the type of scintillation camera did not affect the values of RUR. The correlation between renal clearance and RUR was not significantly different among the three groups of data acquisition time for RUR, i.e., 1-2 min., 1.5-2.5 min., and 2-3 min. after tracer injection. In summary, Bubeck method and RUR between 1-3 min. after injection seems to be suitable for the establishment or the conversion formula. Using this formula unilateral renal clearance of 99mTc-MAG3 could be reliably estimated without venous sampling. (author)

  12. Calculation of net renal uptake curves without use of a blood pool agent

    The usual method of generating net Hippuran renal uptake curves involves the administration of a blood pool agent. Two techniques are presented which permit the determination of net renal uptake curves from data intrinsic to the Hippuran study. This reduced the complexity of the procedure, as well as reducing its cost and decreasing the radiation exposure. The new procedures were tested in 9 patients and showed excellent correlation with the blood pool agent technique. (orig.)

  13. Is the renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA decreased in microalbuminuric diabetic patient?

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease and the incidence is progressively increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal uptake among diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria, and then to determine the clinical usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in predicting early diabetic nephropathy. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scan was performed and a total renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA was measured in 145 diabetic patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the amount of 24 hour urinary albumin excretion as Group I (normoalbuminuria, 74 cases ), Group II (microalbuminuria, 39 cases), and Group III (overt proteinuria, 32 cases). The differences of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal uptake among the 3 groups and the correlation between the renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and other clinical parameters were analyzed. The total renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA of Group II (40.8{+-}11.0%) was significantly lower than that of Group I (54.4{+-}6.3%, p<0.001). The uptake of Group III (27.7{+-}12.0%) was significantly lower than those of both Group I and Group II (p<0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA total renal uptakes correlated negatively with serum creatinine level (r=0.629, p<0.001) and positively correlated with creatinite clearance rate (r=0.702, p<0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA total renal uptake of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria was significantly decreased compared with that of patients of normoalbuminuria. Therefore, {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scan can be used as a diagnostic study for early detection of the diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Formal Charts for Quantified 99mTc-DMSA Renal Uptake Rates

    To Assessment of the quantified renal uptake rates in every 99mTc-DMSA scan tests of patients is actually difficult because of time consumption and complicated calculations required to measure the correct dose of the infused radionuclide and radiation decay, the adjustment for the depth of kidney and the subtraction of background count. We've formulated two regression models for the quantified renal uptake rates[I] from the simple renal uptake rates[H] with a square shaped ROI (Region-of-Interest) in 25 cases (Group 1) and with a kidney shaped ROI in 37 cases (Group 2), respectively. The regression model for the Group 1 was [I]1=0.885 [H]1-4.575 (P2=0.591 [H]2-2.105 (p99mTc-DMSA renal scan.

  15. A local renal renin–angiotensin system activation via renal uptake of prorenin and angiotensinogen in diabetic rats

    Tojo A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Akihiro Tojo,1 Satoshi Kinugasa,1 Toshiro Fujita,2 Christopher S Wilcox3 1Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology, 2Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Center for Hypertension, Kidney and Vascular Research, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: The mechanism of activation of local renal renin–angiotensin system (RAS has not been clarified in diabetes mellitus (DM. We hypothesized that the local renal RAS will be activated via increased glomerular filtration and tubular uptake of prorenin and angiotensinogen in diabetic kidney with microalbuminuria. Streptozotocin (STZ-induced DM and control rats were injected with human prorenin and subsequently with human angiotensinogen. Human prorenin uptake was increased in podocytes, proximal tubules, macula densa, and cortical collecting ducts of DM rats where prorenin receptor (PRR was expressed. Co-immunoprecipitation of kidney homogenates in DM rats revealed binding of human prorenin to the PRR and to megalin. The renal uptake of human angiotensinogen was increased in DM rats at the same nephron sites as prorenin. Angiotensin-converting enzyme was increased in podocytes, but decreased in the proximal tubules in DM rats, which may have contributed to unchanged renal levels of angiotensin despite increased angiotensinogen. The systolic blood pressure increased more after the injection of 20 µg of angiotensinogen in DM rats than in controls, accompanied by an increased uptake of human angiotensinogen in the vascular endothelium. In conclusion, endocytic uptake of prorenin and angiotensinogen in the kidney and vasculature in DM rats was contributed to increased tissue RAS and their pressor response to angiotensinogen. Keywords: renal renin–angiotensin system, prorenin, angiotensinogen, diabetic nephropathy, microalbuminuria

  16. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  17. Reducing Renal Uptake of 177Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of 177Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of 177Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects

  18. Quantification of [18F]-FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaque. Impact of renal function

    Impaired renal function causes both increased and prolonged tracer availability in the blood-pool which might result in increased tracer accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate a possible correlation between the intensity of tracer uptake in atherosclerotic lesions and renal function. Data from 50 [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) scans were visually evaluated for tracer uptake in vessel wall alterations. Lesions were analyzed semiquantitatively by determining the blood-pool standardized uptake values (SUVblood-pools), maximum SUVs (SUVmaxs), and the target-to-background ratio (TBR). These parameters were tested for correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and cardiovascular risk factors. Both SUVblood-pools (rs=-0.32, p=0.03) and SUVmaxs for [18F]-FDG (rs=-0.50, p18F]-FDG demonstrated a significant positive correlation with eGFRs (rs=0.21, p=0.02). This study found that both intravascular tracer availability (SUVblood-pool) and intralesional tracer uptake (SUVmax) are influenced by renal function. Calculation of TBR to account for that effect may result in overcorrection in case of [18F]-FDG. Renal insufficiency or subclinical changes in renal function have to be considered as a confounding factor in PET of atherosclerotic lesions. (author)

  19. In vivo characterization of insulin uptake by dog renal cortical epithelium

    In vivo 125I-labeled insulin uptake by dog renal tubular epithelium was studied using the single-pass multiple indicator dilution (MID) method and analyzed by a computer-assisted model of transcapillary exchange and substrate-cell interaction. Anesthetized dogs received an intrarenal arterial bolus of multiple tracers: [3H]dextran greater than 70 kDa (plasma reference), [14C]inulin (extracellular reference), and 125I-insulin. Rapid serial sampling of the renal venous and urine outflows was performed. The renal venous outflow curves of 125I-insulin fell below [14C]inulin implying postglomerular extraction and antiluminal membrane (ALM) uptake. The fractional urine recovery of 125I-insulin was less than 0.03, indicating luminal tubular uptake of filtered hormone. After intravenous infusion of unlabeled insulin, repeat MID runs with tracer revealed saturable ALM uptake as evidenced by the 125I-insulin renal venous outflow curves approaching [14C]inulin. Luminal tubular uptake was unchanged and therefore unsaturable. The 125I-insulin renal venous data were studied using three mathematical models, incorporating postglomerular reversible binding, irreversible binding or transport. The best fit was obtained using the transport model. The modeling analysis is consistent with either uptake into a virtual epithelial membrane space (i.e., insulin never enters the cell but binds to or is distributed along the ALM) or insulin actually enters the intracellular compartment. In vivo uptake of 125I-insulin ALM is characterized by a Km of 15.44 nM

  20. Reduction of renal uptake of radiolabeled octreotate by amifostine coadministration

    M.L. Melis (Marleen); R. Valkema (Roelf); E.P. Krenning (Eric); M. de Jong (Marcel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMegalin-mediated renal retention of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs may lead to nephrotoxicity during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The cytoprotective agent amifostine protected rats from long-term nephrotoxicity after PRRT with 177Lu-DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate. This study de

  1. Changes in renal uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in stone-forming rats

    A pyridoxine (vitamin B6)-deficient diet in rats was used as a model of early renal lithiasis to find out if stone-formers could be identified from control animals by differences in the biodistribution of Tc-99m MDP. The mean renal uptake of this agent at 3 hours was about 70% higher in test animals than in controls, but there was considerable overlap between the upper limits of the normal range and lower values in stone-formers. If these results were valid for humans, the metabolic abnormality in males with early stone-forming disease could not be identified with certainty by in vivo measurements of Tc-99m MDP renal uptake alone. However, the skeletal uptake of MDP in the stone-forming animals was depressed by 28 to 35%, compared with control rats. Consequently, the renal to skeletal MDP concentration ratio was invariably elevated in stone-formers beyond the 95 percentile normal range. Unexpectedly, 76% of the pyridoxine-deficient animals had a higher accumulation of MDP in the myocardium than the upper limit of the normal range. The pyridoxine-deficient diet induced no remarkable early changes in the biodistribution or renal clearance of I-131 Hippuran

  2. Measurement of split glomerular filtration rate by fractional renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA

    The percent renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA, within 2 to 3 minutes following the radionuclide appearance into the kidneys according to the method by Gates, was correlated well with the sodium thiosulfate clearance determination (n = 75, r = 0.846) as well as the 24-hour creatinine clearance determination (n = 47, r = 0.893). Therefore, the formula for calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was derived from the linear regression analysis between renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA and sodium thiosulfate clearance determination, accordingly: GFR (ml/min.) = 8.775 x (% total renal uptake) + 9.685. In the 31 patients without nephrouropathy, the split GFR of left kidney was 53.6 +- 10.9 ml/min. and that of right kidney was 52.0 +- 11.1 ml/min. The radionuclide computed GFR was also examined for the evaluation of split function of renal parenchyma, in comparison with Tc-99m DTPA renogram pattern. In most cases with standard renogram pattern, the split GFR showed the values over 35 ml/min. Most cases with hypofunctioning renogram pattern showed the values of split GFR within the range of 20-35 ml/min. And most cases with nonfunctioning renogram pattern showed the values under 20 ml/min. In the present study, the split GFR determination was found to be a useful and reliable method for the quantitative evaluation of split function of renal parenchyma. (author)

  3. Evaluation of renal function in children with vesicoureteral reflux; Changes in renal uptake rate using [sup 99m]Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy

    Hioki, Takuichi (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    Renal uptake rate was calculated by [sup 99m]Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in 100 kidneys from 58 patients with pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) to assess kidney function quantitatively for treatment selection and surgical timing. The conservatively treated group consisted of 42 patients (75 kidneys) who underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy twice at intervals of 2 years during their management. The surgically treated group consisted of 16 patients (25 kidneys) who underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy before and 2 years after surgery, Urine samples were collected at the time of initial DMSA renal scintigraphy for the simultaneous measurement of [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]-MG), [alpha][sub 1]-microglobulin and N-acetyl-[beta]-glucosaminidase. Renal uptake ratio of DMSA did not differ in VUR grades during a 2-year follow-up period in the conservative group. In the age group of patients aged 2 or less, renal uptake ratio decreased 2 years later, with significant difference with that in the other age groups. According to VUR grade, there was no significant difference in DMSA renal kidney ratios between the conservative group and the surgical group. According to age, significant difference in renal uptake ratio was observed between the two groups; i.e., patients aged 2 or less had a significantly decreased renal uptake ratio in the conservative group than the surgical group. However, the renal uptake ratio did not differ in the other age groups. For patients aged 2 or less, surgery was considerd necessary to prevent reflux when urinary [beta][sub 2]-MG indexes are increased. For those aged 3 years or more, on the other hand, conservative treatment was considered optimal regardless of VUR grades; surgery was considered recommended in the case of repeated urinary infection and decreased renal function. (N.K.).

  4. Albumin-derived peptides efficiently reduce renal uptake of radiolabelled peptides

    Vegt, Erik; Eek, Annemarie; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine (444), PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Jong, Marion de [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    In peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the maximum activity dose that can safely be administered is limited by high renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The kidney radiation dose can be reduced by coinfusion of agents that competitively inhibit the reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, such as positively charged amino acids, Gelofusine, or trypsinised albumin. The aim of this study was to identify more specific and potent inhibitors of the kidney reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, based on albumin. Albumin was fragmented using cyanogen bromide and six albumin-derived peptides with different numbers of electric charges were selected and synthesised. The effect of albumin fragments (FRALB-C) and selected albumin-derived peptides on the internalisation of {sup 111}In-albumin, {sup 111}In-minigastrin, {sup 111}In-exendin and {sup 111}In-octreotide by megalin-expressing cells was assessed. In rats, the effect of Gelofusine and albumin-derived peptides on the renal uptake and biodistribution of {sup 111}In-minigastrin, {sup 111}In-exendin and {sup 111}In-octreotide was determined. FRALB-C significantly reduced the uptake of all radiolabelled peptides in vitro. The albumin-derived peptides showed different potencies in reducing the uptake of {sup 111}In-albumin, {sup 111}In-exendin and {sup 111}In-minigastrin in vitro. The most efficient albumin-derived peptide (peptide 6), was selected for in vivo testing. In rats, 5 mg of peptide 6 very efficiently inhibited the renal uptake of {sup 111}In-minigastrin, by 88%. Uptake of {sup 111}In-exendin and {sup 111}In-octreotide was reduced by 26 and 33%, respectively. The albumin-derived peptide 6 efficiently inhibited the renal reabsorption of {sup 111}In-minigastrin, {sup 111}In-exendin and {sup 111}In-octreotide and is a promising candidate for kidney protection in PRRT. (orig.)

  5. Albumin-derived peptides efficiently reduce renal uptake of radiolabelled peptides

    In peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the maximum activity dose that can safely be administered is limited by high renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The kidney radiation dose can be reduced by coinfusion of agents that competitively inhibit the reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, such as positively charged amino acids, Gelofusine, or trypsinised albumin. The aim of this study was to identify more specific and potent inhibitors of the kidney reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, based on albumin. Albumin was fragmented using cyanogen bromide and six albumin-derived peptides with different numbers of electric charges were selected and synthesised. The effect of albumin fragments (FRALB-C) and selected albumin-derived peptides on the internalisation of 111In-albumin, 111In-minigastrin, 111In-exendin and 111In-octreotide by megalin-expressing cells was assessed. In rats, the effect of Gelofusine and albumin-derived peptides on the renal uptake and biodistribution of 111In-minigastrin, 111In-exendin and 111In-octreotide was determined. FRALB-C significantly reduced the uptake of all radiolabelled peptides in vitro. The albumin-derived peptides showed different potencies in reducing the uptake of 111In-albumin, 111In-exendin and 111In-minigastrin in vitro. The most efficient albumin-derived peptide (peptide 6), was selected for in vivo testing. In rats, 5 mg of peptide 6 very efficiently inhibited the renal uptake of 111In-minigastrin, by 88%. Uptake of 111In-exendin and 111In-octreotide was reduced by 26 and 33%, respectively. The albumin-derived peptide 6 efficiently inhibited the renal reabsorption of 111In-minigastrin, 111In-exendin and 111In-octreotide and is a promising candidate for kidney protection in PRRT. (orig.)

  6. In vitro comparison of renal handling and uptake of two somatostatin receptor-specific peptides labeled with indium-111

    Radiolabeled receptor-specific somatostatin analogs labeled with gamma- or beta-emitting radionuclides are useful for scintigraphic imaging and/or therapy of selected neuroendocrine tumors. However, significant renal uptake may result in radiotoxicological injury of the kidney and can limit clinical application of the agents. The aim of the study was to analyze renal handling, rate, and mechanism of renal accumulation of two somatostatin receptor-targeted peptides, [DOTA0, Tyr3, Thr8]-octreotide (DOTA-TATE) and [DOTA0, 1-Nal3]-octreotide (DOTA-NOC), labeled with indium-111 using in vitro methods. The perfused rat kidney and freshly isolated rat renal cells were used as experimental models. The perfusion was performed in a recirculation regimen at constant pressure with solution containing bovine albumin, erythrocytes, and a mixture of essential substrates. The renal cells were isolated from rat kidneys using two-phase collagenase perfusion. Accumulation studies were used to evaluate the renal uptake of the peptides and to compare their accumulation with that of passively or actively transported model drugs. The influence of selected inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis and the inhibition of energy-dependent transport processes on the uptake were also investigated using isolated renal cells. The renal clearance of 111In-DOTA-NOC in the perfused rat kidney was significantly lower than that of 111In-DOTA-TATE. Reverse situation was found in the case of renal retention. Pretreatment of the perfused kidney with maleate markedly decreased the renal retention. 111In-DOTA-NOC was accumulated in the isolated renal cells at a higher rate than 111In-DOTA-TATE (ratio 3:1). The uptake of the radiopeptides in renal cells was higher than the uptake of not only the passively transported sucrose but also actively transported and accumulated methylglucose. The rank order of potency to inhibit the uptake by active endocytosis was approximately aprotinin>maleate>lysine. The

  7. New developments in renal physiopathology acquired using a quantitative renal functional test: the 197Hg uptake test

    The renal function of 331 obstructive uropathies, of which 112 were unilateral, were studied using the radioactive Hg renal uptake technique. The results obtained lead to the following observations: kidneys silent because of a chronic pelvi-ureteric-obstruction maintain a minimum function representing approximately one quarter of the normal value, which does not seem to be improved following the removal of the obstacle. Operative relief of obstruction on unilateral obstructive uropathies, except for cases of silent kidneys, are followed by a significative improvement in the function of the kidney on the operated side in more than a third of the cases studied. In 43% of obstructive uropathies considered as unilateral, the functional value of the two kidneys is decreased

  8. Renal uptake and retention of radiolabeled somatostatin, bombesin, neurotensin, minigastrin and CCK analogues: species and gender differences

    Melis, Marleen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, 3015 CE Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.melis@erasmusmc.nl; Krenning, Eric P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Visser, Monique de; Rolleman, Edgar; Jong, Marion de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, 3015 CE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: During therapy with radiolabeled peptides, the kidney is most often the critical organ. Newly developed peptides are evaluated preclinically in different animal models before their application in humans. In this study, the renal retention of several radiolabeled peptides was compared in male and female rats and mice. Methods: After intravenous injection of radiolabeled peptides [somatostatin, cholecystokinin (CCK), minigastrin, bombesin and neurotensin analogues], renal uptake was determined in both male and female Lewis rats and C57Bl mice. In addition, ex vivo autoradiography of renal sections was performed to localize accumulated radioactivity. Results: An equal distribution pattern of renal radioactivity was found for all peptides: high accumulation in the cortex, lower accumulation in the outer medulla and no radioactivity in the inner medulla of the kidneys. In both male rats and mice, an increasing renal uptake was found: [{sup 111}In-DTPA]CCK8<[{sup 111}In-DTPA-Pro{sup 1},Tyr{sup 4}]bombesin{approx}[{sup 111}In-DTPA] neurotensin<[{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide<<[{sup 111}In-DTPA]MG0. Renal uptake of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide in rats showed no gender difference, and renal radioactivity was about constant over time. In mice, however, renal uptake in females was significantly higher than that in males and decreased rapidly over time in both genders. Moreover, renal radioactivity in female mice injected with [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide showed a different localization pattern. Conclusions: Regarding the renal uptake of different radiolabeled peptides, both species showed the same ranking order. Similar to findings in patients, rats showed comparable and constant renal retention of radioactivity in both genders, in contrast to mice. Therefore, rats appear to be the more favorable species for the study of the renal retention of radioactivity.

  9. Transcatheter ablation of an iatrogenic renal artery pseudoaneurysm with absolute alcohol: A rare case report

    Beig, Jahangir; Hafeez, Imran; Tramboo, Nisar Ahmed; Rather, Hilal; Yaqoob, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    A 25 year old male was admitted with features of life threatening renal haemorrhage after undergoing open nephrolithotomy for a staghorn calculus of the right kidney. CECT abdomen and selective renal angiography revealed a 2.5 × 3.0 cm pseudoaneurysm arising from the lower segmental branch of right renal artery, leaking into retroperitoneal space. After an initial failed attempt of transcatheter embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and 10% lipiodol mixture, the pseudoaneurysm was su...

  10. [1-{sup 11}C]Acetate uptake is not increased in renal cell carcinoma

    Kotzerke, J.; Beuthien-Baumann, B. [Technische Universitaet Dresden und PET Zentrum Rossendorf, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Dresden (Germany); Linne, C.; Wirth, M. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie, Dresden (Germany); Meinhardt, M.; Baretton, G. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Pathologie, Dresden (Germany); Steinbach, J. [PET Zentrum Rossendorf, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, Dresden (Germany); Abolmaali, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, OncoRay, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate (AC) as a metabolic tracer for renal cell cancer in human subjects. Twenty-one patients with suspected kidney tumours were investigated with AC and dynamic PET. AC uptake was scored on a five-step scale. Tumour localisation was known from CT/MRI. Histology was available in 18/21 patients. The results in these 18 patients are reported. AC uptake by the tumour was less than (n = 11), equal to (n = 5) or higher than (n = 2) uptake in the surrounding renal parenchyma. Histological tumour types showed a typical distribution, with a predominance of clear cell carcinomas (n = 14) and only a small number of papillary cell carcinomas (n = 2) and oncocytomas (n = 2). Only the benign oncocytomas were highly positive with AC. In most kidney tumours the AC accumulation was not higher than in normal kidney parenchyma. Therefore, AC PET cannot be recommend for the characterisation of a renal mass. (orig.)

  11. [1-11C]Acetate uptake is not increased in renal cell carcinoma

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of [1-11C]acetate (AC) as a metabolic tracer for renal cell cancer in human subjects. Twenty-one patients with suspected kidney tumours were investigated with AC and dynamic PET. AC uptake was scored on a five-step scale. Tumour localisation was known from CT/MRI. Histology was available in 18/21 patients. The results in these 18 patients are reported. AC uptake by the tumour was less than (n = 11), equal to (n = 5) or higher than (n = 2) uptake in the surrounding renal parenchyma. Histological tumour types showed a typical distribution, with a predominance of clear cell carcinomas (n = 14) and only a small number of papillary cell carcinomas (n = 2) and oncocytomas (n = 2). Only the benign oncocytomas were highly positive with AC. In most kidney tumours the AC accumulation was not higher than in normal kidney parenchyma. Therefore, AC PET cannot be recommend for the characterisation of a renal mass. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of Renal Function Determined by Relative Renal Uptake of '99mTc-DMSA and Relative Glomerular Filteration Rate of 99mTc-DTPA

    The evaluation of individual renal function is important to diagnosis and follow-up of various diseases. Ureteral catheterization of each kidney has been widely used for this purpose, but this method had some technical difficulty, frequent complications and much restriction in reapplication. Therefore we tried to applicate radiopharmaceuticals for the evaluation of individual renal function. We measured 2 hour, 4 hour and 24 hour relative renal uptake of '99mTc-DMSA and relative glomerular filtration rate of 99mTc-DTPA with 59 patients with various renal diseases to determine their usefulness for assessment of individual renal function and to compare correlations between every renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA and relative glomerular filtration rate. The correlations between 2 hour-, 4 hour- and 24 hour- relative renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA and relative glomerular filtration rate of 99mTc-DTPA were R=0.9190 (p99mTc-DMSA had the best correlation with relative glomerular filtration rate of 99mTc-DTPA and that might be useful in evaluation of chronic renal disease in which showed increased background activity or acute obstructive uropathy.

  13. Reversible diminished renal sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake during converting-enzyme inhibition in a patient with renal artery stenosis

    Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; Beukhof, J.R.; Donker, A.J.M.; Luyk, W.H.J. van; Piers, D.A.

    1984-03-01

    A patient is described who had accelerated hypertension and unilateral renal artery stenosis, and who developed further deterioration in renal function during treatment with captopril, an angiotension-I (AI) converting-enzyme inhibitor. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake was greatly diminished in the stenotic kidney, although renal blood flow and handling of /sup 131/I hippurate was preserved. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA in the affected kidney returned after substitution of captopril by the vasodilator minoxidil, while a comparable degree of blood pressure control was maintained. This, caution must be taken when interpreting results of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in patients with proven or suspected renal artery stenosis treated with an AI converting-enzyme inhibiting drug. Moreover, our finding points to the importance of glomerular filtration in the renal handling of /sup 99/Tc-DMSA.

  14. Evaluation of renal uptake on 111InCl3 bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

    High renal uptake on bone marrow scan with indium-111 chloride is often shown in patients with bone marrow abnormality. We evaluated the renal uptake on bone marrow scan in 27 cases of aplastic anemia, 20 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 10 cases of other diseases. The high renal uptake was observed in patients not only with aplastic anemia but also with MDS. The renal uptake correlated with blood transfusion units, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), blood pool imaging and bone marrow uptake. The renal uptake correlated with UIBC better than with the blood transfusion units. Following mechanism of the renal uptake is proposed that frequent blood transfusion makes low UIBC, and the low UIBC causes the failure to chelate indium with transferrin. The fast blood clearance of un-chelated indium via kidneys is followed. Hypoplastic bone marrow may also play an important role for the high renal uptake because all patients with the high renal uptake could not be explained by above mentioned mechanism. Caution should be paid to the scans with the high renal uptake because both aplastic anemia and MDS patients show the high renal uptake. (author)

  15. A single tracer method for background subtraction in 197HgCl2 renal uptake measurements

    The 197HgCl2 renal uptake was measured in 70 patients in order to study the degree of the background activity and to determine the best correction method. The deduction of background activity was made: a) From a concentric perirenal region of interest with no additional correction. b) Using a double tracer technique with colloid sup(99m)Tc, subtracting consecutively the liver and spleen activity and the residual background. Comparison of the results revealed: a) The correction of background activity significantly altered the uptake estimations, and thus must include both the liver and spleen activity, and the residual background. b) The choice of a median region of interest for the residual background evaluation led to a systematic error. c) The assessment of background activity, based upon a perirenal region of interest provided a sufficiently precise and reliable correction of the total background, while avoiding the inconveniences associated with the double tracer method. (orig.)

  16. A study of bone uptake according to renal function in the whole body bone scan

    Cho, Yong In; Jang, Dong Gun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Woo [Dept. of Radiological Technology Dong-Eui Institute of Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Whole body bone scan has been used to confirm bone metastasis and follow-up study with radio isotope. However, if the factors related to 99mTc uptake and waiting time for study are inappropriate, it would be image of low quality. The purpose of present study was to investigate correlation between the evaluation index of renal function and uptake of radiopharmaceuticals. The population for this retrospective study consisted of 387 patients who underwent whole body bone scan between June 2012 and December 2012. As a result of quantitative and qualitative analysis, we were able to confirm that GFR of less than normal range and creatinine levels in blood of more than average are more likely to be under the mean uptake rate. As a result of analysis on the indicator affecting soft-tissue and bone uptake, the correlation of all elements was somewhat low. Also there are no statistically significances due to the other parameters we did not deal with. Therefore, further research on additional factors is needed for exact study and improvement of the image quality.

  17. Measurement of renal function by calculation of fractional uptake of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid

    The purpose of this study was to set up normal values of the fractional uptake (FU) of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in adults and in the pediatric population, as well as to evaluate the validity of this parameter at different levels of renal function. A total of 86 subjects was divided into seven groups. In group A there were 23 potential kidney donors and in group B, 18 children in remission after a first urinary tract infection. Another three groups consisted of patients with diabetes i.e. group C, seven patients with normal values of albuminuria, group D, 16 patients with microalbuminuria and group E, five patients with macroalbuminuria. In group F, there were ten patients with a well-functioning transplanted kidney and in group G, seven patients with suspected acute rejection. The procedure began with the quantification of the doses of 99mTc-DMSA to be injected and the measurement of the empty syringe lying on the gamma camera collimator. Thereafter, four planar views of the kidneys were acquired three hours after the injection. The counts from the posterior and anterior views were subtracted for background and corrected for radioactive decay time and patient thickness. The FU was calculated by the geometric mean of counts per second from the posterior and anterior view. It was expressed as a fraction of the injected dose. The mean values of FU in healthy adults were 0.227 ± 0.077 for one kidney and 0.454 ± 0.146 for both kidneys. The mean values of FU for the left and right kidney were 0.225± 0.071 and 0.229 ± 0.079, respectively. In children, the mean values were 0.220 ± 0.092 for one kidney and 0.432 ± 0.094 for both kidneys. The highest values of FU of 0.322 ± 0.078 (0.644 ± 0.138 for both kidneys) were measured in group C. In group D, FU was 0.185 ± 0.065 (0.361 ± 0.125 for both kidneys) and in group E 0.082 ± 0.040 (0.163 ± 0.080 total). In patients with a transplanted kidney, fractional uptake was 0.162 ± 0.039 in group F and 0

  18. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    Kamper, A L; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L; Strandgaard, S

    1990-01-01

    function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P less than 0.01), but renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA increased by 10% (P less than 0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken......Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney...... up by the tubular cells from the peritubular capillaries since the uptake was unaffected by the acute decrease in GFR....

  19. Dose-response effect of Gelofusine on renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled octreotate in rats with CA20948 tumours

    Melis, Marleen; Bijster, Magda; Visser, Monique; Konijnenberg, Mark W.; de Swart, Jan; Rolleman, Edgar J.; Boerman, Otto C.; Krenning, Eric P.; de Jong, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using β-emitting radiolabelled somatostatin analogues like DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate shows beneficial results in patients suffering from somatostatin receptor overexpressing tumours. However, after high-dose therapy partial renal reabsorption of radiopeptides may lead to nephrotoxicity. Co-infusion of lysine/arginine lowers renal retention of these radiopeptides without affecting tumour uptake. Recently co-administration of Gelofusine has been describe...

  20. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from fractional renal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from fractional renal uptake (FRU) of sup(99m)DTPA using the gamma camera-digital computer system with attenuation correction for kidney depth. Forty-eight patients were studied, in whom 24 hour creatinine clearance (Ccr) were concomitantly obtained within a week of the study. A dose of 1-3 mCi of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA was rapidly injected intravenously into the patients who were prepositioned posteriorly before the gamma camera and the sequential 5 sec. frame data was stored for 20 min. in a 64 x 64 matrix form. Attenuation corrected total renal counts at various time intervals after tracer injection were obtained by ROI selection over renal scintigram followed by background subtraction and depth correction to compensate for gamma ray attenuation by the soft tissues. Our formula for determining kidney depth, obtained by ultrasonic scanning, is shown as follows. right kidney depth=16.55 (weight/height)+0.66 left kidney depth=17.05 (weight/hight)+0.13 Attenuation corrected total renal counts was divided by injected dose measured by the gamma camera (perinjection counts minus postinjection counts in syringe) and thus FRU was calculated. FRU at 1-2 min. was best correlated with Ccr (r=0.925, p<0.001). The formula for calculation of GFR was derived from the regression analysis. GFR=(FRU at 1-2 min.)x6.26+3.10 This method is highly valuable for estimating GFR rapidly and accurately. (author)

  1. Dose-response effect of Gelofusine on renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled octreotate in rats with CA20948 tumours

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using β-emitting radiolabelled somatostatin analogues like DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate shows beneficial results in patients suffering from somatostatin receptor overexpressing tumours. However, after high-dose therapy partial renal reabsorption of radiopeptides may lead to nephrotoxicity. Co-infusion of lysine/arginine lowers renal retention of these radiopeptides without affecting tumour uptake. Recently co-administration of Gelofusine has been described to have a comparable kidney-protecting effect in rats. In the present study optimal dosing of Gelofusine co-administration was studied in tumour-bearing rats. Doses of 40, 80, 120 or 160 mg/kg Gelofusine were co-injected with 15 μg DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate, labelled with 3 MBq 111In for biodistribution (24 h post-injection, n = 4 per group) and with 60 MBq 111In for microSPECT imaging experiments at 3, 24 and 48 h post-injection. An additional group of rats received 80 mg/kg Gelofusine plus 400 mg/kg lysine co-injection. Biodistribution studies were performed both in older (475 g) and younger (300 g) rats, the latter bearing CA20948 tumours. Co-injection of 40 mg/kg Gelofusine resulted in 40-50% reduction of renal uptake and retention of 111In-DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate, whereas higher doses further increased the reduction to 50-60% in both groups of rats. Combining Gelofusine and lysine caused 70% reduction of renal uptake. The uptake of radiolabelled octreotate both in somatostatin receptor-expressing normal tissues and tumours was not affected by Gelofusine co-injection. In rats co-injection of 80 mg/kg Gelofusine resulted in maximum reduction of renal retention of 111In-DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate, which was further improved when combined with lysine. Tumour uptake of radiolabelled octreotate was not affected, resulting in an increased tumour to kidney ratio. (orig.)

  2. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    of apical NCC2b and basolateral CLC-2c in the gill/skin Cl- uptake pathway. Taking the phylogenetic evidence into consideration, fish-specific NCC2b and CLC-2c may have coevolved to perform extra-renal Cl- uptake during the evolution of vertebrates in an aquatic environment. PMID:26327813

  3. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl(-) Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl(-) Homeostasis.

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    the cofunctional role of apical NCC2b and basolateral CLC-2c in the gill/skin Cl(-) uptake pathway. Taking the phylogenetic evidence into consideration, fish-specific NCC2b and CLC-2c may have coevolved to perform extra-renal Cl(-) uptake during the evolution of vertebrates in an aquatic environment. PMID:26327813

  4. Validity of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal uptake by planar posterior-view method in children

    Tsukamoto, Eriko; Katoh, Chietsugu; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Shiga, Toru; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Itoh, Kazuo

    1999-12-01

    Renal uptake {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA has been quantified by various methods. The aim of this study is to obtain a normal value for {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal uptake calculated by the posterior view method and age variation, and to assess its clinical validity. Scintigrams of 238 children (0-12 years) with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA were reviewed. All the children had a clinical history of primary vesicoureteral reflux and/or neurogenic bladder, ureteral or urethral anomalies. Their kidneys were divided into two groups, ''normal'' and abnormal'' according to their scintigraphic findings and split renal functions. Percent renal uptake per injected dose (% RU) was quantitated from planar images at 2 hours after injection of an age-adjusted dose (26-95 MBq) of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA. Calculated total % RU, individual % UR of the right and left kidneys (mean{+-}sd) in patients with normal kidneys were 40.7{+-}5.0%, 20.2{+-}3.0%, 20.4{+-}2.7%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between % RU and age (r=0.231). Longitudinal variation in the % RU in 9 patients ranged from 1.2% to 18%. Our conventional method for quantifying % RU is simple, practical and feasible in routine clinical practice, especially for children under follow up. (author)

  5. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Thyroid Gland and Pancreas Showing Uptake on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT Scan.

    Kanthan, Gowri L; Schembri, Geoffrey Paul; Samra, Jaswinder; Roach, Paul; Hsiao, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Ga DOTATATE PET/CT is an imaging technique used in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. We report a case of 66-year-old woman with a history of surgically removed renal cell carcinoma who presented for a DOTATATE PET/CT scan to characterize a newly diagnosed pancreatic lesion. DOTATATE-avid lesions were identified in the thyroid gland and pancreas. Subsequent biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma at both sites. It is important to be aware that tumors other than neuroendocrine tumors may also show uptake on DOTATATE PET/CT scan. A biopsy may be required if lesions are identified at atypical sites. PMID:27055137

  6. Evaluation of Renal Function Determined by Relative Renal Uptake of '9{sup 9m}Tc-DMSA and Relative Glomerular Filteration Rate of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA

    Chung, Byung Chun; Choi, Chang Il; Kim, Kwang Weon; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Kwon, Tae Hwan; Cho, Dong Kyu [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    The evaluation of individual renal function is important to diagnosis and follow-up of various diseases. Ureteral catheterization of each kidney has been widely used for this purpose, but this method had some technical difficulty, frequent complications and much restriction in reapplication. Therefore we tried to applicate radiopharmaceuticals for the evaluation of individual renal function. We measured 2 hour, 4 hour and 24 hour relative renal uptake of '9{sup 9m}Tc-DMSA and relative glomerular filtration rate of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA with 59 patients with various renal diseases to determine their usefulness for assessment of individual renal function and to compare correlations between every renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and relative glomerular filtration rate. The correlations between 2 hour-, 4 hour- and 24 hour- relative renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and relative glomerular filtration rate of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA were R=0.9190 (p<0.001), R=0. 9229 (p<0.001) and R=0.9917 (p<0.001). In acute obstructive uropathy, the correlations at 2 hour and 4 hour were poor as R=0.1812 (p<0.05) and R=0.4923 (p<0.05), but the correlation at 24 hour was good as R=0.9942 (p<0.001). We concluded that relative renal uptake at 2 hour and 4 hour had good correlation with relative DTPA uptake ratio in the cases without chronic renal failure and obstructive uropathy. Delayed image with 24 hour relative renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA had the best correlation with relative glomerular filtration rate of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and that might be useful in evaluation of chronic renal disease in which showed increased background activity or acute obstructive uropathy.

  7. Clinical study concerning upper urinary tract obstruction, 2. Relationship between sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake in obstructed kidneys and their renal function

    Murayama, Tetsuo; Yamada, Tetsuo; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Yukio; Tasei, Yukimitsu (Sagamihara National Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    To establish a method of detecting divided renal function of the obstructed kidneys non-invasively, comparative studies on sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake (60 minutes after injection), I/sup 131/-hippuran renal uptake (1-2 minutes after injection) and divided creatinine clearance immediately after relief of urinary obstruction were made on 24 cases of obstructive uropathy. A close significant correlation was obtained between sup(99m)Tc-DMSA and I/sup 131/-hippuran renal uptakes ..gamma..=0.8809, P < 0.001). Also, a significant correlation was noted between sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake and divided creatinine clearance ..gamma..=0.7876, P < 0.001), but the latter constantly gave lower values than the former. These observations led us to conclude that sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake is a reliable indicator of the renal plasma flow in the obstructed kidneys. Quantitative divided renal function of the obstructed kidneys can be estimated by the sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake method.

  8. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics

  9. Reducing the renal uptake of radiolabeled antibody fragments and peptides for diagnosis and therapy: present status, future prospects and limitations

    Over recent years, one of the focuses of research has been to develop suitable methods to reduce renal uptake, and to evaluate whether the resulting methodology will benefit therapy with antibody fragments and peptides. In these studies it has been shown that the kidney uptake of antibody fragments in animals can be reduced in a dose-dependent manner by almost one order of magnitude by the systemic administration of cationic amino acids and their derivatives, whereas the uptake in all other organs, as well as the tumor, remains unaffected. A similar reduction in renal retention is achieved for all intracellularly retained radionuclides (e.g., radiometals) or radioiodinated immunoconjugates, as well as for smaller peptides. Lysine is usually the preferred agent, and its d- and l-isomers are equally effective whether given intraperitoneally or orally. Amino sugars are effective, but their N-acetyl derivatives, lacking the positive charge, are not. Basic polypeptides are also effective, and their potency increases with increasing molecular weight. Urine analysis of treated individuals shows the excretion of unmetabolized, intact fragments or peptides, in contrast to mostly low-molecular-weight metabolites in untreated controls. In therapy studies using radiometal-conjugated Fab fragments, the kidney is the first dose-limiting organ. Administration of cationic amino acids results in a substantial increase in the maximum tolerated dose of such Fab fragments. As was the case in animal studies, in pilot clinical trials the renal uptake in patients injected with Fab' fragments and given amino acids could be decreased significantly, whereas the uptake by all other organs remained unaffected. Thus, radiation nephrotoxicity of antibody fragments and peptides can be overcome successfully. (orig./MG) (orig.)

  10. Safe and effective inhibition of renal uptake of radiolabelled octreotide by a combination of lysine and arginine

    Rolleman, Edgar J.; Valkema, Roelf; Jong, Marion de; Kooij, Peter P.M.; Krenning, Eric P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    As scintigraphy with [{sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0}]octreotide has become a standard technique in analysing somatostatin receptor-receptor positive lesions such as neuroendocrine tumours, a logical next step is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Initial studies on PRRT were performed with high doses of [{sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0}]octreotide, and recently other radionuclides coupled to other somatostatin analogues have been used for this purpose. However, the dose delivered to the kidney is a major dose-limiting factor. Amino acid solutions have previously been used to reduce renal uptake of radioactivity, but these solutions have some disadvantages, i.e. their hyperosmolarity and their propensity to cause vomiting and metabolic changes. In this study we tested various amino acid solutions in patients receiving [{sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0}]octreotide PRRT in order to assess their safety and their capacity to inhibit the renal uptake of radioactivity. Patients served as their own non-infused control. Renal radioactivity at 24 h following the injection of [{sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0}]octreotide was inhibited by (1) a commercially available amino acid solution (AA) (21%{+-}14%, P<0.02), (2) by 25 g (17%{+-}9%, P<0.04), 50 g (15%{+-}13%, P<0.04) or 75 g of lysine (44%{+-}11%, P<0.001) and (3) by a combination of 25 g of lysine plus 25 g of arginine (LysArg) (33%{+-}23%, P<0.01). Fluid infusion alone (500, 1,000 or 2,000 ml of saline/glucose) did not change renal uptake of radioactivity. In patients studied with 75 g of lysine (Lys75) and LysArg, serum potassium levels rose significantly. Maximal potassium levels were within the toxic range (6.3, 6.7 and 6.8 mmol/l) in three out of six patients infused with Lys75, whereas with LysArg the highest concentration measured was 6.0 mmol/l. Electrocardiographic analysis did not reveal significant changes in any of the patients. Vomiting occurred in 50% of patients infused with AA, but in only 6% of patients receiving no amino acid

  11. Safe and effective inhibition of renal uptake of radiolabelled octreotide by a combination of lysine and arginine

    As scintigraphy with [111In-DTPA0]octreotide has become a standard technique in analysing somatostatin receptor-receptor positive lesions such as neuroendocrine tumours, a logical next step is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Initial studies on PRRT were performed with high doses of [111In-DTPA0]octreotide, and recently other radionuclides coupled to other somatostatin analogues have been used for this purpose. However, the dose delivered to the kidney is a major dose-limiting factor. Amino acid solutions have previously been used to reduce renal uptake of radioactivity, but these solutions have some disadvantages, i.e. their hyperosmolarity and their propensity to cause vomiting and metabolic changes. In this study we tested various amino acid solutions in patients receiving [111In-DTPA0]octreotide PRRT in order to assess their safety and their capacity to inhibit the renal uptake of radioactivity. Patients served as their own non-infused control. Renal radioactivity at 24 h following the injection of [111In-DTPA0]octreotide was inhibited by (1) a commercially available amino acid solution (AA) (21%±14%, P<0.02), (2) by 25 g (17%±9%, P<0.04), 50 g (15%±13%, P<0.04) or 75 g of lysine (44%±11%, P<0.001) and (3) by a combination of 25 g of lysine plus 25 g of arginine (LysArg) (33%±23%, P<0.01). Fluid infusion alone (500, 1,000 or 2,000 ml of saline/glucose) did not change renal uptake of radioactivity. In patients studied with 75 g of lysine (Lys75) and LysArg, serum potassium levels rose significantly. Maximal potassium levels were within the toxic range (6.3, 6.7 and 6.8 mmol/l) in three out of six patients infused with Lys75, whereas with LysArg the highest concentration measured was 6.0 mmol/l. Electrocardiographic analysis did not reveal significant changes in any of the patients. Vomiting occurred in 50% of patients infused with AA, but in only 6% of patients receiving no amino acid infusion (controls) and 9% of patients receiving LysArg. We

  12. L-Carnitine Protection Against Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity In Rats: Comparison with Amifostin Using Quantitative Renal Tc 99m DMSA Uptake

    Yakup Yürekli; Perihan Ünak; Çiğdem Yenisey; Türkan Ertay; Fazilet Zumrut Biber Müftüler; Emin İlker Medine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of L-carnitine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and to compare its efficacy with that of amifostin by quantitative renal Tc 99m DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. 1) Control (saline; 5 ml/kg intraperitoneally); 2) L-carnitine (CAR; 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally); 3) Amifostine (AMI; 200 mg /kg intraperitoneally); 4) Cisplatin (CIS;7 mg/k...

  13. Reducing renal uptake of 9Y- and 177Lu-labeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 9Y- and 177Lu-[1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Re-Cys3,4,1, D-Phe7, Arg11]α-melanocyte stimulating hormone3-13 {DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH} through coupling a negatively charged glutamic acid (Glu) to the peptide sequence. Methods: A new peptide of DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11)CCMSH was designed, synthesized and labeled with 9Y and 177Lu. Pharmacokinetics of 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11)CCMSH was determined in B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Results: 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11)CCMSH exhibited significantly (P9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose administration. The renal uptake values of 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11)CCMSH were 28.16% and 28.81% of those of 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h postinjection. 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11)CCMSH displayed higher tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios than 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose administration. The tumor-to-kidney uptake ratio of 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11)CCMSH was 2.28 and 1.69 times of 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h postinjection. The 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11)CCMSH activity accumulation was low in normal organs except for kidney. Conclusions: Coupling a negatively charged amino acid (Glu) to the CCMSH peptide sequence dramatically reduced the renal uptake values and increased the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 9Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11)CCMSH, facilitating their potential applications as radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma

  14. Renal uptake of myoglobin is mediated by the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin

    Gburek, Jakub; Birn, Henrik; Verroust, Pierre J; Goj, Bogusława; Jacobsen, Christian; Moestrup, Søren K; Willnow, Thomas E; Christensen, Erik I

    2003-01-01

    demonstrated by use of kidney-specific megalin knockout mice. Injected myoglobin was extensively reabsorbed by megalin-expressing proximal tubular cells, whereas there was very little uptake in the megalin-deficient cells. In conclusion, this study establishes the molecular mechanism of myoglobin uptake in the...

  15. Uptake and metabolism of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) by cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC)

    Gordon, J.A.; Spector, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    To determine if 12-HETE, a lipoxygenase product that mediates inflammation and tissue injury, can interact with RTEC, confluent Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were incubated for 2-16 hr with 1.0 ..mu..M (/sup 3/H)-12-HETE. Initial uptake of 12-HETE was rapid; at 16 hrs. 70% of the 12-HETE uptake was incorporated into phospholipids (PL). The distribution among the choline, ethanolamine, inositol, and serine PL was 36, 36, 20 and 8%, respectively. Incubation of MDCK cells with 0.5 to 5.0 ..mu..M (/sup 3/H)-12-HETE for 1 hr indicated linear uptake without evidence of saturation. Incubation with 1.0 ..mu..M 12-HETE and 0.25-10.0 ..mu..M arachidonic acid for 1 hr revealed no competition for uptake at the lower concentrations but a 40% reduction in 12-HETE uptake at 10.0 ..mu..M. Polarity of 12-HETE uptake was indicated by a preference of the basolateral surface over the apical surface by 1.4. After 2 hr, analysis of the medium by reverse phase HPLC revealed that 12-HETE was converted to three polar metabolites which eluted at 25.9, 29.4 and 31.3 min respectively; 12-HETE eluted at 37.5 min. The appearance of these polar metabolites was not prevented by ibuprofen (50 ..mu..M) nordihydroguaiaretic acid (30 ..mu..M), allopurinol (15 mM), or butylated hydroxytoluene (20 ..mu..M). These findings suggest that the lipoxygenase product 12-HETE may affect RTEC through incorporation into membrane PL and/or conversion to polar metabolites.

  16. Metal transport in cells: cadmium uptake by rat hepatocytes and renal cortical epithelial cells.

    Shaikh, Z A; Blazka, M E; Endo, T

    1995-01-01

    The toxic metals appear to use the transport pathways that exist for biologically essential metals. In this regard interactions between the toxic and essential metals are possible. This report summarizes recent findings on the transport of cadmium in rat hepatocytes and renal cortical epithelial cells in the presence or absence of certain essential metals. The transport of cadmium in hepatocytes does not require energy and, therefore, is not an active process. It occurs primarily (80%) by tem...

  17. Analysis of contributing factors with high renal uptake of 99mTc-MDP after anti-cancer chemotherapy including cisplatin

    We studied the effect of anti-cancer chemotherapy including cis-platin (CDDP) on renal high uptake of 99mTc-MDP using renal accumulation index (RAI) which was defined as a ratio of the densities between kidneys and lumbar bodies. We analyzed 21 cases who received bone scintigraphy within 30 days after chemotherapy. High RAIs were observed in 15 cases (71.4%). We compared the relationship between the RAI and time interval of CDDP administration and bone scintigraphy, total dose of CDDP, BUN and age. High RAIs were inversely related to the time interval and no patient showed high RAI when bone scintigraphy were studied later than 17 days after chemotherapy. BUN level were related to RAI. But, dose of CDDP and ages were unlikely responsible for the RAI values in this study. We summarized that high renal uptake of 99mTc-MDP was likely to be due to short time interval after chemotherapy. (author)

  18. L-Carnitine Protection Against Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity In Rats: Comparison with Amifostin Using Quantitative Renal Tc 99m DMSA Uptake

    Yakup Yürekli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of L-carnitine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and to compare its efficacy with that of amifostin by quantitative renal Tc 99m DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. 1 Control (saline; 5 ml/kg intraperitoneally; 2 L-carnitine (CAR; 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally; 3 Amifostine (AMI; 200 mg /kg intraperitoneally; 4 Cisplatin (CIS;7 mg/kg intraperitoneally; 5 Cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR; 6 Cisplatin plus amifostine (CIS + AMI. L-carnitine and amifostine were injected 30 minutes before cisplatin in Group 5 and 6. Tc 99m DMSA, 7.4 MBq/0.2 ml, was injected through the tail vein 72 hours after the drug administration. Rats were killed and kidneys removed by dissection 2 hours after the injection of the radiopharmaceutical. The percentage of the injected dose per gram of kidney tissue (%ID/g was calculated. Renal function was monitored by measuring BUN and plasma levels of creatinine. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione content were determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH in kidney tissue homogenates. Results: Tc 99m DMSA uptake per gram tissue of the kidney as %ID/g was 29.54±4.72, 29.86 ± 7.47 and 26.37 ± 4.54 in the control, CAR and AMI groups respectively. %ID/g was the lowest of all the groups, 11.60±3.59 (p<0.01, in the cisplatin group. Carnitine or amifostine administration 30 minutes before cisplatin injection resulted a significant increase in %ID/g, 21.28±7.73 and 18.97±3.24 respectively, compared to those of cisplatin-treated rats (p<0.002. A marked increase in plasma BUN and creatinine indicating nephrotoxicity and acute renal failure was observed in the cisplatin-treated group. MDA and GSH levels were concordant with cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results showed that L-carnitine significantly

  19. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  20. Simultaneous ultrastructural visualization of acetylcholinesterase activity and tritiated norepinephrine uptake in renal nerves

    In this investigation we have combined the methods of ultrastructural demonstration of acetylcholinesterase activity with electron microscopic autoradiography for the demonstration of norepinephrine uptake. The results show electron-dense deposits indicative of acetylcholinesterase activity associated with perivascular axons overlaid by concentrations of silver grains representing exogenous tritiated norepinephrine. Forty-five percent of the intervaricose regions and 19% of the varicosities overlaid by autoradiographic grains showed ''moderate'' amounts of cholinesterase staining. A greater proportion of autoradiographic grains was observed on the varicosities than in the intervaricose regions; however, the amount of acetylcholinesterase activity was greater in the intervaricose regions than in the varicosities. This investigation provides evidence for the presence of periaxonal acetylcholinesterase staining in adrenergic axons in the rat kidney

  1. 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in positron emission tomography as a pathological grade predictor for renal clear cell carcinomas

    To evaluate the usefulness of Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18-F FDG-PET/CT) in the prediction of Fuhrman pathological grades of renal clear cell carcinoma (cRCC). This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and written informed consent was waived. Thirty-one patients with pathologically proven cRCC underwent 18-F FDG-PET/CT for tumour staging. Maximum standardized uptake value of cRCC (tumour SUVmax) and mean SUV of the liver and spleen (liver and spleen SUVmean) were measured by two independent observers. Tumour SUVmax, tumour-to-liver SUV ratio, and tumour-to-spleen SUV ratio were correlated with the pathological grades. Logistic analysis demonstrated that only the tumour-to-liver SUV ratio was a significant parameter for differentiating high-grade (Fuhrman grades 3 and 4) tumours from low-grade (Fuhrman grades 1 and 2) tumours (P = 0.007 and 0.010 for observers 1 and 2, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for detecting tumours of Fuhrman grades 3 and 4 were 64, 100, 100, and 77 %, respectively, for observer 1, and 79, 88, 85, and 83 %, respectively, for observer 2. The tumour-to-liver SUV ratio with 18-F FDG-PET/CT appeared to be a valuable imaging biomarker in the prediction of high-grade cRCC. (orig.)

  2. 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in positron emission tomography as a pathological grade predictor for renal clear cell carcinomas

    Noda, Yoshifumi; Goshima, Satoshi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Kawada, Hiroshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tanahashi, Yukichi [Gifu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, Department of Radiology Services, Gifu (Japan); Suzui, Natsuko [Gifu University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Gifu (Japan); Hirose, Yoshinobu [Osaka Medical College, Department of Pathology, Osaka (Japan); Matsunaga, Kengo [Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology, Minokamo (Japan); Nishibori, Hironori [Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Minokamo (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18-F FDG-PET/CT) in the prediction of Fuhrman pathological grades of renal clear cell carcinoma (cRCC). This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and written informed consent was waived. Thirty-one patients with pathologically proven cRCC underwent 18-F FDG-PET/CT for tumour staging. Maximum standardized uptake value of cRCC (tumour SUV{sub max}) and mean SUV of the liver and spleen (liver and spleen SUV{sub mean}) were measured by two independent observers. Tumour SUV{sub max}, tumour-to-liver SUV ratio, and tumour-to-spleen SUV ratio were correlated with the pathological grades. Logistic analysis demonstrated that only the tumour-to-liver SUV ratio was a significant parameter for differentiating high-grade (Fuhrman grades 3 and 4) tumours from low-grade (Fuhrman grades 1 and 2) tumours (P = 0.007 and 0.010 for observers 1 and 2, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for detecting tumours of Fuhrman grades 3 and 4 were 64, 100, 100, and 77 %, respectively, for observer 1, and 79, 88, 85, and 83 %, respectively, for observer 2. The tumour-to-liver SUV ratio with 18-F FDG-PET/CT appeared to be a valuable imaging biomarker in the prediction of high-grade cRCC. (orig.)

  3. Variable threshold levels for estimation of renal uptake of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid based on single photon emission computed tomography

    To calculate renal uptake of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) more accurately using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), it is necessary to estimate values of threshold level, which corresponds to the ratio of kidney to background (BG ratio). Thus the phantom and clinical studies were conducted. Six kinds of renal phantoms of 80 to 339 ml, contained different radioactivity of 37 to 485 MBq were prepared. These phantoms were placed in a larger body phantom filled with 1 to 50% of radioactivity representing background. Clinical application of this method was also performed. A significant correlation between phantom volumes and estimated volumes obtained using threshold level based on BG ratio calculated on tomographic images was found (r=0.99). A significant correlation between total counts in estimated volumes and radioactivities in phantoms was recognized (r=0.94). Known radioactivity in phantoms and radioactivity in estimated volumes were highly related (r=0.98). Clinical application showed valuable results in patients with renal dysfunction. Thus, this method can calculate more accurate renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA. (author)

  4. Radioiodine uptake in a renal cyst mimicking a metastasis in a patient affected by differentiated thyroid cancer. Case report and review of the literature

    We report a 55-year-old man affected by differentiated thyroid carcinoma with lymph nodes metastases. After conventional levothyroxine withdrawal, the patient underwent thyroid remnant ablation by oral administration of radioiodine-131 ablative activity (3700 MBq). 7 days later, post-therapy whole body scan (pWBS) demonstrated thyroid remnant and showed a large area of abnormal radioiodine uptake located in the posterior left upper abdomen. Ultrasonography of the abdominal region revealed a cyst in left kidney corresponding to the focal radioiodine uptake. On the same day, 131I static images of the posterior upper abdomen obtained before and after administration of furosemide, showed that radioiodine uptake in the lesion was markedly lower after diuretic administration, indicating that radioiodine accumulation in the renal cyst is linked to an active secretory process by the renal tubule. Due to its non-negligible frequency, renal cyst should be taken into account in DTC patients as a potential pitfall at 131I pWBS. (author)

  5. Replacement of Lys Linker with Arg Linker Resulting in Improved Melanoma Uptake and Reduced Renal Uptake of Tc-99m-Labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-Conjugated Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Hybrid Peptide

    Yang, Jianquan; Guo, Haixun; Padilla, R. Steve; Berwick, Marianne; Miao, Yubin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the non-specific renal uptake of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptide through structural modification or L-lysine co-injection. The RGD motif {cyclic(Arg-Gly-Asp-dTyr-Asp)} was coupled to [Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]α-MSH3-13 {(Arg11)CCMSH} through the Arg linker (substituting the Lys linker) to generate a novel RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH hybrid peptide. The melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of...

  6. Glomerular filtration rate estimated from the uptake phase of 99mTc-DTPA renography in chronic renal failure

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Talleruphuus, U;

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea.......The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea....

  7. Effect of oral propranolol administration on azygos, renal and hepatic uptake and output of catecholamines in cirrhosis

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Christensen, N J; Sørensen, T I;

    1991-01-01

    Circulating catecholamines are increased in cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and increase further after propranolol. In 23 cirrhotic patients, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine were determined in an artery, the azygos vein, the right renal vein and a hepatic vein before and after an oral 80......-mg dose of propranolol. Baseline azygos and renal venous norepinephrine levels were significantly higher than arterial norepinephrine levels (+20%, p less than 0.005; and +28%, p less than 0.001, respectively). Hepatic venous norepinephrine and all venous epinephrine values were below the arterial...... values (all p less than 0.05). After propranolol intake, arterial norepinephrine and epinephrine increased (+16%, p less than 0.01; and +93%, p less than 0.001, respectively). Significant increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine were found in azygos and renal veins (all p less than 0.01), whereas...

  8. Time, absolute.

    Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb

    2009-01-01

    The concept of absolute time is a hypothetical model from the laws of classical physics postulated by Isaac Newton in the Principia in 1687. Although the Newtonian model of absolute time has since been opposed and rejected in light of more recent scholarship, it still provides a way to study science with reference to time and understand the phenomena of time within the scientific tradition. According to this model, it is assumed that time runs at the same rate for all the observers in the uni...

  9. Pre- and Post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex. (author)

  10. Pre- and post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    Kawamura, Juichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex.

  11. Phagocytic capability of the kidney: a possible mechanism for renal uptake of colloid in liver--spleen scanning

    Guinea pigs were given Trypan blue or India ink i.v. and i.m. to demonstrate whether proximal convoluted tubule cells of the normal kidney have potential phagocytic capability. Circulating colloidal particles of Trypan blue solution accumulated in these cells and the accumulation was related to the particle size, dose injection, and duration of experiment. These studies suggest an explanation for the clinical observation of renal visualization with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid in patients with congestive heart failure. (U.S.)

  12. Preoperative and postoperative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by /sup 99m/technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    /sup 99m/Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy, consisting of the cortical image and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake rate, was used to assess preoperative and postoperative renal function in 55 patients with staghorn calculi. In 14 of 20 patients who had undergone extended pyelolithotomy and in 4 of 22 who had undergone nephrolithotomy there was an increase or no change in the postoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake in the surgically treated kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake in the patients who had undergone pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight per cent of the preoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake rate in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting the postoperative recovery of renal function. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal images provide evidence of morphological changes in the cortex of the kidney with stones and the dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake rate is a useful adjunct for quantitative assessments of preoperative and postoperative residual cortical function

  13. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the

  14. Absolute beginners

    Costa, Carlos Casimiro da; Costa, Jacinta Casimiro da

    2012-01-01

    Tomorrow, I m recovering my Thursday child as an absolute beginner , Transporting you to the essential touch of surface skin and space, Only for you, i do not regret, looking for education in a materia set. My love is your love , my materiality is you making things, The legacy of our ethnography, craftsmen s old and disappear, make me strong hard feelings, Recovering experiences and knowledge sprinkled in powder of stone, wood and metal ( ) reflecting in your dirty face the ...

  15. Estimation and relevance of depth correction in paediatric renal studies

    Measurement of absolute renal function by gamma camera techniques requires knowledge of kidney depth to correct for soft tissue attenuation, there is debate about the need to take depth into account when only relative renal function is estimated. The aim of this study was to derive a formula for renal depth in children and to assess the importance of depth correction when relative renal function is assessed with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the gamma camera. In this study, kidney depths were derived from measurements on abdominal computerised tomography (CT) images in 57 children in the supine position with two normally located kidneys. Using best-subset regression analysis, one formula for both left and right kidney depth (KD, cm) was developed based on the easily measured parameters of height (H, cm) and body weight (W, kg). The inclusion of extra variables was found to significantly improve the model compared with a model using weight alone (P<0.005). A second group of 19 children who underwent technetium-99m DMSA scans, had differential function estimated from both anterior and posterior views and the geometric mean method. The mean difference in differential renal function calculated by the geometric mean method versus the posterior image was only 1.2%. In conclusion, we present a new formula for the estimation of paediatric kidney depth for the absolute quantitation of kidney uptake. Further, for normally located kidneys it appears unnecessary to use the geometric mean method or to correct for individual renal depth when calculating differential function. (orig.)

  16. Absolute Summ

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  17. Ultrasmall Glutathione-Protected Gold Nanoclusters as Next Generation Radiotherapy Sensitizers with High Tumor Uptake and High Renal Clearance

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Jie; Song, Shasha; Yuan, Xun; Shen, Xiu; Wang, Hao; Sun, Yuanming; Gao, Kai; Zhang, Lianfeng; Fan, Saijun; Leong, David Tai; Guo, Meili; Xie, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is often the most straightforward first line cancer treatment for solid tumors. While it is highly effective against tumors, there is also collateral damage to healthy proximal tissues especially with high doses. The use of radiosensitizers is an effective way to boost the killing efficacy of radiotherapy against the tumor while drastically limiting the received dose and reducing the possible damage to normal tissues. Here, we report the design and application of a good radiosensitizer by using ultrasmall gold nanoclusters with a naturally occurring peptide (e.g., glutathione or GSH) as the protecting shell. The GSH coated gold nanoclusters can escape the RES absorption, leading to a good tumor uptake (8.1% ID/g at 24 h post injection). As a result, the as-designed Au nanoclusters led to a strong enhancement for radiotherapy, as well as a negligible damage to normal tissues. After the treatment, the ultrasmall gold nanoclusters can be efficiently cleared by the kidney, thereby avoiding potential ...

  18. Renal function maturation in children: is normalization to surface area valid?

    Full text: Gamma camera DTPA renograms were analysed to measure renal function by the rate at which the kidneys took up tracer from the blood. This was expressed either directly as the fractional uptake rate (FUR), which is not related to body size, or it was converted to a camera-based GFR by the formula GFR blood volume x FUR, and this GFR was normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m2. Most of the patients studied had one completely normal kidney, and one kidney with reflux but normal function and no large scars. The completely normal kidneys contributed, on average, 50% of the total renal function. The results were considered in age bands, to display the effect of age on renal function. The camera-GFR measurements showed the conventional results of poor renal function in early childhood, with a slow rise to near-adult values by the age of 2 years, and somewhat low values throughout childhood. The uptake values showed a different pattern, with renal function rising to adult equivalent values by the age of 4 months, and with children having better renal function than adults throughout most of their childhood. The standard deviations expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were smaller for the FUR technique than the GFR (Wilcoxon rank test, P < 0.01). These results resemble recent published measurements of absolute DMSA uptake, which are also unrelated to body size and show early renal maturation. The results also suggest that the reason children have lower serum creatinine levels than adults is that they have better renal function. If this were confirmed, it would raise doubts about the usefulness of normalizing renal function to body surface area in children

  19. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: clinical validation of the relationship between 99mTc-MIBI uptake and P-glycoprotein expression in tumour tissue

    Technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) and thallium-201 imaging was performed in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which is a well-known tumour type demonstrating P1-glycoprotein (PGP) overexpression. Two scintigraphic patterns - Tl(+)/MIBI(-) in primary tumour and Tl(+)/MIB(+) in metastatic tumour - were observed, suggesting high- and low-level PGP expression, respectively. Immunochemical study for PGP revealed strong staining of the primary tumour cells. This case clinically validates the previously suggested relationship between 99mTc-MIBI uptake and PGP expression. (orig.)

  20. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  1. Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity, 1

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously to male Wistar rats for periods of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. On the next day, the renoscintigraphy was performed 2 hours following intravenous injection of 99mTc-DMSA and Ccr was measured. On the 7th day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower in the treated rats than that in control (32.27±0.92 vs 39.84±2.24%; p99mTc-DMSA uptake was measured and the histological examination was done. On the 4th day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower than that on the 1st day (32.32±3.00 vs 38.91±1.95%; p99mTc-DMSA uptake reduces earlier than Ccr in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and 99mTc-DMSA uptake is a reliable indicator in the evaluation of a renal function in drug-induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  2. A clinical study of the influence of percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy on renal function using 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    To clarify the influence of percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy (PNL) on renal function, 99mTc-DMSA renal scientigraphy was performed preoperatively and 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure. In 50 stone-containing renal units, 48 patients, changes of DMSA renal uptake rate were investigated for determination of individual renal function. In 3 cases with staghorn calculi which complicated with pyelonephritis during PNL procedure, DMSA renal uptake rate was decreased after PNL. On the other hand, DMSA renal uptake rate was almost stationary after PNL in other cases. In 21 renal units (42 %), the postoperative renal scintigrams showed low uptake or cold areas at nephrostomy tracts. These results indicate that control of infection during PNL is important to maintain renal function. (author)

  3. Eosinophil count - absolute

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  4. Molecular imaging of reduced renal uptake of radiolabelled [DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate by the combination of lysine and Gelofusine in rats

    Rolleman, E.J.; Bernard, B.F.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Forrer, F.; Blois, E. de; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hoppin, J. [Bioscan Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Gotthardt, M.; Boerman, O.C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud Univ. Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    Aim: in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, kidney uptake of radiolabelled compound is the major dose-limiting factor. We studied the effects of Gelofusine (20 mg) and lysine (100 mg) and the combination of both after injection of therapeutic doses of radiolabelled [DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate (60 MBq {sup 111}In or 555 MBq {sup 177}Lu labelled to 15 {mu}g peptide) in male Lewis rats. Methods: kidney uptake was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans with a four-headed multi-pinhole camera (NanoSPECT) at 24 h, 5 and 7 days p. i. and was quantified by volume of interest analysis. For validation the activity concentration in the dissected kidneys was also determined ex vivo using a gamma counter and a dose calibrator. Results: Gelofusine and lysine both reduced kidney uptake of [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate significantly by about 40% at all time points. The combination of Gelofusine and lysine resulted in a 62% inhibition of kidney uptake (p < 0.01 vs. lysine alone). A weak but significant dose-response relationship for Gelofusine, but not for lysine, was found. In a study with [{sup 111}In-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate, conclusions drawn from NanoSPECT data were confirmed by biodistribution data. Conclusions: we conclude that rat kidney uptake of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues can be monitored for a longer period in the same animal using animal SPECT. Gelofusine and lysine had equal potential to reduce kidney uptake of therapeutic doses of [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate. The combination of these compounds caused a significantly larger reduction than lysine or Gelofusine alone and may therefore offer new possibilities in PRRT. The NanoSPECT data were validated by standard biodistribution experiments. (orig.)

  5. Molecular imaging of reduced renal uptake of radiolabelled [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate by the combination of lysine and Gelofusine in rats

    Aim: in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, kidney uptake of radiolabelled compound is the major dose-limiting factor. We studied the effects of Gelofusine (20 mg) and lysine (100 mg) and the combination of both after injection of therapeutic doses of radiolabelled [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (60 MBq 111In or 555 MBq 177Lu labelled to 15 μg peptide) in male Lewis rats. Methods: kidney uptake was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans with a four-headed multi-pinhole camera (NanoSPECT) at 24 h, 5 and 7 days p. i. and was quantified by volume of interest analysis. For validation the activity concentration in the dissected kidneys was also determined ex vivo using a gamma counter and a dose calibrator. Results: Gelofusine and lysine both reduced kidney uptake of [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate significantly by about 40% at all time points. The combination of Gelofusine and lysine resulted in a 62% inhibition of kidney uptake (p 111In-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate, conclusions drawn from NanoSPECT data were confirmed by biodistribution data. Conclusions: we conclude that rat kidney uptake of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues can be monitored for a longer period in the same animal using animal SPECT. Gelofusine and lysine had equal potential to reduce kidney uptake of therapeutic doses of [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate. The combination of these compounds caused a significantly larger reduction than lysine or Gelofusine alone and may therefore offer new possibilities in PRRT. The NanoSPECT data were validated by standard biodistribution experiments. (orig.)

  6. Influence of extracellular HCO3- and pH on lysine (LYS) and leucine (LEU) uptake and metabolism in swine renal tubules

    Fragments of renal tubules prepared by collagenase treatment of renal cortex were suspended to Krebs-Henseleit buffers which were modified to contain 10, 25 and 35 mM HCO3- at pH 7.4, or 25 mM HCO3- at pH 7.1, 7.4 and 7.7. Buffers were oxygenated with O2-CO2 gas mixtures varying in carbon dioxide concentration prior to incubation. Approximately 100 mg tubules were incubated with shaking at 370C for 30 min in serum-stoppered 25 ml Erlenmeyer flasks in 3.0 ml of buffer containing 0.1% dialyzed bovine serum albumin, 5 mM D-glucose and 0.3 mM L-[U-14C]-lysine or L-[1-14C]-leucine. The incorporation of carbon-14 into CO2 and into 10% sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-soluble and SSA-insoluble fractions of the incubation mixture was determined. Low (10mM) bicarbonate reduced the incorporation of lys and leu into protein but did not substantially affect the recovery of 14CO2 from either amino acid. High pH (7.7) resulted in reduced incorporation of lys and leu into protein, and decreased the oxidation of lys but not leu. The specific activity of lys (leu was not determined) in the SSA-soluble fraction was unaffected by bicarbonate or pH. The authors conclude that variations in extracellular pH and HCO3- (or pCO2) affect the metabolism of amino acids by renal tubules and that low extracellular HCO3- (or pCO2) may depress the incorporation of amino acids into protein

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  10. Sequential Scintigraphy in Renal Transplantation

    Based on experience gained from more than 1600 patients with proved or suspected kidney diseases and on results on extended studies with dogs, sequential scintigraphy was performèd after renal transplantation in dogs. After intravenous injection of 500 μCi. 131I-Hippuran scintiphotos were taken during the first minute with an exposure time of 15 sec each and thereafter with an exposure of 2 min up to at least 16 min.. Several examinations were evaluated digitally. 26 examinations were performed on 11 dogs with homotransplanted kidneys. Immediately after transplantation the renal function was almost normal arid the bladder was filled in due time. At the beginning of rejection the initial uptake of radioactive Hippuran was reduced. The intrarenal transport became delayed; probably the renal extraction rate decreased. Corresponding to the development of an oedema in the transplant the uptake area increased in size. In cases of thrombosis of the main artery there was no evidence of any uptake of radioactivity in the transplant. Similar results were obtained in 41 examinations on 15 persons. Patients with postoperative anuria due to acute tubular necrosis showed still some uptake of radioactivity contrary to those with thrombosis of the renal artery, where no uptake was found. In cases of rejection the most frequent signs were a reduced initial uptake and a delayed intrarenal transport of radioactive Hippuran. Infarction could be detected by a reduced uptake in distinct areas of the transplant. (author)

  11. Trauma renal Renal trauma

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.We present a revision of the renal trauma with emphasis in the radiographic evaluation, particularly CT scan that it has largely replaced the excretory urogram and arteriogram in the diagnostic worh-up and management of the patient with renal trauma. The successful management of renal injuries depends upon the accurate assessment of their extent in agreement with Organ Injury Scaling classification. The conservative therapy managed by careful continuous observation, bed rest, appropriate fluid ressuscitation and prophylactic antibiotic coverage after radiographic staging for severely injured kidneys can yield favorable results and save patients from unnecessary exploration and possible renal loss. The indications for immediate exploratory laparotomy were acute abdomen, rapidly dropping hematocrit or associated injuries as determinated from radiologic evaluation. When indicated, renal exploration

  12. Radionuclide angiography in unilateral nonfocal renal disease

    Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tada, Akira; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1984-12-01

    A total of 90 patients with unilateral nonfocal renal disease (58 patients with obstructive uropathy, 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, 13 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 3 patients with renal tuberculosis and 3 patients with a- or hypogenesis) were examined with the method of serial dynamic imaging of Tc-99m DTPA including radionuclide angiography. And the diagnostic significance of renal perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was qualitatively evaluated compared to that of renoparenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. after intravenous administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In fifty-nine out of 90 patients (65%) with unilateral nonfocal renal disease, both perfusion and parenchymal uptake abnormalities were found at the involved side. In two of 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, however, the unilateral hypoperfusion was only found as the evidence of unilateral disease on radionuclide angiogram although these did not show any parenchymal uptake abnormality. Moreover, four out of 58 patients with obstructive uropathy, did show the slight difference of renal perfusion between the involved and the univolved sides. and did not show any difference of parenchymal uptake between both sides. In the present study, the incidence of perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was slightly higher than that of parenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. in unilateral renal disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the radionuclide angiography may be accepted as one of the routine nuclear medicine imagings for the evaluation of functional abnormalities in nonfocal renal disease. (author).

  13. Radionuclide angiography in unilateral nonfocal renal disease

    A total of 90 patients with unilateral nonfocal renal disease (58 patients with obstructive uropathy, 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, 13 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 3 patients with renal tuberculosis and 3 patients with a- or hypogenesis) were examined with the method of serial dynamic imaging of Tc-99m DTPA including radionuclide angiography. And the diagnostic significance of renal perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was qualitatively evaluated compared to that of renoparenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. after intravenous administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In fifty-nine out of 90 patients (65%) with unilateral nonfocal renal disease, both perfusion and parenchymal uptake abnormalities were found at the involved side. In two of 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, however, the unilateral hypoperfusion was only found as the evidence of unilateral disease on radionuclide angiogram although these did not show any parenchymal uptake abnormality. Moreover, four out of 58 patients with obstructive uropathy, did show the slight difference of renal perfusion between the involved and the univolved sides. and did not show any difference of parenchymal uptake between both sides. In the present study, the incidence of perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was slightly higher than that of parenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. in unilateral renal disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the radionuclide angiography may be accepted as one of the routine nuclear medicine imagings for the evaluation of functional abnormalities in nonfocal renal disease. (author)

  14. Renal Localization of {sup 67}Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    {sup 67}Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of {sup 67}Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal {sup 67}Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher {sup 67}Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal {sup 67}Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal {sup 67}Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, {sup 67}Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  15. Increased streptavidin uptake in tumors pretargeted with biotinylated antibody using a conjugate of streptavidin-Fab fragment

    Radiolabeled streptavidin accumulated in tumors pretargeted with biotinylated antibody. However, the absolute delivery of radioactivity was limited. To increase the tumor uptake of radioactivity further, we conjugated streptavidin with a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment, OST6Fab, which recognizes antigen on human osteosarcoma. Another mouse MAb, OST7, which also reacts with the same tumor but recognizes an epitope different from the OST6 epitope, was biotinylated. The radioiodinated streptavidin-OST6Fab conjugate was administered to tumor-bearing mice after the biotinylated OST7 pretargeting. The uptake of the conjugate in tumors pretargeted with the biotinylated antibody was significantly higher than that of streptavidin and that of the conjugate of streptavidin and irrelevant Fab fragment. Renal uptake of radioactivity was decreased markedly, and the blood clearance was retarded by the conjugation with Fab fragment. In conclusion, the conjugate of streptavidin with specific Fab fragment increased the accumulation of radioactivity in tumors pretargeted with biotinylated antibody

  16. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  17. Impact of maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax) evaluated by 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a preliminary report

    In this era of molecular targeting therapy when various systematic treatments can be selected, prognostic biomarkers are required for the purpose of risk-directed therapy selection. Numerous reports of various malignancies have revealed that 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulation, as evaluated by positron emission tomography, can be used to predict the prognosis of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) from 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A total of 26 patients with advanced or metastatic RCC were enrolled in this study. The FDG uptake of all RCC lesions diagnosed by conventional CT was evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The impact of SUVmax on patient survival was analyzed prospectively. FDG uptake was detected in 230 of 243 lesions (94.7%) excluding lung or liver metastases with diameters of less than 1 cm. The SUVmax of 26 patients ranged between 1.4 and 16.6 (mean 8.8 ± 4.0). The patients with RCC tumors showing high SUVmax demonstrated poor prognosis (P = 0.005 hazard ratio 1.326, 95% CI 1.089-1.614). The survival between patients with SUVmax equal to the mean of SUVmax, 8.8 or more and patients with SUVmax less than 8.8 were statistically different (P = 0.0012). This is the first report to evaluate the impact of SUVmax on advanced RCC patient survival. However, the number of patients and the follow-up period were still not extensive enough to settle this important question conclusively. The survival of patients with advanced RCC can be predicted by evaluating their SUVmax using 18F-FDG-PET/CT. 18F-FDG-PET/CT has potency as an 'imaging biomarker' to provide helpful information for the clinical decision-making

  18. Impact of maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax evaluated by 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a preliminary report

    Miura Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this era of molecular targeting therapy when various systematic treatments can be selected, prognostic biomarkers are required for the purpose of risk-directed therapy selection. Numerous reports of various malignancies have revealed that 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG accumulation, as evaluated by positron emission tomography, can be used to predict the prognosis of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax from 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Methods A total of 26 patients with advanced or metastatic RCC were enrolled in this study. The FDG uptake of all RCC lesions diagnosed by conventional CT was evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The impact of SUVmax on patient survival was analyzed prospectively. Results FDG uptake was detected in 230 of 243 lesions (94.7% excluding lung or liver metastases with diameters of less than 1 cm. The SUVmax of 26 patients ranged between 1.4 and 16.6 (mean 8.8 ± 4.0. The patients with RCC tumors showing high SUVmax demonstrated poor prognosis (P = 0.005 hazard ratio 1.326, 95% CI 1.089-1.614. The survival between patients with SUVmax equal to the mean of SUVmax, 8.8 or more and patients with SUVmax less than 8.8 were statistically different (P = 0.0012. This is the first report to evaluate the impact of SUVmax on advanced RCC patient survival. However, the number of patients and the follow-up period were still not extensive enough to settle this important question conclusively. Conclusions The survival of patients with advanced RCC can be predicted by evaluating their SUVmax using 18F-FDG-PET/CT. 18F-FDG-PET/CT has potency as an "imaging biomarker" to provide helpful information for the clinical decision-making.

  19. Absolute Pitch on Music

    Çuhadar, C.Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Musicians are debated people in the academic circles with the claim of they have both various characteristics and different cognitive personalities on the analogy those other people. One of these different characteristics is absolute pitch ability. Absolute pitch (AP) is a cognitive ability which can be characterized as to identify any tones (labeling) at a given pitch without using any external references. According to the different studies which were held in different times, the prevalence ...

  20. Absolute polarimetry at RHIC

    Okada, H.; Alekseev, I.; Bravar, A; Bunce, G.; Dhawan, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Gill, R; Haeberli, W.; Huang, H.; Jinnouchi, O.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Nass, A.; Saito, N; Stephenson, E.

    2007-01-01

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detector...

  1. Absolute surface energy determination

    Metois, J. J.; Muller, P.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental determination of absolute surface energies remains a challenge. We propose a simple method based on two independent measurements on 3D and 2D equilibrium shapes completed by the analysis of the thermal fluctuation of an isolated step. Using then basic equations (Wulff' theorem, Gibbs-Thomson equation, thermodynamics fluctuation of an isolated step) allows us to extract the absolute surface free energy of a singular face. The so-proposed method can be applied when (i) all orientat...

  2. Renal scintigraphy in infants with antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation

    Ajdinović Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most frequent entities identified on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings in postnatal investigation of children with antenatal hydronephrosis. Methods. Twenty four infants (19 boys and five girls presented with antenatal hydronephrosis and mild to moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound in newborn period were referred for renal scintigraphy. Ten patients with vesicoureteral reflux documented on micturating cystoureterography underwent 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and 14 patients were subjected to 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Results. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter on ultrasound ranged from 11 to 24 mm. Renal DMSA scans identified congenital scars in two boys with bilateral reflux of grade V and unilateral reflux of grade III. Relative kidney uptake (RKU less than 40% was found in three, and poor kidney function (RKU less than 10% in two patients. Significant obstruction was shown on DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy in 6/14 patients. Some slowing in dranaige (T1/2 greater than 10 minutes with no reduction in differential renal function was identified in three patients. Differential renal function less than 10% was obtained in one case. Conclusion. A high percent of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings was obtained. Renal scintigraphy was useful in determination of underlying cause of antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

  3. Influences of renal stone surgeries on renal function

    From 1984 to 1990, 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was performed before and after nephrolithotomy (15 cases), pyelolithotomy (15 cases), percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL: 15 cases) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL: 16 cases, 17 kidneys) in order to evaluate of influences of renal stone surgeries on split renal function. DMSA renal uptake change ratio of treated kidneys of nephrolithotomy (-24.94±5.60%) was significantly lower than that of PNL (-0.06±3.92%), pyelolithotomy (-4.08±4.79%) (p<0.01) and ESWL (-7.72±3.87%) (p<0.05). The average change ratios of contralateral kidneys were as follows: PNL 4.80±4.21% nephrolithotomy 4.67±4.73%, pyelolithotomy -1.46±5.39% and ESWL -2.02±4.44%. One to 3 weeks after PNL, the cold area on the renal image was found in 10 (66.7%) of 15 cases. In cases of ESWL, DMSA renal uptake decreased even 4-10 weeks (mean 7 weeks) after treatment. In conclusion, possibility of deterioration of renal function after ESWL was suggested. (author)

  4. Renal trapping of cadmium

    Renal Cd retention is well known; its mechanism was here studied in rabbits. 109CdCl2 or 65ZnCl2 were injected IA, together with SH-ethanol (ME) to prevent isotope binding to plasma protein; the bolus was trapped in the kidney for 40 s by aortic occlusion as described previously. Total uptake (TU, in % of renal load) = the sum of (A) reabsorbed metal, calculated on the basis of free filtrn. of ME complexes, their insignificant urinary excretion, and av. filtrn. fraction of 20%; and (B) basolateral (BL) extraction, determined from recoveries of metal compared to that of inulin in renal venous samples collected over 3 min after release of occlusion. TU averaged 32% for Cd (n=6), and 42% for Zn (n=4). Three ± 10% (SD) of TU Cd but 86 ± 37% of TU Zn returned to blood. These findings recall the positive correlation between relative affinities of Cd, Zn and Ni for metallothionein (MT), and their retention by jejunal mucosa (AJP 253:G134,1987); endogenous MT has been directly implicated in Cd retention by that tissue (Tox. 38:285,1986). Present results similarly support the commonly postulated role of MT in renal Cd retention, and reemphasize the contribution BL uptake of nonMT Cd can make to total Cd accumulation

  5. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  6. Digital simulation method for analyzing renal function by using sup(99m)Tc-DMSA

    Ishine, Masahiro (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan))

    1984-10-01

    A digital simulation method for quantitative evaluation of renal function by using sup(99m)Tc-DMSA was proposed. The ultimate renal DMSA uptake rate, saturation time, and percent renal blood volume were calculated by this method, and its clinical usefulness was evaluated. This analytical method was thought to be reliable from the fact that calculated renal uptake rates showed a significant correlation with observed values after 2hrs' administration. Furthermore, calculated renal uptake rates were significantly correlated with the values of renal plasma flow and creatinine clearance. In the cases with obstructive uropathy, calculated renal uptake rate, saturation time, and percent renal blood volume were thought to reflect the grade and the feature of the disease. From these results, my proposed method was considered to be clinically useful as a quantitative renal function test.

  7. Renal angiomyolipoma

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare lesion composed of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue and abnormal vessels. It is currently classified as a benign, non-epithelial renal tumor. It has a high incidence in patients suffering from tuberous sclerosis but is more frequently found as an isolated renal...

  8. Retrospective study of renal images on whole bone scanning

    One hundred and twenty-seven cases were surveyed by sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate at Jikei hospital. Renal images on whole-bone scanning were observed in all cases; 75% of all renal images were normal and 25% were abnormal. Thirteen percent of these abnormal images were symmetric and 87% were asymmetric. Four of the symmetric renal images were bilaterally bad. Three of the four bilaterally bad renal images involved prostate carcinomas with general metastases and the last involved serious bilateral hydronephrosis. The reason for the high percentage of asymmetric renal images was that the materials involved many urogenital cases. Asymmetric renal images other than the urogenital cases, were recognised in 8% of all cases. This percentage is consistent with Hattner's report. Unilateral abnormal renal images involved 8 hydronephrosis cases, 2 unilateral nonfunctioning kidneys and one malrotation kidney. Among the hydronephrosis cases, serious cases gave low uptake and mild cases gave high uptake. The reason for this phenomenon was, presumably, that there were differences in renal uptake, renal excretion and renal pelvic accumulation. In nine cases, one kidney was not visualized on whole-bone scanning, 8 of them involved nephrectomy and the remainining one unilateral nonfunctioning kidney. Six cases presented locally abnormal renal images on whole-bone scanning, three of them suffered renal cell carcinomas and the rest renal solitary cyst. Eighty-eight percent of the abnormal renal images agreed with IVP findings. The renal images of whole-bone scanning faithfully reflected the original renal lesion. Two cases of renal carcinoma and renal solitary cyst recognized on whole-bone scanning are presented, to indicate the usefulness of renal images on whole-bone scanning. (auth.)

  9. Absolute Neutrino Masses

    Since the recent convincing evidence for massive neutrinos in oscillation experiments, the next task is to determine the absolute masses of neutrinos. A unique pattern of neutrino masses will be hopefully fixed in the future superbeam experiments and neutrino factories. However, the determination of the exact scale is more complicated and depends on the mass of the lightest neutrino ( mμ )min . If ( mμ)min ≥ 0.35 eV, the future tritium β decay experiments ( e.g. KATRIN) will have a chance to establish absolute neutrino masses. For smaller masses, 0.004 eV ≤ (mμ)min ≤ 0.35 eV, if neutrinos are Majorana particles, an additional information can be derived from the neutrinoless double β decay (ββ)0μ of nuclei and again the absolute neutrino masses can be fixed. If, however, (mμ)min ≤ 0.004 eV, none of the present and foreseeable future experiments is known to be able to fix the mass scale. (author)

  10. [Ultrasonic nephrotomography in the differential diagnosis of renal tumors].

    Proca, E; Jovin, G; Lucan, M; Ioiart, I

    1977-01-01

    Renal ultrasonography was performed in 40 patients. Complex exploration was carried out in 12 patients with renal tumours, such as: urography, renal scintigrams, renal arteriography, ultrasonography and cavography. Laminography was proved to be an useful method in the positive and differential diagnosis of renal tumours, especially of cystic ones. Informations provided by this technique are not absolute, and these are some possibilities for errors which operate both ways: omission of malignancies or affirmation of malignancy when the lesion is benign. The method should be considered as complementary in the field of renal investigations and will be interpreted in the general context. PMID:147495

  11. Simple technique for measuring relative renal blood flow

    To determine whether externally monitored early renal uptake of 131I-hippurate is proportional to renal blood flow, the renal uptake of 131-hippurate at 1 to 2 min after injection was compared with the renal accumulation of radioactive carbonized microspheres in dogs. A renal artery catheter equipped with a balloon was used to decrease renal blood flow unilaterally. One minute after the intravenous injection of 100 μCi of 131I-hippurate, about 1 μCi of either 85Sr- or 95Nb-labeled carbon microspheres was injected into the left ventricle. Radioactivity was measured over both kidneys. The total radioactivity within each kidney region of interest was corrected for background and integrated over the 1 to 2 min interval after injection. Thirteen measurements of relative renal blood flow were made for seven dogs. The dogs were then killed and both kidneys were excised and counted for the radioactivity of the microspheres. The 1 to 2-min relative renal uptake of 131I-hippurate correlated well with relative microsphere uptake, suggesting that relative renal blood flow can be simply determined from the external measurements of renal uptake of 131I-hippurate

  12. Functional impairment of the kidney after nephrolithotomy determinated by 99mtechnetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake rate

    The effect of nephrolithotomy on renal function was assessed in 11 patients with unilateral renal calculi, using 99m Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal uptake rate. There was mild decrease of DMSA uptake rate in the kidneys containing stones preoperatively. DMSA uptake rate of the operated kidneys decreased remarkably 3 weeks after operation. By one year after operation, DMSA uptake rate of the operated kidney recovered, but was still significantly lower than the preoperative value. We concluded that the rate of functional loss after nephrolithotomy was estimated to be about 5 % of the total renal function. (author)

  13. Akt2/PKBbeta-sensitive regulation of renal phosphate transport

    Kempe, D S; Ackermann, T F; Boini, K M; Klaus, F; Umbach, A T; Dërmaku-Sopjani, M; Judenhofer, M S; Pichler, B J; Capuano, P.; Stange, G.; Wagner, C. A.; Birnbaum, M J; Pearce, D.; Föller, M; Lang, F.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt is known to stimulate the cellular uptake of glucose and amino acids. The kinase is expressed in proximal renal tubules. The present study explored the influence of Akt/PKB on renal tubular phosphate transport. METHODS: The renal phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without PKB/Akt and Na(+) phosphate cotransport determined using dual electrode voltage clamp. Renal phosphate excretion was determined in Akt2/PKBbeta knockou...

  14. The specific uptake size index for quantifying radiopharmaceutical uptake

    Fleming, John S [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Bolt, Livia [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Stratford, Jennifer S [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Kemp, Paul M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-21

    Quantitative indices of radionuclide uptake in an object of interest provide a useful adjunct to qualitative interpretation in the diagnostic application of radionuclide imaging. This note describes a new measure of total uptake of an organ, the specific uptake size index (SUSI). It can either be related in absolute terms to the total activity injected or to the specific activity in a reference region. As it depends on the total activity in the object, the value obtained will not depend on the resolution of the imaging process, as is the case with some other similar quantitative indices. This has been demonstrated in an experiment using simulated images. The application of the index to quantification of dopamine receptor SPECT imaging and parathyroid-thyroid subtraction planar scintigraphy is described. The index is considered to be of potential value in reducing variation in quantitative assessment of uptake in objects with applications in all areas of radionuclide imaging. (note)

  15. NOTE: The specific uptake size index for quantifying radiopharmaceutical uptake

    Fleming, John S.; Bolt, Livia; Stratford, Jennifer S.; Kemp, Paul M.

    2004-07-01

    Quantitative indices of radionuclide uptake in an object of interest provide a useful adjunct to qualitative interpretation in the diagnostic application of radionuclide imaging. This note describes a new measure of total uptake of an organ, the specific uptake size index (SUSI). It can either be related in absolute terms to the total activity injected or to the specific activity in a reference region. As it depends on the total activity in the object, the value obtained will not depend on the resolution of the imaging process, as is the case with some other similar quantitative indices. This has been demonstrated in an experiment using simulated images. The application of the index to quantification of dopamine receptor SPECT imaging and parathyroid thyroid subtraction planar scintigraphy is described. The index is considered to be of potential value in reducing variation in quantitative assessment of uptake in objects with applications in all areas of radionuclide imaging.

  16. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  17. Absolute polarimetry at RHIC

    Okada, H; Bravar, A; Bunce, G; Dhawan, S; Eyser, K O; Gill, R; Haeberli, W; Huang, H; Jinnouchi, O; Makdisi, Y; Nakagawa, I; Nass, A; Saitô, N; Stephenson, E; Sviridia, D; Wise, T; Wood, J; Zelenski, A

    2007-01-01

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features \\textit{proton-proton} elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power $A_N$ of this process has allowed us to achieve $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} =4.2%$ in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of $A...

  18. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    A. V. Govorov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  19. Renal liposarcoma

    Diogo A.L. Bader

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Liposarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor frequently located in retroperitoneum, and rarely presenting an isolated lesion in kidney. CASE REPORT: Female, Caucasian, 49-year old patient, with family history of renal polycystic disease, was selected for organ donation. During preoperative examinations a renal pleomorphic liposarcoma was detected. She was treated with radical nephrectomy and remains asymptomatic, without evidences of recurrence in control ecographic examinations after a 4-year follow-up. COMMENTS: Renal liposarcoma is a rare tumor. We report one case incidentally diagnosed during a routine pre-transplantation assessment in renal donor.

  20. Clinical application of absolute ethanol as an embolizing material

    Transcatheter infusion of absolute ethanol was applied clinically in 3 cases of artificial embolization: 25 yrs old female with bilateral renal angiomyolipoma, 19 yrs old female with right paralumbar liposarcoma and 25 yrs old male with hypernephroma of right kidney. Selective or subselective manual infusion was made and 9 to 22 cc of pure ethanol was delivered in a speed of 1 to 2 cc per second. The sclerosing effect of absolute ethanol was potent. However, all 3 cases revealed mild post-embolization syndrome

  1. Optical tweezers absolute calibration

    Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

  2. Measurement of the absolute \

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  3. The renal quantitative scintillation camera study for determination of renal function

    The renal quantitative scintillation camera study assesses glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow based upon renal uptake of 99mtechnetium-iron ascorbate and 131iodine-hippuran, respectively. The method was compared to inulin, para-aminohippuric acid and creatinine clearance studies in 7 normal subjects and 9 patients with various degrees of reduced renal function. The reproducibility of the technique was determined in 15 randomly selected pediatric patients. The values of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow were not significantly different from those of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. The reproducibility of the technique was comparable to that of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. Patient acceptance of the technique is excellent and the cost is minimal. Renal morphology and excretory dynamics also are demonstrated. The technique is advocated as a clinical measure of renal function

  4. A case of septic pulmonary embolism associated with renal abscess mimicking pulmonary metastases of renal malignancy

    We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with acute febrile symptom who had multiple pulmonary nodules and a renal mass. She underwent 18F-fluorode-oxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to find a hidden malignancy and the cause of her fever. FDG PET/CT images demonstrated a renal mass and multiple lung nodules with intense FDG uptake, which was suspicious of a renal malignancy with multiple pulmonary metastatic lesions. CT-guided biopsies of the pulmonary and renal lesions only showed chronic inflammatory infiltrates without evidence of malignancy. She was diagnosed with septic pulmonary embolism from a renal abscess. One month after antibiotic treatment, the follow-up chest and abdomen CT showed improvement of the lung and renal lesions. This is the first case demonstrating the FDG PET/CT finding of septic pulmonary embolism associated with renal abscess in the published literature. (author)

  5. Infarction of renal transplant with extrarenal excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 demonstrated by renal scintigraphy

    A 38-year-old woman with end stage renal disease received a living related donor-renal transplant to the right iliac fossa. She developed anuria a week later. Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy demonstrated no perfusion, uptake, or excretion of the radioactive tracer from the renal transplant. The expected area of the renal allograft appeared as a photopenic area with increased rim activity. The gallbladder and bowel activities were observed on delayed images at 24 hours. There was no blood flow within the renal artery on renal doppler examination. This case shows total absence of perfusion and function in the infarcted renal transplant with extrarenal excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 caused by acute renal artery thrombosis

  6. Ablation of tumor and inflammatory tissue with absolute ethanol

    Absolute ethanol was used to ablate tumors, inflammatory lesions, and end-stage nephrosclerotic kidneys in 38 patients. Thirty patients had various types of renal tumors, and 3 had chronic end-stage renal failure with malignant hypertension. One patient had a fibrosarcoma of the right leg and one had a metastatis in the humerus from a renal carcinoma. A large adrenal carcinoma was treated with absolute ethanol in a patient who had liver metastases that were ablated one year after the first procedure. An additional patient had metastatic liver disease from a non-functioning adrenal carcinoma. The remaining patient had an extensive hypervascular inflammatory lesion (tuberculosis and aspergilloma) of the right upper pulmonary lobe. In addition to ethanol, coils were introduced in one patient and Gelfoam in another. The amount of ethanol used ranged from 5 to 50 ml. Twenty-two patients suffered from considerable transient pain during ethanol injection, but sedation was necessary in only 3 of them. Skin necrosis appeared in 2 patients requiring plastic reconstruction in one of them. Two patients died within 5 days of the procedure unrelated to the ablation. Two patients presented upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 2 days of the ethanol injection and one of these died in acute renal failure. One patient suffered from left colonic infarction after left renal tumor ablation, but survived for several months. Absolute ethanol was a useful and efficient sclerosing agent causing extensive tumor destruction and marked reduction of the vascularity in tumor and inflammatory lesions, but caused an 18% complication rate. (orig.)

  7. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  8. Prognostic factors in neonatal acute renal failure

    Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis

  9. [Renal elastography].

    Correas, Jean-Michel; Anglicheau, Dany; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael

    2016-04-01

    Renal elastography has become available with the development of noninvasive quantitative techniques (including shear-wave elastography), following the rapidly growing field of diagnosis and quantification of liver fibrosis, which has a demonstrated major clinical impact. Ultrasound or even magnetic resonance techniques are leaving the pure research area to reach the routine clinical use. With the increased incidence of chronic kidney disease and its specific morbidity and mortality, the noninvasive diagnosis of renal fibrosis can be of critical value. However, it is difficult to simply extend the application from one organ to the other due to a large number of anatomical and technical issues. Indeed, the kidney exhibits various features that make stiffness assessment more complex, such as the presence of various tissue types (cortex, medulla), high spatial orientation (anisotropy), local blood flow, fatty sinus with variable volume and echotexture, perirenal space with variable fatty content, and the variable depth of the organ. Furthermore, the stiffness changes of the renal parenchyma are not exclusively related to fibrosis, as renal perfusion or hydronephrosis will impact the local elasticity. Renal elastography might be able to diagnose acute or chronic obstruction, or to renal tumor or pseudotumor characterization. Today, renal elastography appears as a promising application that still requires optimization and validation, which is the contrary for liver stiffness assessment. PMID:26976058

  10. Evaluation of renal function in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    Renal uptake rate was calculated by 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in 100 kidneys from 58 patients with pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) to assess kidney function quantitatively for treatment selection and surgical timing. The conservatively treated group consisted of 42 patients (75 kidneys) who underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy twice at intervals of 2 years during their management. The surgically treated group consisted of 16 patients (25 kidneys) who underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy before and 2 years after surgery, Urine samples were collected at the time of initial DMSA renal scintigraphy for the simultaneous measurement of β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), α1-microglobulin and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase. Renal uptake ratio of DMSA did not differ in VUR grades during a 2-year follow-up period in the conservative group. In the age group of patients aged 2 or less, renal uptake ratio decreased 2 years later, with significant difference with that in the other age groups. According to VUR grade, there was no significant difference in DMSA renal kidney ratios between the conservative group and the surgical group. According to age, significant difference in renal uptake ratio was observed between the two groups; i.e., patients aged 2 or less had a significantly decreased renal uptake ratio in the conservative group than the surgical group. However, the renal uptake ratio did not differ in the other age groups. For patients aged 2 or less, surgery was considerd necessary to prevent reflux when urinary β2-MG indexes are increased. For those aged 3 years or more, on the other hand, conservative treatment was considered optimal regardless of VUR grades; surgery was considered recommended in the case of repeated urinary infection and decreased renal function. (N.K.)

  11. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency

  12. Osteodistrofia renal

    Teles, Tobias José Freitas Trindade

    2014-01-01

    A doença renal crónica é um problema de saúde mundial, com incidência e prevalência crescentes. Apesar dos avanços científicos na compreensão da patogénese e o desenvolvimento de terapêuticas mais eficazes, a osteodistrofia renal continua a ser uma complicação importante nos doentes renais crónicos. A osteodistrofia renal abrange um espectro diverso de alterações ósseas nos doentes com doença renal crónica, classificada histologicamente por lesões de elevada ou baixa taxa de remodelação ó...

  13. Renal failure

    1993-01-01

    930150 Epidermal growth factor and its recep-tor in the renal tissue of patients with acute re-nal failure and normal persons.LIU Zhihong(刘志红),et al.Jinling Hosp,Nanjing,210002.Natl Med J China 1992;72(10):593-595.Epidermal growth factor(EGF)and its receptor(EGF-R)were identified by immunohis-tochemical method(4 layer PAP)in the renaltissue specimens obtained from 11 normal kid-neys and 17 cases of acute renal failure(ARF).The quantitative EGF and EGF-R in the tissuewere expressed as positive tubules per mm~2.The amount of EGF and EGF-R in renal tissue

  14. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  15. Renal failure

    2005-01-01

    2005234 Association between serum fetuin-A and clinical outcome in end-stage renal disease patients. WANG Kai(王开), Dept Renal Dis, Renji Hosp Shanghai, 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Nephrol, 2005;21(2):72-75. Objective: To investigate the change of serum fetuin-A level before and after dialysis, and the association of serum fetuin-A level with clinical parameters

  16. Renal failure

    2008-01-01

    2008463 Protective effect of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration on kidney in acute renal failure rats. TANG Xiaopeng(唐晓鹏), et al. Dept Nephrol, 2nd Affili Hosp Chongqing Med Univ, Chongqing 400010.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(6):417-421. Objective To investigate the protective effects of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration (rrALR) on tubular cell injury and renal dysfunction

  17. Renal failure

    1995-01-01

    950351 Serum erythropoietin levels in chronic renalinsufficiency.ZHAI Depei(翟德佩),et al.DeptNephrol.General Hosp,Tianjin Med Univ,Tianjin,300000.Tianjin Med J 1995;23(1):19-21.Patients with chronic renal insufficiency(CRI) areoften associated with anemia.The deficiency of EPOproduction in the kidney is thought to be a key factorin the pathogenesis of renal anemia.Serum erythropoi-

  18. Renal liposarcoma

    Diogo A.L. Bader; Luis A.B. Peres; Sérgio L. Bader

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Liposarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor frequently located in retroperitoneum, and rarely presenting an isolated lesion in kidney. CASE REPORT: Female, Caucasian, 49-year old patient, with family history of renal polycystic disease, was selected for organ donation. During preoperative examinations a renal pleomorphic liposarcoma was detected. She was treated with radical nephrectomy and remains asymptomatic, without evidences of recurrence in control ecographic examinations...

  19. Tc-99m DMSA scan and quantification for renal calculus disease

    Full text: The DMSA renal quantification, as a prognostic test in kidney stone disease, was studied in 33 patients with staghorn calculi imaged with Tc-99m DMSA before nephrectomy (irrecoverable loss of the renal function, persistent pyonephrosis or urinary infection). Scintigraphic degrees were A- 30,8% (normal) B- 10,8% (focal defect with incomplete photon loss), C- 40,0% (focal defect with incomplete photon loss) and D- 18,4% (uptake absent). In the removed kidneys we found A- 0%, B- 5,9%, C- 58,8% and D- 35,5%. In all cases except one the absolute uptake index of the removed kidneys (AURK) was below 5,0 (mean 1,75). The image length of the removed kidneys (ILRK) in this group was ranged from 5,47 to 9,79 cm (mean 7,9 cm). In the 20 cases with unilateral kidney disease all of the removed kidneys presented the RU below 50% including the total functional absence (7 of 20). In all cases except one the AURK was below 5,0 (mean 2,4). The ILRK in this group was ranged from 3,77 to 11,05 cm (mean 6,57 cm). The differences were significant between ILPK (preserved kidney) and ILRK (p=0,002) AUPK and AURK (p<0,0001) and RUPK and RURK (p<0,0001). Both RU and AU appear to correlate well with the medical decision of nephrectomy

  20. Effects of Total Flavonoids in Xiezhuo Chubi Decoction on the Proliferation and Uric Uptake Function of Mice Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells%泄浊除痹方总黄酮对小鼠肾小管上皮细胞增殖与尿酸吸收的影响

    吴新荣; 臧路平; 刘志刚; 孙维峰

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of total flavonoids in Xiezhuo chubi decoction on the proliferation and uric uptake function of mice renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) in vivo. METHODS: The RTECs were isolated from the renal tubular epithelial cells of mice by optimized primary culture method, and were cultured with total flavonoids from Xiezhuo chubi decoction of different concentrations. The activity of RTECs was assayed by MTT assay. The uric uptake medium was prepared and the uric uptake values were determined by the kit. RESULTS: The interest cells were isolated, I.e. mice renal tubular epithelial cells, and it had the function of uric uptake. The proliferation of the RTECs was inhibited by high concentrations (10, 7.5, 5.0 g·L-1) of the drug. No significant effects on the proliferation of the RTECs were observed in the low concentrations (2.5, 0,5 g·L-1); total flavonoids had no significant effect on growth activity of cells in this range of 2.5,2.0,1.5, 1.0, 0.5 g·L-1 total flavonoids inhibited uric uptake in different degree. CONCLUSION: The uric uptake function of the RETCs can be inhibited by the total flavonoids in Xiezhuo chubi decoction.%目的:研究泄浊除痹方总黄酮对小鼠肾小管上皮细胞(RTECs)增殖与尿酸吸收的影响.方法:采用优化后的小鼠RTECs原代培养方法分离该细胞,不同浓度的泄浊除痹方总黄酮孵育48 h,MTT法检测细胞活性,配制尿酸吸收培养基,进行尿酸吸收实验,采用尿酸检测试剂盒测定尿酸吸收值.结果:所分离培养的细胞为目的细胞,即小鼠RTECs,具有尿酸吸收功能;高浓度药物(10、7.5、5.0 g·L-1)对细胞增殖有不同程度的抑制作用,低浓度药物(2.5、0.5g·L-1)对细胞增殖无显著性影响;在对细胞生长活性无显著性影响的浓度梯度范围内(2.5、2.0、1.5、1.0、0.5 g·L-1),药物对尿酸吸收表现出不同程度的抑制作用.结论:泄浊除痹方总黄酮对小鼠RTECs尿酸吸收功能有一定的抑制作用.

  1. Renal function study by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in non-obstructive upper urinary tract infection

    Kidney function study was carried out in 90 patients with non-obstructive upper urinary tract infection using sup(99m)Tc-DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) renal scintigraphy. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigram demonstrated well pyelonephritic cortical lesions which were not easily visualized on IVP. A variety of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake paralleled the grading of pyelonephritic changes in IVP, however, there was a discrepancy between some of grade II pyelonephritic changes in reflux kidneys and DMSA renal uptake. This may be partly attributed to hydrodynamic effects of VUR in addition to inflammatory changes. The severity of reflux and changes in pelviocaliceal system on VCG also paralleled DMSA renal uptake in reflux kidneys. A ratio of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake in the healthy side to that in pathological side was observed in 23 cases with VUR before and after the anti-VUR operation was performed. In patients with more than 3.5 of preoperative DMSA uptake ratio, there were few increments postoperatively in kidney functions of the pathological side, while the contralateral healthy kidney showed a compensatory increase in kidney function. This DMSA renal uptake ratio between healthy and pathological side seems to be one of predictable determinants for postoperative recovery of the pathological side. Thus, by comparing the DMSA uptake between right and left kidney in the chronic course or pre- and postoperative periods, an effect of renal function in the pathological side on that in the healthy side was investigated from the point of renal counterbalance. (author)

  2. ROE Absolute Sea Level Changes

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This raster dataset represents changes in absolute sea level along U.S. coasts from 1993 to 2014. Data were provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder (2015)...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  4. [Renal disease].

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is. PMID:27603894

  5. Photon-deficient Mass on FDG-PET Scan in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    George Shih; Wei-Jen Shih; Bonnie Mitchell; Milan, Primo P

    2008-01-01

    F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography imaging (F-18 FDG PET) detects malignancies depending on the uptake profile of glycolysis of tumors; however, the role of FDG PET is limited in the evaluation of primary renal malignancy because of low FDG uptake by renal cell carcinoma and also because normal urinary excretion of FDG seen in the images. A patient with renal cell carcinoma whose FDG PET imaging study incidentally shows a photon-deficient mass in the upper pole of the right ...

  6. Comparative scintigraphic study of renal function with 99mTc-Mercaptoacetyl-triglycine and 99mTc-Ethylenedicysteine

    Beiki D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc-MAG3 is a standard radiotracer for renal dynamic functional study. Despite its"nproperties for clinical uses, it has numerous technical limitations. 99mTc-EC is also a tubular"nradiotracer for renal imaging, which has not been used worldwide. In this study, the use of 99mTc-EC"nand 99mTc-MAG3 for renal functional study were compared."nMethods: Thirty five patients (20 male, 15 female; mean age of 34.63 ±10.69 years were entered in"nthe study. About 10 mCi of 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-MAG3 were administered in different days within 7"ndays intervals and serial images were obtained for 30 minutes. Serum creatinine and visual"nscintigraphic findings of all patients were within normal limits."nResults: In this study, the renal uptake of 99mTc-EC was significantly higher than 99mTc-MAG3 (6.20%"nvs 4.39% of the injected dose, while the hepatic activity of 99mTc-EC was significantly lower (307 vs"n439 mean pixel count, p<0.0001. Also the absolute values for some other quantitative parameters"nsuch as right and left kidney transit times and ERPF were different for each radiotracer. In spite of"nthese differences most quantitative parameters (except for right kidney transit time, liver uptake and"nTmax of both kidneys showed good correlations for both agents."nConclusion: The calculated ERPF with 99mTc-EC as compared to 99mTc-MAG3 is in closer proximity"nto the true values. Also the use of 99mTc-EC compared to 99mTc-MAG3 in clinic due to simplicity of"npreparation, higher stability, higher renal uptake, and lower hepatobiliary activity is better. Therefore"nthe use of 99mTc-EC as an appropriate substitute or ever preferred radiopharmaceutical for 99mTc-"nMAG3 radiopharmaceutical for renal function studies is recommended.

  7. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... in TSC: renal cysts, renal angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma . Renal angiomyolipomata, or angiomyolipomas, are usually the ... kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, the least common renal association with TSC, ...

  8. Renal failure

    1997-01-01

    970363 Effect on serum PTH and 1, 25(OH)2 D3levels of rapid correction of metabolic acidosis in CRFpatients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. YUANQunsheng(袁群生), et al. Renal Div, PUMC Hosp,Beijing, 100730. Chin J Nephrol 1996; 12(6): 328-331.

  9. Renal failure (chronic)

    Clase, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  10. PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC ELECTRORESECTION OF RENAL PELVIC TUMORS

    B. K. Komyakov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of percutaneous electroresection of the renal pelvic wall with a tumor in 4 patients. The operation has been made for absolute indications: 3 patients had a single kidney and the fourth patient had a single functioning left kidney (the right pelvic dystopic kidney failed to function. In all the patients, the primary symptom of the disease was macrohematuria, the examination for which revealed a renal pelvic tumor measuring 1.2 to 2.5 cm in size. There were no complications after percutaneous electroresection of the renal pelvic wall with a tumor. Intrarenal BCG therapy was performed in the postoperative period. Percutaneous electroresection is indicated for tumors of the renal pelvis and the upper third of the ureter of the single kidney.

  11. The anesthetics influence (ethilic-eter and urethane) on renal radiopharmaceuticals

    A comparative study was done using anesthetics like ether ethilic and urethane, in rats (Wistar). A significative variation was observed in the results obtained when renal radiopharmaceuticals were investigated. Using urethane, the renal uptake increase progressivelly due to the inhibition of the renal filtration and it starts to recuperate when the anesthetic effect was eliminated. Using ether ethilic the radiopharmaceuticals are quickly eliminated from the kidneys (tubular or glomerular filtration), showing that the renal function was protected. (author)

  12. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  13. Sulphasalazine induced renal failure.

    Dwarakanath, A D; Michael, J.; Allan, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Two men with longstanding ulcerative colitis who were treated with sulphasalazine for several years and who developed chronic renal failure are reported. Renal biopsy specimens showed histological changes consistent with drug induced chronic intestinal nephritis. Extensive investigation made other causes of chronic renal failure unlikely. One of these patients underwent renal transplantation, the other has impaired but stable renal function.

  14. Renal candidiasis

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  16. Value of renal cortical scintigraphy in children with acute pyelonephritis

    Purpose: Acute pyelonephritis is a major cause of morbidity in children with urinary tract infection and can result in irreversible renal scarring leading to hypertension and end-stage renal disease. Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy is the imaging modality of choice for the detection of acute pyelonephhfis and renal scarfing. This study evaluated the importance of renal cortical scintigraphy to identify children at risk from renal damage due to acute pyelonephritis. Methods: Forty-nine children (ages 9 months to 11 years) with urinary tract infection having positive urine culture were studied. A DMSA scan was performed within 72 hours of receiving antibiotic during acute infection. Single or multiple areas of varying degrees of diminished cortical uptake or diffusely decreased uptake in an enlarged kidney was considered for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephrifis. Follow-up scintigraphy was done at 6 months of initial scan in children with acute pyelonephritis documented by DMSA scan. Renal scarring was considered if the affected kidney shows cortical thinning or focal cortical defect with loss of volume or become small kidney. Children with known renal tract abnormalities were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Twenty-seven children (55%) wine considered acute pyelonephritis by DMSA scintigraphy and the abnormality was bilateral in 17(63%) cases and unilateral in 10(37%) cases. Among these 44 abnormal kidneys, scintigraphy showed solitary defect in 29 kidneys, multiple defects in 6 kidneys and diffuse decreased uptake in 9 kidneys. Of them, twenty children were available for follow-up evaluation and scintigraphy demonstrated complete recovery in 21 of 34 (62%) kidneys and renal scarfing in 13 of 34 (38%) kidneys. Renal scarring was found in 5 of 7 kidneys (71%) with diffuse decreased uptake, 2 of 5 kidneys (40%) with multiple cortical defect and 6 of 22 (27%) with single focal detect. Conclusion: The scintigraphic pattern of acute pyelonephritis

  17. Delayed renal localization of Ga-67: concise communication

    Five hundred Ga-67 images, requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were reviewed to evaluate the incidence of delayed renal localization and the clinical significance of different degrees of uptake. Reneal uptake in 48- or 72-hr images was graded as follows: 0 = background activity; 1+ = greater than background but less than spine; 2+ = close to psine but less than liver; 3+ = same as liver; 4+ = greater than liver. On the 500 images, 996 kidneys were evaluated and among them 600 (60%) had 0 uptake and 340 (34%) had 1+. These 940 kidneys were all considered to be normal. Fifty-six (6%) had 2+ or more uptake, with possible causes for uptake being; infection 27, drug-induced renal damage ten, urinary stasis or slow excretion seven, collagen vascular disease six, renal failure four, acute tubular necrosis one (ATN), and indeterminate one. Cases of renal infection or failure tended to show more or less 4+ uptake, while drug damage, ATN, or urinary stasis tended to have 2+ uptake

  18. 11C-Acetate PET imaging for renal cell carcinoma

    In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-acetate (AC) for evaluation of renal cell carcinoma. Enrolled in the study were 20 patients with suspected renal tumour, one of whom had three renal lesions. In all, 22 renal lesions were evaluated. Following administration of 350 MBq (10 mCi) of AC, whole-body PET images were obtained. Based on these PET findings, kidney lesions were scored as positive or negative. The PET results were correlated with the CT findings and histological diagnosis after surgery. In 18 patients, 20 tumours were diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. Lesions in the remaining two patients were diagnosed as complicated cyst without malignant tissue. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas. 14 (70%) showed positive AC PET findings; 6 were negative. The two patients with complicated cyst had negative AC PET findings. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas, 19 were clear-cell carcinoma and 1 was a papillary cell carcinoma. This papillary cell carcinoma showed high AC uptake. AC demonstrates marked uptake in renal cell carcinoma. These preliminary data show that AC is a possible PET tracer for detection of renal cancer. (orig.)

  19. Dynamic renal scintigraphy at hydronephrosis

    The aim of the study was to estimate the clinical relevance and accuracy of dynamic renal scintigraphy (DRS) in case of obstructed kidneys as hydronephrosis is among the complications at different renal diseases, like nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis. Twenty-one patients mainly with unilateral hydronephrosis were studied. DRS with 99mTc-MAG3 or 99mTc-EC was done and quantitative parameters of the morphological and functional status of every kidney were assessed. At 24 % of the patients accumulation curves typical for obstructed by hydronephrosis kidneys were obtained. At 38 % the type of renograms of the affected kidneys was intermediate one, closer to that at the cases with nephrosclerosis, with lower uptake and severe parenchymal changes. The rest 38 % of the cases showed normal renograms or slightly delayed downslope. DRS is a very precise and sensitive method for evaluation of the degree of kidney damage in cases with hydronephrosis

  20. 99mTc-DMSA Scintigram for Renal Function Recovery after Therapy in Infants and Children

    Authors retrospectively analysed 20 cases of follow-up 99mTc-DMSA renal scans to evaluate renal function recovery after treatment in urological disorders of infants and children. There were 20 cases with both 99mTc-DMSA renal scans prior to and after therapy in 15 patients below 9 years old. Among them, 10 patients underwent ureteroneocystostomy under the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, two patients pyeloplasty because of obstructive uropathy and one was treated with antibiatics even diagnosis of UPJ stricture. We have got the quantified uptake rate of Tc-DMSA renal scan by using the regression equation as y=0.591 X 2.105 (y=the quantified uptake rate, x=the sirnple uptake rate). The number of kidneys performed proper therapy were 29, and the cases with more increased radiotracer uptake rate in the follow-up 99mTc-DMSA renal scans were 20 in number as 69% in frequency. 19 cases with improved renal function on 99mTc-DMSA renal scans didn't show any significant difference related to aging or recovery duration after therapy. The 99mTc-DMSA renal scans were not useful to evaluate renal function recovery in infants and children, but could be good tests to assess residual renal function prior to or after treatment.

  1. Renal calculus

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  2. Quantitative renal cinescintigraphy with iodine-123 hippuran methodological aspects, kit for labeling of hippuran

    The development of an extemporaneous kit for the labeling of ortho-iodo-hippuric acid (Hippuran) with iodine 123 allows the performance of a routine quantitative renal cinescintigraphy providing in 20 minutes, and in an absolutely non-traumatic way, a very complete renal morphofunctional study including: a cortical renal scintigraphy, sequential scintigraphies of excretory tract, renal functional curves, tubular, global, and separate clearances for each kidney. This functional quantitative investigation method should take a preferential place in the routine renal balance. The methodology of the technique is explained and compared to classical methods for estimation of tubular, global and separate clearances

  3. Cardiovascular disease relates to intestinal uptake of p-cresol in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Poesen, Ruben; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Augustijns, Patrick; Bammens, Bert; Claes, Kathleen; Kuypers, Dirk; Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) associates with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. PCS concentrations are determined by intestinal uptake of p-cresol, human metabolism to PCS and renal clearance. Whether intestinal uptake of p-cresol itself is directly associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied to date. Methods We performed a prospective study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1 – 5 (NCT004416...

  4. Computerized technique for evaluating renal transplant function

    This investigation was undertaken to improve the assessment of renal transplant function in the early post-operative period when the usual measures of renal function afford little useful information. A simplified mathematical model of I-131 hippurate transport allows separation of renal uptake and excretion. Uptake (U) is defined as the fraction of I-131 hippurate in the plasma picked up by the kidney per minute, and excretion (E), the fraction of I-131 hippurate in the kidney excreted into the bladder per minute. Scintillation camera data from the region of the renal allograft are framed at 4/min by a computer system for up to 30 minutes post injection. After regions of interest are flagged over the kidney, bladder and background regions, the activity-time curves are analyzed, and values for U and E are output in a report updated through punched paper tape for any values from previous studies. The entire analysis of a patient study requires about 5 minutes of technologist time. Over 150 studies on 24 patients have been analyzed using the above technique. In the immediate post-operative state when anuria or severe oliguria is often present, sequential estimation of U was found to be a sensitive measure of renal transplant viability. In the period beyond one week reductions in U and E appeared to be sensitive measures of rejection, while increases in U and E heralded amelioration of the rejection episode. Changes in U and E appeared to be more sensitive measures of changes in renal function than routine qualitative scintiphotographic analysis. This technique has proven useful in following the renal function status of the kidney transplant recipient through acute tubular necrosis and rejection episodes and has been a significant adjunct to routine scintigraphy

  5. The influence of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on renal function evaluated by 99m-Tc-DTPA renoscintigram

    The influence of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) on renal function was evaluated by 99m-Tc-DTPA renoscintigraphy. The renoscintigram was recorded and regions of interest of both kidneys (R) and background (BKG) were settled. Renal uptake ratio was calculated. The renal uptake ratio of 50 patients were compared before and up to 6 months after PNL. Most cases showed an increase or no change in post-PNL renal uptake ratio in operated kidney. Five cases (10 %) showed decreased renal uptake ratio of post-PNL. No risk factors for the renal damage caused by PNL such as age, sex, stone size, number of nephrostomy and course of PNL were detected when compared with increased or no change groups. In cases of complete staghorn calculi in the decreased renal uptake ratio group, compensatory hypertrophy of contralateral kidney PNL might occur, and the function of the operated kidney might not have recovered. More during cases and longer follow-up is necessary for the recovery of renal function. (author)

  6. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    Jackson, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  7. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  8. Renal failure

    1993-01-01

    930564 Dwell times affect the local host de-fence mechanism of peritoneal dialysis patients.WANG Tao(汪涛),et al.Renal Instit,SunYatsen Med Univ,Guangzhou,510080.Chin JNephrol 1993;9(2):75—77.The effect of different intraperitoneal awelltimes on the local host defence in 6 peritonealdialysis patients was studied.A significant de-crease in the number of peritoneal cells,IgG con-centration and the phagoeytosis and bactericidalactivity of macrophages was determined when thedwell time decreased from 12 to 4 hs or form 4 to0.5hs,but the peroxidase activity in macrophagesincreased significantly.All variables,except theperoxidase activity in macrophages,showed nosignificant difference between patients of high or

  9. The use of absolute values improves performance of estimation formulae

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2013-01-01

    an absolute value was 0.49 and 0.27 ml/min respectively, which is lower than previously reported. Precision was 12.95 and 16.33 and accuracy expressed as P30 was over 92.43% for CKD-EPI. There were no significant differences in GFR between the reference method and the estimation formulae. CONCLUSIONS......: The performance of CKD-EPI and MDRD formulae can be significantly improved in the individual patient if the absolute values are used by removing the BSA normalization factor. Absolute estimated GFR by CKD-EPI is comparable to measured GFR, improving the performance of this formula in the assessment of......BACKGROUND: Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) by equations such as Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) is usually expressed as a Body Surface Area (BSA) indexed value (ml/min per 1.73 m²). This can have severe...

  10. Bias in Absolute Magnitude Determination from Parallaxes

    Feast, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Relations are given for the correction of bias when mean absolute magnitudes are derived by the method of reduced parallaxes. The bias in the case of the derivation of the absolute magnitudes of individual objects is also considered.

  11. Absolute calibration of JET ELE system

    The first Michelson channel of the JET ECE system has been calibrated absolutely using a new high temperature source. The estimated uncertainties are of order +- 20% in the absolute spectral response and +- 10% in the relative spectral shape

  12. Transport of circulating serum cholesterol by human renal cell carcinoma

    Clear cell renal cancer contains a large quantity of cholesterol ester (300-mg./gm. protein). To determine whether abnormalities in cholesterol transport could account for this sterol accumulation, the uptake, release, and imaging capabilities of intravenously injected 131I-6-iodomethyl-29-norcholesterol, a cholesterol analogue, were studied preoperatively in five patients with clear cell renal cancer. At surgery, samples of the liver, tumor, adrenal, and non-tumor kidney were obtained for analysis. 131I-sterol uptake by the tumor, when normalized for cholesterol content, was less than for adrenal, liver or kidney. In contrast, release of preloaded 131I-sterol from the human tumors was consistently slower than for normal kidney. The reduced release of free cholesterol from renal cancer cells may, in part, be responsible for the accumulation of cholesterol in human renal cancer

  13. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader; Sujata S Kumbhar; Huddedar AD; Wasim GM Khatib

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional) and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell ca...

  14. Risks of Death and Graft Failure After Surgical Versus Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization in Renal Transplant Patients

    Charytan, David M.; Li, Shuling; Liu, Jiannong; Qiu, Yang; Herzog, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable data regarding absolute and relative risks of death and graft failure after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in renal transplant patients are unavailable. Methods and Results Renal transplant patients undergoing inpatient CABG (n=1400) or PCI (n=4097) were identified from United States Renal Data System data. Cumulative incidence of nonfatal graft failure and death was reported for observed events. A Cox model with th...

  15. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  16. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  17. The significance of renoscintigraphy for renal transplantation

    The aim of the study reported here was to evaluate the contribution of renoscintigraphy performed frequently and systematically, for differentiation between the various complications occurring after renal transplantation. Relevant complications of renal transplantation are described, with special attention to the diagnostic methods available at present, and the methods used for radionuclide investigations in renal transplantation are reviewed. The abnormalities seen on the sequential images in ten cases complicated by urine leakage or urinary tract obstruction are described. These are illustrated by the scintigrams and the corresponding radiograms. The results in eight patients whose transplant did not show Hippuran uptake are also described. Transplant failure in five of these eight patients was clearly demonstrated by perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)

  18. Renal cell cancer without a renal primary

    Cumani B; Bratcher J; Wang W.; Wayne M.; Kasmin F; Cooperman A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Renal cell carcinoma has been increasing in incidence over the past two decades. Men are affected more than women and metastatic disease at presentation occurs in up to one third of patients. Metastasis can occur to virtually any organ, and involvement of multiple organs is not uncommon. To date, no reports have been found of metastatic disease without a renal primary. We present a case of renal cell cancer initially presenting as a subcutaneous mass with subsequent pancreatic and pa...

  19. Pulmonary uptake of /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate in alveolar microlithiasis

    Rosenthal et al. recently reported a series of patients with pulmonary uptake of bone imaging tracer. All patients in that series had evidence of renal failure, and the majority had hypercalcemia as factors relating to their metastatic pulmonary calcification. We recently studied a patient with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis without abnormal laboratory values who also demonstrated diffuse intense uptake of bone tracer in the lung

  20. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... renal (kidney) disease during their lifetime. There are three particular renal disorders in TSC: renal cysts, renal ... at the time of diagnosis, and at 2-3 year intervals if no cysts or angiomyolipomas are ...

  1. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... during their lifetime. There are three particular renal disorders in TSC: renal cysts, renal angiomyolipoma and renal ... Government Action Team TS Alliance Online Support Community Facebook Twitter YouTube How to Make a Donation Research ...

  2. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA Scintigram for Renal Function Recovery after Therapy in Infants and Children

    Moon, Tae Yong; Son, In Ju; Yoon, Chong Byung; Lee, Surk Hong; Kim, Byung Soo [Busan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Authors retrospectively analysed 20 cases of follow-up {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scans to evaluate renal function recovery after treatment in urological disorders of infants and children. There were 20 cases with both {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scans prior to and after therapy in 15 patients below 9 years old. Among them, 10 patients underwent ureteroneocystostomy under the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, two patients pyeloplasty because of obstructive uropathy and one was treated with antibiatics even diagnosis of UPJ stricture. We have got the quantified uptake rate of Tc-DMSA renal scan by using the regression equation as y=0.591 X 2.105 (y=the quantified uptake rate, x=the sirnple uptake rate). The number of kidneys performed proper therapy were 29, and the cases with more increased radiotracer uptake rate in the follow-up {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scans were 20 in number as 69% in frequency. 19 cases with improved renal function on {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scans didn't show any significant difference related to aging or recovery duration after therapy. The {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scans were not useful to evaluate renal function recovery in infants and children, but could be good tests to assess residual renal function prior to or after treatment.

  3. Clinical evaluation of patients showing renal hyperconcentration of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (hot kidney sign) on bone scintigraphy

    We evaluated clinical and follow-up findings for 59 patients in whom diffuse increased uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate in both renal parenchyma ('hot kidney sign') had been noted on bone scintigraphy. In more than half the patients, the cause of hyperconcentration was the administration of antitumor drugs. The period during which antitumor drugs affect renal uptake is thought to exceed that reported previously in the literature. In most patients, standard laboratory test results did not show any values indicative of renal dysfunction, and thus, in most cases 'hot kidney sign' apparently reflects subclinical and transient renal damages. However, it was noted that patients with more increased renal uptake tended to have more severe renal dysfunction than did patients with less increased uptake. Moreover, post-scintigraphy follow-up study revealed that 4 (20%) of 20 patients with 'hot kidney sign' subsequently developed more severe renal dysfunction, and two patients died due to renal failure. We therefore recommend that the renal function of patients who show 'hot kidney sign' is monitored and followed up. Tc-99m-hydroxy methylene diphosphate (HMDP) renograms of patients with 'hot kidney sign' showed smaller slope angle of both up- and down-slope than did that of controls. Tc-99m HMDP renograms may be useful in the quantitative evaluation of renal function. (author)

  4. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each d...

  5. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake

    Radionactive iodine uptakes for 131 iodine were carried out in two groups assumed to be normal. In one group, comprising 61 cases, early uptakes were done (6 hours); In the other, with 122 cases, late uptakes were proceded (24 hours). The results were compared with the international ones, published up to 1969. (M.A.C.)

  6. Cardio Renal Syndrome

    KV Sahasranam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, physicians have recognized that the kidney and the heart are related especially when there is severe dysfunction of either of them. Dysfunction of one of these organs seldom occurs in isolation. Of late the cardio renal syndrome is assuming significance because of its increasing incidence, awareness and complications. There is no definite definition of the cardio renal syndrome. However, an attempted definition states that it is a "decline in renal function in the setting of advanced heart failure". This definition does not cover the whole gamut of the cardio renal syndrome. Cardiac diseases are associated independently with a decrease in renal function and progression of existing renal disease. Chronic Kidney disease (CKD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and outcome. This bidirectional nature of cardiac and renal interaction is called Cardio Renal Syndrome (CRS.

  7. Renal papillary necrosis

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  8. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  9. Renal cell carcinoma

    Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney

  10. Sorafenib Hepatobiliary Disposition: Mechanisms of Hepatic Uptake and Disposition of Generated Metabolites

    Swift, Brandon; Nebot, Noelia; Lee, Jin Kyung; Han, Tianxiang; Proctor, William R.; Thakker, Dhiren R.; Lang, Dieter; Radtke, Martin; Gnoth, Mark J.; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Sorafenib is an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of renal and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was designed to establish whether transport proteins are involved in the hepatic uptake of sorafenib and to determine the extent of biliary excretion of sorafenib and its metabolites in human hepatocytes. Initial uptake was assessed in freshly isolated, suspended human hepatocytes in the presence of inhibitors and modulators. [14C]Sorafenib (1 µM) uptake at 4°C was r...

  11. On Renal Artery Stenosis

    Eklöf, Hampus

    2005-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a potentially curable cause of hypertension and azotemia. Besides intra-arterial renal angiography there are several non-invasive techniques utilized to diagnose patients with suspicion of renal artery stenosis. Removing the stenosis by revascularization to restore unobstructed blood flow to the kidney is known to improve and even cure hypertension/azotemia, but is associated with a significant complication rate. To visualize renal arteries with x-ray technique...

  12. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN LEPTOSPIROSIS

    Galya I. Gancheva

    2012-01-01

    Renal involvement is a common feature of leptospirosis. It is variable from mild to severe acute renal failure. Materials and methods: We performed analysis of 100 consecutive leptospirosis cases treated in Clinic of Infectious Diseases at University Hospital – Pleven (1976-2012) (90 male, age 37±18 years, lethal outcome in 13%), followed by comparative analysis of group with renal involvement (n1=59) versus group without renal involvement (controls: n2=41). Results: Fever (100%), hepatomegal...

  13. Effects of transient post ESWL obstruction on renal function

    Introduction and Objectives: This study examined the effects of transient post SWL obstruction on renal function after its application for treatment of renal stones in one non-obstructed kidney, using two different lithotripters. Method: This study included one hundred consecutive patients with unilateral renal stones were treated by SWL monotherapy in our center. The patients had normal laboratory profile in terms of renal function, liver function, blood picture, bleeding and clotting time, prothrombin concentration, and no or controlled urinary tract infection. Also, the urinary tract was radiologically normal with no obstruction. 99mTechnetium mercaptoacetyl triglycine (99mTc-MAG3) and 99mTechnetium dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renographic studies together with Doppler sonography were performed for all cases few days before, one week after and three months after SWL. Renal uptake, Tmax, split renal function, ERPF and detection of renal scarring can be obtained from renographic studies as well as resistive index which can be calculated using Doppler sonography. Patients were stratified into 2 groups; Group I). Patients with non obstructed kidneys after SWL (N = 84), Group II) Patients with obstructed kidneys one week after SWL. (N = 16). Results: In group I, we found slight but statistically significant improvement of renal function. In group II, a significant deterioration of ipsilateral renal function was observed one week after SWL. This was due to transient obstruction by stein strasse. This improved after 3 months, but still below the pre SWL baseline function. DMSA scan revealed no changes after 3 months in both groups. Furthermore, there were no significant changes of the resistive index in both groups. Conclusion: Post SWL obstruction although transient has a major effect on the renal function on the treated side and must be managed urgently. On the other hand, SWL of renal stones in normal kidneys, with no post treatment obstruction, has no

  14. Measurement of the absolute speed is possible?

    Sergey V. Shevchenko; Tokarevsky, Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    One of popular problems, which  are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists.  Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in oth...

  15. Recurrent acute renal failure

    Satish, S.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Seethalekshmi, N. V.; Unni, M.; Unni, V. N.

    2010-01-01

    While acute renal failure secondary to intravascular hemolysis is well described in hemolytic anemias, recurrent acute renal failure as the presenting manifestation of a hemolytic anemia is rare. We report a patient with recurrent acute renal failure who was found to have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), on evaluation.

  16. Incidental renal neoplasms

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive ...

  17. Detailing renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in rats by a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and invasive probe approach.

    Grosenick, Dirk; Cantow, Kathleen; Arakelyan, Karen; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Flemming, Bert; Skalweit, Angela; Ladwig, Mechthild; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-02-01

    We hypothesize that combining quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with established invasive techniques will enable advanced insights into renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in small animal models. We developed a NIRS technique to monitor absolute values of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin within the renal cortex of rats. This NIRS technique was combined with invasive methods to simultaneously record renal tissue oxygen tension and perfusion. The results of test procedures including occlusions of the aorta or the renal vein, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia demonstrated that the combined approach, by providing different but complementary information, enables a more comprehensive characterization of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. PMID:25780726

  18. Detailing renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in rats by a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and invasive probe approach

    Grosenick, Dirk; Cantow, Kathleen; Arakelyan, Karen; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Flemming, Bert; Skalweit, Angela; Ladwig, Mechthild; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that combining quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with established invasive techniques will enable advanced insights into renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in small animal models. We developed a NIRS technique to monitor absolute values of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin within the renal cortex of rats. This NIRS technique was combined with invasive methods to simultaneously record renal tissue oxygen tension and perfusion. The results of test procedures including occlusions of the aorta or the renal vein, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia demonstrated that the combined approach, by providing different but complementary information, enables a more comprehensive characterization of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. PMID:25780726

  19. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Ozgur Cakmak; Cemal Selcuk Isoglu; Ercument Aziz Peker; Huseyin Tarhan; Ulku Kucuk; Orcun Celik; Ferruh Zorlu; Yusuf Ozlem Ilbey

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vascu...

  20. [Hypertension and renal disease

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive......Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...

  1. Improvement Of The Absolute Activity Determination Technique Of '125I In The Thyroid

    A method for absolute determination of the activity of a 125I source based on the counting rate values of the 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo-peak is given in the literature. We had shown in previous works, that this method, within certain limitations, diminishes the geometry dependence of the activity determination for 125I sources and for measuring the uptake of 125I in human thyroid. In the present work we present a farther improvement of the accuracy of the absolute determination method

  2. New Conformal Invariants in Absolute Parallelism Geometry

    Youssef, Nabil L.; Soleiman, A.; Taha, Ebtsam H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate conformal changes in absolute parallelism geometry. We find out some new conformal invariants in terms of the Weitzenb\\"ock connection and the Levi-Civita connection of an absolute parallelism space.

  3. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  4. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  5. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  6. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  7. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…

  8. Quantitative renal function study using TC-99mDTPA and TC-99mDMSA

    In quantitative renal function studies using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA, the kidney depth is an important factor to control the gamma rays' absorption by the soft tissue. However, to date, this renal depth has been estimated from the patient's height and weight according to the formula of Toennesen. In the present study, we measured the kidney depth by ultrasonography and so determined the renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA. Using the kidney depth as measured by ultrasonography, the correlation coefficient between renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA and GFR (determined by the clearance method) was 0.878 and that between renal uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and ERPF (determined from paraaminohippuran clearance) was 0.945. On the other hand, using the kidney depth as calculated by Toenneren's formula, the correlation coefficient between Tc-99m DTPA uptake and GFR was 0.849 and that between Tc-99m DMSA uptake and ERPF was 0.891. Thus, the renal depth measured by ultrasonography provided a closer correlation than that calculated according to Toenesen's formula. (author)

  9. Evaluation of total renal function from 99mTc-MAG3 scintigraphy in children

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic scintigraphy in the assessment of total renal function in children. The Patlak slope of 99mTc-MAG3 renography curves were compared to the plasma clearance values of 51Cr-EDTA. Material and methods: The study sample consisted of 53 boys and 33 girls with various nephrologic disorders, referred for routine clinical reasons. The median age of the subjects was 5.1 years (range 0.3 - 14.1 years). Imaging procedure. In supine position, the patient received a bolus injection of 1 MBq/kg, (minimum 10 MBq) 99mTc-MAG3 and a posterior dynamic gamma camera registration was performed for 21 min using 1 frame per second during the first minute and thereafter 10 seconds frames. Data analysis. Time-activity curves were generated from manually drawn heart and renal regions of interest. The MAG3 uptake was calculated from the Patlak-Rutland plot of each kidney by linear curve fitting until the beginning of the excretory phase. A sum of the slope values was used as a measure of total renal MAG3 uptake. Cr-EDTA clearance. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured from the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA using single injection, multiple-sample technique. After intravenous injection of 51Cr-EDTA (74 kBq/kg for children up to 7 years, 37 kBq/kg for children older than 7 years), blood samples were drawn at 5, 10, 15, 45, 60, 120 and 180 min for radioactivity measurement. The GFR was calculated according to Broechner-Mortensen and expressed in ml/min. Results: The absolute 51Cr-EDTA clearance varied from 9 to 143 ml/min. There was a close linear relationship between 51Cr-EDTA clearance and MAG3 uptake (Fig). The correlation coefficient was 0.90 and the regression equation (y=43.5 x + 664). Conclusions: In the present study, there was a good correlation between plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and the sum of the Patlak slopes. The regression equation can be utilised to transform the 99mTc-MAG3 uptake to an estimate

  10. Thyroid uptake test

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  11. Acute lobar nephronia in renal transplant: Gallium-67 scintigraphy for diagnosis and therapy monitoring

    A 33 years old female patient with chronic renal transplant rejection proved by MAG3, ultrasound and graft biopsy presented with abdominal pain and fever. Part of her work up included gallium-67 scan which revealed diffuse abnormal graft uptake with multifocal areas of marked uptake. Findings were interpreted as acute lobar nephronia. Repeat gallium scan two weeks after intravenous antibiotic therapy showed significant response reflected by resolution of most of focal areas of increased uptake which was parallel to clinical improvement

  12. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1. (author)

  13. Megalin is essential for renal proximal tubule reabsorption and accumulation of transcobalamin-B(12)

    Birn, Henrik; Willnow, Thomas E; Nielsen, Rikke;

    2002-01-01

    Megalin has previously been shown to bind and mediate endocytosis of transcobalamin (TC)-B(12). However, the physiological significance of this has not been established, and other TC-B(12) binding proteins have been suggested to mediate renal uptake of this vitamin complex. The present study...... demonstrates by the use of megalin-deficient mice that megalin is, in fact, essential for the normal renal reabsorption of TC-vitamin B(12) and for renal accumulation of this highly conserved vitamin. Megalin-deficient mice excrete increased amounts of TC and B(12) in the urine, revealing a defective renal...... tubular uptake of TC-B(12). The urinary B(12) excretion is increased approximately 4-fold, resulting in an approximately 28-fold higher renal B(12) clearance. This is associated with an approximately 4-fold decrease in B(12) content in megalin-deficient kidney cortex. Thus megalin is important to prevent...

  14. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Yichun Chiu; Allen W. Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN) is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN). Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy...

  15. Renal function after renal artery stenting

    George S. Hanzel; Mark Downes; Peter A. McCullough

    2005-01-01

    @@ Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), a common clinical finding, is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. ARAS is seen in ~ 7% of persons over 65 years of age1 and in ~ 20% of patients at the time of coronary angiography.2 It is an important cause of chronic kidney disease and may result in 11-14% of cases of end stage renal disease.3

  16. K-Cl transport systems in rabbit renal basolateral membrane vesicles

    The transport pathways for chloride in basolateral membrane vesicles from the rabbit renal cortex were investigated. 36Cl uptake was stimulated by the presence of potassium in the uptake media compared with sodium of N-methyl-D-glucamine. In addition, potassium (86Rb) uptake was stimulated more by chloride than by nitrate or gluconate. Neither of these processes was further stimulated by potassium gradients plus valinomycin, suggesting the presence of an electrically neutral K-Cl cotransport system. A magnesium-induced chloride conductance was also found in the basolateral membrane vesicles. In the absence of magnesium, the chloride conductance was low; valinomycin and an inwardly directed potassium gradient did not stimulated 36Cl uptake, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid did not inhibit 36Cl uptake, and valinomycin did not stimulated chloride-dependent 86Rb uptake. However, in the presence of 1 mM magnesium, opposite results were obtained; valinomycin and an inwardly directed potassium gradient stimulated 36Cl uptake, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid inhibited 36Cl uptake, and valinomycin stimulated chloride-dependent 86Rb uptake. Therefore, an electrically neutral K-Cl cotransport and magnesium-induced chloride conductance were found in renal cortial basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from the rabbit renal cortex

  17. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine. PMID:26278854

  18. Mechanism of tubular uptake on human growth hormone in perfused rat kidneys

    The mechanism of tubular uptake of labeled human growth hormone ([125I]hGH), a low molecular weight protein (approximate 21,5000 daltons), was studied in isolated perfused rat kidneys. Fractional reabsorption (FR) of [125I]hGH was decreased from 94 to 77% over a period of 80 min as perfusate oncotic pressure was lowered by reducing the albumin concentration from 7.5 to 2.5 g/100ml, whereas greater reductions in fractional sodium (delta 35%) and fluid reabsorption (delta 42%) occurred, indicating that tubular [125I]hGH uptake is likely a specific process not directly dependent upon net fluid and sodium reabsorption. Absolute absorption rates of [125I]hGH filtered loads were inhibited by cytochalasin B, a microfilament disrupter when kidneys were perfused with either albumin concentration. Cytochalasin B inhibited [125I]hGH absorption in both a dose-and time-related manner. The low dose of cytochalasin B (2.5 micrograms/ml) decreased [125I]hGH absorption without significantly altering sodium, fluid or glucose reabsorption. With high doses (5 and 10 micrograms/ml), cytochalasin B affected tubular absorption of [125I]hGH to an extent much greater than sodium, fluid and glucose reabsorption. Inhibition of cytochalasin B on FR[125I]hGH was poorly correlated with the concurrent inhibition of FRNa and FRH2O. Accordingly, tubular reabsorption of [125I]hGH is not directly linked to that of sodium, fluid and glucose. The present studies are consistent with the hypothesis that renal absorption of low molecular-weight proteins is via an endocytotic process involving microfilaments

  19. A simple objective parameter for perfusion study of renal transplant

    We proposed a simple parameter, the kidney-to-aorta ratio (KAR), for evaluation of renal transplant perfusion. KAR was calculated from the peak counts of the kidney and the aorta. The calculated values were compared with the visual interpretation of the radionuclide first-pass flow study, percent renal uptake (%RU), and tubular extraction rate (TER) by Bubeck's one point sampling method in 37 studies. KAR correlated well with the visual interpretation of the flow study and the other quantitative parameters. Representative cases, which showed the usefulness of KAR for the objective assessment of the perfusion status of renal transplants, were presented. In conclusion, KAR is a simple and practically useful parameter for objective evaluation and follow-up of renal transplant perfusion. (author)

  20. Renal cystic disease

    Hartman, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with an overview of renal cystic disease and a presentation of simple renal cysts. Subsequent chapters cover cystic disease in association with renal neoplasms and medullary sponge kidney. The chapters addressing autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease discuss and differentiate the infantile and adult forms of the disease. There are also separate discussions of medullary cystic disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and cysts of the renarenal sinus.

  1. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Shona Baker; Maria Popescu; Jacob A Akoh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day th...

  2. Uptake As Language Awareness.

    Ellis, Rod

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the sincerity and validity of uptake as a measure of language learning by comparing the words students report they have learned after completing a listening task with the words they score correctly on a translation test. Results indicate that whereas uptake may have construct validity, its concurrent validity is uncertain. (16…

  3. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available, this...... (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...

  4. Bone scan appearance of renal osteodystrophy in diabetic chronic renal failure patients

    To investigate Tc-99m methylenediphosphonate (MDP) bone scan appearance in diabetic chronic renal failure patients, we compared the bone scan images of chronic renal failure patients with and without diabetes. The number of patients studied was 134, of whom 43 had diabetes. Two nuclear medicine physicians read Tc-99m MDP bone scan images and for six areas - the axial skeleton, long bone, skull and mandible, periarticular areas, costochondral junction, and sternum - assigned a score of either 1 or 0. The sums of scores were compared. We also performed multivariate analysis including sex, age, and serum creatinine level using analysis of covariance. DM group patients scored significantly lower (2.01±0.95) than those of the non-DM group (3.26±1.16). Analysis of covariance revealed that the lower DM group score was independent of sex, age, and serum creatinine level. The bone scans of diabetic chronic renal failure patients showed less Tc-99m MDP uptake than those of non-diabetic patients. Thus, diagnosing renal osteodystrophy in diabetic chronic renal failure patients on bone scan images could be difficult. (author)

  5. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These ... in almost every major medical center. The renal ultrasound provides the least detailed image of the kidney, ...

  6. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... the kidneys are filled with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is ... can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early adulthood. Renal Angiomyolipomas ...

  7. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  8. {sup 11}C-Acetate PET imaging for renal cell carcinoma

    Oyama, Nobuyuki; Kusukawa, Naoya; Kaneda, Taisei; Miwa, Yoshiji; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu [University of Fukui, Department of Urology, Fukui (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Welch, Michael J. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 11}C-acetate (AC) for evaluation of renal cell carcinoma. Enrolled in the study were 20 patients with suspected renal tumour, one of whom had three renal lesions. In all, 22 renal lesions were evaluated. Following administration of 350 MBq (10 mCi) of AC, whole-body PET images were obtained. Based on these PET findings, kidney lesions were scored as positive or negative. The PET results were correlated with the CT findings and histological diagnosis after surgery. In 18 patients, 20 tumours were diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. Lesions in the remaining two patients were diagnosed as complicated cyst without malignant tissue. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas. 14 (70%) showed positive AC PET findings; 6 were negative. The two patients with complicated cyst had negative AC PET findings. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas, 19 were clear-cell carcinoma and 1 was a papillary cell carcinoma. This papillary cell carcinoma showed high AC uptake. AC demonstrates marked uptake in renal cell carcinoma. These preliminary data show that AC is a possible PET tracer for detection of renal cancer. (orig.)

  9. Phenotypic spandrel: absolute discrimination and ligand antagonism

    François, Paul; Johnson, Kyle A.; Saunders, Laura N.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the general problem of absolute discrimination between categories of ligands irrespective of their concentration. An instance of this problem is immune discrimination between self and not-self. We connect this problem to biochemical adaptation, and establish that ligand antagonism - the ability of sub threshold ligands to negatively impact response - is a necessary consequence of absolute discrimination.Thus antagonism constitutes a "phenotypic spandrel": a phenotype existing as a...

  10. Absolute Photoacoustic Thermometry in Deep Tissue

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here, we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes...

  11. 'Araphid' diatom classification and the 'absolute standard'

    Williams, David M.

    2009-01-01

    'Araphid' diatom classification is discussed from the point of view of an 'absolute standard' for taxonomic rank. The 'absolute standard' is the phylogenetic tree, its nodes, the included monophyletic groups and sub-groups. To illustrate this point a few species from the genus Licmophora are re-analysed and the resulting phylogenetic tree is discussed in terms of a possible classification, the groups and sub-groups and their ranks.

  12. Absolute distance metrology for space interferometers

    Swinkels, B L; Wendrich, T.J.; Bhattacharya, N; Wielders, A.A.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Space interferometers consisting of several free flying telescopes, such as the planned Darwin mission, require a complex metrology system to make all the components operate as a single instrument. Our research focuses on one of its sub-systems that measures the absolute distance between two satellites with high accuracy. For Darwin the required accuracy would be in the order of 10 μm over 250 meter. To measure this absolute distance, we are currently exploring the frequency sweeping interfer...

  13. Introducing the mean absolute deviation 'effect' size.

    Gorard, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme values. The paper then proposes the use of an easy to comprehend effect size based on the mean difference between treatment groups, divided by the mean...

  14. Effects of renal failure on drug transport and metabolism.

    Sun, Hong; Frassetto, Lynda; Benet, Leslie Z

    2006-01-01

    Renal failure not only alters the renal elimination, but also the non-renal disposition of drugs that are extensively metabolized by the liver. Although reduced metabolic enzyme activity in some cases can be responsible for the reduced drug clearance, alterations in the transporter systems may also be involved in the process. With the development of renal failure, the renal secretion of organic ions mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) and organic cation transporters (OCTs) is decreased. 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) and other organic anionic uremic toxins may directly inhibit the renal excretion of various drugs and endogenous organic acids by competitively inhibiting OATs. In addition, the expression of OAT1 and OCT2 was reduced in chronic renal failure (CRF) rats. Renal failure also impairs the liver uptake of drugs and organic anions, such as bromosulphophthalein (BSP), indocyanine green (ICG), and thyroxine, where organic anion transport polypeptides (OATPs) are the major transporters. Most previous studies have been done in animals or cell culture, very often in rat models, but these are presumed to reflect the presentation of advanced renal disease in humans as well. Recent studies demonstrate that the uremic toxins CMPF and indoxyl sulfate (IS) can directly inhibit rOatp2 and hOATP-C in hepatocytes. The protein content of the liver uptake transporters Oatp1, 2, and 4 were significantly decreased in CRF rats. Decreased activity of the intestinal efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), was also observed in CRF rats, with no significant change of protein content, suggesting that uremic toxins may suppress P-gp function. However, increased protein levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 in the kidney and MRP3 in the liver were found in CRF rats, suggesting an adaptive response that may serve as a protective mechanism. Increases in drug areas under the curve (AUCs) in subjects with advanced renal disease

  15. FARMACOFISIOLOGÍA RENAL

    Musso CG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Renal physiology plays a key role in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Knowledge of the particularities of each nephron function (filtration, secretion, reabsorption and excretion and each of renal tubular transport mechanisms (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport, endocytosis and pinocytosis is fundamental to achieve better management of drug prescriptions.

  16. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  17. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  18. Eligibility for renal denervation

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after a th...

  19. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  20. Effect of renal venous pressure elevation on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in the dog kidney

    Abildgaard, U; Amtorp, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1988-01-01

    This study was performed in order to quantify the effects of renal venous pressure (RVP) elevation on absolute and fractional reabsorption rates of sodium and water in proximal and distal segments of the nephron in dog kidneys. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured electromagnetically. Clearance of...... content of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The results suggest that the increase in APR and FPR during RVP elevation is due mainly to local sympathetic reflex mechanisms....

  1. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis;

    2013-01-01

    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  2. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  3. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959

  4. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Yichun Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN. Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU, radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT, and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU. Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function.

  5. Renal infarction in patients presenting with suspected renal colic *

    Seetho, Ian W.; Bungay, Peter M.; Taal, Maarten W.; Fluck, Richard J.; Leung, Janson C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal infarction is a serious medical emergency. The diagnosis is often delayed or missed as it is not common. Hence, the exact incidence of acute renal infarction is not known. Failure to consider renal infarction in the initial differential diagnosis results in a delay in diagnosis and treatment, which in turn leads to permanent loss of renal function. We present two cases of acute kidney infarction that were initially treated as renal colic. In addition, we present a third case when ...

  6. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... in TSC: renal cysts, renal angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma . Renal angiomyolipomata, or angiomyolipomas, are usually the greatest concern in TSC. The blood vessels within angiomyolipomas are abnormal and can develop weak spots in their wall, called aneurysms, that can burst and lead to ...

  7. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  8. Renal imaging in paediatrics

    The most frequent renal diseases in paediatrics include urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, kidney anomalies and reflux. The main reason for performing DMSA scintigraphy in paediatrics is the detection of cortical abnormalities related to urinary tract infection. Because the amount of tracer retained in the tubular cells is associated with the distribution of functioning renal parenchyma in the kidney, it is possible, to evaluate the split renal function. In comparison to ultrasound and intravenous urography the sensitivity in the detection of acute as well as chronic inflammatory changes is very high, however less specific. An indication for a renography in neonates and children is beside an estimation of the total renal function and the calculation of the split renal function, the assessment of renal drainage in patients with unclear dilatation of the collecting system in ultrasound. The analysis of the time activity curve provides, especially for follow-up studies, a reproducible method to assess the urinary outflow. The diuretic scintigraphy allows the detection of urinary obstruction. Subsequently it is possible to image the micturition phase to detect vesico-ureteric reflux (indirect MCU) after drainage of tracer from the renal pelvis. An reflux in the ureters or the pelvicalyceal system is visible on the scintigraphic images and can be confirmed by time activity curves. A more invasive technique is the direct isotope cystography with bladder catheterization. The present paper should give an overview about the role of nuclear medicine in paediatric urology. (orig.)

  9. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2011-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

  10. Acute renal failure in children

    Acute renal failure (ARF) may be due to obstructive uropathy or renal parenchymal disease. Twenty-five children with acute renal failure secondary to renal parenchymal disease underwent ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys. Changes of renal size and cortical echogenicity were correlated with renal function. All patients presented with bilaterally enlarged kidneys with the exception in renal function resulted in normalization of renal size. With regard to cortical echogenicity two groups were formed. Group A comprised 11 patients whose kidneys had the same echogenicity as the liver, while in group B the kidneys were more echogenic (14 patients). Cortical echogenicity was always increased. Determination of creatinine levels showed a statistically significant difference between group A (3.32 mg% ± 1.40 S.D.) and group B (5.95 mg% ± 1.96 S.D.), p < 0.001. Changes in renal function were paralleled by rapid changes in renal size and cortical echogenicity. (orig.)

  11. Insuficiencia renal aguda.

    Carlos Hernán Mejía

    2009-01-01

    La insuficiencia renal aguda se diagnostica aproximadamente en 5% de los pacientes hospitalizados. Sus principales causas se relacionan con la alteración del flujo sanguíneo renal, sea por depleción de volumen, baja perfusión renal o por distribución intrarrenal inadecuada y obstrucción del árbol urinario. El diagnóstico parte de la historia clínica y un buen examen físico que corrobore el estado de volemia del paciente y se complementa con el uso adecuado de los índices urinarios (excreción ...

  12. Insuficiencia renal aguda

    Carlos Hernán Mejía

    1985-01-01

    La insuficiencia renal aguda se diagnostica aproximadamente en 5% de los pacientes hospitalizados. Sus principales causas se relacionan con la alteración del flujo sanguíneo renal, sea por depleción de volumen, baja perfusión renal o por distribución intrarrenal inadecuada y obstrucción del árbol urinario. El diagnóstico parte de la historia clínica y un buen examen físico que corrobore el estado de volemia del paciente y se complementa con el uso adecuado de los índices urinarios (excreción ...

  13. Sodium transport in cultured rat renal papillary collecting tubule

    The renal papillary collecting duct (PCD) is the final site for regulation of sodium excretion. Cultured rat RPCT cells were investigated as a model for the PCD. Sodium transport was studied using 22Na+ uptake measurements. Steady state Na+ uptake was measured at 230C in the absence of K+ and in the presence of 0.1 mM ouabain. 22Na+ uptake by the monolayer (157 +/- 9 nmol/lg protein/3 min) was saturable at 100 mM extracellular NaCl and half-maximal uptake occurred at 40 mM NaCl. The sigmoidal velocity curve suggested more than one external binding site for Na+ as the Hill coefficient was 2. The measured uptake of 22Na+ appeared to be intracellular and was regulated by Na+/K+ ATPase activity, since activation of the Na+/K+ pump with K+, reduced 22Na+ accumulation seven-fold. The time course for uptake was linear, showed only a single component, and followed first order kinetics with a t/sub 1/2/ of 17 min. Amiloride inhibited 22Na+ uptake. A Dixon plot revealed a linear, mixed type of inhibition with a K/sub i/ of 16 μM amiloride. Over 70% inhibition of total uptake was observed at 0.1 mM amiloride. Lithium was an effective blocker of 22Na+ uptake. Chloride replacement uptake by only 20%. These results suggest that sodium uptake by cultured RPCT cells occurs via a saturable, amiloride-inhibitable channel. A Na+-Cl-, or a Na+-K+-Cl- cotransport system does not appear as a major pathway

  14. Quantitative renal scintigraphy: anatomo-clinical and biological correlation (concerning 51 mercury 197 renal scintigraphs)

    To find out whether the renal mercury uptake measurement in urology is a satisfactory way to judge the separate functional value of the kidneys the records of 51 patients were examined. The exploration took place as follows: - injection of 300 μCi 197HgCl2, - measurement of the radioactivity fixed on each kidney, three days later, by means of a gamma camera. Of these 51 uptake measurements only one result appears inconsistent by excess. All the others agree perfectly with comparative observations. On the whole a close correlation is found between the renal mercury uptake measurement and the various clinical, urographic and anatomical data obtained on this group of patients. The method seems to be ideal because reliable, harmless and repeatable. Where dosimetry is concerned an injected dose of 300μCi delivers 9mrad to each kidney, 6mrad to the ovaries. By way of comparison it is interesting to note that an intraveinous urograph with 5 exposures delivers 500mrad to the ovaries. It is considered safe to repeat the examination 3 to 4 times on one patient

  15. Renal 123I-MIBG Scintigraphy Before and After Kidney Autotransplantation.

    Dobrowolski, Linn C; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Daan W; Idu, Mirza M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Verberne, Hein J

    2015-10-01

    A 25-year-old man underwent an autotransplantation of his right kidney because of fibromuscular dysplasia-induced renal artery stenosis and subsequent hypertension. Since transplantation results in complete kidney denervation, it enabled assessment of renal sympathetic nerve activity changes using renal I-MIBG scintigraphy. Before and 2 weeks after transplantation I-MIBG, scintigraphy was performed. Uptake of I-MIBG in the left (control) kidney increased after transplantation with 4% at 15 minutes and 5% at 4 hours postinjection images, whereas I-MIBG uptake in the right transplanted kidney decreased with 21% at 15 minutes and with 29% at 4 hours, demonstrating renal I-MIBG changes after denervation. PMID:26222531

  16. Impact of arterial occlusion during partial nephrectomy on residual renal function. An evaluation with 99mtechnetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy

    Partial nephrectomy (PNx) has been performed with temporary renal arterial occlusion and in situ renal hypothermia (conventional PNx). However, the impact of temporary renal arterial occlusion on residual renal function has not been well assessed. To address this question, we performed renal scintigraphy with 99mtechnetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) for the quantitative measurement of postoperative residual renal function after conventional PNx and partial nephrectomy without arterial occlusion (non-clamping PNx). Thirty-four patients underwent postoperative DMSA scintigraphy after PNx for renal cell carcinoma. No obvious difference in preoperative renal function between the diseased kidney and the contralateral kidney was found in any of the patients. Of these patients, 24 underwent conventional PNx, and 10 underwent non-clamping PNx. Residual renal function was evaluated using the relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney. The relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney was 39.9±7.3% (25.1-58.8) after conventional PNx compared to 34.8±8.9% (13.5-45.5) after non-clamping PNx. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.15). Total ischemic time during conventional PNx had no adverse influence on the residual renal function. In the analysis of the other determinant factors influencing residual renal function, tumor size was the only significant factor that inversely correlated with the relative DMSA uptake. Our results showed that arterial clamping during PNx has no negative impact on the functional residual capacity as long as in situ renal hypothermia is adequately performed. (author)

  17. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  18. Absolute-stability results in infinite dimensions

    Curtain, RF; Logemann, H; Staffans, O

    2004-01-01

    We derive absolute-stability results of Popov and circle-criterion type for infinite-dimensional systems in an input-output setting. Our results apply to feedback systems in which the linear part is the series interconnection of an input-output stable linear system and an integrator, and the nonline

  19. The Weyl functor - Introduction to Absolute Arithmetic

    Thas, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Starting from an ancient observation of Tits concerning the interpretation of symmetric groups as Chevalley groups over a (non-existing) field having only one element, we describe combinatorial geometry over this field, as well as Linear Algebra. We arrive at an "absolute mantra" which is one of the basic principles of the present book.

  20. Time Function and Absolute Black Hole

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2006-01-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity is not consistent with quantum mechanics, because general relativity cannot be quantized. [1] But without conversion of force and energy, it is impossible to find a grand unified theory. A very important result of CPH theory is time function that allows we give a new ...... description of absolute black hole and before the big bang....

  1. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    Groenland, Johannes Petrus Jacobus

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the informatio

  2. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  3. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  4. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  5. Magnetoresistive transducer for absolute position detection

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper a new method is presented for the measurement of absolute linear or angular position. The digital position information is recorded serially into one track of a suitable hard-magnetic medium. The stray field of this information layer determines the angular magnetisation distribution in

  6. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44. ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  7. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE GANIL BEAM ENERGY

    CASANDJIAN, JM; MITTIG, W; BEUNARD, R; GAUDARD, L; LEPINESZILY, A; VILLARI, ACC; AUGER, G; BIANCHI, L; CUNSOLO, A; FOTI, A; LICHTENTHALER, R; PLAGNOL, E; SCHUTZ, Y; SIEMSSEN, RH; WIELECZKO, JP

    1993-01-01

    The energy of the GANIL cyclotron beam was measured on-line during the Pb-208 + Pb-208 elastic scattering experiment ''Search for Color van der Waals Force in the Pb-208 + Pb-208 Mott scattering'' with an absolute precision of 7 x 10(-5) at approximately 1.0 GeV, which represents an improvement of o

  8. Sharp coincidences for absolutely summing multilinear operators

    Pellegrino, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this note we prove the optimality of a family of known coincidence theorems for absolutely summing multilinear operators. We connect our results with the theory of multiple summing multilinear operators and prove the sharpness of similar results obtained via the complex interpolation method.

  9. Renal transport and metabolism of nicotinic acid

    Renal metabolism and brush-border transport of nicotinic acid were studied in renal cortical slices and brush-border membrane vesicles exposed to a physiological concentration of vitamin (2.2-3.5 microM). Vesicle transport of [3H]nicotinic acid was found to be Na+ dependent and concentrative. The presence of a Na+ gradient resulted in a fivefold increase in the rate of nicotinic acid uptake over that observed with mannitol and caused a transient nicotinic acid accumulation two- to fourfold above the equilibrium value. The effects of membrane potential, pH, and elimination of Na+-H+ exchange were also studied. Cortical slices and isolated tubules exposed to 2.2 microM [14C]nicotinic acid took up vitamin and rapidly metabolized most of it to intermediates in the Preiss-Handler pathway for NAD biosynthesis; little free nicotinic acid was detectable intracellularly. The replacement of Na+ with Li+ in the bathing medium reduced total accumulation of 14C label primarily as a result of reduced nicotinic acid uptake. Cortical tissue concentrated free nicotinic acid only when the involved metabolic pathways were saturated by levels of nicotinic acid far in excess of what occurs in vivo

  10. Renal tumors in infancy

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Dopamins renale virkninger

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1990-01-01

    which are possible not exclusively secondary to alterations in the renal haemodynamics but may also be due to specific tubular effects. Recent investigations have revealed that dopamine does not increase RBF and GFR in patients with chronic renal failure if GFR is less than 60 ml/minute. Dopamine in low...... doses is frequently employed in cases of acute oliguric renal failure but the results available concerning the therapeutic effect are frequently retrospective and uncontrolled. The results suggest that early treatment with 1-3 micrograms/kg/min dopamine combined with furosemide can postpone or possibly......Dopamine is an endogenic catecholamine which, in addition to being the direct precursor of noradrenaline, has also an effect on peripheral dopaminergic receptors. These are localized mainly in the heart, splanchnic nerves and the kidneys. Dopamine is produced in the kidneys and the renal metabolism...

  12. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  13. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  14. Comparison of renal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-gluconate and sup(99m)Tc-DMS

    Recently sup(99m)Tc-gluconate and sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMS) have been developed and used clinically as radiopharmaceuticals for renal scintigraphy. The author studied the renal uptake and body distribution of these two radio-pharmaceuticals experimentally using rats. A scinticamera equipped with a computer was utilized for dynamic curves in the clinical studies. sup(99m)Tc-gluconate was rapidly cleared from the blood and excreted in the urine. Renal uptake was rapid initially and then showed a gradual decrease. sup(99m)Tc-DMS, on the other hand, was slowly cleared and excreted. Renal uptake increased slowly and then levelled off. In clinical studies, sup(99m)Tc-gluconate provided valuable additional information about the renal collecting system in the early phase after injection. And the late scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-DMS was beneficial in demonstrating the kidneys of a patient with severe renal damage. Although some differences could be found in the distribution of these agents, both gave good renal images and seemed to be suitable radiopharmaceuticals for renal scintigraphy. (J.P.N.)

  15. Primary Renal Synovial Sarcoma

    Halil Ciftci; Adem Altunkol; Ismail Ozdemir; Dilek Mil; Ilyas Ozardali; Murat Savas; Ercan Yeni; Mehmet Gulum

    2011-01-01

    Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors that most often occur in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults. We describe two cases of primary renal synovial sarcoma that were treated successfully by radical nephrectomy. Synovial sarcoma originating from the kidney is extremely rare and the histogenesis is uncertain. Surgical resection and ifosfamide based chemotherapy are the mainstay for the management of renal synovial sarcoma. Fewer than 40 patients have been ...

  16. Renal failure in malaria

    B.S. Das

    2008-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is seen mostly in Plasmodium falciparum infection, but P. vivax and P. malariae can occasionally contribute for renal impairment. Malarial ARF is commonly found in non-immune adults and older children with falciparum malaria. Occurance of ARF in severe falciparum malaria is quite common in southeast Asia and Indian subcontinent where intensity of malaria transmission is usually low with occasional microfoci of intense transmission. Since precise mechanism of malaria...

  17. Renal clearance of melatonin

    Editorial Office

    1996-01-01

    Only two publications exist in which actual values for the renal clearance of intact melatonin in man is described. The melatonin clearance values were, however, obtained either after the oral intake of melatonin, or by applying different techniques for the determination of melatonin in urine and plasma. In this study, renal clearance of melatonin was determined during the hours where melatonin concentrations are relatively constant. Melatonin levels in plasma and urine respectively were e...

  18. Disappearing renal calculus

    Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging.

  19. Renal dysplasia: US findings

    Renal dysplasia is a congenital anomaly with abnormal development of nephrotic and ductal structure and untreatable disease with absent renal function. To determine whether any consistent sonographic patterns exists,the sonograms of 27 pediatric patients with mastocytosis despotically kidney were reviewed. The diagnosis was proved by pathology in 16 cases and other radiologic imaging in 11 cases. In the classical multicystic despotically kidney(pelvoinfundibular atresia type, 10 cases), there were typical findings, such as absent communication between peripherally located variable sized cysts and presence of the largest cyst away from the renal hilum. One case was associated contralateral renal hydronephrosis. There cases were hydro nephrotic type which had medial location of the largest cyst with non communicating peripheral cysts. Segmental dysplasia with double collecting system and ureterocele (5 cases) and dysplasia due to parasite urethral valve (2 cases) showed hydronephrosis without identifiable peripheral cysts. Among the hypoplastic dysplastic kidney (7 cases) including ectopic kidneys (3cases), corticomedullary differentiation were hard to be identified in 2 cases. In conclusion, diagnosis of the renal dysplasia can be obtained by US only or US with other functional studies such as radionuclide scan(99mTc-DMSA or renogram) and IVP. US detection of renal dysplasia is easy, and US findings provide valuable information in the subsequent management

  20. Renal dysplasia: US findings

    Ha, Doo Hoe; Oh, Ki Keun; Jung, Woo Hee; Yoon, Choon Sik; Ahn, Chang Soo; Kim, Myung Joon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    Renal dysplasia is a congenital anomaly with abnormal development of nephrotic and ductal structure and untreatable disease with absent renal function. To determine whether any consistent sonographic patterns exists,the sonograms of 27 pediatric patients with mastocytosis despotically kidney were reviewed. The diagnosis was proved by pathology in 16 cases and other radiologic imaging in 11 cases. In the classical multicystic despotically kidney(pelvoinfundibular atresia type, 10 cases), there were typical findings, such as absent communication between peripherally located variable sized cysts and presence of the largest cyst away from the renal hilum. One case was associated contralateral renal hydronephrosis. There cases were hydro nephrotic type which had medial location of the largest cyst with non communicating peripheral cysts. Segmental dysplasia with double collecting system and ureterocele (5 cases) and dysplasia due to parasite urethral valve (2 cases) showed hydronephrosis without identifiable peripheral cysts. Among the hypoplastic dysplastic kidney (7 cases) including ectopic kidneys (3cases), corticomedullary differentiation were hard to be identified in 2 cases. In conclusion, diagnosis of the renal dysplasia can be obtained by US only or US with other functional studies such as radionuclide scan(99mTc-DMSA or renogram) and IVP. US detection of renal dysplasia is easy, and US findings provide valuable information in the subsequent management

  1. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  2. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal

  3. Renal damage in vesicoureteral reflux associated to duplex systems

    Duplex system (DS) is a common occurrence and it can be associated to a range of ureteral and renal anomalies draining the two poles of the duplex kidneys, as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in the lower moiety and ureterocele in the upper moiety. The VUR in a duplex system can be primary or secondary (associated to an ureterocele). The assessment of parenchymal uptake and function of the whole and separate parts of the kidneys is important for therapeutical decisions. Objective: To determine the presence of renal damage, by dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in children with a refluxing DS and if there any difference between primary and secondary reflux. Patients and Methods: 36 children; 23 girls and 13 boys, with VUR into completely duplicated collecting systems was studied retrospectively (37 RU with DS, 35 unilateral and 1 bilateral), with a mean age of 2.43 y.o. (range: 1 month-11y.o.). All of the children underwent ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrogram and renal static scintigraphy. Among the 37 RU with VUR, 25 had primary VUR and 12 had VUR secondary to the presence of an ureterocele. Ten out of the 36 children (27.8%) were evaluated due to antenatal diagnosis and the remaining 26 (72.2%) after urinary tract infection (UTI). Results: Seventy percent of the 37 RU with VUR into completely duplicated collecting systems had renal damage demonstrated by renal static scintigraphy. Among the 25 RU with primary VUR, 19 (76%) had renal damage, 6 with a complete absence of function in the lower moiety. In this group, 80% of children was studied due to an UTI at a mean age of 3.3 y.o. In the group of children with secondary VUR, we observed a lower moiety with renal damage in 6/12 (50%), in 4 of them associated with an abnormal upper moiety. 7 out of 12 children (58.3%) had an abnormal upper moiety, 4 of them with a damage in lower moiety too. One children presented with renal exclusion. Half of these children were studied due to UTI, at a mean age of 1 y

  4. Imaging of renal cell cancer with radiolabelled octreotide

    Recently the presence of somatostatin receptors on human renal cell carcinomas has been demonstrated by autoradiographic techniques on surgically removed kidneys. In a prospective study we evaluated, by means of 111In-labelled octreotide scintigraphy, the in vivo tumour imaging in a group of patients with biopsy proven renal cell carcinomas at different tumour stages. Seven patients were studied. In three of them, (43%) pathological tracer accumulation was demonstrated. In these patients, 20 out of 23 known tumour localizations were clearly visualized. Tracer uptake could be inhibited by prior administration of cold octreotide. We conclude that 111In-ocreotide scintigraphy can be used to demonstrate, in vivo, metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  5. Renal Scintiscanning with Hg209-Neohydrin in Urologic Diseases

    Renal scintiscanning has been carried out using Hg203 - labelled Neohydrin. The equipment used is the Nuclear Chicago Isotope Scanner Type 1700 with 2 x 2 - i n crystal and a 7 - cm focal-length honeycomb collimator. Usually the scintigrams are registered both on paper and on photographic film. Hg203 - labelled Neohydrin is usually employed in doses of 120 - 160 μc (about 2 μc/kg). The scanning examination starts about 2 h after the injection and lasts about 40-50 min. The selective storage of labelled Neohydrin at the level of the renal cortex makes it possible to obtain a graphic representation of the two kidneys and to identify their position, orientation and shape, and the homogeneity of the actively functioning parenchyma. In some cases, autoradiographic investigations have been carried out on diseased kidneys after surgical removal. By this method anomalies in position and orientation, both congenital and acquired, can be ascertained. As regards shape, the limits of the renal patterns are the mote clearly defined as the renal function is better. Technical aspects such as the width of the crystal, type of collimator (whose focal plane should pass through the transverse medial plane of the kidneys), and dose - which should be not too high not too low - are essential conditions for a correct graphic reproduction of the renal patterns. Failure in tabular activity in the parenchyma is shown by a lack in the uptake of radioactivity. The position, extent and shape of such defects in uptake vary according to the entity of the renal structures and their derangement due to various pathological processes: tumours, cysts, hydronephrosis, tuberculosis etc. In normal subjects a homogeneous scintigram is usual, although a clearer hilar region is not a rare occurrence. Any circumscribed decrease of scintigraphic density outside the hilum is the expression of a less actively functioning zone. Among kidney patterns larger than normal, the homogeneous ones which point to a

  6. MAG3 in a renal transplant with complications

    Full text: A 42 year-old female presenting with glomerulonephritis induced end stage renal failure was found suitable for a renal transplant (Tx). A cadaveric renal Tx was performed after a prolonged cold ischaemic time of 12 hours (optimal<4 hours). The surgery was uncomplicated and doppler ultrasound (u/s) post surgery demonstrated good perfusion to the transplant. Sequential MAG3 renal scanning, at days 1, 3 and 5 post transplant demonstrated reduced but clearly identifiable perfusion and an accumulation renogram ('hot kidney') consistent with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). These results lead to a biopsy being performed at day 5. The biopsy demonstrated rejection and tubular dilatation m keeping with ATN Intense anti-rejection therapy commenced. The day 7, MAG3 study demonstrated some improvement in perfusion, uptake, and clearance, however, overall function remained impaired Dialysis was resumed. At day 10, the patient developed pain with a distended, firm, and tender abdomen. An urgent MAG3 study demonstrated acute vascular insult with near complete absence of perfusion or function ('cold kidney') and the decrease on accumulation renogram. Renal u/s demonstrated a peri-nephric haematoma and markedly abnormal intra-renal blood flow in keeping with acute rejection. This lead to an emergency renal Tx nephrectomy Macroscopically, the kidney was swollen with extensive necrosis and surrounded by fresh blood, with microscopy showing extensive rejection and venous thrombosis. Post nephrectomy the patient returned to haemodialysis While limited by ATN in the early post Tx period, MAG3 imaging provided timely, accurate and non invasive diagnostic information as to the viability of the renal Tx and to the ultimate decision to remove the kidney. This case also demonstrates the importance of frequent serial scanning in early post Tx monitoring. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Malignant renal tumors in children

    Justin Scott Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. 

  8. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  9. An absolute measure for a key currency

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  10. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  11. Absolute Parallelism Geometry: Developments, Applications and Problems

    Wanas, M. I.

    2002-01-01

    Absolute parallelism geometry is frequently used for physical applications. It has two main defects, from the point of view of applications. The first is the identical vanishing of its curvature tensor. The second is that its autoparallel paths do not represent physical trajectories. The present work shows how these defects were treated in the course of development of the geometry. The new version of this geometry contains simultaneous non-vanishing torsion and curvatures. Also, the new paths...

  12. Cosmological frames for theories with absolute parallelism

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The vierbein (tetrad) fields for closed and open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies are hard to work out in most of the theories featuring absolute parallelism. The difficulty is traced in the fact that these theories are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations of the vierbein. We illustrate this issue in the framework of f(T) theories and Born-Infeld determinantal gravity. In particular, we show that the early Universe as described by the Born-Infeld scheme is singularity free ...

  13. Absolute clock synchronisation and special relativity paradoxes

    Ciborowski, Jacek; Wlodarczyk, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Solving special relativity paradoxes requires rigorous analysis of event timing, due to relative simultaneity in consequence of the Lorentz transformation. Since clock synchronisation is a convention in special theory of relativity, instead of the Einstein's procedure one may choose such that offers absolute simultaneity. We present in short the corresponding formalism in one spatial dimension. We show that paradoxes do not arise with this choice of synchronisation and descriptions of these i...

  14. Absolute distance metrology for space interferometers

    Swinkels, B L; Bhattacharya, N; Wielders, A.A.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Future space missions, among which the Darwin Space Interferometer, will consist of several free flying satellites. A complex metrology system is required to have all the components fly accurately in formation and have it operate as a single instrument. Our work focuses on a possible implementation of the sub-system that measures the absolute distance between two satellites with high accuracy. For Darwin the required accuracy is on the order of 70 micrometer over a distance of 250 meter. We a...

  15. An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.

    Gorard, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...

  16. The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)

    Levi-Civita, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  17. Value of renal scintigraphy with captopril test in the exploration of renovascular hypertension: Case report

    Introduction Dynamic renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA and captopril test is a non-invasive functional method for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. It allows differentiating between hypertension induced by renal arterial stenosis from primary arterial hypertension with an incidental stenosis. Case report A 14-year-old girl, without previous medical history, developed a severe arterial hypertension with cephalalgia and ears buzzing. Auscultation revealed a murmur in the left lumbar pit. Renal angiography objectified a stenosis of the infra renal aorta due to a circumferential parietal thickening associated to renal arteries stenosis more marked in the left side. Dynamic renal scintigraphy after administration of captopril highlighted a marked collapse of the rate of tracer uptake exceeding 40% on the left side with an increase in the time of collecting on the right side testifying a frankly positive test prevailing on the left. A transluminal angioplasty of the left renal artery and a revascularization surgery on the right side were carried out. The evolution was marked by an improvement of blood pressure figures. Discussion Dynamic renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-DTPA with captopril test constitutes a non-invasive process with a low dosimetry for the patients. Its principal goal is to affirm the role of renovascular stenosis in the origin of arterial hypertension and to determine which hypertensive patients with renal arterial stenosis can be treated successfully by surgical or endoscopic revascularization of the kidney. (authors)

  18. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    M. de Angelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  19. CT diagnosis of renal and extrarenal complications after renal transplantation

    Methods and results of static and dynamic CT of renal transplants are presented. Validity of the method concerning morphologic and functional lesions of the organ and of extrarenal structures are outlined. Special attention is paid to functional changes and differential diagnosis of the most frequent complications after renal transplantation. Whereas CT diagnosis of renal and pararenal morphology is unquestioned, the problem of differentiating between acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection is not yet solved. Nevertheless description of renal function is possible. (orig.)

  20. Management of renal cell carcinoma presenting as inflammatory renal mass

    Ehab Eltahawy; Mohamed Kamel; Mahmoud Ezzet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can have a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. In the immunocompromised patient fever and an inflammatory renal mass can harbor RCC. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the charts of patients who were managed at our department during 1998-2008 as renal abscess or perinephric collection. Renal ultrasound and subsequently abdominal CT was done. Medical treatment in the form of antibiotics, control of diabetes and drainage was done. Percutaneous ...

  1. Renal consequences of obesity.

    Naumnik, Beata; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2010-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders has risen dramatically within the past 2 decades. Our objective is to review the mechanisms that link obesity with altered kidney function. Current evidence suggests that excess weight gain may be responsible for 65-75% of the risk for arterial hypertension. Impaired renal pressure natriuresis, initially due to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, is a key factor linking obesity with hypertension. Obesity increases renal sodium reabsorption by activating the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems, and by altering intrarenal physical forces. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, secreting hormones/cytokines (e.g., leptin) which may trigger sodium retention and hypertension. Additionally, excess visceral adipose tissue may physically compress the kidneys, increasing intrarenal pressures and tubular reabsorption. Eventually, sustained obesity via hyperinsulinemia, due to resistance to insulin, causes hyperfiltration, resulting in structural changes in the kidneys--glomerular hyperthrophy and occasionally focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The consequences of kidney injury are continuous loss of glomerular filtration rate, further increase of arterial pressure and escalation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is a growing awareness of the renal consequences of obesity, and considerable progress is being made in understanding its pathophysiology. Weight reduction results in lowered proteinuria. Aside from low sodium diet and exercises, more widespread use of renoprotective therapy (e.g., ACE inhibitors and statins) in treatment of hypertension in obese subjects should be advocated. Renal protection should result in reducing the cardiovascular complications of obesity. PMID:20671624

  2. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  3. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... severe kidney disease can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early adulthood. Renal Angiomyolipomas Angiomyolipomas are named because they ...

  4. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal pelvis

    Dhamne Sagar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of the kidney. They may arise from the renal capsule, renal vein, renal pelvic musculature or renal parenchyma. Renal pelvis is an uncommon site of occurrence, with around 10 cases reported in the literature so far. Here we present a 60-year-old male who presented with increased urinary frequency, lower limb weakness, anorexia and weight loss. Imaging showed a right renal mass. A renal cell carcinoma was suspected clinically. A right nephrectomy was performed, which showed a large circumscribed mass in the hilar region. Histology revealed a tumor mass arising from the renal pelvis. The tumor was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells to be positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA and desmin (Des and negative for cytokeratin (CK, HMB 45, CD117 (C-kit, and CD34. That confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma.

  5. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... must be kept in mind. Diagnosis The current methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, ... cells, which surround a fluid-filled cavity. Some children and adults with TSC and severe cystic kidneys ...

  6. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... in about 50 percent of individuals with TSC. These cysts, even if they are not very common, ... in mind. Diagnosis The current methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, CT scanning and ...

  7. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... to kidney impairment and even kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, the least ... kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How kidney cysts develop ...

  8. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of this information. The majority of individuals ( ... the least common renal association with TSC, is a cancerous growth of the kidney. Although it is ...

  9. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery.

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... lesion must be kept in mind. Diagnosis The current methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ... about clinical trials and see a list of current trials/studies related to TSC. Enroll now in ...

  11. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... For Individuals & Families For Healthcare Professionals For Researchers & Scientists For School Issues What Is TSC? How Is ... must be kept in mind. Diagnosis The current methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, ...

  12. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  13. Embolic renal infarction mimicking renal colic

    Mahamid M; Francis A.; Abid A; Awawde M; Abu-Elhija O

    2014-01-01

    Mahmud Mahamid,1,3 Adi Francis,2 Ali Abid,1 Mohammed Awawde,1 Omar Abu-Elhija11Department of Internal Medicine, 2Cardiac Care Unit, Holy Family Hospital, Bar-Ilan University, Nazareth, Israel; 3Digestive Disease Institute, Liver Unit, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, IsraelAbstract: Atrial fibrillation is a major health problem with risk of systemic arterial embolism. Acute embolic renal infarction is a rare condition with symptoms that are often nonspecific. We present a 36-year-old p...

  14. Contemporary Management of Renal Trauma

    Shoobridge, Jennifer J; Corcoran, Niall M; Martin, Katherine A; Koukounaras, Jim; Royce, Peter L; Bultitude, Matthew F

    2011-01-01

    In the management of renal trauma, surgical exploration inevitably leads to nephrectomy in all but a few specialized centers. With current management options, the majority of hemodynamically stable patients with renal injuries can be successfully managed nonoperatively. Improved radiographic techniques and the development of a validated renal injury scoring system have led to improved staging of injury severity that is relatively easy to monitor. This article reviews a multidisciplinary approach to facilitate the care of patients with renal injury. PMID:21941463

  15. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  16. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Bakhshi, Girish D.; Arshad S. Khan; Shaikh, Aftab S; Khan, Mohammad Ashraf A.; Mohammad Adil A. Khan; Jamadar, Nilofar M.

    2012-01-01

    Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who u...

  17. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  18. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

    Kafil Akhtar; Ahmad Shamshad; Zaheer Sufian; Mansoor Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) is an aggressive tumor variant thought to arise predominantly from differentiation of clear cell carcinoma. A few reports of SRCC asso-ciated with non-clear cell tumors led to the presumption that SRCC may arise from any renal cell carcinoma, although direct evidence of this is lacking. We report a case of a 70-year-old male patient, who presented with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was diagnosed to have SRCC after pathological examination...

  19. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause. PMID:26600445

  20. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    McKelvey, Kelly J.; Katie L. Powell; Ashton, Anthony W.; Morris, Jonathan M.; McCracken, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non- immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells) and the internal si...

  1. Risks of rapid decline renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Yi-Jing; Sheen; Wayne; HH; Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Progressive rising population of diabetes and related nephropathy, namely, diabetic kidney disease and associated end stage renal disease has become a major global public health issue. Results of observational studies indicate that most diabetic kidney disease progresses over decades; however, certain diabetes patients display a rapid decline in renal function, which may lead to renal failure within months. Although the definition of rapid renal function decline remained speculative, in general,it is defined by the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate(e GFR) in absolute rate of loss or percent change. Based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guidelines, a rapid decline in renal function is defined as a sustained declinein e GFR of > 5 m L/min per 1.73 m2 per year. It has been reported that potential factors contributing to a rapid decline in renal function include ethnic/genetic and demographic causes, smoking habits, increased glycated hemoglobin levels, obesity, albuminuria, anemia, low serum magnesium levels, high serum phosphate levels, vitamin D deficiency, elevated systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. This article reviews current literatures in this area and provides insight on the early detection of diabetic subjects who are at risk of a rapid decline in renal function in order to develop a more aggressive approach to renal and cardiovascular protection.

  2. The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program

    Peter, George; Moose, Robert E.; Wessells, Claude W.

    1989-03-01

    The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program will utilize the high precision afforded by the JILAG-4 instrument to support geodetic and geophysical research, which involves studies of vertical motions, identification and modeling of other temporal variations, and establishment of reference values. The scientific rationale of these objectives is given, the procedures used to collect gravity and environmental data in the field are defined, and the steps necessary to correct and remove unwanted environmental effects are stated. In addition, site selection criteria, methods of concomitant environmental data collection and relative gravity observations, and schedule and logistics are discussed.

  3. Prospects for absolute neutron activation analysis

    The desirability for absolute neutron activation analysis(ANAA) is two-fold. Results by the comparitor method are only as good as the standards used, and also the method offers a chance of having the final results available within minutes of completing the analysis. In the past ANAA was not seriously considered because of the scarcity and poor qaulity of the nuclear data that were available. This situation is however steadily improving and the possible applications are being investigated. This report reviews the present status by considering the basic activation equation, calculation of parameters, the factors of importance and the size error one might expect

  4. Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility.

    Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

    2005-08-18

    Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force ('absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells. PMID:16107829

  5. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Wallentin, Mikkel; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared......, we found that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate...

  6. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  7. ABSOLUT LOMO绝对创意

    婷婷(整理)

    2007-01-01

    ABSOLUT与创意素来有着不解之缘。由Andy Warhal的ABSOLUT WARHOL至今,已有超过400位不同领域的创意大师为ABSOLUT的当代艺术宝库贡献了自己的得意之作。ABSOLUT的创意仿佛永远不会枯竭,而一系列的作品也让惊喜从未落空。

  8. Insuficiencia renal aguda.

    Carlos Hernán Mejía

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia renal aguda se diagnostica aproximadamente en 5% de los pacientes hospitalizados. Sus principales causas se relacionan con la alteración del flujo sanguíneo renal, sea por depleción de volumen, baja perfusión renal o por distribución intrarrenal inadecuada y obstrucción del árbol urinario. El diagnóstico parte de la historia clínica y un buen examen físico que corrobore el estado de volemia del paciente y se complementa con el uso adecuado de los índices urinarios (excreción de sodio y osmolaridad, el uroanálisis y la ecografía renal. Su tratamiento consiste en una adecuada recuperación del volumen, manejo de los diuréticos, soporte nutricional, conservación del equilibrio hidroelectrolítico y brindar terapia de diálisis si hay toxicidad urémica, hipercaliemia severa (>6.5 mEq/l, acidosis metabólica o sobrecarga severa de volumen.

  9. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates

    Pfeiffer, R. M.; E. Petracci

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function base...

  10. Putrescine uptake in saintpaulia petals.

    Bagni, N; Pistocchi, R

    1985-02-01

    Putrescine uptake and the kinetics of this uptake were studied in petals of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Uptake experiments of [(3)H] or [(14)C] putrescine were done on single petals at room temperature at various pH values. The results show that putrescine uptake occurs against a concentration gradient at low external putrescine concentration (0.5-100 micromolar) and follows a concentration gradient at higher external putrescine concentrations (100 micromolar to 100 millimolar). 2,4-Dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, two uncouplers, had no effect on putrescine uptake. Uptake rates were constant for 2 hours, reaching a maximum after 3 to 4 hours. Putrescine uptake depended markedly on the external pH and two maxima were observed: at low external concentrations of putrescine, the optimum was at pH 5 to 5.5; at higher concentrations the optimum was at pH 8. PMID:16664065

  11. Renal dysplasia in infants: appearance on 99mTc DMSA scintigraphy

    Infantile renal dysplasias, including multicystic dysplastic kidneys (MCDK), are reported rarely to accumulate radiopharmaceuticals on renal scintigraphy. 99mTc DMSA is a highly sensitive tracer for detecting functioning renal cortical tissue and may be more suited to studying renal dysplasia than 99mTc DTPA. We reviewed the ultrasound studies and 99mTc DMSA scintigrams of 42 infants (age range 1-12 months) with known or suspected MCDK. Overall, uptake on 99mTc DMSA scintigraphy was evident in 6/41 (15%) dysplasic kidneys. Of the 18 patients who underwent nephrectomy, histopathological examination revealed that uptake correlated closely with the presence of mature remal cortical tissue in the affected kidney. Our study shows that a small, but significant number of MCDK will show lo-grade uptake on DMSA scintigraphy. This finding may be relevant given the reliance placed on renal scintigraphy in planning treatment for infants with suspected MCDK, particularly with the increasing trend for the non-operative management of this condition. (orig.)

  12. Renal dysplasia in infants: appearance on {sup 99m}Tc DMSA scintigraphy

    Roach, P.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, The Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Paltiel, H.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, The Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Perez-Atayde, A. [Dept. of Pathology, The Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tello, R.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, The Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Davis, R.T. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, The Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Treves, S.T. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, The Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Infantile renal dysplasias, including multicystic dysplastic kidneys (MCDK), are reported rarely to accumulate radiopharmaceuticals on renal scintigraphy. {sup 99m}Tc DMSA is a highly sensitive tracer for detecting functioning renal cortical tissue and may be more suited to studying renal dysplasia than {sup 99m}Tc DTPA. We reviewed the ultrasound studies and {sup 99m}Tc DMSA scintigrams of 42 infants (age range 1-12 months) with known or suspected MCDK. Overall, uptake on {sup 99m}Tc DMSA scintigraphy was evident in 6/41 (15%) dysplasic kidneys. Of the 18 patients who underwent nephrectomy, histopathological examination revealed that uptake correlated closely with the presence of mature remal cortical tissue in the affected kidney. Our study shows that a small, but significant number of MCDK will show lo-grade uptake on DMSA scintigraphy. This finding may be relevant given the reliance placed on renal scintigraphy in planning treatment for infants with suspected MCDK, particularly with the increasing trend for the non-operative management of this condition. (orig.)

  13. Isotope dilution strategies for absolute quantitative proteomics

    The development of mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies for high-throughput protein identification has generated a concomitant need for protein quantification. Numerous MS-based relative quantification methodologies have been dedicated to the extensive comparison of multiple proteomes. On the other hand, absolute quantification methodologies, which allow the determination of protein concentrations in biological samples, are generally restricted to defined sets of proteins. Depending on the selected analytical procedure, absolute quantification approaches can provide accurate and precise estimations. These analytical performances are crucial for specific applications such as the evaluation of clinical bio-marker candidates. According to bioanalytical guidelines, accurate analytical processes require internal standards and quality controls. Regarding MS-based analysis of small molecules, isotope dilution has been recognized as the reference method for internal standardization. However, protein quantification methodologies which rely on the isotope dilution principle have been implemented in the proteomic field only recently. In these approaches, the sample is spiked with defined amounts of isotope-labeled analogue(s) of specific proteolytic peptide(s) (AQUA and QconCAT strategies) or protein(s) (PSAQ strategy). In this review, we present a critical overview of these isotope dilution methodologies. (authors)

  14. ''Aggressive'' renal angiomyolipoma

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an 'aggressive' appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG)

  15. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  16. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  17. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  18. The clinical utility of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the diagnoses of renal transplant rejection

    It is demonstrated that indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy is a highly accurate test for detecting acute untreated renal allograft rejection and it is shown that changes in platelet uptake can precede signs and symptoms of rejection by at least 48 hours. (author). 34 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Urinary Calprotectin and Posttransplant Renal Allograft Injury

    Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r = −0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277

  20. Chronic renal failure due to unilateral renal agenesis and total renal dysplasia (=aplasia)

    Three adult patients with unilateral renal agenesis/total dysplasia (= aplasia) and with an early chronic renal failure are presented. One patient had renal agenesis without ureter bud and ureteric ostium on one side, and reflux pyelonephritis on the other; one had small compact total renal dysplasia (= aplasia) on one side, while chronic uric acid nephropathy (chronic renal disease as a cause of gout) was diagnosed on the other; the third patient had a total large multicystic dysplasia on one side, and on the other a segmental large multicystic dysplasia. Radiological steps and radiodiagnostic criteria are discussed and the combination of urogenital and extraurogenital anomalies is referred to. (orig.)

  1. Chronic renal failure due to unilateral renal agenesis and total renal dysplasia (=aplasia)

    Kroepelin, T.; Ziupa, J.; Wimmer, B.

    1983-05-01

    Three adult patients with unilateral renal agenesis/total dysplasia (= aplasia) and with an early chronic renal failure are presented. One patient had renal agenesis without ureter bud and ureteric ostium on one side, and reflux pyelonephritis on the other; one had small compact total renal dysplasia (= aplasia) on one side, while chronic uric acid nephropathy (chronic renal disease as a cause of gout) was diagnosed on the other; the third patient had a total large multicystic dysplasia on one side, and on the other a segmental large multicystic dysplasia. Radiological steps and radiodiagnostic criteria are discussed and the combination of urogenital and extraurogenital anomalies is referred to.

  2. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non- immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of para‐ mount importance.

  3. Atorvastatin improves renal organic anion transporter 3 and renal function in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Jaikumkao, Krit; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Promsan, Sasivimon; Arjinajarn, Phatchawan; Lungkaphin, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? This study was designed to determine the renoprotective effects of atorvastatin treatment in an experimental model of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity through modulating the Nrf2 pathway by decreasing the oxidative stress. What is the main finding and its importance? Atorvastatin exerts a nephroprotective effect by attenuating oxidative stress, protecting renal function and renal organic anion transporter 3 function from the effects of gentamicin. Atorvastatin might protect the tissues via its antioxidant property and by modulating the antioxidant enzymes through the Nrf2 signalling pathway, which may be the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects. Recent evidence demonstrates that statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, exert not only lipid-lowering effects but also antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Nephrotoxicity, a serious side-effect of gentamicin, is related to an increase in reactive oxygen species in the kidney. This study was designed to determine the renoprotective effects of atorvastatin treatment in an experimental model of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Nephrotocixity was induced by i.p. injection of gentamicin, 100 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , for 15 days. Atorvastatin, 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , was administered by gavage 30 min before gentamicin injection (pretreatment) for 15 days or only on days 10-15 (post-treatment). Renal function and renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) function and expression were examined. Gentamicin-treated rats demonstrated impaired renal function by attenuation of creatinine clearance and increased oxidative stress. Gentamicin treatment also decreased renal Oat3 function and expression as shown by decreased [(3) H]estrone sulfate uptake into renal cortical slices and decreased expression. The protein expressions of protein kinase C, Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1

  4. Renal accumulation of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC in rats: influence of inhibitors of the organic ion transport and diuretics

    Stahl, A.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany); Wagner, B.; Heemann, U.; Lutz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nephrology, Munich (Germany); Poethko, T.; Perutka, M.; Wester, H.J.; Essler, M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Radiation exposure to the kidney limits therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. This study evaluates the organic anion and cation transport (inhibitors: probenecid and cimetidine/dexamethason) as well as diuresis (furosemide and mannitol) regarding renal uptake of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC. One hundred eight male Fisher rats were injected with [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC via the tail vein. Prior to activity injection a total of 84 rats underwent injection with probenecid vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (48 rats), cimetidine vs. dexamethasone vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats), and furosemide vs. mannitol vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats). Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points up to 48 h after activity injection. Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, spleen, blood, liver, and muscle were harvested and injected activity per gram tissue was determined. Autoradiographic images of the kidneys were acquired in a total of 24 rats. Probenecid led to a reduction in renal uptake by up to 30% while not significantly changing the activity accumulation in the other organs investigated. This reduction was attributable to the renal cortex (ratio cortex/medulla 1.72 vs. 1.99; p = 0.006). Cimetidine and dexamethasone had no effect in any of the organs. Furosemide led to a 44% increase in renal activity accumulation attributable to enhanced renal medullary uptake (ratio cortex/medulla 1.44 versus 1.69; p = 0.006). Mannitol had no effect on renal activity uptake. Inhibition of the organic anion transport by probenecid may help reduce renal uptake regarding therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. The enhancing effect of furosemide may be unfavourable for therapy. The results must be confirmed by human studies. (orig.)

  5. Thyroid Uptake Measurement System

    The NED-UP.M7 is a complete thyroid uptake and analysis system specifically designed for nuclear medicine. Capable of performing a full range of studies this system provides fast, accurate results for Uptake Studies. The heart of the NED-UP.M7 is a microprocessor-controlled 2048 channel Compact Multi-Channel Analyzer, coupled to a 2 inch x 2 inch NaI(Tl) detector with a USB personal computer interface. The system offers simple, straight-forward operation using pre-programmed isotopes, and menudriven prompts to guide the user step by step through each procedure. The pre-programmed radionuclides include I-123, I-125, I-131, Tc-99m and Cs-137. The user-defined radionuclides also allow for isotope identification while the printer provides hard copy printouts for patient and department record keeping. The included software program running on PC (Windows XP-based) is a user friendly program with menudriven and graphic interface for easy controlling the system and managing measurement results of patient on Excel standard form. (author)

  6. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-03-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  7. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  8. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be fn∼4.1x10-4 with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 108 neutrons per discharge.

  9. Site specific estimation of cumulative absolute velocity

    The presented paper shows some recent results for correlation between cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) and the macro-seismic intensity, magnitude and distance (attenuation functions). The analyses are based mainly on European strong motion data. The processing is performed separately for intermediate depth earthquakes (Vrancea seismic region), regional shallow earthquakes and moderate local earthquakes. The results show that CAV correlates with the intensity, magnitude and distance in a similar way as the peak values of strong motion. There is significant difference of expected CAV from local earthquakes and from strong regional seismic excitations. The local earthquakes, although producing high accelerations, are developing small CAV and respectively small damage potential. The analyses show that intermediate depth earthquakes may produce significant CAV on very large distances, i.e. they may affect large territories and produce damage. The attenuation functions developed are used for prediction of CAV on the site of Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria. (author)

  10. Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication

    Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.

  11. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted......; 13 had incomplete and 1 had complete distal RTA. Distal RTA was found particularly in recurrent stone formers (17%), and especially in those with bilateral stone disease, where a distal renal tubular acidification defect was found in 50%. We have been unable to differentiate primary from secondary...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use in...

  12. The changes in renal function after a single dose of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis

    Mejirisky Yoram; kayal Mohib; Assy Nimer; Gorenberg Miguel; Hussein Osamah; Schlesinger Sorina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with compensated Child-A cirrhosis have sub clinical hypovolemia and diuretic treatment could result in renal impairment. Aim To evaluate the changes in renal functional mass as reflected by DMSA uptake after single injection of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. Methods Eighteen cirrhotic patients were divided in two groups; eight patients (group 1, age 56 ± 9.6 yrs, Gender 5M/3F, 3 alcoholic and 5 non alcoholic) were given low i...

  13. Study to improve the precision of calculation of split renal clearance by gamma camera method using 99mTc-MAG3

    Both fundamental and clinical studies were performed to improve the precision with which split renal clearance is calculated from the relation between renal clearance and the total renal uptake rate by using 99mTc-MAG3, which is mainly excreted into the proximal renal tubules. In the fundamental study, the most suitable kidney phantom threshold values for the extracted renal outline were investigated with regard to size, radioactivity, depth of the kidney phantom, and radioactivity in the background. In the clinical study, suitable timing to obtain additional images for making the ROI and the standard point for calculation of renal uptake rate were investigated. The results indicated that, although suitable threshold values were distributed from 25% to 45%, differences in size, solution activity, and the position of the phantom or BG activity did not have significant effects. Comparing 1-3 min with 2-5 min as the time for additional images for ROI, we found that renal areas using the former time showed higher values, and the correlation coefficient of the regression formula improved significantly. Comparison of the timing for the start of data acquisition with the end of the arterial phase as a standard point of calculating renal uptake rate showed improvement in the latter. (author)

  14. Bone marrow uptake of 99mTc-sestamibi in patients with multiple myeloma and related gammopathies

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) in the detection on bone marrow involvement in patients suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) or monoclonal gammopathy of undefined significance. 99mTc-Sestamibi is routinely used in the diagnostic approach of several neoplastic diseases and a MIBI scan was recently proposed as a diagnostic tool for staging and monitoring the therapy in multiple myeloma. Materials and methods: 68 pts with MM and 82 pts with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) were enrolled in this study. Forty nine out sixty eight MM pts had active disease (AD), 11/68 were in complete remission (CR) and 8/68 in partial remission (PR) after chemotherapy. Diagnosis of the disease was made according to standard criteria (Greipp, 1992). The clinical status at time of the scan was assessed by complete clinical and biochemical evaluations including full blood counts, renal and liver function tests, protein electrophoresis and evaluation of monoclonal component, serum Ig concentration, CRP, 2-microglobulin, urinary light chain and bone marrow biopsy. In all the pts a whole-body scans were obtained 10 min after the i.v. injection of 740 MBq of 99mTc-MIBI in anterior and posterior view. All the scans were scored semi quantitatively according to extension and intensity of tracer uptake (Pace, 1998). Results: 81 out 82 MGUS pts had a negative 99mTc-MIBI scan. One MGUS patient showed a mild diffuse pathologic uptake in bone marrow of the thighs. As to the MM pts, 54/68 pts (47 with AD, 8 with PR and 1 with CR) had a positive 99mTc-MIBI scan, while the 99mTc-MIBI scan was negative in 14/68 pts (10 with CR, 2 with PR and 2 with AD). The radioactivity ratios of the more evident bone marrow involvement or soft tissue uptake to a contralateral normal tissue (T/N) were calculated in AD patients(T/N=2.06 0.5). The overall sensitivity of the 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was 92% while specificity was 95% in overall

  15. Improvement of renal function after opening occluded atherosclerotic renal arteries.

    Kanamori, Hiroshi; Toma, Masanao; Fukatsu, Atsushi

    2009-09-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). However, concerning the viability of renal function, this procedure has not been fully established, especially in the presence of renal atrophy or severe renal parenchymal disease. We report a dramatically improved case of acute renal failure caused by acute worsening ARAS treated by stenting. A 72-year-old female was admitted for accelerated renal dysfunction (serum ceatinine; 1.2-2.3 mg/dl) and hypertension (190/100 mmHg). At 10 days after admission, the patient's serum ceatinine increased to 6.7 mg/dl, her pulmonary edema was exaggerated and hemodialysis was required. Ultrasonography showed bilateral high-echoic kidneys, but no apparent finding of renal artery stenosis (RAS). At day 15, computed tomographic angiography indicated bilateral ostial RAS. Renal angiography demonstrated total occlusion of the right and severe (90%) disease in the left. ARAS was diagnosed by intravascular ultrasonography. The guidewire was inserted in both renal arteries, PTRA with stenting was performed in the right and a stent was directly implanted in the left. Immediately, each kidney enlarged to almost normal size, leading to satisfactory urination. She was released from hemodialysis the next day since her serum creatinine was normal and the pulmonary edema was improved. Although there is still no reliable prognostic factor including resistive index or kidney size, it is important that PTRA with stenting in ARAS should be considered in a case of accelerated renal dysfunction because of the possible improvement. PMID:19726830

  16. Renal aspergillosis secondary to renal intrumentation in immunocompetent patient

    Paul, Sagorika; Singh, Viswajeet; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Garg, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Primary renal aspergillosis is a rare urological entity and immune-compromised persons are commonly prone to it. The clinical presentation resembles that of usual bacterial pyelonephritis. We report a case of localised unilateral renal aspergillosis with obstructive uropathy (hypoplastic contralateral kidney) in a young man, occurring after the endoscopic removal of impacted right upper ureteric calculus in a non-immunocompromised patient. In view of deranged renal function, he was initially ...

  17. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Vandana U Grampurohit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary synovial sarcoma (SS of kidney is very rare and difficult to diagnose. Here, we present a case of a 21-year-old female clinically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. Right nephrectomy specimen showed a cystic tumor in the upper pole of kidney with areas of hemorrhage and solid growth. Histologically, it showed poorly differentiated cells with hemangiopericytoma-like vascular pattern. Morphologic and immunohistochemical features were compatible with the diagnosis of poorly differentiated SS of kidney. Primary renal SS is a recently described entity. To the best of our knowledge, approximately 34 cases have been reported till date and this is the eighth documented case of poorly differentiated variant. Most of the time, poorly differentiated SS of kidney exhibits hemangiopericytoma like histology. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis to demonstrate SYT-SSX fusion gene transcript helps to confirm the diagnosis.

  18. Papillary renal cell carcinoma

    Between 1976 and 1987, 395 patients with kidney tumors were studied with radiological techniques and sonography. In 37 cases (9.4%) histopathology diagnosed pure papillary renal cell carcinoma. Analyzing the radiographic patterns of these neoplasms, the authors observed constantly diminished vascularity (100%) frequent calcifications (35.1%) and necrotic areas (51.3%). Such X-ray features are not specific: nevertheless, their coexistence is strongly suggestive of papillary renal cell cancer. No consistent US pattern was found; however, necrotic areas were easily demonstrated in most cases. It must be stressed how patients with papillary carcinoma experienced a longer post-operative survival; it has not yet been established whether such favorable behavior is due to low biological aggressiveness or to earlier diagnosis

  19. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  20. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Prieto Rafel M; Costa-Bauza Antonia; Grases Felix

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of...

  1. Renal Clearance of Nanoparticles

    Choi, Hak Soo; Liu, Wenhao; Misra, Preeti; Tanaka, Eiichi; Zimmer, John P.; Ipe, Binil Itty; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2007-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using quantum dots (QDs) as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinar...

  2. Renal Replacement Therapy

    Zaccaria Ricci; Stefano Romagnoli; Claudio Ronco

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute...

  3. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, disease. PMID:27479950

  4. Differentiation of Renal Oncocytoma and Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma Using Relative CT Enhancement Ratio

    An Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The difference between renal oncocytomas (RO and renal clear cell carcinomas (RCCs presents the greatest diagnostic challenge. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine if RO and RCCs could be differentiated on computed tomography (CT images on the basis of their enhancement patterns with a new enhancement correcting method. Methods: Forty-six patients with a solitary renal mass who underwent total or partial nephrectomy were included in this study. Fourteen of those were RO and 32 were RCCs. All patients were examined with contrast-enhanced CT. The pattern and degree of enhancement were evaluated. We selected the area that demonstrated the greatest degree of enhancement of the renal lesion in the corticomedullary nephrographic and excretory phase images. Regions of interest (ROI were also placed in adjacent normal renal cortex for normalization. We used the values of the normal renal cortex that were measured at the same time as divisors. The ratios of lesion-to-renal cortex enhancement were calculated for all three phases. The Student′s t-test and Pearson′s Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. Results: All RCCs masses showed contrast that appeared to be better enhanced than RO on all contrast-enhanced phases of CT imaging, but there was no significant difference in absolute attenuation values between these two diseases (P > 0.05. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase showed significantly different values between RO and RCCs. The degree of contrast enhancement in RCCs was equal to or greater than that of the normal renal cortex, but it was less than that of the normal cortex in RO in the corticomedullary phase. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase was higher than the cut off value of 1.0 in most RCCs (84%, 27/32 and lower than 1.0 in most RO (93%, 13/14 (P < 0.05. In the nephrographic phase, the ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation

  5. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  6. Indium-111 Capromab Pendetide (ProstaScint®) Demonstrates Renal Cell Carcinoma and Aortocaval Nodal Metastases from Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    Rizvi, Tanvir; Deng, Chunli; Rehm, Patrice K.

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with a history of radical prostatectomy for a Gleason 9 (4 + 5) pT3N0Mx prostate cancer presented with rising prostate-specific antigen of 9.0 ng/dl. A contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) revealed an enhancing left upper pole renal mass and aortocaval lymph nodes. Indium (In)-111 Capromab Pendetide (ProstaScint®) single-photon emission computerized tomography-CT showed abnormal increased uptake in left renal mass and aortocaval lymph nodes with no uptake in the p...

  7. Drug-induced renal disorders.

    Ghane Shahrbaf, Fatemeh; Assadi, Farahnak

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in patients with intravascular volume depletion, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and sepsis. Therefore, early detection of drugs adverse effects is important to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Preventive measures requires knowledge of mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, understanding patients and drug-related risk factors coupled with therapeutic intervention by correcting risk factors, assessing baseline renal function before initiation of therapy, adjusting the drug dosage and avoiding use of nephrotoxic drug combinations. PMID:26468475

  8. Quantitative scintigraphic parameters for the assessment of renal transplant patients

    Radionuclide renal diagnostic studies play an important role in assessing renal allograft function especially in the early post transplant period. In the last two decades various quantitative parameters have been derived from the radionuclide renogram to facilitate and confirm the changes in perfusion and/or function of the kidney allograft. In this review article we discuss the quantitative parameters that have been used to assess graft condition with emphasis on the early post-operative period. These quantitative methods were divided into parameters used for assessing renal graft perfusion and parameters used for evaluating parenchymal function. The blood flow in renal transplants can be quantified by measuring (a) the rate of activity appearance in the kidney graft; (b) the ratio of the integral activity under the transplanted kidney and arterial curves e.g. Hilson's perfusion index and Kircher's kidney/aortic ratio; (c) calculating the renal vascular transit time by deconvolution analysis. The literature overview on these parameters showed us that they have some practical disadvantages of requiring high quality bolus injection and numerical variations related to changes in the site and size of regions of interest. In addition, the perfusion parameter values suffer from significant overlap when various graft pathologies coexist. Quantitative evaluation of the graft parenchymal extraction and excretion was assessed by parameters derived from 123I/131I-OIH,99mTc-DTPA or 99mTc-MAG3 renograms. We review in this article a number of parenchymal parameters which include (1) plasma clearance methods like glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF); (2) renal transit times such as parenchymal mean transit time, Tmax, T1/2; (3) parenchymal uptake and excretion indices as the accumulation index, graft uptake capacity at 2 and 10 min, excretion index and elimination index. These indices, however, are non-specific and far from defining a specific

  9. Effect of uranyl intoxication on renal corticomedullary gradient of orthoiodohippurate in laboratory rat

    The assessment is attempted of the intrarenal distribution (by means of the cortico-medullary gradient and the cortico-pelvic gradient) of a model diagnostic substance (o-125I-hippurate) for the analysis of mechanisms causing damage to the renal function during intoxication induced by uranyl ions (uranyl nitrate). The findings were correlated with other indicators of the renal lesion (creatinine and urea plasma levels). Relative shifts of different gradients, i.e. mutual shifts and shifts in relation to hippurate blood levels, make it possible to describe the stepwise character of functional changes in the damaged kidney. The method used is suitable for investigating the dynamics of substances transport during functional renal changes in particular when combined with the determination the intensity of the uptake of model substances by renal tissue slices. (author)

  10. Trasplante renal Kidney transplant

    P. Martín

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante renal es la terapia de elección para la mayoría de las causas de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal porque mejora la calidad de vida y la supervivencia frente a la diálisis. El trasplante renal de donante vivo es una excelente alternativa para el paciente joven en situación de prediálisis porque ofrece mejores resultados. El tratamiento inmunosupresor debe ser individualizado buscando la sinergia inmunosupresora y el mejor perfil de seguridad, y debe adaptarse a las diferentes etapas del trasplante renal. En el seguimiento del trasplante renal hay que tener muy en cuenta los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los tumores puesto que la muerte del paciente con injerto funcionante es la segunda causa de pérdida del injerto tras el primer año del trasplante. La función alterada del injerto es un factor de mortalidad cardiovascular independiente que requerirá seguimiento y control de todas sus complicaciones para retrasar la entrada en diálisis.The kidney transplant is the therapy of choice for the majority of the causes of chronic terminal kidney insufficiency, because it improves the quality of life and survival in comparison with dialysis. A kidney transplant from a live donor is an excellent alternative for the young patient in a state of pre-dialysis because it offers the best results. Immunosuppressive treatment must be individualised, seeking immunosuppressive synergy and the best safety profile, and must be adapted to the different stages of the kidney transplant. In the follow-up to the kidney transplant, cardiovascular risk factors and tumours must be especially taken into account, given that the death of the patient with a working graft is the second cause of loss of the graft following the first year of the transplant. The altered function of the graft is a factor of independent cardiovascular mortality that will require follow-up and the control of all its complications to postpone the entrance in dialysis.

  11. The epidemiology of renal trauma

    Voelzke, Bryan B.; Leddy, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nonoperative and minimally invasive management techniques for both blunt and penetrating renal trauma have become standard of care over the past decades. We sought to examine the modern epidemiology of renal trauma over the past decade. Methods A systematic review of PubMed from the past decade was conducted to examine adult and pediatric renal trauma. A total of 605 articles were identified. Of these, 15 adult and 5 pediatric articles met our a priori search criteria. Results Th...

  12. Renal Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease

    Soveri, Inga

    2006-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The mechanisms for the risk increase seem to involve a combination of traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors. We studied renal dysfunction as CVD and mortality risk factor in middle-aged men free from diabetes and CVD. The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and CVD mortality was increased by ~40% in the 16.5% of men with worse renal function, independent of other CVD risk factors. Renal transplant dysfunction as CVD an...

  13. Taurine and the renal system

    Chesney Russell W; Han Xiaobin; Patters Andrea B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Taurine participates in a number of different physiologic and biologic processes in the kidney, often reflected by urinary excretion patterns. The kidney is key to aspects of taurine body pool size and homeostasis. This review will examine the renal-taurine interactions relative to ion reabsorption; renal blood flow and renal vascular endothelial function; antioxidant properties, especially in the glomerulus; and the role of taurine in ischemia and reperfusion injury. In addition, ta...

  14. The precision of glomerular filtration rate determined by Gates method and compared with the results from renal pathological changes

    Objective: To evaluate the precision of GFR using Gates method and compared with the results from renal pathological changes. Methods: Twenty-seven patients whose 99Tcm-DTPA renograms had no obvious uptake phase were enrolled in Group A, and 27 patients whose 99Tcm-DTPA renograms had obvious uptake phase were enrolled in Group B. The measurement of GFR by Gates method was compared to the creatinine clearance measured and predicted by Cockcroft-Gault (C-G), modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) and SCr level. Renal pathological changes in two groups were compared using Pearson correlation and t test analysis. Results: In Group A, GFR determined by Gates method did not show correlation with that estimated by C-G or 1/SCr (r = 0.357,0.376, both P>0.05), but was significantly correlated with GFR estimated by MDRD(r=0.440, P99Tcm-DTPA renogram has no obvious uptake phase than that when 99Tcm-DTPA renogram has obvious uptake phase. Renal tubulointerstitial damage is a strong indicator of no obvious uptake phase in 99Tcm-DTPA renogram. (authors)

  15. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  16. Renal Carcinogenesis After Uninephrectomy1

    Sui, Yi; ZHAO, HAI-LU; Lee, Heung Man; Guan, Jing; He, Lan; Lai, Fernand MM; Tong, Peter CY; Chan, Juliana CN

    2009-01-01

    Nephrectomized rats have widely been used to study chronic renal failure. Interestingly, renal cell carcinoma occurred in the remnant kidney after uninephrectomy (UNX). In this study, we probed insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling pathway in UNX-induced renal cancer. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: UNX rats (n = 22) and sham-operated rats (n = 12). Rats were killed at 3, 7, and 10 months. After 7 months after nephrectomy, the UNX rats developed renal ce...

  17. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of pamidronate after oral administration: a study on dose proportionality, absolute bioavailability, and effect of repeated administration

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Flesch, G; Hauffe, S A

    1993-01-01

    pamidronate ranged from 0.01% to 0.35% of dose, with mean values of 0.11, 0.16, and 0.18% for 75, 150, and 300 mg, respectively. After i.v. infusion, the renal excretion of pamidronate was 26-53% of the dose, lower than for other bisphosphonates. The absolute bioavailability was 0.31% (range 0.08-0.7%) after......To evaluate dose proportionality and absolute bioavailability of a new enteric-coated pellet formulation of pamidronate disodium (AREDIA), nine females (aged 52-66 years) were given three different single peroral doses of pamidronate disodium (75, 150, and 300 mg) and an i.v. infusion of 15 mg over...

  18. 99mTc-tin colloid scintigraphy in the diagnosis of acute rejection. Reactions of renal transplants

    Quantitative measurements of 99mTc-tin colloid uptake in renal transplants permits differentiation of acute rejection from other causes of deteriorating renal function, such as acute tubular necrosis, cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity or chronic rejection. 144 99mTc-tin colloid scintigrams were performed on 71 renal transplants; the results were compared with clinical, biochemical and histological findings. Sensitivity of colloid scintigraphy is 97.4% and specificity is 80%. Compared with other isotope methods, this has the advantage that it does not depend on comparison with repeated examinations. (orig.)

  19. Segmental renal dysplasia--a case report.

    Gupta S; Chumber S; Sharma L

    1995-01-01

    A case of segmental renal dysplasia presenting with loin pain, a renal mass and hypertension in a young girl of 16 years is being reported. Clinical and histological features of this rare renal anomaly are discussed.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: renal coloboma syndrome

    ... syndrome include backflow of urine from the bladder (vesicoureteral reflux), multiple kidney cysts, loose joints, and mild hearing ... disease coloboma-ureteral-renal syndrome ONCR optic coloboma, vesicoureteral reflux, and renal anomalies optic nerve coloboma renal syndrome ...

  1. Hiatal hernia uptake of iodine-131 mimicking mediastinal metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    There are a few case reports of hiatal hernia demonstrating thoracic uptake on I-131 scintigraphy. In this case, high thyroglobulin levels in combination with misinterpretation of I-131 uptake in the mediastinum, leaded to mismanagement of the patient. Here we present a case of focal I-131 uptake within a hiatal hernia initially mimicking an isolated mediastinal metastasis. There are many potential causes of false-positive I-131 scan result. In this case, adjunctive chest computed tomography and gastroesophageal barium study helped to elucidate the true nature of this I-131 uptake. False-positive findings may be caused by a wide variety of nonthyroidal carcinomas, which can concentrate radioiodine or from skin contamination. Several organs, such as the gastric, salivary glands, renal cyst, pericardial effusion, and ovarian can accumulate I-131. It should be borne in mind as a potential source of false-positive whole-body I-131 imaging

  2. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  3. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  4. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  5. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  6. Renal scintigraphy in the 21st Century 99m Tc-MAG3 with zero time injection of furosemide (MAG3-F0): a fast and easy protocol, one for all indications. Part 2. Introduction

    Current research on renal function to develop a method to calculate from the MAG3-F0 study the renal global function (RGF) we use: a) the kidney uptake/body background activity (at 2 minutes), b) the residual cortical activity (at 20 minutes). Both these parameters are related with the creatinine levels. (Author)

  7. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts

  8. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Renal Dopaminergic System: A Positive Friendly Relationship?

    Marcelo Roberto Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium metabolism by the kidney is accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Renal dopamine plays a central role in this interactive network. The natriuretic hormones, such as the atrial natriuretic peptide, mediate some of their effects by affecting the renal dopaminergic system. Renal dopaminergic tonus can be modulated at different steps of dopamine metabolism (synthesis, uptake, release, catabolism, and receptor sensitization which can be regulated by the atrial natriuretic peptide. At tubular level, dopamine and atrial natriuretic peptide act together in a concerted manner to promote sodium excretion, especially through the overinhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In this way, different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome or hypertension, are associated with impaired action of renal dopamine and/or atrial natriuretic peptide, or as a result of impaired interaction between these two natriuretic systems. The aim of this review is to update and comment on the most recent evidences demonstrating how the renal dopaminergic system interacts with atrial natriuretic peptide to control renal physiology and blood pressure through different regulatory pathways.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim

    2008-01-01

    Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, resp...

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Absolute value preconditioning for symmetric indefinite linear systems

    Vecharynski, Eugene; Knyazev, Andrew V.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel strategy for constructing symmetric positive definite (SPD) preconditioners for linear systems with symmetric indefinite matrices. The strategy, called absolute value preconditioning, is motivated by the observation that the preconditioned minimal residual method with the inverse of the absolute value of the matrix as a preconditioner converges to the exact solution of the system in at most two steps. Neither the exact absolute value of the matrix nor its exact inverse ar...

  13. Early diagnosis of renal disease and renal failure.

    Lees, George E

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of early diagnosis of renal disease and renal failure in dogs and cats is to enable timely application of therapeutic interventions that may slow or halt disease progression. Strategies for early diagnosis of renal disease use urine tests that detect proteinuria that is a manifestation of altered glomerular permselectivity or impaired urine-concentrating ability as well blood tests to evaluate plasma creatinine concentration. Animals with progressive renal disease should be carefully investigated and treated appropriately. Animals with mild, possibly nonprogressive, renal disease should be monitored adequately to detect any worsening trends,which should lead to further investigation and treatment even if the increments of change are small. PMID:15223206

  14. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  15. On The Absolute Measurement of Some Nuclear Material Samples

    A state with nuclear activities should establish a system capable of controlling all nuclear material (NM) under its authority. Continuous improvement of a measuring system is an essential mandate such controlling system. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method was used to estimate uranium contents in some NM samples. NM was measured by an absolute method through combination of experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations

  16. Citrato y litiasis renal

    Elisa E. Del Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El citrato es un potente inhibidor de la cristalización de sales de calcio. La hipocitraturia es una alteración bioquímica frecuente en la formación de cálculos de calcio en adultos y especialmente en niños. El pH ácido (sistémico, tubular e intracelular es el principal determinante de la excreción de citrato en la orina. Si bien la mayoría de los pacientes con litiasis renal presentan hipocitraturia idiopática, hay un número de causas para esta anormalidad que incluyen acidosis tubular renal distal, hipokalemia, dietas ricas en proteínas de origen animal y/o dietas bajas en álcalis y ciertas drogas, como la acetazolamida, topiramato, IECA y tiazidas. Las modificaciones dietéticas que benefician a estos pacientes incluyen: alta ingesta de líquidos y frutas, especialmente cítricos, restricción de sodio y proteínas, con consumo normal de calcio. El tratamiento con citrato de potasio es efectivo en pacientes con hipocitraturia primaria o secundaria y en aquellos desordenes en la acidificación, que provocan un pH urinario persistentemente ácido. Los efectos adversos son bajos y están referidos al tracto gastrointestinal. Si bien hay diferentes preparaciones de citrato (citrato de potasio, citrato de sodio, citrato de potasio-magnesio en nuestro país solo está disponible el citrato de potasio en polvo que es muy útil para corregir la hipocitraturia y el pH urinario bajo, y reducir marcadamente la recurrencia de la litiasis renal.

  17. Renal metabolism of calcitonin

    The kidneys account for approximately two-thirds of the metabolism of calcitonin, but relatively little is known regarding the details thereof. To further characterize this process, we examined the renal handling and metabolism of human calcitonin (hCT) by the isolated perfused rat kidney. We also studied the degradation of radiolabeled salmon calcitonin (sCT) by subcellular fractions prepared from isolated rabbit proximal tubules. The total renal (organ) clearance of immunoreactive hCT by the isolated kidney was 1.96 +/- 0.18 ml/min. This was independent of the perfusate total calcium concentration from 5.5 to 10.2 mg/dl. Total renal clearance exceeded the glomerular filtration rate (GFR, 0.68 +/- 0.05 ml/min), indicating filtration-independent removal. Urinary calcitonin clearance as a fraction of GFR averaged 2.6%. Gel filtration chromatography of medium from isolated kidneys perfused with 125I-labeled sCT showed the principal degradation products to be low molecular weight forms eluting with monoiodotyrosine. Intermediate size products were not detected. In the subcellular fractionation experiments, when carried out at pH 5.0, calcitonin hydrolysis exclusively followed the activities of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. Typically, at pH 7.5, 42% of total degradation occurred in the region of the brush-border enzyme alanyl aminopeptidase and 29% occurred in the region of the cytosolic enzyme phosphoglucomutase. Although 9% of the calcitonin-degrading activity was associated with basolateral membrane fractions, most of this activity could be accounted for by the presence of brush-border membranes

  18. Imaging of renal metastases

    Metastases are the most frequent malignant tumors of the kidney, but these lesions are of late onset in neoplastic disease. The 19 cases reported here were all investigated with various imaging techniques (CT 12 cases, ultrasonography 12 cases, urography 8 cases, angiography 2 cases, MRI 1 case). The most common primary malignancies were lung cancer, melanoma and cancer of the controlateral kidney. In this series, 8 of the lesions were solitary, and 9 were unilateral. Tumor vascularity was evaluated in 15 cases: 14 of these lesions were hypovascular. The differential diagnosis includes small cysts, lymphoma, bilateral renal cancer, multiple small abscesses and multiple small infarcts

  19. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  20. Future aspects of renal transplantation*

    Makowka, L.; Lopatin, W.B.; Shapiro, R.; Tzakis, A.G.; Starzl, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    New and exciting advances in renal transplantation are continuously being made, and the horizons for organ transplantation are bright and open. This article reviews only a few of the newer advances that will allow renal transplantation to become even more widespread and successful. The important and exciting implications for extrarenal organ transplantation are immediately evident.

  1. Renal involvement in behcet's disease

    There are conflicting reports about the renal involvement in Behcet's disease (BD). In this study we aimed to study the frequency and type of renal involvement in a group of patients with BD in Azerbaijan province that is one of the prevalent areas of BD in Iran. All cases of BD were prospectively followed between June 2004 and January 2007, and evaluated for renal dys-function (serum creatinine > 1.7 mg/dL), glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Those patients with proteinuria > 500 mg/day and serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL, underwent renal biopsy. From a total number of 100 patients, six patients (6%) had obvious renal involvements. Four patients had glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Renal biopsy in two of them revealed measangial proliferative glumerulonephritis with IgA deposit in one of them and membranoproliferative glumerolonephritis in another one. Two remaining patients had serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL without any hematuria or proteinuria. Serologic study for viral agents and collagen vascular disease were negative in all patients with renal involvements. In conclusion, renal involvement in BD is not infrequent, although in most cases it is mild in nature and may be missed. (author)

  2. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal r...

  3. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These are all non-invasive procedures that are ... least detailed image of the kidney, while the MRI provides the most detailed. In general, the ultrasound ...

  4. Quantification of renal function

    The evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with Tc99m-DTPA using single injection with multiple blood sample method (plasma clearance), is a standard and reliable method but the procedure is complicated and may not suitable for routine clinical use. Alternatively, estimation of GFR by using Tc99m-DTPA and gamma camera computer system is very simple, dose not require sampling of blood or urine and provide individual kidney value of GFR (integral, uptake index methods)

  5. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  6. Development of a superconducting absolute tensor gradiometer

    Full text: Although the use of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials for the fabrication of SQUID-based magnetometers and gradiometers is now well established these materials remain more difficult to use than the alternative low-temperature superconducting materials. In particular, the lack of HTSC wires and the difficulty of forming superconducting connections means that the standard low-Tc design practice of forming gradiometer coils from superconducting wires, is not applicable in high-Tc materials. Designs for HTSC axial gradiometers [2] have been implemented only by means of electronic or software subtraction of the outputs of a pair of SQUID magnetometers, and generally have insufficient dynamic range to be rotated in the earth's magnetic field. In this work we describe the development of a new concept axial gradiometer which is implemented through the use of a flux transformer pick-up loop structure patterned on flexible superconducting tape that is inductively coupled to a SQUID-based magnetometer. This is the first example of a series axial gradiometer in HTSC materials and offers significant advantages over the two-SQUID systems mentioned above. The design provides sufficient dynamic range and intrinsic noise immunity to operate while rotated in the full earth's field. Data analysis facilitates the measurement of the absolute value of all five independent components of the magnetic gradient tensor using a set of three such gradiometers, each of which is rotated about its axis. Initial results are presented showing the measurement by a prototype instrument of the tensor gradient of a small bar magnet

  7. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  8. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  9. Gallium-68 EDTA PET/CT for Renal Imaging.

    Hofman, Michael S; Hicks, Rodney J

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear medicine renal imaging provides important functional data to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with a variety of renal disorders. Physiologically stable metal chelates like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (DTPA) are excreted by glomerular filtration and have been radiolabelled with a variety of isotopes for imaging glomerular filtration and quantitative assessment of glomerular filtration rate. Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) EDTA PET usage predates Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) renal imaging, but virtually disappeared with the widespread adoption of gamma camera technology that was not optimal for imaging positron decay. There is now a reemergence of interest in (68)Ga owing to the greater availability of PET technology and use of (68)Ga to label other radiotracers. (68)Ga EDTA can be used a substitute for (99m)Tc DTPA for wide variety of clinical indications. A key advantage of PET for renal imaging over conventional scintigraphy is 3-dimensional dynamic imaging, which is particularly helpful in patients with complex anatomy in whom planar imaging may be nondiagnostic or difficult to interpret owing to overlying structures containing radioactive urine that cannot be differentiated. Other advantages include accurate and absolute (rather than relative) camera-based quantification, superior spatial and temporal resolution and integrated multislice CT providing anatomical correlation. Furthermore, the (68)Ga generator enables on-demand production at low cost, with no additional patient radiation exposure compared with conventional scintigraphy. Over the past decade, we have employed (68)Ga EDTA PET/CT primarily to answer difficult clinical questions in patients in whom other modalities have failed, particularly when it was envisaged that dynamic 3D imaging would be of assistance. We have also used it as a substitute for (99m)Tc DTPA if unavailable owing to supply issues, and have additionally examined the role of

  10. Vaccination in Renal Transplant Patients (VcRtp study)

    Rathore, F

    2016-02-01

    Adverse outcomes of influenza & pneumococcal infections in solid organ transplant recipients have been well documented. Vaccinations are therefore recommended by multiple guidelines. Despite emerging evidence of the safety & effectiveness among immunosuppressed patients, most vaccines are still underutilized, we conducted a survey among the renal transplant patients in Beaumont Hospital to determine the awareness and uptake of vaccinations. Questionnaires were handed to patients during a clinic visit over a span of 2 weeks and 250 questionnaires were posted out to randomly selected transplant patients, The Questionnaire addressed various aspects including the awareness of importance of vaccinations, source of information, if they were up to date with the vaccines & where did they receive it?

  11. Renal Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction with Hemin Augments Renal Hemodynamics, Renal Autoregulation, and Excretory Function

    Botros, Fady T.; Dobrowolski, Leszek; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HO-1; HO-2) catalyze conversion of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin/bilirubin. To determine the effects of renal HO-1 induction on blood pressure and renal function, normal control rats (n = 7) and hemin-treated rats (n = 6) were studied. Renal clearance studies were performed on anesthetized rats to assess renal function; renal blood flow (RBF) was measured using a transonic flow probe placed around the left renal artery. Hemin treatment significantly induced renal HO-1. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were not different (115 ± 5 mmHg versus 112 ± 4 mmHg and 331 ± 16 versus 346 ± 10 bpm). However, RBF was significantly higher (9.1 ± 0.8 versus 7.0 ± 0.5 mL/min/g, P < 0.05), and renal vascular resistance was significantly lower (13.0 ± 0.9 versus 16.6 ± 1.4 [mmHg/(mL/min/g)], P < 0.05). Likewise, glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated (1.4 ± 0.2 versus 1.0 ± 0.1 mL/min/g, P < 0.05), and urine flow and sodium excretion were also higher (18.9 ± 3.9 versus 8.2 ± 1.0 μL/min/g, P < 0.05 and 1.9 ± 0.6 versus 0.2 ± 0.1 μmol/min/g, P < 0.05, resp.). The plateau of the autoregulation relationship was elevated, and renal vascular responses to acute angiotensin II infusion were attenuated in hemin-treated rats reflecting the vasodilatory effect of HO-1 induction. We conclude that renal HO-1 induction augments renal function which may contribute to the antihypertensive effects of HO-1 induction observed in hypertension models. PMID:22518281

  12. Renal biopsy: methods and interpretation.

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2004-07-01

    Renal biopsy most often is indicated in the management of dogs and cats with glomerular disease or acute renal failure. Renal biopsy can readily be performed in dogs and cats via either percutaneous or surgical methods. Care should be taken to ensure that proper technique is used. When proper technique is employed and patient factors are properly addressed, renal biopsy is a relatively safe procedure that minimally affects renal function. Patients should be monitored during the post biopsy period for severe hemorrhage, the most common complication. Accurate diagnosis of glomerular disease, and therefore, accurate treatment planning,requires that the biopsy specimens not only be evaluated by light microscopy using special stains but by electron and immunofluorescent microscopy. PMID:15223207

  13. Evaluation of quantitative split renal function testing methods using 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    It is vital to accurately evaluate renal function in children with vesicoureteral reflux. To determine whether quantitative split renal function testing methods using 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy reflect renal function as accurately in children as in adults, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphies were performed in 21 children with vesicoureteral reflux within 5 days of each other for a total of 40 times. There were 12 boys and 9 girls ranging in age from 2 months to 16 years (mean, 6.8 years). The kidney depth was measured by ultrasonography. The correlation coefficient between 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-DMSA total renal uptake was 0.275, and the correlation coefficients between 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA total renal uptakes and creatinine clearance were 0.402 and 0.522, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the accumulation count ratio (R/R+L) in 99mTc-DTPA and that in 99mTc-DMSA was 0.974. The total renal uptake obtained from 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy is not as reliable in children as in adults, and at present it is most appropriate to use a combination of accumulation count ratio (R/R+L) and 24 hr creatinine clearance value as examinations to evaluate general renal function. (author)

  14. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  15. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-04-01

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients.

  16. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-04-01

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients.

  17. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  18. Renal transplantation in infants.

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  19. Ultrasound of renal transplantation

    Baxter, G.M

    2001-10-01

    The most effective primary treatment of chronic renal failure is renal transplantation. A significant improvement in lifestyle and family life in conjunction with it being an extremely cost-effective procedure has resulted in an intense monitoring and imaging programme to help ensure a successful outcome. Ultrasound, both grey-scale and colour-flow Doppler, are useful monitoring techniques when interpreted in the clinical context, and in the delineation of peri-transplant collections, some of which can be drained under ultrasound guidance. After the early post-operative period it can also be utilized in the diagnosis of chronic vascular complications including transplant artery stenosis and arteriovenous fistula, although it is of limited use in the diagnosis of chronic rejection. This article will discuss the role of ultrasound in all its guises and how its efficacy in both the early transplant period in the monitoring of graft dysfunction and in the detection of the more chronic conditions including transplant artery stenosis and arteriovenous fistulae. A more limited role for ultrasound also exists in the long-term follow-up of patients and to aid the detection of complications including susceptibility to malignancy. Baxter, G.M. (2001)

  20. Assessment of renal function in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction using 99mTc-MAG3 dynamic scintigraphy

    Tantawy Mohammed N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3 is widely used for the assessment of renal function in humans. However, the application of this method to animal models of renal disease is currently limited, especially in rodents. Here, we have applied 99mTc-MAG3 renal scintigraphy to a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and evaluated its utility in studying obstructive renal disease. Methods UUO mice were generated by complete ligation of the left ureter. Sham-operated mice were used as a control. Renal function was investigated on days 0, 1, 3, and 6 post-surgery using dynamic planar imaging of 99mTc-MAG3 activity following retro-orbital injection. Time-activity curves (TACs were produced for individual kidneys and renal function was assessed by 1 the slope of initial 99mTc-MAG3 uptake (SIU, which is related to renal perfusion; 2 peak activity; and 3 the time-to-peak (TTP. The parameters of tubular excretion were not evaluated in this study as 99mTc-MAG3 is not excreted from UUO kidneys. Results Compared to sham-operated mice, SIU was remarkably (>60% reduced in UUO kidneys at day 1 post surgery and the TACs plateaued, indicating that 99mTc-MAG3 is not excreted in these kidneys. The plateau activity in UUO kidneys was relatively low (~40% of sham kidney’s peak activity as early as day1 post surgery, demonstrating that uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 is rapidly reduced in UUO kidneys. The time to plateau in UUO kidneys exceeded 200 sec, suggesting that 99mTc-MAG3 is slowly up-taken in these kidneys. These changes advanced as the disease progressed. SIU, peak activity and TTPs were minimally changed in contra-lateral kidneys during the study period. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that renal uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 is remarkably and rapidly reduced in UUO kidneys, while the changes are minimal in contra-lateral kidneys. The parametric analysis of TACs suggested that renal perfusion as well as tubular

  1. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  2. Absolute electronegativity and hardness correlated with molecular orbital theory

    Pearson, Ralph G.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of absolute electronegativity, χ, and absolute hardness, η, are incorporated into molecular orbital theory. A graphic and concise definition of hardness is given as twice the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. Useful correlations can now be made between chemical behavior, visible-UV absorption spectra, optical polarizability, ionization potentials, and electron affinities.

  3. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute value in the Cartesian…

  4. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute…

  5. Absolute neutronic performance of SNS from gold foil application

    The determination of absolute neutron fluxes by white beam activation of thick gold foils in conjuction with spectral analysis by time-of-flight monitors is described. A numerical integration procedure is presented and the method applied to determining the absolute performance of SNS from data obtained during the initial commissioning run in December 1984. (author)

  6. Karst Water System Investigated by Absolute Gravimetry

    Quinif, Y.; Meus, P.; van Camp, M.; Kaufmann, O.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Vandiepenbeeck, M.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The highly anisotropic and heterogeneous hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers are difficult to characterize and present challenges for modeling of storage capacities. Little is known about the surface and groundwater interconnection, about the connection between the porous formations and the draining cave and conduits, and about the variability of groundwater volume within the system. Usually, an aquifer is considered as a black box, where water fluxes are monitored as input and output. However, water inflow and outflow are highly variable and cannot be measured directly. A recent project, begun in 2006 sought to constrain the water budget in a Belgian karst aquifer and to assess the porosity and water dynamics, combining absolute gravity (AG) measurements and piezometric levels around the Rochefort cave. The advantage of gravity measurements is that they integrate all the subsystems in the karst system. This is not the case with traditional geophysical tools like boring or monitoring wells, which are soundings affected by their near environment and its heterogeneity. The investigated cave results from the meander cutoff system of the Lomme River. The main inputs are swallow holes of the river crossing the limestone massif. The river is canalized and the karst system is partly disconnected from the hydraulic system. In February and March 2006, when the river spilled over its dyke and sank into the most important swallow hole, this resulted in dramatic and nearly instantaneous increases in the piezometric levels in the cave, reaching up to 13 meters. Meanwhile, gravity increased by 50 and 90 nms-2 in February and March, respectively. A first conclusion is that during these sudden floods, the pores and fine fissures were poorly connected with the enlarged fractures, cave, and conduits. With a rise of 13 meters in the water level and a 5% porosity, a gravity change of 250 nms-2 should have been expected. This moderate gravity variation suggests either a

  7. Complex radioisotopic examination of renal functions using SOPHA MEDICAL program system

    Repeated isotopic scanning of the kidneys were made on a patient with complex renal diseases, on two consecutive days, in sitting and in lying position, resp. The scanning was done with 99mTc-MAG3 administered intravenously to the patient, starting computer scanning of gamma camera frames simultaneously. The data were evaluated by the SOPHA MEDICAL software of Sopha Medical GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany. It was observed that, in sitting position, the kidney perfusion, the early uptake, the tubular clearance and the ureter peristaltic are disturbed because of the compression of renal artery and ureter. These functions were recovered in the lying position. (R.P.) 14 refs.; 8 figs

  8. A computerized technique for evaluating renal transplant function: validation of background correction

    Using the scintillation camera and small computer a technique has been devised to correct the count rate curve over the transplant kidney for background radioactivity following IV injection of I-131 hippurate. The background correction using I-131 hippurate alone has been validated against a more precise background correction using I-131 albumin. Using kidney and bladder curves properly corrected for background radioactivity, reliable estimates of renal uptake and excretion of I-131 hippurate may be obtained using a renal transplant evaluation computer program

  9. Effect of alpha interferon on glucose and alanine transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of interferon nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of recombinant interferon alfa-2b on the uptake of 14C-D-glucose and 14C-L-alanine by rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles. Interferon significantly inhibited 20 sec. sodium-dependent and 5 and 10 min. equilibrium uptake of both glucose and alanine. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent with maximum effect achieved at interferon concentration of 5 x 10-8M in the uptake media. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, of interferon on glucose uptake was 1.8 x 10-8M, and 5.4 x 10-9M on alanine uptake. Dixon plot analysis of uptake data was consistent with pure non-competitive inhibition. The inhibition constants, Ki, 1.5 x 10-8M for glucose uptake, and 7.3 x 10-9M for alanine uptake, derived from Dixon plots were in close agreement with the IC50s calculated from the semilog dose response curves. These observations reveal that direct interactions at the proximal tubule cell membrane are involved in the pathogenesis of interferon nephrotoxicity, and that its mechanism of nephrotoxicity is similar to that of other low molecular weight proteins

  10. 99Tcm-diethylenetriaminepenta hydroxamic acid renal dynamic imaging to evaluate split renal GFR of unilateral renal function failure patient

    Objective: To explore the use of evaluating split glomerular flow rate (GFB) in patients with unilateral renal function failure by 99Tcm-diethylenetriaminepenta hydroxamic acid renal dynamic imaging. Methods: Split GFR of 82 cases with unilateral renal function failure was evaluated by 99Tcm- DTPA renal dynamic imaging, and was correlated with serum creatinine (SCr). Beside, causes of renal function failure were analyzed. Results: Split CFR were negatively correlated with SCr(r=-0.643, P99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging to treat early and reserve renal function. (authors)

  11. High-precision absolute coordinate measurement using frequency scanned interferometry

    We reported previously on measurements of absolute distance with frequency scanned interferometry (FSI) method [1, 2]. In this paper, we extend the FSI method into 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional high-precision absolute coordinate measurements using a single laser. Absolute position is determined by several related absolute distances measured simultaneously. The achieved precision on X and Y in 2- and in 3-dimensional measurements is confirmed to be below 1 μm, while the precision in Z (in 3D case) is found to be about 2 μm. The last one is limited by the accuracy of the available translational stage used in the tests. A much more powerful laser and a better real-time data acquirement system will be required in case of measurements of larger absolute distances

  12. Variability in interpretation of static renal scintigraphy findings

    Jakšić Emilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Static renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA is a sensitive method for evaluation of any reduction of cortical mass function. There is not enough reliable references in the literature on scintigraphic reports in terms of objectivity and standardization. The aim of this paper was to assess the differences in interpretation of routine renal scintigraphic findings by nuclear medicine specialists from various institutions (interobserver variability. Methods. Both interobserver variability and agreement in the interpretation were evaluated in two groups. Six observers from four different institutions (group A, and three observers from the same institution (group B interpreted independently 60 static renal scintigraphy findings obtained by analogous imaging using x-ray films in four standard projections. Using at least two options, seven parameters of renal scintigraphy protocols were analyzed: size (1, uptake (2, outlines (3, scars (4, focal changes (5, relative function (6, and conclusions (7. Results. The interpretations of scintigraphic findings were in accordance in items 1 to 7 within the group A: 62, 42.5, 45, 9, 47, 52, and 34 percent respectively, and within the group B: 72, 55, 59, 22, 62, 60, and 41 percent, respectively. The conformity was more significant in the findings observed in group B as opposed to group A, which was statistically highly significant, especially for the category of scars (p<0.01. Significant variability was also observed by six observers in all the parameters of scintigraphic protocol, especially, again, in the scars analysis (p<0.01. Conclusion. Insignificant degree of accordance, especially in the assessment of scars necessitates the standardization of criteria and terminology in order to interpret the renal scintigraphy with more accuracy and objectivity.

  13. Effect of magnesium deficiency on renal magnesium and calcium transport in the rat.

    Carney, S L; Wong, N L; Quamme, G A; Dirks, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Recollection of micropuncture experiments were performed on acutely thyroparathyroidectomized rats rendered magnesium deficient by dietary deprivation. Urinary magnesium excretion fell from a control of 15 to 3% of the filtered load after magnesium restriction. The loop of Henle, presumably the thick ascending limb, was the major modulator for renal magnesium homeostasis. The transport capacity for magnesium, however, was less in deficient rats than control animals. Absolute magnesium reabsor...

  14. FDG PET or PET/CT in evaluation of renal angiomyolipoma

    Lin, Chun Yi [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (China); Chen, Hui Yi [Dept. of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China); Ding, Hueisch Jy [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, E-DA Hospital I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China); Yen, Kuo Yang; Kao, Chia Hung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China)

    2013-04-15

    Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML. The study reviews FDG PET and PET/CT images of 21 patients diagnosed with renal AML. The diagnosis is based on the classical appearance of an AML on CT scan with active surveillance for 6 months. The study is focused on the observation of clinical and radiographic features. Six men and 15 women were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 57.14 ± 9.67 years old. The mean diameter of 21 renal AML on CT scans was 1.76 ± 1.00 cm (Min: 0.6 cm; Max: 4.4 cm). CT scans illustrated renal masses typical of AMLs, and the corresponding FDG PET scans showed minimal FDG activities in the area of the tumors. None of the 21 AMLs showed a maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) greater than 1.98. No statistically significant correlation was present between SUV{sub max} and tumor size. Renal AMLs demonstrate very low to low uptake on FDG PET and PET/CT imaging in this study. When a fat-containing tumor in the kidney is found on a CT scan, it is critical to differentiate an AML from a malignant tumor including an RCC, liposarcoma, and Wilms tumor. This study suggests that FDG PET or PET/CT imaging is useful for differentiating a renal AML from a fat-containing malignant tumor.

  15. FDG PET or PET/CT in evaluation of renal angiomyolipoma

    Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML. The study reviews FDG PET and PET/CT images of 21 patients diagnosed with renal AML. The diagnosis is based on the classical appearance of an AML on CT scan with active surveillance for 6 months. The study is focused on the observation of clinical and radiographic features. Six men and 15 women were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 57.14 ± 9.67 years old. The mean diameter of 21 renal AML on CT scans was 1.76 ± 1.00 cm (Min: 0.6 cm; Max: 4.4 cm). CT scans illustrated renal masses typical of AMLs, and the corresponding FDG PET scans showed minimal FDG activities in the area of the tumors. None of the 21 AMLs showed a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) greater than 1.98. No statistically significant correlation was present between SUVmax and tumor size. Renal AMLs demonstrate very low to low uptake on FDG PET and PET/CT imaging in this study. When a fat-containing tumor in the kidney is found on a CT scan, it is critical to differentiate an AML from a malignant tumor including an RCC, liposarcoma, and Wilms tumor. This study suggests that FDG PET or PET/CT imaging is useful for differentiating a renal AML from a fat-containing malignant tumor.

  16. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  17. Integrated imaging of neonatal renal masses

    Kirks, D.R.; Rosenberg, E.R.; Johnson, D.G.; King, L.R.

    1985-02-01

    Thirty-three neonatal renal masses were evaluated during a 2 year interval. The final diagnoses in these 33 patients were hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, renal vein thrombosis, obstructed upper pole duplication, polycystic kidney disease, nephroblastomatosis, and mesoblastic nephroma. We recommend an integrated imaging approach that utilizes sonography to clarify anatomy and renal scintigraphy or excretory urography to determine renal function.

  18. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  19. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Seyhan Karaçavuş; Mustafa Kula; Züleyha Cihan Karaca; Kürşad Ünlühızarcı; Ahmet Tutuş; Fahri Bayram; Ganime Çoban

    2012-01-01

    The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the ne...

  20. CD36 mediates proximal tubular binding and uptake of albumin and is upregulated in proteinuric nephropathies.

    Baines, Richard J; Chana, Ravinder S; Hall, Matthew; Febbraio, Maria; Kennedy, David; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2012-10-01

    Dysregulation of renal tubular protein handling in proteinuria contributes to the development of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the role of CD36 as a novel candidate mediator of albumin binding and endocytosis in the kidney proximal tubule using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, and in nephrotic patient renal biopsy samples. In CD36-transfected opossum kidney proximal tubular cells, both binding and uptake of albumin were substantially enhanced. A specific CD36 inhibitor abrogated this effect, but receptor-associated protein, which blocks megalin-mediated endocytosis of albumin, did not. Mouse proximal tubular cells expressed CD36 and this was absent in CD36 null animals, whereas expression of megalin was equal in these animals. Compared with wild-type mice, CD36 null mice demonstrated a significantly increased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio and albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Proximal tubular cells expressed increased CD36 when exposed to elevated albumin concentrations in culture medium. Expression of CD36 was studied in renal biopsy tissue obtained from adult patients with heavy proteinuria due to minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Proximal tubular CD36 expression was markedly increased in proteinuric individuals. We conclude that CD36 is a novel mediator influencing binding and uptake of albumin in the proximal tubule that is upregulated in proteinuric renal diseases. CD36 may represent a potential therapeutic target in proteinuric nephropathy. PMID:22791331

  1. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  2. [Cystic renal pathology].

    Rosi, P; Cesaroni, M; Bracarda, S; Rociola, W; Virgili, G

    1993-08-01

    Ultrasonography has a great interest in diagnosis of cystic kidney disorders for typical eco-pattern of this pathology. In this work we show the eco-pattern of the most common cystic kidney disorders. Particularly we examine simple cysts (typical, atypical, complicated), multicystic kidney dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (infantile) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (adult age). The so-called neoplastic cysts (multiloculated cysts, multiloculated cysts nephroma, cystic nephroblastoma), medullar cysts (medullary sponge kidney, medullary cystic disease), parapyelic cysts, acquired cystic kidney disease in renal failure patients, parasitic cysts, epidermoid cysts. About this disorders we present the more typical and expressive ultrasonographic appearance and we define the role and the opportunity of diagnostic setting by echography, moreover ultrasonography allows us to make a differential diagnosis between cystic kidney disorders and other kidney disease. PMID:8353538

  3. Genetic Counseling in Renal Masses

    José Antonio López-Guerrero; Zaida García-Casado; Antonio Fernández-Serra; José Rubio-Briones

    2008-01-01

    All urologists have faced patients suffering a renal cancer asking for the occurrence of the disease in their offspring and very often the answer to this question has not been well founded from the scientific point of view, and only in few cases a familial segregation tree is performed. The grate shift seen in the detection of small renal masses and renal cancer in the last decades will prompt us to know the indications for familial studies, which and when are necessary, and probably to refer...

  4. Non-renal urological lymphomas

    IVP, US and CT findings for 5 rare cases of non-renal lymphomas of the urinary tract are discussed. The 4 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 1 Hodgkin's disease (HD) involved the ureter (2 cases), bladder (2 cases) and renal pelvis (1 case). US and CT visualised the pyelic lesion (undetected by urography) as wall thickening and detected the two ureteral lesions (which were also revealed by antegrade pyelography for the 1 HD and by retrograde pyelography for an ureteral NHL). One bladder lesion was associated with a renal lesion (CT demonstrated retroperitoneal lymph nodes); the other was a multinodular form infiltrating the entire bladder. (orig.)

  5. Neuroendocrine and renal effects of intravascular volume expansion in compensated heart failure

    Gabrielsen, A; Bie, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    2001-01-01

    To examine if the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal function is preserved in compensated chronic heart failure [HF, ejection fraction 0.29 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SE)] we tested the hypothesis that intravascular and central blood volume expansion by 3 h of water immersion (WI) elicits...... (by sustained angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, n = 9) absolute and fractional sodium excretion increased (P < 0.05) to the level of control subjects (108 +/- 34 micromol/min and 0.70 +/- 0.23%, respectively). Renal free water clearance increased during WI in control subjects but not in...... HF, albeit plasma vasopressin concentrations were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal sodium excretion is preserved in compensated HF. The natriuresis of WI is, however, modulated by the prevailing ANG II and Aldo concentrations. In...

  6. The Study of Laparoscopic Nephrectomy Effectiveness in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Kochoyan T.M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of short-term and long-term results in patients with renal cell carcinoma being operated on using open surgery and laparoscopy. Materials and Methods. There were studied 214 patients with renal cell carcinoma with radical nephrectomy. 164 patients underwent laparoscopy, and 50 patients were operated on using open surgery technique. Conclusion. The comparative analysis of short-term and long-term results of renal cell carcinoma surgical treatment and long-term survival of patients depending on the approach — by an open surgery and by an endoscopic technique — showed the laparoscopic approach to be absolutely acceptable and oncologically adequate.

  7. Organic anion transporter OAT1 is involved in renal handling of citrulline.

    Nakakariya, Masanori; Shima, Yoichiro; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Mitsuoka, Keisuke; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2009-07-01

    Because citrulline plasma concentration is elevated in kidney failure, citrulline could be a biomarker of renal insufficiency, although the mechanism regulating its disposition in the kidney has not been clarified. In rat kidney slices, citrulline uptake was apparently Na(+) dependent, saturable with K(m) 556 microM, and significantly inhibited by anionic (PAH) and cationic (TEA) compounds, but not by probenecid at 1 mM. Preincubation of kidney slices with glutarate increased citrulline uptake, while such an increase was not observed after preincubation of the slices in Na(+)-free buffer. This result suggested that a sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter is involved in citrulline uptake by rat kidney slices. In studies using transporter-overexpressing cells, human organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and rat Oat1 exhibited citrulline transport activity with K(m) values of 238 and 373 microM, respectively, while other OATs and organic cation transporters (OCTs) did not transport citrulline. Based on the relative activity factor method, the contribution of rat Oat1 to the overall uptake of citrulline in rat kidney slices was approximately 70%. Moreover, the interaction among citrulline, PAH, and probenecid uptakes via rat Oat1 suggested that there are multiple functional sites on Oat1 and that the citrulline site may be distinct from the PAH and probenecid site. Thus OAT1/Oat1 appears to be one of the major contributors to renal basolateral uptake of citrulline, and impaired activities of these transporters may contribute substantially to the increase in plasma citrulline in renal failure. Accordingly, citrulline may be useful for diagnosis of kidney function as is creatinine. PMID:19403644

  8. Maximum oxygen uptake and sexual maturity of children and adolescents

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maximum oxygen uptake of children and adolescents during puberty. The study enrolled 779 children and adolescents of both sexes from Cotinguiba, SE, Brazil, 404 of whom were female and 379 of whom were male. Measurements were taken of weight, height and skin folds. Body fat percentage and lean body mass. Sexual maturity stages were established by self-assessment, based on appearance of pubic hair. The children's VO2max was estimated from the results of a 20 meter shuttle-run test. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and analysis of variance (p²0.05. The results suggest that absolute VO2max (l/min increases progressively in both sexes as maturity advances. Significant differences between sexes are observed from maturity stage P3 onwards. Correlations between absolute VO2max (l/min and maturity stages were significant for both sexes (p<0.05; while correlations between VO2max (relative to body weight and lean body mass, were negative for females (p<0.05. Analyses suggest that during puberty absolute VO2max increases gradually for both sexes, that VO2max is stable with relation to body mass, and that lean mass in males and decreases in females as sexual maturity advances.

  9. Maximum oxygen uptake and sexual maturity of children and adolescents

    R.J. Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maximum oxygen uptake of children and adolescents during puberty. The study enrolled 779 children and adolescents of both sexes from Cotinguiba, SE, Brazil, 404 of whom were female and 379 of whom were male. Measurements were taken of weight, height and skin folds. Body fat percentage and lean body mass. Sexual maturity stages were established by self-assessment, based on appearance of pubic hair. The children’s VO2max was estimated from the results of a 20 meter shuttle-run test. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05. The results suggest that absolute VO2max (l/min increases progressively in both sexes as maturity advances. Significant differences between sexes are observed from maturity stage P3 onwards. Correlations between absolute VO2max (l/min and maturity stages were significant for both sexes (p<0.05; while correlations between VO2max (relative to body weight and lean body mass, were negative for females (p<0.05. Analyses suggest that during puberty absolute VO2max increases gradually for both sexes, that VO2max is stable with relation to body mass, and that lean mass in males and decreases in females as sexual maturity advances.

  10. Hypertension Caused by Renal Arteriovenous Fistula

    An, Hye-Sung; Kang, Tae-Gon; Yun, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Myo-Jing; Jung, Jin-A; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Lee, Young-Seok

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of secondary hypertension caused by renal arteriovenous fistula. An 8-year old girl was hospitalized with a severe headache, vomiting, and seizure. Renal angiography demonstrated multiple renal arteriovenous fistula and increased blood renin concentration in the left renal vein. Thus, left renal arteriovenous fistula and renin induced secondary hypertension were diagnosed. Her blood pressure was well controlled by medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor.

  11. Renal vein thrombosis in transitional cell carcinoma

    Full text: A rare case of renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) associated with bland thrombus of the renal vein extending into the inferior vena cava is described. Tumour thrombus in renal cell carcinoma is frequently encountered, but only very rarely occurs with TCC. Bland renal vein thrombosis occurring with renal TCC has not been described before. Contrast enhanced computed tomography assisted in distinguishing between bland and tumour thrombosis and aided in surgical management

  12. Case of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma

    Mustafa, Sadaf; Jadidi, Nima; Faraj, Sheila F.; Rodriquez, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of renal malignancy and it originates from the renal tubular epithelium. Due to the diversity in the histopathological and molecular characteristics, it is typically subclassified into five different categories. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is one subclassification and it includes two variants: sporadic and hereditary. Although the hereditary form comprises a smaller number of cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma, an understanding of the molec...

  13. Studies of the skeletal pathophysiology of renal osteodystrophy using nucleomedical procedures

    Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled phosphorous compounds has been performed in a series of 160 long-term hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure. Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) was classified by five features of RI uptake in the entire skeleton: type A (low turn-over type) - a relatively decreased RI uptake in the bone tissue and an increased uptake in the soft tissue; type C (normal type) - normal findings; type D (osteomalacia type) - a strong RI uptake in the costochondral joints; type F (hyperparathyroid type) - strong RI uptake in the skull and submandible; and type G (calcification type) - an ectopic calcification. The group of type F had elevated levels of both alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormones (PTH); on the contrary, both ALP and PTH were decreased in the group of type A. This suggested an increased and decreased bone metabolism in type F and A, respectively. The group of type D was characterized by having hypophosphatemia. Pathophysiologic types of ROD varied from day to day. Bone mineral density (BMD) tended to decrease in the radius. For the spine, however, BMD increased in some cases and decreased in the other cases with prolonging the duration of hemodialysis. Bone scintigraphy and BMD determination in both the cortical and cavernous bone tissue may provide integrated information about ROD presenting with heterogeneity of the entire skeleton. (Namekawa, K)

  14. Imaging regional renal function parameters using radionuclide tracers

    Qiao, Yi

    A compartmental model is given for evaluating kidney function accurately and noninvasively. This model is cast into a parallel multi-compartment structure and each pixel region (picture element) of kidneys is considered as a single kidney compartment. The loss of radionuclide tracers from the blood to the kidney and from the kidney to the bladder are modelled in great detail. Both the uptake function and the excretion function of the kidneys can be evaluated pixel by pixel, and regional diagnostic information on renal function is obtained. Gamma Camera image data are required by this model and a screening test based renal function measurement is provided. The regional blood background is subtracted from the kidney region of interest (ROI) and the kidney regional rate constants are estimated analytically using the Kuhn-Pucker multiplier method in convex programming by considering the input/output behavior of the kidney compartments. The detailed physiological model of the peripheral compartments of the system, which is not available for most radionuclide tracers, is not required in the determination of the kidney regional rate constants and the regional blood background factors within the kidney ROI. Moreover, the statistical significance of measurements is considered to assure the improved statistical properties of the estimated kidney rate constants. The relations between various renal function parameters and the kidney rate constants are established. Multiple renal function measurements can be found from the renal compartmental model. The blood radioactivity curve and the regional (or total) radiorenogram determining the regional (or total) summed behavior of the kidneys are obtained analytically with the consideration of the statistical significance of measurements using convex programming methods for a single peripheral compartment system. In addition, a new technique for the determination of 'initial conditions' in both the blood compartment and the kidney

  15. The application of 99mTc-EC renal dynamic imaging in urinary system calculus

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of 99mTc-EC renal dynamic imaging (RDI) for diagnosis of urinary system calculus. Methods: 135 case with confirmed urinary system calculus by ultrasound and IVP were examined by 99mTc-EC renal dynamic imaging and to analyze the degree of hydronephrosis and the remaining renal function. The quantitative indexes used were effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and peak uptake rate (PUR). Results: RDI almost accorded with IVP in renal calculus complicated by mild and moderate hydronephrosis cases. On other cases of the severe hydronephrosis and serious renal insufficiency, RDI was more sensitive than IVP which had no excretion in 6 patients with hydronephrosis. ERPF and PUR showed the remaining function of the morbid kidney more accurately than other methods. In severe and mild hydronephrosis the ERPF were 84.3 ± 49 ml/min and 202.2 ± 52.4 ml/min, the PUR were 20.4 ± 11.5% and 48.5 ± 13.6% respectively. Conclusion: RDI can correctly reflect the degree of hydronephrosis and the remaining function of the morbid kidney in urinary system calculus, which would be helpful for the clinical surgical planning

  16. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    2007-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (MRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, and is characterized by functional renal impairment without significant changes in renal histology. Irrespective of the type of renal failure, renal hypoperfusion is the central pathogenetic mechanism, due either to reduced perfusion pressure or increased renal vascular resistance. Volume expansion, avoidance of precipitating factors and treatment of underlying liver disease constitute the mainstay of therapy to prevent and reverse renal impairment. Splanchnic vasoconstrictor agents, such as terlipressin, along with volume expansion, and early placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be effective in improving renal function in HRS. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) in selected patients may be life saving while awaiting liver transplantation.

  17. Measuring the absolute magnetic field using high-Tc SQUID

    SQUID normally can only measure the change of magnetic field instead of the absolute value of magnetic field. Using a compensation method, a mobile SQUID, which could keep locked when moving in the earth's magnetic field, was developed. Using the mobile SQUID, it was possible to measure the absolute magnetic field. The absolute value of magnetic field could be calculated from the change of the compensation output when changing the direction of the SQUID in a magnetic field. Using this method and the mobile SQUID, we successfully measured the earth's magnetic field in our laboratory

  18. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength

    Ulich, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the absolute calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as absolute calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.

  19. Absolute calibration of photomultiplier based detectors - difficulties and uncertainties

    Photomultiplier manufacturers can provide a calibration of quantum efficiency over a range of wavelengths with an accuracy of up to 2%. To convert these figures to absolute counting efficiency requires knowledge of photomultiplier collection efficiency, F. Traditional methods for determining F are discussed with emphasis on sources of error. Light sources emitting at a known photon rate allow the absolute quantum efficiency to be determined directly. It is important in all attempts at absolute calibration to appreciate the conditions which manufacturers apply when calibrating photomultipliers

  20. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  1. Absolute f-values for resonance lines of neutral titanium

    Absolute f-values for 13 resonance lines of Ti i have been experimentally measured by the atomic-beam method. Difficulties in evaporation of titanium were overcome by using a TiC boat, and gettering effects were determined by comparing microbalance weighings of instantaneous deposit rates with quantitative chemical analyses of total deposits. Comparisons are made with other experimental results, and conversion factors are given for placing previously published relative f-values on an absolute scale. Also, the effect of an improved absolute scale for Ti i gf-values on the abundance of titanium in the solar photosphere is discussed

  2. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... transplantation would be indicated. Renal Cell Carcinoma (Kidney Cancer) Over the past 20 years, there have been at least 25 published reports of kidney cancer occurring in individuals with TSC. Drs. Bjornsson, Short, ...

  3. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... and lead to bleeding. About 20% of the time this bleeding is life-threatening. Approximately 80 percent ... with TSC will experience angiomyolipomas. Most of the time both kidneys are involved. Renal cysts are often ...

  4. Radiological evaluation of renal transplantation

    Briefly discussed the nephrologic complications, episodes of rejection, acute tubular necrosis, cyclosporine, urologic complications, perirenal fluid collections, small asymptomatic hematomas, urinomas, abscesses, lymphocele, ureteral obstruction, cascular complications, imaging of the renal allograft, radionuclide imaging, ultrasonography, conventional radiography, cystograhy (8 refs.)

  5. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood

    The authors present five cases of renal cell carcinoma in children, describing its aspects on excretory urography, ultra-sonography and computerized tomography. The clinical, pathological and radiological features are compared with those of the literature. (author)

  6. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... abdominal or back pain, nausea and vomiting and fever. For the individual who is non-verbal, this ... significant back or abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and fever. If these growths involve both kidneys, renal failure ...

  7. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... kidney disease can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early ... should be performed by a team with TSC experience, many individuals with TSC can maintain normal kidney ...

  8. Clinical study on renal trauma

    We analyzed 26 cases of renal trauma, which occurred during the last 7 years and 6 months. Computed tomography was performed in all cases. Four cases were of type Ib, 13 cases of type II, 3 cases of type IIIa, 5 cases of type IIIb and 1 case of type IVa, according to the classification of renal injury by the Japanese association for the surgery of trauma. Conservative treatment was done in 21 cases, selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in 4 cases, and surgical treatment in 1 case. Conservative treatment was effective for type I and II renal trauma. In the cases of type IIIa and IIIb renal trauma, open surgery could be avoided and the affected kidney preserved by early TAE. (author)

  9. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... majority of individuals (greater than 80 percent) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal ( ... Dallas, TX. November 2013. **This publication from the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance is intended to provide basic information about ...

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... History Database Tissue Donation Audio & Video Archives Brochures, Books, & Booklets Information Sheets Perspective Magazine Archives Life Stages ... Scientific Advisory Board 2015 International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC ...

  11. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... increased blood pressure, but usually they do not cause discomfort. However, sometimes the kidney is filled with cysts, and this can lead to kidney impairment and even kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, ...

  12. Markers of renal function tests

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  13. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... depending on the size of the involvement, further management can be recommended. Individuals with TSC and angiomyolipomas less than 4 cm would benefit from repeat renal imaging every one to two ...

  14. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How kidney cysts develop is not known. The TSC genes are tumor suppressor genes. Normally, tumor suppressor genes ...

  15. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... of individuals (greater than 80 percent) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal ( ... TX. November 2013. **This publication from the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance is intended to provide basic information about ...

  16. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... rare, such a lesion must be kept in mind. Diagnosis The current methods to diagnosis these renal ... nor does it, constitute medical or other advice. Readers are warned not to take any action with ...

  17. Pulmonary edema in renal failure

    Forty-nine cases of pulmonary edema in nephropatic patients were studied. The most frequent radiologic findings are discussed. The unreliability of a precise differentiation between ''cardiac'' and ''renal'' patterns of pulmonary edema in nephropatic patients is emphasized

  18. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... include renal ultrasonography, CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These are all non-invasive procedures that ... be done to calibrate and correlate with ultrasound imaging. Repeat CT scans should be limited to reduce ...

  19. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How ... significant and occasionally life threatening. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment guidelines have been proposed to initially identify which ...

  20. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... procedures that are available in almost every major medical center. The renal ultrasound provides the least detailed ... Henske, M.D., Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, ...

  1. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  2. Transcatheter embolisation of renal angiomyolipoma.

    Leong, S

    2010-06-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AML) are rare benign renal tumours which are associated with aneurysms that can cause haemorrhage. Embolisation of AML greater than 4 cm with a variety of embolic agents is now the first-line treatment in these cases.

  3. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Full Text Available ... individuals (greater than 80 percent) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal (kidney) ... intended to provide basic information about tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). It is not intended to, nor does ...

  4. Cystic renal neoplasms and renal neoplasms associated with cystic renal diseases in adults: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Garg, Deepak; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Vikram, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    Cystic renal neoplasms in adults are a heterogeneous group of tumors with characteristic histogenesis, pathological findings, and variable biological profiles. They include disparate entities that are either biologically benign (lymphangioma, cystic nephroma, and mixed epithelial and stromal tumor) or malignant (cystic renal cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, and primary renal synovial sarcoma). Renal cystic diseases are characterized by cystic changes of the kidneys due to hereditary, developmental, or acquired etiology. Cystic renal diseases such as acquired cystic kidney disease, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and tuberous sclerosis are associated with the development of a wide spectrum of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. Most cystic renal tumors and cystic disease-associated renal neoplasms show characteristic cross-sectional imaging findings that permit accurate diagnosis. In addition, cross-sectional imaging is pivotal in the follow-up and surveillance of adult cystic tumors of the kidney. PMID:23192202

  5. New treatments for renal carcinoma

    Perez-Gracia, J L; Lopez-Picazo, J M; Olier, C. (Clara); ALFARO, C.; Garcia-Foncillas, J; Melero, I; Gurpide, A

    2007-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma presents several unique features, which distinguish it from other tumours. The increase in survival that has been described in patients with renal cell carcinoma following nephrectomy breaks a classical rule of oncology, which states that surgery of the primary tumour has no role in the treatment of patients with advanced disease. Together with melanoma, it is the only tumour in which immunomodulatory treatments with drugs such as interleukin-2 produces a clinical benefit...

  6. On renal pathophysiology in preeclampsia

    Penning, Maria Elisabeth (Marlies)

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy which can suddenly change from a relatively mild phenotype into a life-threatening situation. One of the organs that is always involved during preeclampsia is the kidney. The placenta plays an important role in the renal pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The placenta produces excessive amounts of anti-angiogenic factors which are associated with systemic endothelial dysfunction. Although the underlying mechanisms of renal injury during preeclampsia r...

  7. Chickenpox infection after renal transplantation

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj K.; Bhadhuria, Dharmendra; Gupta, Amit; Prasad, Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chicken pox, although a common infection among children, is rare in immunocompromised patients, particularly renal transplant recipients, and carries a very high incidence of morbidity and mortality There is little data on chickenpox in adult renal transplant recipients, although reports have suggested that it may follow a virulent course requiring frequent hospitalization, and in severe cases can cause death. Aims. To evaluate the incidence, severity and complications of a varice...

  8. Renal calculus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis: Report of two cases

    Xiao, Jiantao; LEI, JUN; He, Leye; YIN, GUANGMING

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding renal calculus is a risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis. It is highly aggressive and usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. We present two cases of kidney stone complications with renal pelvic SCC. These two patients had a radical nephrectomy and the dissected tissues were renal pelvic SCC. Our cases further emphasize that renal pelvic SCC should be considered in patients with longstanding renal calculus. These cases contribute gr...

  9. Reference Values of Maximal Oxygen Uptake for Polish Rowers

    Klusiewicz Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes’ fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the “trainability” of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values increases significantly between the age of 19-22 years (U23 category.

  10. MR Imaging of renal transplants

    The authors report their experience in the study of renal transplant recipients by MR, in order to determine its clinical potentials. The main purpose of this work is to focus on MR patterns in relation to clinical findings of rejector or normally fuctioning kidney. Twenty-four patients were examined with a 0.5 T superconductive magnete, body coil, spin-echo pulse sequence (SE) and inversion-recovery (IR). MRI patterns could be seen in normally functioning kidneys and transplant rejections, while variable MRI findings were observed in transplants with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). In the normally functioning transplanted kidney there is a clear corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and the extent of vascular penetration into the renal parenchyma is clearly seen. In transplant rejection, CMD is either diminished or absent, and there is no vascular penetration into the parenchyma; to differentiate acute from chronic rejections, the increase/decrease in renal size and the change in renal shape (spherical shape in acute transplant rejection) respectively must be observed. MRI proves thus to be useful in the study of renal transplants, even in case of questionable clinical findings, and in patients in whom renal biopsy is contraindicated

  11. Quantitative study of molecular transport due to electroporation: uptake of bovine serum albumin by erythrocyte ghosts.

    Prausnitz, M.R.; Milano, C D; Gimm, J A; Langer, R; Weaver, J C

    1994-01-01

    Electroporation is believed to involve the creation of aqueous pathways in lipid bilayer membranes by transient elevation of the transmembrane voltage to approximately 1 V. Here, results are presented for a quantitative study of the number of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules transported into erythrocyte ghosts caused by electroportion. 1) Uptake of BSA was found to plateau at high field strength. However, this was not necessarily an absolute maximum in transport. Instead, it represented t...

  12. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.; Horn, A.; Secher, Niels Henry

    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  13. Pulmonary uptake of morphine (M)

    Previously the authors reported less than 5% of M was taken up during the first pass through the human lung. The low uptake of this basic lipophilic amine was further investigated in a single pass isolated perfused rat lung (IPL) in comparison to uptake of radiolabelled H2O, antipyrine (A), aminopyrine (AM), nicotine (N) and phenylethylamine (P). The IPL was perfused for 5 min with each drug (5nmol/ml) and effluent collected in 10 sec fractions. Pulmonary extraction was calculated using indocyanine green dye as a non-extractable reference indicator. Accumulation of all compounds in the IPL reached an apparent equilibrium within 4 min. At equilibrium lung/perfusate conc. ratios for H2O, A, AM, N, P and M were 1.04, 0.84, 0.85, 1.44, 2.57 and 1.13 respectively. The time course of M uptake differed from the other compounds since initial extraction of M was low (23%) compared to 75%, 53%, 35%, 82% and 86% for H2O, A, AM, N and P respectively. Also, the half time to equilibrium for M was longer (50 sec) compared to 18, 21, 26, 19 and 22 sec for H2O, A, AM, N and P respectively. The low initial pulmonary extraction of M compared to these compounds followed by greater M extraction during the remainder of drug infusion suggests uptake mechanisms for M different than the flow limited uptake for water and other basic amine drugs

  14. Age-related changes in the renal dopaminergic system and expression of renal amino acid transporters in WKY and SHR rats.

    Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João; Silva, Elisabete; Simão, Sónia; Cabral, José Miguel; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Gomes, Pedro; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in renal dopaminergic activity and expression of amino acid transporters potentially involved in renal tubular uptake of l-DOPA in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Aging (from 13 to 91 weeks) was accompanied by increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in both WKY and SHR. The sum of urinary dopamine and DOPAC and the urinary dopamine/l-DOPA ratio were increased in aged SHR but not in aged WKY. The urinary dopamine/renal delivery of l-DOPA ratio was increased in both rat strains with aging. LAT2 abundance was increased in aged WKY and SHR. The expression of 4F2hc was markedly elevated in aged SHR but not in aged WKY. ASCT2 was upregulated in both aged WKY and SHR. Plasma aldosterone levels and urinary noradrenaline levels were increased in aged WKY and SHR though levels of both entities were more elevated in aged SHR. Activation of the renal dopaminergic system is more pronounced in aged SHR than in aged WKY and is associated with an upregulation of renal cortical ASCT2 in WKY and of LAT2/4F2hc and ASCT2 in SHR. This activation may be the consequence of a counter-regulatory mechanism for stimuli leading to sodium reabsorption. PMID:21699911

  15. Absolute value preconditioning for symmetric indefinite linear systems

    Vecharynski, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel strategy for constructing symmetric positive definite (SPD) preconditioners for linear systems with symmetric indefinite coefficient matrices. The strategy is motivated by the observation that the preconditioned minimal residual method with the inverse of the absolute value of the coefficient matrix as a preconditioner converges to the exact solution of the system in at most two steps. Neither the exact absolute value of the coefficient matrix, nor its exact inverse are computationally feasible to construct in general. However, as the proof of concept, we provide two practical examples of SPD preconditioners, which are based on the suggested approach, called absolute value preconditioning. The first example is for strictly (block) diagonally dominant coefficient matrices, where we propose using the inverse to the absolute value of the (block) diagonal as the preconditioner. Our second example is less intuitive. We consider a model problem with a shifted discrete negative Laplacian, and su...

  16. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  17. Absolute angular calibration of a submarine km3 neutrino telescope

    A requirement for neutrino telescope is the ability to resolve point sources of neutrinos. In order to understand its resolving power a way to perform absolute angular calibration with muons is required. Muons produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere offer an abundant calibration source. By covering a surface vessel with 200 modules of 5 m2 plastic scintillator a surface air shower array can be set up. Running this array in coincidence with a deep-sea km3 size neutrino detector, where the coincidence is defined by the absolute clock timing stamp for each event, would allow absolute angular calibration to be performed. Monte Carlo results simulating the absolute angular calibration of the km3 size neutrino detector will be presented. Future work and direction will be discussed.

  18. Summary of the Absolute neutrino mass scale parallel branch session

    Mangano, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Napoli - Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Zuber, K. [Institut fuer Kern - und Teilchenphysik Technische Universitaet, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    We summarize the talks presented to the Absolute neutrino mass scale parallel session of NOW2010, mainly focused on neutrinoless double beta decay in its theoretical and experimental aspects and the role of the neutrino mass scale in cosmology.

  19. Uptake of Glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Schulz, Arno; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an Arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. Orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. The Km for glyphosate uptake was 125 μM, and the Ki for orthophosphate was 24 μM. Organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppressed...

  20. Pathophysiology and management of progressive renal disease.

    Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Finco, D R

    1997-09-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that all renal diseases are inherently progressive and self-perpetuating has focused attention on adaptive changes in renal structure and function that occur whenever renal function is reduced. These glomerular adaptations to renal disease include increases in filtration rate, capillary pressure and size, and are referred to as glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy, respectively. Extrarenal changes, such as dietary phosphate excess, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, acidosis and hyperparathyroidism occur in animals with renal disease and may be contributors to progression of renal disease. Emphasis in the management of companion animals with renal disease has shifted to identifying, understanding and controlling those processes that play a role in the progression from early to end-stage renal failure. Advances made by veterinary nephrologists in the past 15 years permit resolution of old controversies, formulation of new hypotheses and discussion of unresolved issues about the nature of progressive renal disease in dogs and cats. PMID:9308397