Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...
Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space
Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2015-12-01
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space
Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2012-06-05
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.
Walker, Clare; Barnett, David
2006-05-01
There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842
Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.
Mandy, F; Brando, B
2001-05-01
Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719
The Internal Gas Counter as a Precision Absolute Counting Device
The internal gas counter is the most accurate device for the absolute counting of low energy radiations. Its usefulness can be extended to higher energies if the possible error effects are investigated and corrected thoroughly and the measuring conditions are properly chosen. The different sources of error in internal gas counting, e.g. field distortion by the isolators and guard tubes at the counter ends, irradiation from the ineffective end volumes into the counting volume, escape from the counting volume into the ends and walls, all kinds of sorption effects, and counting loss due to the finite energy discrimination during counting, are discussed in detail. The optimum counter design is derived from this discussion. The corrections for these error effects can be described with simple semi-empirical formulas, which depend only on a few constants which have to be determined. Measurements of T, 14C, 35S, 37A and 85Kr at counting-gas pressures of 200-750 Torr have been performed. They make it possible to determine all corrections in internal gas counting, depending on the energy and kind of the radiation and on the counting-gas pressure. This determination has.been done by using empirical extrapolation techniques as well as the derived formulas. The results make it possible to correct nearly every internal gas counting measurement of β-radiations, electrons and X-rays and to obtain final accuracies of 1%. Some examples of such measurements - the determination of the decay scheme of 85Kr, the measurement of the fluorescence yield of 37Cl and the half-life determination of 131mXe - are discussed briefly. (author)
An associated particle technique for absolute neutron counting efficiency determination
The 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction has been used to produce neutrons with energies ranging from 8 to 13 MeV in order to measure the absolute neutron counting efficiency of a large NE213 scintillator by the associated particle method. Recoil 7Be nuclei were detected with a ΔE(gas)-E (solid) telescope in coincidence with neutrons. The method is suitable for neutron energies greater than 1.2MeV and could be applied to establish the neutron efficiency response of any detector
Dashika A. Balak
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm3. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r=0.5. No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm3 or 500 cells/mm3. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm3 and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm3 it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.
Recent Progress in Liquid Scintillation Counting System for Absolute Radioactivity Measurement
无
2011-01-01
The triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method is an absolute activity measurement method in liquid scintillation counting, especially developed for pure β- and EC-emitters activity standardization. Such a liquid scintillation counting system is now
Monocytes in inflammatory bowel disease: absolute monocyte counts.
Mee, A. S.; Berney, J.; Jewell, D P
1980-01-01
Using a cytochemical staining technique, peripheral blood monocytes have been precisely identified and enumerated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and compared with healthy and disease control subjects. For ulcerative colitis there was a significant monocytosis, which was closely correlated with the total white cell count and with the activity of the disease. For patients with Crohn's disease, the peripheral blood monocyte count was also raised compared with that of the control gro...
Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)
Barnaby Young
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical value of monitoring CD4 counts in immune reconstituted, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is limited. We investigated if absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC from an automated blood counting machine could accurately estimate CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: CD4 counts, ALC and HIV viral load (VL were extracted from an electronic laboratory database for all patients in HIV care at the Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (2008–13. Virologic suppression was defined as consecutive HIV VLs 300 cells/mm3. CD4 counts were estimated using the CD4% from the first value >300 and an ALC 181–540 days later. Results: A total of 1215 periods of virologic suppression were identified from 1183 patients, with 2227 paired CD4-ALCs available for analysis. 98.3% of CD4 estimates were within 50% of the actual value. 83.3% within 25% and 40.5% within 10%. The error pattern was approximately symmetrically distributed around a mean of −6.5%, but significant peaked and with mild positive skew (kurtosis 4.45, skewness 1.07. Causes for these errors were explored. Variability between lymphocyte counts measured by ALC and flow cytometry did not follow an apparent pattern, and contributed to 32% of the total error (median absolute error 5.5%, IQR 2.6–9.3. The CD4% estimate was significantly lower than the actual value (t-test, p<0.0001. The magnitude of this difference was greater for lower values, and above 25%, there was no significant difference. Precision of the CD4 estimate was similar as baseline CD4% increased, however accuracy improved significantly: from a median 16% underestimation to 0% as baseline CD4% increased from 12 to 30. Above a CD4% baseline of 25, estimates of CD4 were within 25% of the actual value 90.2% of the time with a median 2% underestimation. A robust (bisqaure linear regression model was developed to correct for the rise in CD4% with time, when baseline was 14–24
Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts
Donabedian Haig
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary.
Avella, Alessio; Berchera, Ivano Ruo; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco
2016-01-01
We show how the same set-up and procedure, exploiting spatially multi-mode quantum correlations, allows the absolute calibration of a EMCCD camera from the analog regime down to the single photon counting level, just by adjusting the brightness of the quantum source. At single photon level EMCCD can be operated as an on-off detector, where quantum efficiency depends on the discriminating threshold. We develop a simple model to explain the connection of the two different regime demonstrating t...
An algorithm for applying flagged Sysmex XE-2100 absolute neutrophil counts in clinical practice
Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Saelsen, Lone; Abildstrøm, Steen Z;
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Even though most differential leukocyte counts are performed by automated hematology platforms, turn-around time is often prolonged as flagging of test results trigger additional confirmatory manual procedures. However, frequently only the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is needed. We...... therefore examined if an algorithm could be developed to identify samples in which the automated ANC is valid despite flagged test results. METHODS: During a 3-wk period, a training set consisting of 1448 consecutive flagged test-results from the Sysmex XE-2100 system and associated manual differential...... counts was collected. The training set was used to determine which alarms were associated with valid ANCs. The algorithm was then tested on a new set of 1371 test results collected during a later 3-wk period. RESULTS: Analysis of the training set data revealed that the ANC from test results flagged with...
Avella, A.; Ruo-Berchera, I.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Brida, G.; Genovese, M.
2016-04-01
We show how the same set-up and procedure, exploiting spatially multi-mode quantum correlations, allows the absolute calibration of a EMCCD camera from the analog regime down to the single photon counting level, just by adjusting the brightness of the quantum source. At single photon level EMCCD can be operated as an on-off detector, where quantum efficiency depends on the discriminating threshold. We develop a simple model to explain the connection of the two different regime demonstrating that the efficiency estimated in the analog (bright) regime allows to accurately predict the detector behaviour in the photo-counting regime and vice-versa. This work establishes a bridge between two regions of the optical measurements that up to now have been based on completely different standards, detectors and measurement techniques.
Absolute count of T and B lymphocyte subsets is decreased in systemic sclerosis
Gambichler T
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports on lymphocyte subpopulations in systemic sclerosis (SSc are conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the lymphocyte subsets in SSc patients who were not on immunosuppressive therapy. Methods Lymphocyte subsets were assessed in the peripheral blood of SSc patients (n = 29 and healthy controls (n = 29 using the four colour flow cytometry method. Correlation studies were also performed in order to assess the relationship between lymphocyte subsets and clinical parameters. Results The absolute count of lymphocytes (P = 0.0042, CD3+ (P = 0.0014, CD4+ (P = 0.0070, CD8+ (P = 0.021, and CD19+ cells (P = 0.024 was significantly decreased in SSc patients when compared to healthy controls. CD4+/CD8+ ratio and the absolute count of CD56+ cells observed in SSc patients did not significantly differ from controls (P = 0.165; P = 0.632, respectively. There was no substantial relationship between the lymphocyte subset levels and clinical features (i.e., SSc subtype, autoantibody profiles, organ involvement, except for a significant inverse correlation of CD19+ cells and the modified Rodnan skin score (r = -0.43, P = 0.020. Conclusion Our data support previous reports indicating that subsets of T lymphocytes as well as B lymphocytes play a role in the pathogenesis of SSc.
Avella, A; Ruo-Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Brida, G; Genovese, M
2016-04-15
We show how the same setup and procedure, exploiting spatially multimode quantum correlations, allows the absolute calibration of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled (EMCCD) camera from the analog regime down to the single-photon-counting level, just by adjusting the brightness of the quantum source. At the single-photon level, an EMCCD can be operated as an on-off detector, where quantum efficiency depends on the discriminating threshold. We develop a simple model to explain the connection of the two different regimes demonstrating that the efficiency estimated in the analog (bright) regime allows us to accurately predict the detector behavior in the photocounting regime and vice versa. This work establishes a bridge between two regions of the optical measurements that up to now have been based on completely different standards, detectors, and measurement techniques. PMID:27082359
Patrizio, Angela; Specht, Christian G
2016-10-01
The ability to count molecules is essential to elucidating cellular mechanisms, as these often depend on the absolute numbers and concentrations of molecules within specific compartments. Such is the case at chemical synapses, where the transmission of information from presynaptic to postsynaptic terminals requires complex interactions between small sets of molecules. Be it the subunit stoichiometry specifying neurotransmitter receptor properties, the copy numbers of scaffold proteins setting the limit of receptor accumulation at synapses, or protein packing densities shaping the molecular organization and plasticity of the postsynaptic density, all of these depend on exact quantities of components. A variety of proteomic, electrophysiological, and quantitative imaging techniques have yielded insights into the molecular composition of synaptic complexes. In this review, we compare the different quantitative approaches and consider the potential of single molecule imaging techniques for the quantification of synaptic components. We also discuss specific neurobiological data to contextualize the obtained numbers and to explain how they aid our understanding of synaptic structure and function. PMID:27335891
Value of the use of absolute lymphocyte as surrogate for CD4 count in resource poor situations
Oluwafemi Johnson Adegbamigbe
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The initiation of antiretroviral (ARV drugs and monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV treatment in developing nations such as sub-Sahara Africa is based on the clinical stage and level of CD4 count. Clinical stages can easily be determined using the World Health Organisation (WHO criteria, this is not so with CD4 count where the right equipment and expertise are not easily available. This lead to various studies being carried out in search of surrogates for CD4 count with use of total lymphocyte count (TLC being suggested by some studies. Objective: In situation where determination of CD4 cell count is not available or feasible, lymphocyte count is believed to be one alternative method for immunological classification of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Such assumption may not be true of every population. The objective is, therefore, to examine the correlation between the absolute lymphocyte count and the CD4+ lymphocyte count in HIV positive patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-five consecutive HIV positive patients were recruited for the study before the commencement of ARV drugs over a period of 13 months. The haemotological parameters such as the CD4 count was done by flow cytometry using Partec cyflow counter machine made in Germany, with strict adherence to the manufacturer′s standard operating procedure. TLC were also determined using Sysmex haematology blood analyser, following the manufacturer′s standard operating procedure. Patients were then grouped into CD4 and Total lymphocyte (TLC categories. These were then compared to determine if there is any correlation as shown in previous studies. Statistical analysis of data was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS and statistical significance of data was based on P value of less than 0.05. There was significant positive correlation (P value 0.000 between TLC and CD4 count. Results: Majority of the patients with TLC
Dhar Sandipan
2005-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of epidemiological studies, showing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis, were available, scant attention has been paid to the correlation between the parameters of the disease like severity, absolute eosinophil count and IgE level, which has been known to be associated inconsistently. Hence this study was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 102 patients of atopic dermatitis, both children and adults, and 107 age matched controls were studied at the Pediatric Dermatology clinic, Institute of Child Health and department of Dermatology, AMRI-Apollo hospitals, Kolkata. RESULTS: The average age of onset of atopic dermatitis was observed to be 4.55 years. Both the average absolute eosinophil count and IgE levels in patients of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than that of the controls. Each of these parameters showed significant correlation with severity of the disease and showed a nonhomogeneous distribution reflected by significant association with personal history of bronchial asthma and family history of atopy, when both parents were atopic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that clinical activity of the disease as recorded by the "SCORAD" index can be used as an indicator of the hematological abnormalities as well as to some extent as a prognostic indicator. Family history of atopy correlates with the hematological abnormalities only if both parents are involved and bronchial asthma is the only associated atopic condition which correlates with the parameters of the disease .
Madhuri Thakar; Bharati Mahajan; Trupti Joshi; Suvarna Sane; Ramesh Paranjape
2013-01-01
Background & objectives: Reliable CD4 counts are important for successful implementation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Availability of dry CD4 reagents can eliminate cold chain requirement reducing shipment and storage cost. An attempt was made in this study to validate the ReaPan and Rea T Count dry reagents developed by ReaMetrix against the original BD Biosciences liquid reagents. Method: Absolute counts and percentages of CD4, CD8 and CD3 + T cells obtained in 100 HIV infected ind...
Li X
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Xin Li, Zhiyu Han, Zhigang Cheng, Jie Yu, Xiaoling Yu, Ping Liang Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count (ALC in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC following thermal ablation. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between preoperative ALC and the clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in 423 RHCC patients who underwent curative thermal ablation. Correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC calculation, Kaplan–Meier curves, and multivariate regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The median time to recurrence was 12 months for RHCC patients after thermal ablation. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, preoperative ALC was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence, along with tumor differentiation and α-fetoprotein level. ALC ≥1.64×109/L defined by ROC calculation was associated with prolonged survival (area under the curve 0.741, P<0.001. Patients with ALC ≥1.64×109/L showed a mean survival of 20.2 months versus 11.6 months for patients with ALC <1.64×109/L (P<0.001. Patients were stratified into high and low groups according to ALC status. After excluding the basic parameters between groups, the 1- and 3-year recurrence rates in the high group were 20.9% and 29.5%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the low group (58.4% and 71.9%, respectively; P<0.001. The recurrence-free survival rates in the two groups analyzed by Kaplan–Meier curves were significantly different (P<0.001. Conclusion: Preoperative ALC is a powerful prognostic factor for RHCC recurrence after thermal ablation, which suggests that maintaining a high ALC in RHCC patients might improve cancer outcomes. Keywords: absolute lymphocyte count, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, thermal ablation, recurrence
A technique for the absolute measurement of the W-value for X-rays in counting gases
Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N
2000-08-11
A technique was developed for the absolute measurement of the W-value (the mean energy for the production of an electron-ion pair) for low-energy X-rays in a wide range of gases at atmospheric pressures, with a standard uncertainty better than 1%. This technique is based on the absolute measurement of the primary ionization charge produced by X-ray photons from a constant intensity monoenergetic X-ray source, e.g. a long lifetime radioactive source. The ionization charge is calibrated by the number of X-ray photons absorbed in the gas, counted with a photon detector. For this purpose, a hybrid detector system was tested and its use in W-value measurements was investigated. The technique was applied to pure xenon at 825 Torr with 5.9 keV X-rays and a W-value of 21.61{sub -0.10}{sup +0.14} eV was obtained for a 68% confidence level. The required corrections and the different factors contributing to the accuracy of the results are discussed. The advantages and limitations of this technique are explored and future developments are discussed.
Anno, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Akira; Ejiri, Kazutaka
1987-12-01
In order to estimate the absolute left ventricular volume (LVV) and the cradiac output (CO), gated equilibrium blood pool scintigraphy was performed. CO by radionuclide (RN) method was compared with CO simultaneously measured by thermodilution method (TDM) using Swan-Ganz catheter in 22 patients with cardiac diseases. To improve these determinations by RN, LVV using the count-based method was corrected by each of four transmission factors (TF1 = 1, TF2 (water) = e/sup -0.15d/, TF3 = e/sup -0.13d/ and TF4 = 1 - (1 - e/sup -0.125d/)/sup 1.26/ d: depth). We compared CO by RN with by TDM. CO by RN was significantly correlated with TDM: TF1 (CO (RN) = 0.23 x CO (TDM) + 0.08, r = 0.628, p < 0.002), TF (CO (RN) = 1.10 x CO (TDM) - 0.47, r = 0.914, p < 0.001), TF3 (CO (RN) = 0.89 x CO (TDM) - 0.30, r = 0.912, p < 0.001), and TF4 (CO (RN) = 0.71 x CO (TDM) - 0.23, r = 0.911, p < 0.001), respectively. These results indicate that the linear sttenuation correction is necessary and sufficient for accurate measurement of LVV and CO by RN using count-based method in clinical use.
Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)
We have studied a measurement of subcriticality by using the neutron correlation method. Furuhashi proposed an absolute measurement of subcriticality by using the third order neutron correlation factor X in addition to the second order neutron correlation factor Y. In actual experiments, the number of neutron counts data is not infinity so that we take the effect of the finite nature of the neutron counts data into account. We derived new formulas in consideration of the number of data and verified them. (author)
Hirase, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Takahashi, Hironobu; Moriwaki, Kensuke; Saito, Atsuro; Kozaki, Aiko; Ishida, Toshiaki; Yanai, Tomoko; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki
2015-11-01
Recent studies have reported that the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) during induction therapy is predictive of treatment outcome in de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, the significance of ALC on outcomes remains controversial. In the present study, we assessed the significance of ALC at day 29 (ALC-29), the end of induction therapy, on outcomes in our Japanese cohort. The outcomes of 141 patients aged ≤18 years with newly diagnosed ALL who were enrolled on the JACLS ALL-02 at our hospitals were analyzed in terms of ALC-29. Patients with ALC-29 ≥750/μL (n = 81) had a superior 5-year EFS (95.2 ± 2.7 vs 84.3 ± 4.8 %, P = 0.016) and OS (100 vs 87.0 ± 4.7 %, P = 0.0062). A multivariate analysis identified ALC-29 ≥750/μL as a significant predictor of improved EFS and OS after controlling for confounding factors. A multiple linear regression model revealed a significant inverse relationship between the percentage of blasts in bone marrow on day 15 and ALC-29 (P = 0.005). These results indicate that ALC is a simple prognostic factor in childhood ALL, and, thus, has the potential to refine current risk algorithms. PMID:26440971
Mohiuddin Khan Shourav
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Field curvature and other aberrations are encountered inevitably when designing a compact fluorescence imaging system with a simple lens. Although multiple lens elements can be used to correct most such aberrations, doing so increases system cost and complexity. Herein, we propose a wide field-of-view (FOV fluorescence imaging method with an unconventional optical-quality curved sample chamber that corrects the field curvature caused by a simple lens. Our optics simulations and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that a curved substrate with lens-dependent curvature can reduce greatly the distortion in an image taken with a conventional planar detector. Following the validation study, we designed a curved sample chamber that can contain a known amount of sample volume and fabricated it at reasonable cost using plastic injection molding. At a magnification factor of approximately 0.6, the curved chamber provides a clear view of approximately 119 mm2, which is approximately two times larger than the aberration-free area of a planar chamber. Remarkably, a fluorescence image of microbeads in the curved chamber exhibits almost uniform intensity over the entire field even with a simple lens imaging system, whereas the distorted boundary region has much lower brightness than the central area in the planar chamber. The absolute count of white blood cells stained with a fluorescence dye was in good agreement with that obtained by a commercially available conventional microscopy system. Hence, a wide FOV imaging system with the proposed curved sample chamber would enable us to acquire an undistorted image of a large sample volume without requiring a time-consuming scanning process in point-of-care diagnostic applications.
Shan E. Rauf; Saleem Ahmed Khan; Nadir Ali
2016-01-01
Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) encompasses a group of lymphoid neoplasms that are more common in children and arise from B-and T-lineage lymphoid precursor cells. The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), a new routine parameter in hematology analyzers, can give an indication of hemopoietic recovery like absolute neutrophil count (ANC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate IRF in excess of 5% was considered as IRF recovery. Materials and Methods: In th...
Nikzad, Shouleh; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Blacksberg, J; Hamden, Erika; Schiminovich, David; Martin, Chris; Morrissey, Patrick
2011-01-01
We have used Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-based delta doping technology to demonstrate near 100% internal quantum efficiency (QE) on silicon electron-multiplied Charge Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) for single photon counting detection applications. Furthermore, we have used precision techniques for depositing antireflection (AR) coatings by employing Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and demonstrated over 50% external QE in the far and near-ultraviolet in megapixel arrays. We have demonstrated that other device parameters such as dark current are unchanged after these processes. In this paper, we report on these results and briefly discuss the techniques and processes employed.
Absolute nuclear material assay
Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2010-07-13
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Absolute nuclear material assay
Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2012-05-15
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Shan E. Rauf
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL encompasses a group of lymphoid neoplasms that are more common in children and arise from B-and T-lineage lymphoid precursor cells. The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF, a new routine parameter in hematology analyzers, can give an indication of hemopoietic recovery like absolute neutrophil count (ANC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate IRF in excess of 5% was considered as IRF recovery. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 2.5 to 3 mL of EDTA blood of 45 ALL patients undergoing the remission induction phase of their treatment was sampled and analyzed with a Sysmex XE-5000 on day 1 and every second day thereafter until the day of recovery. ANC of >0.5x109/L on the day corresponding to the first of the three consecutive counts was considered as the day of ANC recovery. IRF recovery was an IRF in excess of 5%. Results: The mean age of the patients was 12.04±5.30 years; 25 patients (55.6% were male and 20 patients (44.4% were female. On day 1 of induction remission, the mean IRF value was 9.68±1.41, while the mean ANC value was 0.077±0.061. Mean recovery day for IRF was 11.84±7.44 and mean recovery day for ANC was 17.67±8.77 (twotailed p-value <0.0001 with 95% confidence interval. By day 28, out of 45 patients 36 (80% showed ANC recovery, while 41 (91% showed IRF recovery. The remaining patients who had not shown recovery by day 28 were further followed up and all of them showed recovery of both parameters by day 39. Conclusion: This study concluded that postinduction bone marrow hemopoietic recovery was earlier by IRF than ANC in children with ALL on chemotherapy
Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely
Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage
2015-01-01
The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…
Carella, A V; Moss, M.W.; Provost, V; Quinn, T C
1995-01-01
CD4+ T lymphocytes are currently the most common surrogate marker indicating disease progression in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since the cost of enumerating lymphocyte phenotypes is quite high, an inexpensive bead assay analyzed by light microscopy (cytosphere assay; Coulter Corporation, Hialeah, Fla.) was developed as an alternative method for counting CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. To evaluate the reliability of the cytosphere assay, heparinized blood was co...
Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb
2009-01-01
The concept of absolute time is a hypothetical model from the laws of classical physics postulated by Isaac Newton in the Principia in 1687. Although the Newtonian model of absolute time has since been opposed and rejected in light of more recent scholarship, it still provides a way to study science with reference to time and understand the phenomena of time within the scientific tradition. According to this model, it is assumed that time runs at the same rate for all the observers in the uni...
Costa, Carlos Casimiro da; Costa, Jacinta Casimiro da
2012-01-01
Tomorrow, I m recovering my Thursday child as an absolute beginner , Transporting you to the essential touch of surface skin and space, Only for you, i do not regret, looking for education in a materia set. My love is your love , my materiality is you making things, The legacy of our ethnography, craftsmen s old and disappear, make me strong hard feelings, Recovering experiences and knowledge sprinkled in powder of stone, wood and metal ( ) reflecting in your dirty face the ...
Phillips, Alfred, Jr.
Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .
Phelan, M C; Lawler, G
2001-05-01
This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...
Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...
Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully
Wade, Angela
2012-01-01
What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…
Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon;
2013-01-01
This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two e...
Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-12-01
This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: ^{240}Pu_{eff} mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.
The number of stars counted along a particular line of sight depends on the spatial distribution of stars, the luminosity function, and the absorption. Thus star count programs designed to constrain or determine one or more of these functions. Early efforts to understand the structure of our Galaxy, including the fundamentals of stellar statistics, were largely based on work that involved star counts. Since then a growing appreciation has developed for the variety of forms the density function and the luminosity function can take, especially the recognition of different stellar populations, each with different density and luminosity functions. In the simplest formulation two distinct populations are considered: disk and halo. This suggests two distinct formation histories, but uncertainty in the picture remains. (Auth.)
... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...
Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.
2012-01-01
We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....
Is Absolute Lymphocyte Count Just Another Prognostic Factor in Cancer?
Porrata, Luis F.; Markovic, Svetomir N.
2010-01-01
The role of host immunity in cancer clinical outcomes has been wellestablished in animal models. In humans, the impact of the immune system as a therapeutic maneuver to treat malignancies has been proven by the development of graft-versus-tumor effect observed in the allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, with few notable exceptions, no definitive conclusions have been reached as to the role of host immunity in humans and its impact on cancer outcomes. This article reviews the clinica...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
In ''profile counting'', a counter is moved progressively along the whole length of the body, and is so collimated that, at each position, it records the radioisotope content of the whole width of the body, but of only a short section of its length. If the counting rate at each position is plotted against the distance of the counter from the vertex of the head, the ''profile'' so obtained gives a rapid and quantitative measure of the radioisotope distribution throughout the body. When a suitable isotope is selectively concentrated in certain organs or tissues of the body, the profile will show peaks indicative of the sites and extent of such concentration, the organs concerned being identified by two-dimensional mapping, and profile counts continued to follow the turnover or changes of concentration in these organs. This technique has been used in the study of I131 concentration and metabolism in thyroid carcinomata, and its value in the management of the radioiodine treatment of such tumours will be discussed. It has also been used in examining the distribution of labelled thyroxine and triiodothyronine after intravenous administration, and of yttrium-90 oxide particles after intrapulmonary artery injection; and of other isotopes by gamma radiation or bremsstrahlung. The method gives a clinically convenient simplification of whole body mapping which lends itself particularly to the quantitative comparison of isotope distribution at different intervals after a radioisotope dose, or after successive doses. (author)
Çuhadar, C.Hakan
2008-01-01
Musicians are debated people in the academic circles with the claim of they have both various characteristics and different cognitive personalities on the analogy those other people. One of these different characteristics is absolute pitch ability. Absolute pitch (AP) is a cognitive ability which can be characterized as to identify any tones (labeling) at a given pitch without using any external references. According to the different studies which were held in different times, the prevalence ...
Okada, H.; Alekseev, I.; Bravar, A; Bunce, G.; Dhawan, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Gill, R; Haeberli, W.; Huang, H.; Jinnouchi, O.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Nass, A.; Saito, N; Stephenson, E.
2007-01-01
Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detector...
Absolute surface energy determination
Metois, J. J.; Muller, P.
2007-01-01
Experimental determination of absolute surface energies remains a challenge. We propose a simple method based on two independent measurements on 3D and 2D equilibrium shapes completed by the analysis of the thermal fluctuation of an isolated step. Using then basic equations (Wulff' theorem, Gibbs-Thomson equation, thermodynamics fluctuation of an isolated step) allows us to extract the absolute surface free energy of a singular face. The so-proposed method can be applied when (i) all orientat...
Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage
Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul
2001-01-01
In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...
Since the recent convincing evidence for massive neutrinos in oscillation experiments, the next task is to determine the absolute masses of neutrinos. A unique pattern of neutrino masses will be hopefully fixed in the future superbeam experiments and neutrino factories. However, the determination of the exact scale is more complicated and depends on the mass of the lightest neutrino ( mμ )min . If ( mμ)min ≥ 0.35 eV, the future tritium β decay experiments ( e.g. KATRIN) will have a chance to establish absolute neutrino masses. For smaller masses, 0.004 eV ≤ (mμ)min ≤ 0.35 eV, if neutrinos are Majorana particles, an additional information can be derived from the neutrinoless double β decay (ββ)0μ of nuclei and again the absolute neutrino masses can be fixed. If, however, (mμ)min ≤ 0.004 eV, none of the present and foreseeable future experiments is known to be able to fix the mass scale. (author)
Absolute calibration of photomultiplier based detectors - difficulties and uncertainties
Photomultiplier manufacturers can provide a calibration of quantum efficiency over a range of wavelengths with an accuracy of up to 2%. To convert these figures to absolute counting efficiency requires knowledge of photomultiplier collection efficiency, F. Traditional methods for determining F are discussed with emphasis on sources of error. Light sources emitting at a known photon rate allow the absolute quantum efficiency to be determined directly. It is important in all attempts at absolute calibration to appreciate the conditions which manufacturers apply when calibrating photomultipliers
Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters
The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments
OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.
2007-09-10
Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.
Okada, H; Bravar, A; Bunce, G; Dhawan, S; Eyser, K O; Gill, R; Haeberli, W; Huang, H; Jinnouchi, O; Makdisi, Y; Nakagawa, I; Nass, A; Saitô, N; Stephenson, E; Sviridia, D; Wise, T; Wood, J; Zelenski, A
2007-01-01
Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features \\textit{proton-proton} elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power $A_N$ of this process has allowed us to achieve $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} =4.2%$ in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of $A...
Absolute standardization of 106Ru by anti-coincidence method
The system of absolute standardization activity of radionuclide by anti-coincidence counting and live-time techniques was implemented at LNMRI in 2008 to reduce the impacts of some influence factors in the determination of the activity with coincidence counting technique used for decades in the lab, for example, the measurement time. With the anti-coincidence system, the variety of radionuclides that can be calibrated by LNMRI was increased, in relation to the type of decay. The objective of this work is the standardization of 106Ru by the method of counting anti-coincidence and estimate its measurement uncertainties. (author)
Optical tweezers absolute calibration
Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M
2014-01-01
Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...
Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE
2010-07-01
This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.
Absolute neutrino mass measurements
Wolf, Joachim
2011-10-01
The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.
Estimating Absolute Site Effects
Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L
2004-07-15
The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency
Be Resolute about Absolute Value
Kidd, Margaret L.
2007-01-01
This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…
Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny
1981-01-01
Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)
On Absolute Measurements of β-Emitting Radionuclides
4 π GM detectors are described and some of their characteristics presented. The absence of spurious pulses is shown by the measurement of the rate of arrival of intervals between pulses. Some problems related to the foil absorption and source absorption are considered using Sr90 and Y90. Aiming at correcting the counting losses in the foil and in a certain extent also the source absorption an experimental method which uses paired sources is presented. The preparation of standards of Bi210 (RaE) is described. A note is presented on the problem of foil absorption losses in scintillation absolute counting. (author)
... and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable ... Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: WBC Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White ...
ROE Absolute Sea Level Changes
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This raster dataset represents changes in absolute sea level along U.S. coasts from 1993 to 2014. Data were provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder (2015)...
Counting techniques-statistics
Referring to the determination of the activity of a given sample, the distribution of the counting results is analysed. The relation between the standard deviation and normal Gauss curve is studied. Student's -t-and X2 tests are presented in the systematic errors determination. Problems are discussed, such as: elimination of background radiation counting, optimum distribution of counting times, criterion of choice and adjustment of the equipment, as well as the elimination of doubtful results
1970-01-01
The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.
Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.
Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.
1971-01-01
Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-
Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources
MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.
1978-09-01
A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.
Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources
A 100-mg 252Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17O. Detection sensitivities of 239Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level
Counting trees using symmetries
Bernardi, Olivier
2012-01-01
We present a new approach for counting trees, and we apply it to count multitype Cayley trees and to prove the multivariate Lagrange inversion formula. The gist of our approach is to exploit the symmetries of refined enumerative formulas: proving these symmetries is easy, and once the symmetries are proved the formulas follow effortlessly. Somewhat surprisingly, our formula for the generating function of multitype Cayley trees appears to be new, and implies certain recent results by Bousquet-M\\'elou and Chapuy. We also adapt our approach to recover known enumerative formulas for cacti counted according to their degree distribution.
Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds
Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne
2010-01-01
Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.
Sublattice counting and orbifolds
Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne
2010-06-01
Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.
Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...
Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages
... you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.
Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.
2013-01-01
To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.
Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications
Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna
2015-09-01
Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.
An absolute measurement of #-v# of Cf252
An absolute measurement of v of Cf252. An absolute determination of the average number of neutrons, #-v#, emitted in the spontaneous fission of Cf252 has been made by counting the fission neutrons in a large liquid scintillator. The detection efficiency of this counter was measured as a function of neutron energy. Well-collimated neutrons were scattered into the scintillator by an anthracene crystal, which detected the corresponding recoil protons. Pulse-shape discrimination was employed to eliminate γ-ray background. The detection efficiency for Cf252 fission neutrons was found to be 0.703 ± 0.007, giving a value of 3.78 ± 0.04 for the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per Cf252 fission. (author)
Android Apps for Absolute Beginners
Jackson, Wallace
2011-01-01
Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl
Bias in Absolute Magnitude Determination from Parallaxes
Feast, Michael
2002-01-01
Relations are given for the correction of bias when mean absolute magnitudes are derived by the method of reduced parallaxes. The bias in the case of the derivation of the absolute magnitudes of individual objects is also considered.
Absolute calibration of JET ELE system
The first Michelson channel of the JET ECE system has been calibrated absolutely using a new high temperature source. The estimated uncertainties are of order +- 20% in the absolute spectral response and +- 10% in the relative spectral shape
Alpha scintillation radon counting
Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222Rn and 226Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines
Photon counting digital holography
Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen
2016-05-01
Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.
Computerized radioautographic grain counting
In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system
Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)
1996-09-01
As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)
Counting rate logarithmic circuits
This paper describes the basic circuit and the design method for a multidecade logarithmic counting ratemeter. The method is based on the charging and discharging of several RC time constants. An F.E.T. switch is used and the drain current is converted into a proportional voltage by a current to voltage converter. The logarithmic linearity was estimated for 4 decades starting from 50 cps. This circuit can be used in several nuclear instruments like survey meters and counting systems. This circuits has been developed as part of campbell channel instrumentation. (author)
The absolute calibration of semiconductor detectors in the Neutrino beam of CERN
The report describes a method for the calibration of semiconductor detectors. A nuclear emulsion is exposed to charged particles (muons) immediately in front of the detector. The muons also scatter delta electrons which give traces in the emulsion. The traces can be counted under a microscope. The separation of the muons and delta electrons takes place by angular distribution. The muons are counted per area unit. The flow is related to the signal of the detector and an absolute counting is achieved. (G.B)
Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.
2014-01-01
Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…
Counting Hexagonal Lattice Animals
Mohammed, Mohamud
2002-01-01
We describe Maple packages for the automatic generation of generating functions(and series expansions) for counting lattice animals(fixed polyominoes), in the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, of bounded but arbitrary width. Our Maple packages(complete with source code) are easy-to-use and available from my website.
Janjic, Milan
2007-01-01
In the first section of this paper we prove a theorem for the number of columns of a rectangular area that are identical to the given one. In the next section we apply this theorem to derive several combinatorial identities by counting specified subsets of a finite set.
Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures
Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony
2016-08-01
Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.
Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures
Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony
2016-01-01
Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.
A coincidence counting system for detection of low level activities
A system based on coincidence counting for measuring the absolute activity of isotopes in which a gamma ray is emitted by the nucleus following the capture of the orbital electron with a known half-life is described. If the half-life of the excited state is small compared to the resolving time of the coincidence circuit, the absolute activity of the source can be determined. The system consists of two NaI(Th) crystals, a high voltage supply, 2 preamplifiers, 2 amplifiers, two single channel analyzers, one coincident unit, and three sealers
Determination of Corrections in the Absolute Measurement of 137Cs
A method, of determining corrections in absolute measurements of 137Cs by 4π proportional counter is described. The correction for self-absorption of 137Cs beta particles from sources formed by vacuum deposition of CsCl on standard carrier films was determined. These samples, which had negligible self-absorption, were measured by 4π counter. The radioactive substance on the film was then dissolved, and by the addition of carrier was converted to a form similar to that of sources usually used for absolute measurement. The correction determined for self-absorption was higher than the value expected from comparison with other radionuclides having near Eβmax. The correction for internal conversion coefficient and gamma efficiency of the beta detector was determined with 137mBa samples. Barium was separated as BaSO4 precipitate and deposited on a standard carrier film used for absolute measurement with a layer thickness of about 1 mg/cm2. These samples were simultaneously measured by means of a 4π beta proportional counter and a Nal(Tl) scintillation counter. From corresponding counting rates in both counters, and from both known efficiencies, the value for a correction appropriate to one disintegration of 137mBa was calculated. The values measured were used further for computation of the internal conversion coefficient and the half-life of 137'mBa, which was ascertained to be 155 ± 3 s. (author)
Fragments of approximate counting
Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil
2014-01-01
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376
The right to count does not always count
Sodemann, Morten
2013-01-01
The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...
Measurement of the absolute speed is possible?
Sergey V. Shevchenko; Tokarevsky, Vladimir V.
2016-01-01
One of popular problems, which are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists. Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in oth...
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation
Jaworski JM
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...
Gukov, Sergei
2016-01-01
Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts — from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence — will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.
This paper is a review of the various photon counting systems, used in astronomy, at optical wavelengths. Technological differences between available devices are introduced according to the processes applied to these photoelectrons (multiplication and/or acceleration), and their impact targets (phosphors, photodetectors, resistive or conductive anodes...). Two detection processes are involved: threshold discrimination above noise for most types of devices, and analog measurement for systems using resistive and wedge-and-strip anodes. Devices currently used for astronomical observations are presented, and their performance characteristics. These devices are: photomultipliers, which are monopixel detectors, using multiplication with dynodes; images intensifiers cameras, most frequently read with CCDs; analog devices with resistive or wedge-and-strip anodes, behind microchannel plates (MCP); Digicons, using direct electronic bombardment; the MAMA detector, with coincidence anodes behind MCP; and then the PAPA detector using masks encoding readout. Dead time effects, which define the dynamic range are presented with some details. Finally, because of the improvement of low level readout noise devices (CCDs), the field of application of the photon counting techniques confines to the blue and the UV part of the spectrum, at low signal to noise ratios
Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness
Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna
2008-01-01
This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…
Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system
Wanke, Michael C.
2016-07-12
Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.
Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application
Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David
2009-01-01
Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…
New Conformal Invariants in Absolute Parallelism Geometry
Youssef, Nabil L.; Soleiman, A.; Taha, Ebtsam H.
2016-01-01
The aim of the present paper is to investigate conformal changes in absolute parallelism geometry. We find out some new conformal invariants in terms of the Weitzenb\\"ock connection and the Levi-Civita connection of an absolute parallelism space.
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.
Parish, Charles R.
1992-01-01
Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…
Improvement Of The Absolute Activity Determination Technique Of '125I In The Thyroid
A method for absolute determination of the activity of a 125I source based on the counting rate values of the 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo-peak is given in the literature. We had shown in previous works, that this method, within certain limitations, diminishes the geometry dependence of the activity determination for 125I sources and for measuring the uptake of 125I in human thyroid. In the present work we present a farther improvement of the accuracy of the absolute determination method
Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector
Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido
1996-07-01
In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)
The absolute determination of activity by the efficiency extrapolation method
As agent for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for the maintenance of the Australian standard of activity. The standard comprises activity measurement procedures involving the operation of 4 π β-γ coincidence counting equipment. The coincidence method requires the application of correction factors which depend on detection efficiency, such as arise for complex decay schemes and internal conversion. These corrections approach unity as the detection efficiency in the β-channel approaches 100 per cent. By performing activity determinations for a range of β detection efficiencies, an 'efficiency extrapolation' analysis can be applied which eliminates the need to determine the absolute detection efficiency for each channel
Fischer, Matthias; Jähn, Claudius; der Heide, Friedhelm Meyer auf; Ziegler, Martin
2008-01-01
For a fixed virtual scene (=collection of simplices) S and given observer position p, how many elements of S are weakly visible (i.e. not fully occluded by others) from p? The present work explores the trade-off between query time and preprocessing space for these quantities in 2D: exactly, in the approximate deterministic, and in the probabilistic sense. We deduce the EXISTENCE of an O(m^2/n^2) space data structure for S that, given p and time O(log n), allows to approximate the number of occluded segments up to arbitrary constant absolute error; here m denotes the size of the Visibility Graph--which may be quadratic, but typically is just linear in the size n of the scene S. On the other hand, we present a data structure CONSTRUCTIBLE in O(n*log(n)+m^2*polylog(n)/l) preprocessing time and space with similar approximation properties and query time O(l*log n), where l
LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK
Group, Nuclear Instrumentation
1966-10-01
The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.
Absolute measurement of neutron source emission rate with manganese bath method
The manganese bath method is one of the most widespread and exact method to measure neutron source emission rate (neutron source intensity) absolutely at present. Pouring some 56Mn solution with known activity into the bath, the system efficiency can be obtained from γ counts of 56Mn, which is measured by two NaI(Tl) detectors. From saturated counts of a 241Am-Be(α, n) neutron source in the bath, the source emission rate can be obtained. An standard 241Am-Be(α, n) source which is the transfer source of the CCRI(Ⅲ)-K9. AmBe international key comparison organized by the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, was measured absolutely with the neutron source emission rate standard equipment (manganese bath method). The result is coincident with the average value of the comparison within the uncertainties, therefore the reliability of the standard equipment is verified. (authors)
Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources
An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength
Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...
Phenotypic spandrel: absolute discrimination and ligand antagonism
François, Paul; Johnson, Kyle A.; Saunders, Laura N.
2015-01-01
We consider the general problem of absolute discrimination between categories of ligands irrespective of their concentration. An instance of this problem is immune discrimination between self and not-self. We connect this problem to biochemical adaptation, and establish that ligand antagonism - the ability of sub threshold ligands to negatively impact response - is a necessary consequence of absolute discrimination.Thus antagonism constitutes a "phenotypic spandrel": a phenotype existing as a...
Absolute Photoacoustic Thermometry in Deep Tissue
Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.
2013-01-01
Photoacoustic (PA) thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here, we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes...
'Araphid' diatom classification and the 'absolute standard'
Williams, David M.
2009-01-01
'Araphid' diatom classification is discussed from the point of view of an 'absolute standard' for taxonomic rank. The 'absolute standard' is the phylogenetic tree, its nodes, the included monophyletic groups and sub-groups. To illustrate this point a few species from the genus Licmophora are re-analysed and the resulting phylogenetic tree is discussed in terms of a possible classification, the groups and sub-groups and their ranks.
Absolute distance metrology for space interferometers
Swinkels, B L; Wendrich, T.J.; Bhattacharya, N; Wielders, A.A.; Braat, J.J.M.
2004-01-01
Space interferometers consisting of several free flying telescopes, such as the planned Darwin mission, require a complex metrology system to make all the components operate as a single instrument. Our research focuses on one of its sub-systems that measures the absolute distance between two satellites with high accuracy. For Darwin the required accuracy would be in the order of 10 μm over 250 meter. To measure this absolute distance, we are currently exploring the frequency sweeping interfer...
Introducing the mean absolute deviation 'effect' size.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme values. The paper then proposes the use of an easy to comprehend effect size based on the mean difference between treatment groups, divided by the mean...
Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate
Millard, H.T., Jr.
1984-01-01
Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.
A method to determine the absolute neutron output of small D-T neutron generators
We propose a standard method of establishing the absolute neutron output from small, D-T, 14 MeV neutron generators. This method uses a copper activation measurement in a configuration that we have calibrated with fission ionization chambers from NIST. The absolute uncertainty in this calibration is less than ± 7%. The copper activation method is insensitive to backgrounds from low energy scattered neutrons because it uses the 63Cu(n, 2n)62Cu reaction which has a 12 MeV threshold. With this calibration method, measurements of absolute neutron output are possible under a variety of experimental conditions, including those simulating nuclear well logging. In addition, the configuration of the copper samples that we propose gives high counting rates so that the statistical precision of the measurement of neutron output, depending upon the generator voltage and beam current, is on the order of 1%. (orig.)
Wamalwa Dalton C
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p 59 months of age (r = 0.68, p 3, age 12-35 months (CD4 count 3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count 3. WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories 59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.
Integrated counting system - user guide
The facilities of a nucleonic counting system in one module in the standard 6000 series and its use in applications is described. Details are given of ways of employing the module for the rapid and low cost development of computer-based systems in nucleonic counting applications. (author)
Hanford whole body counting manual
This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs
Hanford whole body counting manual
Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.
1987-05-01
This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.
A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity
T. J. McDougall
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.
When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg^{−1} in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.
To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.
Analyzing Adherence to Prenatal Supplement: Does Pill Count Measure Up?
Kristie E. Appelgren
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To determine if adherence as measured by pill count would show a significant association with serum-based measures of adherence. Methods. Data were obtained from a prenatal vitamin D supplementation trial where subjects were stratified by race and randomized into three dosing groups: 400 (control, 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day. One measurement of adherence was obtained via pill counts remaining compared to a novel definition for adherence using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D levels (absolute change in 25(OHD over the study period and the subject's steady-state variation in their 25(OHD levels. A multivariate logistic regression model examined whether mean percent adherence by pill count was significantly associated with the adherence measure by serum metabolite levels. Results. Subjects' mean percentage of adherence by pill count was not a significant predictor of adherence by serum metabolite levels. This finding was robust across a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. Based on our novel definition of adherence, pill count was not a reliable predictor of adherence to protocol, and calls into question how adherence is measured in clinical research. Our findings have implications regarding the determination of efficacy of medications under study and offer an alternative approach to measuring adherence of long half-life supplements/medications.
High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...
Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs
Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.
Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen
2016-05-01
This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959
Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield
Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.
2011-09-01
We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.
The clonogenic assay is the method of choice to determine cell reproductive death after in vitro irradiation treatment. Traditionally, colony quantification has been performed by manual counting, a very laborious, time-consuming and rather subjective task. In this study, we compared manual counting by two skilled investigators with automated counting using the freely available ClonoCounter program. Five human tumour cell lines were irradiated under normoxia (21% O2) or anoxia (2), after 24 h or 6 h anoxic preincubation. Colonies were quantified manually or using the ClonoCounter software. A positive correlation between the absolute number of colonies counted manually and automatically was shown. Though there was a general trend of underpredicting the absolute number of cell colonies when counting automatically, survival curves were very similar, and in none of the cell lines were significant differences in radiobiological parameters such as mean inactivation dose, surviving fraction at 2 Gy and oxygen enhancement ratio detected. Our results suggest that the ClonoCounter provides sufficient reliability to be implemented for counting human tumour colonies in in vitro irradiation experiments. In contrast to several previously reported computer-aided colony-counting methods, it is a freely available program, requiring only minimal instrument costs. (note)
Fundamental uncertainties in lung counting.
Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M
2007-10-01
The HML has investigated the effect the uncertainty introduced into an activity estimate from a lung count due to 1) replicate counts and 2) lung set variability. Replicate counts in the HML seem to only be affected by random statistics as the uncertainty can be predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. These findings from the lung set variability experiments suggest that a lung set has an unquantified uncertainty on its activity that adds a component to the uncertainty on the counting efficiency, and ultimately the activity estimate, as they can differ by as much as 30% at 17.5 keV or about 13% at 185.7 keV, when one is expecting only a 3% difference. PMID:17846529
Counting Word Frequencies with Python
William J. Turkel; Adam Crymble
2012-01-01
Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.
Counting Word Frequencies with Python
William J. Turkel
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.
Sharp coincidences for absolutely summing multilinear operators
Pellegrino, Daniel
2012-01-01
In this note we prove the optimality of a family of known coincidence theorems for absolutely summing multilinear operators. We connect our results with the theory of multiple summing multilinear operators and prove the sharpness of similar results obtained via the complex interpolation method.
Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector
Groenland, Johannes Petrus Jacobus
1990-01-01
The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the informatio
Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification
Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen
2016-01-01
This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…
Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically
Shiyuan, Wei
2005-01-01
The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.
Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students
Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea
2011-01-01
This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…
Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed
Lægaard, Sune
2014-01-01
Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...
Absolute-stability results in infinite dimensions
Curtain, RF; Logemann, H; Staffans, O
2004-01-01
We derive absolute-stability results of Popov and circle-criterion type for infinite-dimensional systems in an input-output setting. Our results apply to feedback systems in which the linear part is the series interconnection of an input-output stable linear system and an integrator, and the nonline
The Weyl functor - Introduction to Absolute Arithmetic
Thas, Koen
2014-01-01
Starting from an ancient observation of Tits concerning the interpretation of symmetric groups as Chevalley groups over a (non-existing) field having only one element, we describe combinatorial geometry over this field, as well as Linear Algebra. We arrive at an "absolute mantra" which is one of the basic principles of the present book.
Time Function and Absolute Black Hole
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid
2006-01-01
Einstein’s theory of gravity is not consistent with quantum mechanics, because general relativity cannot be quantized. [1] But without conversion of force and energy, it is impossible to find a grand unified theory. A very important result of CPH theory is time function that allows we give a new ...... description of absolute black hole and before the big bang....
ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE GANIL BEAM ENERGY
CASANDJIAN, JM; MITTIG, W; BEUNARD, R; GAUDARD, L; LEPINESZILY, A; VILLARI, ACC; AUGER, G; BIANCHI, L; CUNSOLO, A; FOTI, A; LICHTENTHALER, R; PLAGNOL, E; SCHUTZ, Y; SIEMSSEN, RH; WIELECZKO, JP
1993-01-01
The energy of the GANIL cyclotron beam was measured on-line during the Pb-208 + Pb-208 elastic scattering experiment ''Search for Color van der Waals Force in the Pb-208 + Pb-208 Mott scattering'' with an absolute precision of 7 x 10(-5) at approximately 1.0 GeV, which represents an improvement of o
Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser
Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef
T118, - (2005), s. 41-44. ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004
Magnetoresistive transducer for absolute position detection
Groenland, J.P.J.
1984-01-01
In this paper a new method is presented for the measurement of absolute linear or angular position. The digital position information is recorded serially into one track of a suitable hard-magnetic medium. The stray field of this information layer determines the angular magnetisation distribution in
Liquid scintillation counting as a calibration method for PAEC monitors
Measurements of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) of radon progeny are obligatory in Polish coal mines. Very important problem is a proper calibration of PAEC monitors for coal mining industry. It is very know fact, that is no possibility of producing of standard atmosphere of radon progeny. Therefore calibration is usually based on comparison of read-out of PAEC monitor with more counting of this filter immersed in a liquid scintillation counter (LSC) gives as a result an absolute method of PAEC measurements, because of very high efficiency for alpha and beta particles in liquid scintillator (almost 100%). (author). 30 refs, 2 figs
Balpardo, C; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P
2010-01-01
The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6 %) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital Coincidence Counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid Scintillation Counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and Defined Solid Angle Counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.
Cerenkov counting as a complement to liquid scintillation counting
A commercially available spectrometer was calibrated for liquid scintillation (LS) and Cerenkov counting efficiency (CCE) using National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable solutions. The CCE increased linearly over a 3 order of magnitude range in 40K β activity, and by 42% per MeV as β-energies increased from 0.300 to 3.54 MeV, achieving a maximum value of 80% for 106Ru/106Rh The CCE can be enhanced by 10-15% when a wavelength shifter is used. A comparison of the data showed that the CCE was typically 20-50% less than the LS counting efficiency for β-particles with maximum energies >1 MeV. Applications that utilize sequential CCE and LS counting to quantitate activity concentrations are discussed for samples containing two β-emitting nuclides of differing energies. (Author)
Hanford whole body counting manual
Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.
1990-06-01
This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.
Hanford whole body counting manual
This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs
An absolute measure for a key currency
Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito
It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.
From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes
Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don
2012-01-01
Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.
Barcenas, Everardo; Layaida, Nabil; Schmitt, Alan
2010-01-01
Regular tree grammars and regular path expressions constitute core constructs widely used in programming languages and type systems. Nevertheless, there has been little research so far on frameworks for reasoning about path expressions where node cardinality constraints occur along a path in a tree. We present a logic capable of expressing deep counting along paths which may include arbitrary recursive forward and backward navigation. The counting extensions can be seen as a generalization of graded modalities that count immediate successor nodes. While the combination of graded modalities, nominals, and inverse modalities yields undecidable logics over graphs, we show that these features can be combined in a decidable tree logic whose main features can be decided in exponential time. Our logic being closed under negation, it may be used to decide typical problems on XPath queries such as satisfiability, type checking with relation to regular types, containment, or equivalence.
The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)
Levi-Civita, Tullio
2013-01-01
Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro
Absolute clock synchronisation and special relativity paradoxes
Ciborowski, Jacek; Wlodarczyk, Marta
2012-01-01
Solving special relativity paradoxes requires rigorous analysis of event timing, due to relative simultaneity in consequence of the Lorentz transformation. Since clock synchronisation is a convention in special theory of relativity, instead of the Einstein's procedure one may choose such that offers absolute simultaneity. We present in short the corresponding formalism in one spatial dimension. We show that paradoxes do not arise with this choice of synchronisation and descriptions of these i...
Absolute distance metrology for space interferometers
Swinkels, B L; Bhattacharya, N; Wielders, A.A.; Braat, J.J.M.
2005-01-01
Future space missions, among which the Darwin Space Interferometer, will consist of several free flying satellites. A complex metrology system is required to have all the components fly accurately in formation and have it operate as a single instrument. Our work focuses on a possible implementation of the sub-system that measures the absolute distance between two satellites with high accuracy. For Darwin the required accuracy is on the order of 70 micrometer over a distance of 250 meter. We a...
An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...
Absolute Parallelism Geometry: Developments, Applications and Problems
Wanas, M. I.
2002-01-01
Absolute parallelism geometry is frequently used for physical applications. It has two main defects, from the point of view of applications. The first is the identical vanishing of its curvature tensor. The second is that its autoparallel paths do not represent physical trajectories. The present work shows how these defects were treated in the course of development of the geometry. The new version of this geometry contains simultaneous non-vanishing torsion and curvatures. Also, the new paths...
Cosmological frames for theories with absolute parallelism
Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco
2011-01-01
The vierbein (tetrad) fields for closed and open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies are hard to work out in most of the theories featuring absolute parallelism. The difficulty is traced in the fact that these theories are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations of the vierbein. We illustrate this issue in the framework of f(T) theories and Born-Infeld determinantal gravity. In particular, we show that the early Universe as described by the Born-Infeld scheme is singularity free ...
Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze
M. de Angelis
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.
Problems determining relative and absolute ages using the small crater population
Xiao, Zhiyong; Strom, Robert G.
2012-07-01
The small crater populations (diameter smaller than 1 km) are widely used to date planetary surfaces. The reliability of small crater counts is tested by counting small craters at several young and old lunar surfaces, including Mare Nubium and craters Alphonsus, Tycho and Giordano Bruno. Based on high-resolution images from both the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera and Kaguya Terrain Camera, small craters in two different diameter ranges are counted for each counting area. Large discrepancies exist in both the cumulative (absolute model ages) and relative plots for the two different size ranges of the same counting areas. The results indicate that dating planetary surfaces using small crater populations is highly unreliable because the contamination of secondaries may invalidate the results of small crater counts. A comparison of the size-frequency distributions of the small crater populations and impact ejected boulders around fresh lunar craters shows the same upturn as typical martian secondaries, which supports the argument that secondaries dominate the small crater populations on the Moon and Mars. Also, the size-frequency distributions of small rayed lunar and martian craters of probable primary origin are similar to that of the Population 2 craters on the inner Solar System bodies post-dating Late Heavy Bombardment. Dating planetary surfaces using the small crater populations requires the separation of primaries from secondaries which is extremely difficult. The results also show that other factors, such as different target properties and the subjective identification of impact craters by different crater counters, may also affect crater counting results. We suggest that dating planetary surfaces using small crater populations should be with highly cautious.
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…
Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts
Donevska-Todorova, Ana
2015-01-01
Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…
Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof
Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk
then consists of a sequence (or tree) of rule applications and provides an independently checkable certificate of the validity of the result. This reduces the need to trust, or otherwise verify, the correctness of the vote counting software once the certificate has been validated. Using a rule...
Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy
We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens. - Highlights: • Scan-averaged energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra are recorded in STEM. • Experimental and simulated EDX signals are shown to agree on an absolute scale. • Two independent methods are used for accurate thickness determination. • Probe channelling must be taken into account, even for very thin specimens. • Channelling effects are minimized for large probe-forming convergence angles
Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy
Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); D' Alfonso, A.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Taplin, D.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)
2015-10-15
We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens. - Highlights: • Scan-averaged energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra are recorded in STEM. • Experimental and simulated EDX signals are shown to agree on an absolute scale. • Two independent methods are used for accurate thickness determination. • Probe channelling must be taken into account, even for very thin specimens. • Channelling effects are minimized for large probe-forming convergence angles.
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL
Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P;
1996-01-01
percentages, and CD4/CD8 ratios for the same individual were stable for 31 seropositive and 51 seronegative individuals with repeated measurements. We found no significant differences in the changes during a 2- or 4-year period in CD4 percentages, CD8 percentages, absolute CD8 T-lymphocyte counts, CD4/CD8...... ratio, white blood cell counts, lymphocyte percentages, and absolute lymphocyte counts for HIV-2-seropositive compared with HIV-2-seronegative individuals. Only absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts changed more for the HIV-2-seropositive than for HIV-2-seronegative individuals (p = 0.037). HIV-2-infected...... individuals who lived with an HIV-2-infected spouse had a lower CD4/CD8 ratio and had higher mortality than HIV-2 infected individuals who lived with an uninfected spouse. However, there were no significant differences in immunological and hematological values for the 8 HIV-2 seropositive individuals who died...
Absolute measurements of the fast neutron flux in the reactor RA
The absolute neutron flux in the vertical VK-5 hole of the reactor RA was determined by using the 27Al (n, alpha) 24Na reaction, and by counting the 24Na - 2.5 MeV gamma line photopeak activity. A method for the determination of σeff as a mean value between the two large limiting cases of neutron spectra is used. The flux at the power level of 5 MW was found to be (2.5±0.9)·1012n/cm2sec (author)
The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program
Peter, George; Moose, Robert E.; Wessells, Claude W.
1989-03-01
The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program will utilize the high precision afforded by the JILAG-4 instrument to support geodetic and geophysical research, which involves studies of vertical motions, identification and modeling of other temporal variations, and establishment of reference values. The scientific rationale of these objectives is given, the procedures used to collect gravity and environmental data in the field are defined, and the steps necessary to correct and remove unwanted environmental effects are stated. In addition, site selection criteria, methods of concomitant environmental data collection and relative gravity observations, and schedule and logistics are discussed.
Prospects for absolute neutron activation analysis
The desirability for absolute neutron activation analysis(ANAA) is two-fold. Results by the comparitor method are only as good as the standards used, and also the method offers a chance of having the final results available within minutes of completing the analysis. In the past ANAA was not seriously considered because of the scarcity and poor qaulity of the nuclear data that were available. This situation is however steadily improving and the possible applications are being investigated. This report reviews the present status by considering the basic activation equation, calculation of parameters, the factors of importance and the size error one might expect
Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility.
Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario
2005-08-18
Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force ('absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells. PMID:16107829
Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET
Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad
In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.
Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Wallentin, Mikkel; Vuust, Peter
2014-01-01
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared......, we found that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate...
婷婷（整理）
2007-01-01
ABSOLUT与创意素来有着不解之缘。由Andy Warhal的ABSOLUT WARHOL至今，已有超过400位不同领域的创意大师为ABSOLUT的当代艺术宝库贡献了自己的得意之作。ABSOLUT的创意仿佛永远不会枯竭，而一系列的作品也让惊喜从未落空。
Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates
Pfeiffer, R. M.; E. Petracci
2011-01-01
We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function base...
Isotope dilution strategies for absolute quantitative proteomics
The development of mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies for high-throughput protein identification has generated a concomitant need for protein quantification. Numerous MS-based relative quantification methodologies have been dedicated to the extensive comparison of multiple proteomes. On the other hand, absolute quantification methodologies, which allow the determination of protein concentrations in biological samples, are generally restricted to defined sets of proteins. Depending on the selected analytical procedure, absolute quantification approaches can provide accurate and precise estimations. These analytical performances are crucial for specific applications such as the evaluation of clinical bio-marker candidates. According to bioanalytical guidelines, accurate analytical processes require internal standards and quality controls. Regarding MS-based analysis of small molecules, isotope dilution has been recognized as the reference method for internal standardization. However, protein quantification methodologies which rely on the isotope dilution principle have been implemented in the proteomic field only recently. In these approaches, the sample is spiked with defined amounts of isotope-labeled analogue(s) of specific proteolytic peptide(s) (AQUA and QconCAT strategies) or protein(s) (PSAQ strategy). In this review, we present a critical overview of these isotope dilution methodologies. (authors)
Reference counting for reversible languages
Mogensen, Torben Ægidius
2014-01-01
Modern programming languages and operating systems use heap memory that allows allocation and deallocation of memory to be decoupled, so they don't follow a stack discipline. Axelsen and Glück have presented a reversible heap manager where allocation and deallocation are each other's logical...... inverses: Freeing a block of memory is done by running the allocation procedure backwards. Axelsen and Glück use this heap manager to sketch implementation of a simple reversible functional language where pattern matching a constructor is the inverse of construction, so pattern-matching implies...... deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...
Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.
Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B
2011-12-01
Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437
A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities
Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.
2011-01-01
The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…
Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding
Ponce, Gregorio A.
2008-01-01
Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…
10481 Abstracts Collection -- Computational Counting
Bürgisser, Peter; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark
2011-01-01
From November 28 to December 3 2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10481 ``Computational Counting'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in ge...
Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts
Canale, Antonio; David B Dunson
2011-01-01
Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviatio...
Radioactivity determination by coincidence counting
The 4 π β-γ coincidence counting equipment used in the Lucas Heights radioisotope standards laboratory for international comparisons is described in detail. A radioactivity standard is a method rather than a material object; as such it can be specified clearly only by discussing fully the setting-up and operation of one particular set of equipment. This manual is written for persons who are setting up such equipment for the first time
Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts
Gheorghe Şteţca
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.
Muritala Abdulkabir
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Optimal designs for generalized linear models (GLM have received increasing attention in recent years. Most of this research focuses on binary data model. This research extends to count data models. The aim and objectives of this research work to determine the appropriate generalized linear model (GLM that is suitable for count data and identify a design that is best according to statistical optimality criteria, the data use for this research work are simulated data from R statistical package using uniform distribution with sample size 300. The simplest distribution use for modeling count data is Poisson distribution, quasi Poisson were carried out to test for over dispersion in the Poisson regression model and the formal way of dealing with over dispersion is negative binomial regression model, thus AIC was use to compare the two models, the Poisson regression model shows the best with minimum AIC. Furthermore optimal design were carried out using the optimality criterion that is the A and D optimality criterion, using design efficiency to compare the two (2 designs the optimality criterion with the highest efficiency is the best, thus D optimality criterion shows the best design.
Constraint Satisfaction with Counting Quantifiers
Madelaine, Florent; Stacho, Juraj
2011-01-01
We initiate the study of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) in the presence of counting quantifiers, which may be seen as variants of CSPs in the mould of quantified CSPs (QCSPs). We show that a single counting quantifier strictly between exists^1:=exists and exists^n:=forall (the domain being of size n) already affords the maximal possible complexity of QCSPs (which have both exists and forall), being Pspace-complete for a suitably chosen template. Next, we focus on the complexity of subsets of counting quantifiers on clique and cycle templates. For cycles we give a full trichotomy -- all such problems are in L, NP-complete or Pspace-complete. For cliques we come close to a similar trichotomy, but one case remains outstanding. Afterwards, we consider the generalisation of CSPs in which we augment the extant quantifier exists^1:=exists with the quantifier exists^j (j not 1). Such a CSP is already NP-hard on non-bipartite graph templates. We explore the situation of this generalised CSP on bipartite templ...
无
2007-01-01
CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been found to down-regulate immune activation in HIV-1 infection. However, whether the depletion of Treg benefits to the disease status of HIV infection remains undefined. To address this issue, we enumerated the Treg absolute counts and frequency in 75 antiviral-na(i)ve HIV-1-infected individuals in this study. It was found that HIV-infected patients displayed a significant decline in Treg absolute counts but a significant increase in Treg frequency. In addition, with disease progression indicated by CD4 T-cell absolute counts, circulating Treg frequency gradually increased; while Treg absolute counts were gradually decreased, suggesting that the alteration of Treg number closely correlated with disease progression in HIV infection.Functional analysis further showed that Treg efficiently inhibit both CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation in vitro. Thus, our findings indicates that Treg actively participate in pathogenesis of chronic HIV infection,influencing the disease progression.
Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.
2010-01-01
The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,
Providing reference standards and metrology for the few photon-photon counting community
Beaumont, Andrew R.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Ireland, Jane; White, Malcolm G.
2009-10-01
The main drivers for developing few-photon metrological techniques are the rapidly progressing field of quantum information processing, which requires the development of high-efficiency photon-counting detectors, and the wider use of photon-counting technology in biology, medical physics and nuclear physics. This paper will focus on the provision of standards for the few photon community and the development of techniques for the characterisation of photon-counting detectors. At the high-power end, microwatts, we are developing a low-power absolute radiometer as a primary standard that will be used to provide traceability over a much broader spectral range. At the few photon-photon-counting level we are developing a conventional calibration technique, which is traceable to the primary standard through a reference trap detector. This method can be used in both analogue and photon-counting modes and provides a convenient route for providing customer calibration at few-photon levels across the optical spectrum. At the photon-counting/single-photon level we are developing a technique based on correlated photons. These are produced via parametric downconversion and can be used to measure directly the detection efficiency of photon-counting detectors. A cross-validation of the correlated photon and conventional technique is reported. Finally we discuss this work in the context of an EU project, that is aimed at establishing the route towards the re-definition of the candela, the SI unit for optical radiation.
Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans
Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang
2016-03-01
A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.
How is an absolute democracy possible?
Joanna Bednarek
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.
Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium
Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be fn∼4.1x10-4 with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 108 neutrons per discharge.
Site specific estimation of cumulative absolute velocity
The presented paper shows some recent results for correlation between cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) and the macro-seismic intensity, magnitude and distance (attenuation functions). The analyses are based mainly on European strong motion data. The processing is performed separately for intermediate depth earthquakes (Vrancea seismic region), regional shallow earthquakes and moderate local earthquakes. The results show that CAV correlates with the intensity, magnitude and distance in a similar way as the peak values of strong motion. There is significant difference of expected CAV from local earthquakes and from strong regional seismic excitations. The local earthquakes, although producing high accelerations, are developing small CAV and respectively small damage potential. The analyses show that intermediate depth earthquakes may produce significant CAV on very large distances, i.e. they may affect large territories and produce damage. The attenuation functions developed are used for prediction of CAV on the site of Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria. (author)
Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication
Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.
2015-09-01
Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.
Tallahatchie NWR - Landbird Point Counts in 2009
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian point counts were done in selected areas of mature forest on Tallahatchie Refuge in 2009. Report contains summary of avain point counts done in mature...
Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...
Djibril Wade
Full Text Available A new CD4 point-of-care instrument, the CyFlow miniPOC, which provides absolute and percentage CD4 T-cells, used for screening and monitoring of HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings, was introduced recently. We assessed the performance of this novel instrument in a reference laboratory and in a field setting in Senegal.A total of 321 blood samples were obtained from 297 adults and 24 children, all HIV-patients attending university hospitals in Dakar, or health centers in Ziguinchor. Samples were analyzed in parallel on CyFlow miniPOC, FACSCount CD4 and FACSCalibur to assess CyFlow miniPOC precision and accuracy.At the reference lab, CyFlow miniPOC, compared to FACSCalibur, showed an absolute mean bias of -12.6 cells/mm3 and a corresponding relative mean bias of -2.3% for absolute CD4 counts. For CD4 percentages, the absolute mean bias was -0.1%. Compared to FACSCount CD4, the absolute and relative mean biases were -31.2 cells/mm3 and -4.7%, respectively, for CD4 counts, whereas the absolute mean bias for CD4 percentages was 1.3%. The CyFlow miniPOC was able to classify HIV-patients eligible for ART with a sensitivity of ≥ 95% at the different ART-initiation thresholds (200, 350 and 500 CD4 cells/mm3. In the field lab, the room temperature ranged from 30 to 35°C during the working hours. At those temperatures, the CyFlow miniPOC, compared to FACSCount CD4, had an absolute and relative mean bias of 7.6 cells/mm3 and 2.8%, respectively, for absolute CD4 counts, and an absolute mean bias of 0.4% for CD4 percentages. The CyFlow miniPOC showed sensitivity equal or greater than 94%.The CyFlow miniPOC showed high agreement with FACSCalibur and FACSCount CD4. The CyFlow miniPOC provides both reliable absolute CD4 counts and CD4 percentages even under the field conditions, and is suitable for monitoring HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings.
Counting the Cycles of Light using a Self-Referenced Optical Microresonator
Jost, J. D.; Herr, T.; Lecaplain, C.; Brasch, V.; Pfeiffer, M. H. P.; Kippenberg, T. J.
2014-01-01
Phase coherently linking optical to radio frequencies with femtosecond mode-locked laser frequency combs enabled counting the cycles of light and is the basis of optical clocks, absolute frequency synthesis, tests of fundamental physics, and improved spectroscopy. Using an optical microresonator frequency comb to establish a coherent link between optical and microwave frequencies will extend optical frequency synthesis and measurements to areas requiring compact form factor, on chip integrati...
Counting spanning trees in graphs
Azarija, Jernej
2012-01-01
The history of counting the number of spanning trees dates back into the year 1842 in which the German mathematician Gustav Kirchhoff derived a relation between the number of spanning trees of a graph G (τ(G)) and the determinant of a specific submatrix associated with G. After this result many other related results followed. For example in 1889 the British mathematician A. Cayley showed that the complete graph on n nodes has nn−2 spanning trees.The function τ can nowadays be found in the fi...
Pawlewicz, Jakub
2011-01-01
The main topic of this contribution is the problem of counting square-free numbers not exceeding $n$. Before this work we were able to do it in time (Comparing to the Big-O notation, Soft-O ($\\softO$) ignores logarithmic factors) $\\softO(\\sqrt{n})$. Here, the algorithm with time complexity $\\softO(n^{2/5})$ and with memory complexity $\\softO(n^{1/5})$ is presented. Additionally, a parallel version is shown, which achieves full scalability. As of now the highest computed value was for $n=10^{1...
Model Counting in Product Configuration
Kübler, Andreas; Küchlin, Wolfgang; 10.4204/EPTCS.29.5
2010-01-01
We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. In order to process these large formulas we developed and implemented a new model counter for non-CNF formulas. Our model counter can process formulas, whose CNF representations could not be processed up till now.
DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators
DC Action for Children, 2012
2012-01-01
This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…
Absolute Neutron Fluence Measurements at the NIST Center for Neutron Research
Yue, A.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Anderson, E.; Snow, M.; Greene, G.; Laptev, A.
2015-10-01
Precise, absolute fluence measurements of cold and thermal neutron beams are of primary importance to beam-type determinations of the neutron lifetime, measurements of standard neutron cross sections, and the development of standards for neutron dosimetry. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a totally absorbing neutron detector based on absolute counting of the 10B(n,α1)7Li reaction 478 keV gamma ray has been used to perform fluence measurements with a precision of 0.06%. This detector has been used to improve the neutron fluence determination in the 2000 NIST beam neutron lifetime by a factor of five, significantly reducing the uncertainty in the lifetime result. Ongoing and possible future uses of the Alpha-Gamma device include 1) Calibration of the neutron fluence monitors that will be used in the upcoming NIST beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2; 2) The first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n,t)4He neutron cross section at sub-thermal neutron energy; 3) Measurements of the 10B(n, γ)11B and 235U(n,f) neutron cross sections; 4) A re-calibration of the national neutron standard NBS-1. The apparatus, measurement technique, and applications will be discussed.
Verification of 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates by an absolute method
Nuclear Safeguards is referred to a verification System by which a State can control all nuclear materials (NM) and nuclear activities under its authority. An effective and efficient Safeguards System must include a system of measurements with capabilities sufficient to verify such NM. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM Standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method has been investigated to verify the 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) type. The most intense gamma-ray signature at 185.7 keV emitted after α-decay of the 235U nuclei was employed in the method. The measuring system (an HPGe-spectrometer) was mathematically calibrated for efficiency using the general Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B. The calibration results and the measured net count rate were used to estimate the 235U mass content in fuel plates at different detector-to-fuel plate distances. Two sets of fuel plates, containing natural and low enriched uranium, were measured at the Fuel Fabrication Facility. Average accuracies for the estimated 235U masses of about 2.62% and 0.3% are obtained for the fuel plates containing natural and low enriched uranium; respectively, with a precision of about 3%
Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions
In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: ''58m CO, ''77mSE, ''79mBR, ''87mSR,''89mY,''93mNB,''103mRh, ''107mAG, ''109mAG, ''113mIn, ''131mXe; ''133mXe,''135mBa, ''167mEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel
How much do women count if they not counted?
Federica Taddia
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all
Complete blood count and retinal vessel calibers.
Gerald Liew
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992-4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. RESULTS: All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p = 0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively, while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all. Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1-2 µm wider venular caliber. CONCLUSIONS: These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation.
Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence
Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett
2011-01-10
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System
Jeonggon Harrison Kim
2008-01-01
Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, resp...
Absolute value preconditioning for symmetric indefinite linear systems
Vecharynski, Eugene; Knyazev, Andrew V.
2011-01-01
We introduce a novel strategy for constructing symmetric positive definite (SPD) preconditioners for linear systems with symmetric indefinite matrices. The strategy, called absolute value preconditioning, is motivated by the observation that the preconditioned minimal residual method with the inverse of the absolute value of the matrix as a preconditioner converges to the exact solution of the system in at most two steps. Neither the exact absolute value of the matrix nor its exact inverse ar...
Sediment varve counting with PIXE
The feasibility of the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique for varve counting of vertically taken marine and lacustrine sediments was studied aiming at its possible use as a dating procedure by observing the yearly variation of the constituent elements. The samples were impregnated with a low viscosity epoxy resin to obtain slabs with preserved layered structure suitable for the PIXE analyses. PIXE-spectra were taken as a function of depth distance and the normalized X-ray peak area variations were determined. Especially, concentration changes of silicon and iron were found to be clear. Due to the employed sample preparation technique the observed chlorine concentration corresponds to the amount of water in the initial sample. Maximum chlorine concentration appeared at positions where the Si and Fe concentrations were near minimum. By plotting the Si/Cl or Fe/Cl peak area ratios, an even more distinct position dependent variation was noted. (author)
Photon counting compressive depth mapping
Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C
2013-01-01
We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.
Counting hypermaps by Egorychev's method
Mednykh, Alexander; Nedela, Roman
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is to find explicit formulae for the number of rooted hypermaps with a given number of darts on an orientable surface of genus g≤ 3 . Such formulae were obtained earlier for g=0 and g=1 by Walsh and Arquès respectively. We first employ the Egorychev's method of counting combinatorial sums to obtain a new version of the Arquès formula for genus g=1 . Then we apply the same approach to get new results for genus g=2,3 . We could do it due to recent results by Giorgetti, Walsh, and Kazarian, Zograf who derived two different, but equivalent, forms of the generating functions for the number of hypermaps of genus two and three.
Counting solutions from finite samplings.
Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun
2012-02-01
We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted. PMID:22463290
Pawlewicz, Jakub
2011-01-01
The main topic of this contribution is the problem of counting square-free numbers not exceeding $n$. Before this work we were able to do it in time (Comparing to the Big-O notation, Soft-O ($\\softO$) ignores logarithmic factors) $\\softO(\\sqrt{n})$. Here, the algorithm with time complexity $\\softO(n^{2/5})$ and with memory complexity $\\softO(n^{1/5})$ is presented. Additionally, a parallel version is shown, which achieves full scalability. As of now the highest computed value was for $n=10^{17}$. Using our implementation we were able to calculate the value for $n=10^{36}$ on a cluster.
Counting paths with Schur transitions
Diaz, Pablo; Veliz-Osorio, Alvaro
2016-01-01
In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.
Model Counting in Product Configuration
Andreas Kübler
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. In order to process these large formulas we developed and implemented a new model counter for non-CNF formulas. Our model counter can process formulas, whose CNF representations could not be processed up till now.
On The Absolute Measurement of Some Nuclear Material Samples
A state with nuclear activities should establish a system capable of controlling all nuclear material (NM) under its authority. Continuous improvement of a measuring system is an essential mandate such controlling system. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method was used to estimate uranium contents in some NM samples. NM was measured by an absolute method through combination of experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations
Warren, S.E.; McKay, R.G.; Aroesty, J.M.; Heller, G.V.; Kolodny, G.M.; Royal, H.D.
1987-01-01
Several radionuclide techniques have been used in routine clinical nuclear medicine practice as a means of quantitating left ventricular chamber volumes in man. Despite wide use and availability of the different techniques, however, there has not been a thorough comparison of radionuclide and contrast angiographic measurements performed in the same patients in close temporal proximity. Accordingly, in order to validate traditional methods of ventricular volume measurement, we have performed contrast ventriculography followed immediately (upon return of baseline hemodynamics) by gated radionuclide ventriculography in 34 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Absolute left ventricular end-diastolic volumes were determined from single-plane, right anterior oblique, end-diastolic contrast silhouettes using a standard area-length method. Radionuclide ventriculographic volumes were determined by three methods: planimetry (32 patients), counts-based (19 patients), and thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction (32 patients). With planimetry, an area-length method was used in which the modified left anterior oblique left ventricular image was assumed to be a prolate ellipsoid whose volume can be determined by measuring surface area and the ventricular long axis. With the counts-based technique, a blood sample was drawn at the midpoint of the radionuclide ventriculogram acquisition and counted with a gamma camera with appropriate attenuation factor correction. With the thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction technique, the left ventricular stroke volume was determined by dividing thermodilution cardiac output by the heart rate.
A flowrate measurement method by counting of radioactive particles suspended in a liquid
By external counting of fine #betta# emitting radioactive particles suspended in a liquid, the flowrate in a system of pipes can be measured. The study comprises three phases: 1. - The hydraulic validity of the method is demonstrated in laminar as well as in turbulent flow under certain conditions of particles size and density and of liquid viscosity. 2. - Radioactive labelling of microspheres of serumalbumin or ion exchange resins with indium 113m delivered by a generator Tin 113 → Indium 113m. 3. - Counting with a scintillation detector: a method of threshold overstepping is experimented with a mechanical or electronic simulator; the statistical study of particle superposition under the detector enables a correction for the resulting counting losses to be proposed. The method provides absolute measurements, but is particularly suitable to measure relative flowrates in a hydraulic network. It can be continuous and does not perturb the flow and the network. The accuracy of the method is analysed in details
Calibration of nuclides by gamma-gamma sum peak coincidence counting
The feasibility of extending sum peak coincidence counting to the direct calibration of gamma-ray emitters having particular decay schemes was investigated, also checkings of the measurement accuracy, by comparing with more precise beta-gamma coincidence counting have been performed. New theoretical studies and experiments were developed, demonstrating the reliability of the procedure. Uncertainties of less than one percent were obtained when certain radioactive sources were measured. The application of the procedure to 60Co, 22Na, 47Ca and 148Pm was studied. Theoretical bases of sum peak coincidence counting were set in order to extend it as an alternative method for absolute activity determination. In this respect, theoretical studies were performed for positive and negative beta decay, and electron capture, either accompanied or unaccompanied by coincident gamma rays. They include decay schemes containing up to three daughter nuclide excited levels, for different geometrical configurations. Equations are proposed for a possible generalization of the procedure. (M.E.L.)
Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential
D. T. Shindell
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.
Development of a superconducting absolute tensor gradiometer
Full text: Although the use of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials for the fabrication of SQUID-based magnetometers and gradiometers is now well established these materials remain more difficult to use than the alternative low-temperature superconducting materials. In particular, the lack of HTSC wires and the difficulty of forming superconducting connections means that the standard low-Tc design practice of forming gradiometer coils from superconducting wires, is not applicable in high-Tc materials. Designs for HTSC axial gradiometers [2] have been implemented only by means of electronic or software subtraction of the outputs of a pair of SQUID magnetometers, and generally have insufficient dynamic range to be rotated in the earth's magnetic field. In this work we describe the development of a new concept axial gradiometer which is implemented through the use of a flux transformer pick-up loop structure patterned on flexible superconducting tape that is inductively coupled to a SQUID-based magnetometer. This is the first example of a series axial gradiometer in HTSC materials and offers significant advantages over the two-SQUID systems mentioned above. The design provides sufficient dynamic range and intrinsic noise immunity to operate while rotated in the full earth's field. Data analysis facilitates the measurement of the absolute value of all five independent components of the magnetic gradient tensor using a set of three such gradiometers, each of which is rotated about its axis. Initial results are presented showing the measurement by a prototype instrument of the tensor gradient of a small bar magnet
Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A
Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.
2016-06-01
This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.
Injury count model for quantification of risk of occupational injury.
Khanzode, Vivek V; Maiti, J; Ray, P K
2011-06-01
Reduction of risk of occupational injuries is one of the most challenging problems faced by industry. Assessing and comparing risks involved in different jobs is one of the important steps towards reducing injury risk. In this study, a comprehensive scheme is given for assessing and comparing injury risks with the development of injury count model, injury risk model and derived statistics. The hazards present in a work system and the nature of the job carried out by workers are perceived as important drivers of injury potential of a work system. A loglinear model is used to quantify injury counts and the event-tree approach with joint, marginal and conditional probabilities is used to quantify injury risk. A case study was carried out in an underground coal mine. Finally a number of indices are proposed for the case study mine to capture risk of injury in different jobs. The findings of this study will help in designing injury intervention strategies for the mine studied. The job-wise risk profiles will be used to prioritise the jobs for redesign. The absolute indices can be applied for benchmarking job-wise risks and the relative indices can be used for comparing job-wise risks across work systems. PMID:21432706
Very high count rate gamma spectroscopy
Recent improvements in the electronics that amplify and analyze gamma photon-induced pulses have made it possible for HPGe coaxial detectors to accept input rates of one-million, one-MeV gamma photons-per-second and still provide the spectroscopist with spectra that can be analyzed. Data are presented that illustrate peak area variances and changes in counting uncertainty statistics due to the greatly extended count rate range. Software algorithms are presented that allow gain shift and peak resolution to be adjusted automatically on a sample-by-sample basis. Relationships are developed between integrated count rate and the variances of full energy photon peak area and counting uncertainty when using the real time correction mode of pulse processing. Finally, the results of integrating hardware and software into a system are used to illustrate that quantitative gamma spectroscopy over counting rates of one- to one-million counts-per-second are achievable
Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers
Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul
2014-01-01
Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at...
Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.
Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.
This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute value in the Cartesian…
Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.
Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.
This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute…
Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)
Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.
2010-12-01
Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.
Absolute electronegativity and hardness correlated with molecular orbital theory
Pearson, Ralph G.
1986-01-01
The concepts of absolute electronegativity, χ, and absolute hardness, η, are incorporated into molecular orbital theory. A graphic and concise definition of hardness is given as twice the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. Useful correlations can now be made between chemical behavior, visible-UV absorption spectra, optical polarizability, ionization potentials, and electron affinities.
Absolute neutronic performance of SNS from gold foil application
The determination of absolute neutron fluxes by white beam activation of thick gold foils in conjuction with spectral analysis by time-of-flight monitors is described. A numerical integration procedure is presented and the method applied to determining the absolute performance of SNS from data obtained during the initial commissioning run in December 1984. (author)
Karst Water System Investigated by Absolute Gravimetry
Quinif, Y.; Meus, P.; van Camp, M.; Kaufmann, O.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Vandiepenbeeck, M.; Camelbeeck, T.
2006-12-01
The highly anisotropic and heterogeneous hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers are difficult to characterize and present challenges for modeling of storage capacities. Little is known about the surface and groundwater interconnection, about the connection between the porous formations and the draining cave and conduits, and about the variability of groundwater volume within the system. Usually, an aquifer is considered as a black box, where water fluxes are monitored as input and output. However, water inflow and outflow are highly variable and cannot be measured directly. A recent project, begun in 2006 sought to constrain the water budget in a Belgian karst aquifer and to assess the porosity and water dynamics, combining absolute gravity (AG) measurements and piezometric levels around the Rochefort cave. The advantage of gravity measurements is that they integrate all the subsystems in the karst system. This is not the case with traditional geophysical tools like boring or monitoring wells, which are soundings affected by their near environment and its heterogeneity. The investigated cave results from the meander cutoff system of the Lomme River. The main inputs are swallow holes of the river crossing the limestone massif. The river is canalized and the karst system is partly disconnected from the hydraulic system. In February and March 2006, when the river spilled over its dyke and sank into the most important swallow hole, this resulted in dramatic and nearly instantaneous increases in the piezometric levels in the cave, reaching up to 13 meters. Meanwhile, gravity increased by 50 and 90 nms-2 in February and March, respectively. A first conclusion is that during these sudden floods, the pores and fine fissures were poorly connected with the enlarged fractures, cave, and conduits. With a rise of 13 meters in the water level and a 5% porosity, a gravity change of 250 nms-2 should have been expected. This moderate gravity variation suggests either a
Resonance ionization spectroscopy: Counting noble gas atoms
The purpose of this paper is to describe new work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions). When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. We show that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective. (orig./FKS)
Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts
Durrer, Ruth
2016-01-01
We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.
High-precision absolute coordinate measurement using frequency scanned interferometry
We reported previously on measurements of absolute distance with frequency scanned interferometry (FSI) method [1, 2]. In this paper, we extend the FSI method into 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional high-precision absolute coordinate measurements using a single laser. Absolute position is determined by several related absolute distances measured simultaneously. The achieved precision on X and Y in 2- and in 3-dimensional measurements is confirmed to be below 1 μm, while the precision in Z (in 3D case) is found to be about 2 μm. The last one is limited by the accuracy of the available translational stage used in the tests. A much more powerful laser and a better real-time data acquirement system will be required in case of measurements of larger absolute distances
In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m2), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m2). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs
Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?
Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret
2014-01-01
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…