Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...
Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space
Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2012-06-05
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space
Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2015-12-01
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.
Walker, Clare; Barnett, David
2006-05-01
There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842
Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.
Mandy, F; Brando, B
2001-05-01
Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719
The Internal Gas Counter as a Precision Absolute Counting Device
The internal gas counter is the most accurate device for the absolute counting of low energy radiations. Its usefulness can be extended to higher energies if the possible error effects are investigated and corrected thoroughly and the measuring conditions are properly chosen. The different sources of error in internal gas counting, e.g. field distortion by the isolators and guard tubes at the counter ends, irradiation from the ineffective end volumes into the counting volume, escape from the counting volume into the ends and walls, all kinds of sorption effects, and counting loss due to the finite energy discrimination during counting, are discussed in detail. The optimum counter design is derived from this discussion. The corrections for these error effects can be described with simple semi-empirical formulas, which depend only on a few constants which have to be determined. Measurements of T, 14C, 35S, 37A and 85Kr at counting-gas pressures of 200-750 Torr have been performed. They make it possible to determine all corrections in internal gas counting, depending on the energy and kind of the radiation and on the counting-gas pressure. This determination has.been done by using empirical extrapolation techniques as well as the derived formulas. The results make it possible to correct nearly every internal gas counting measurement of β-radiations, electrons and X-rays and to obtain final accuracies of 1%. Some examples of such measurements - the determination of the decay scheme of 85Kr, the measurement of the fluorescence yield of 37Cl and the half-life determination of 131mXe - are discussed briefly. (author)
An associated particle technique for absolute neutron counting efficiency determination
The 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction has been used to produce neutrons with energies ranging from 8 to 13 MeV in order to measure the absolute neutron counting efficiency of a large NE213 scintillator by the associated particle method. Recoil 7Be nuclei were detected with a ΔE(gas)-E (solid) telescope in coincidence with neutrons. The method is suitable for neutron energies greater than 1.2MeV and could be applied to establish the neutron efficiency response of any detector
Dashika A. Balak
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm3. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r=0.5. No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm3 or 500 cells/mm3. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm3 and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm3 it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.
Recent Progress in Liquid Scintillation Counting System for Absolute Radioactivity Measurement
无
2011-01-01
The triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method is an absolute activity measurement method in liquid scintillation counting, especially developed for pure β- and EC-emitters activity standardization. Such a liquid scintillation counting system is now
Monocytes in inflammatory bowel disease: absolute monocyte counts.
Mee, A. S.; Berney, J.; Jewell, D P
1980-01-01
Using a cytochemical staining technique, peripheral blood monocytes have been precisely identified and enumerated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and compared with healthy and disease control subjects. For ulcerative colitis there was a significant monocytosis, which was closely correlated with the total white cell count and with the activity of the disease. For patients with Crohn's disease, the peripheral blood monocyte count was also raised compared with that of the control gro...
Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)
Barnaby Young
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical value of monitoring CD4 counts in immune reconstituted, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is limited. We investigated if absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC from an automated blood counting machine could accurately estimate CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: CD4 counts, ALC and HIV viral load (VL were extracted from an electronic laboratory database for all patients in HIV care at the Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (2008–13. Virologic suppression was defined as consecutive HIV VLs 300 cells/mm3. CD4 counts were estimated using the CD4% from the first value >300 and an ALC 181–540 days later. Results: A total of 1215 periods of virologic suppression were identified from 1183 patients, with 2227 paired CD4-ALCs available for analysis. 98.3% of CD4 estimates were within 50% of the actual value. 83.3% within 25% and 40.5% within 10%. The error pattern was approximately symmetrically distributed around a mean of −6.5%, but significant peaked and with mild positive skew (kurtosis 4.45, skewness 1.07. Causes for these errors were explored. Variability between lymphocyte counts measured by ALC and flow cytometry did not follow an apparent pattern, and contributed to 32% of the total error (median absolute error 5.5%, IQR 2.6–9.3. The CD4% estimate was significantly lower than the actual value (t-test, p<0.0001. The magnitude of this difference was greater for lower values, and above 25%, there was no significant difference. Precision of the CD4 estimate was similar as baseline CD4% increased, however accuracy improved significantly: from a median 16% underestimation to 0% as baseline CD4% increased from 12 to 30. Above a CD4% baseline of 25, estimates of CD4 were within 25% of the actual value 90.2% of the time with a median 2% underestimation. A robust (bisqaure linear regression model was developed to correct for the rise in CD4% with time, when baseline was 14–24
Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts
Donabedian Haig
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary.
Avella, Alessio; Berchera, Ivano Ruo; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco
2016-01-01
We show how the same set-up and procedure, exploiting spatially multi-mode quantum correlations, allows the absolute calibration of a EMCCD camera from the analog regime down to the single photon counting level, just by adjusting the brightness of the quantum source. At single photon level EMCCD can be operated as an on-off detector, where quantum efficiency depends on the discriminating threshold. We develop a simple model to explain the connection of the two different regime demonstrating t...
An algorithm for applying flagged Sysmex XE-2100 absolute neutrophil counts in clinical practice
Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Saelsen, Lone; Abildstrøm, Steen Z;
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Even though most differential leukocyte counts are performed by automated hematology platforms, turn-around time is often prolonged as flagging of test results trigger additional confirmatory manual procedures. However, frequently only the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is needed. We...... therefore examined if an algorithm could be developed to identify samples in which the automated ANC is valid despite flagged test results. METHODS: During a 3-wk period, a training set consisting of 1448 consecutive flagged test-results from the Sysmex XE-2100 system and associated manual differential...... counts was collected. The training set was used to determine which alarms were associated with valid ANCs. The algorithm was then tested on a new set of 1371 test results collected during a later 3-wk period. RESULTS: Analysis of the training set data revealed that the ANC from test results flagged with...
Avella, A.; Ruo-Berchera, I.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Brida, G.; Genovese, M.
2016-04-01
We show how the same set-up and procedure, exploiting spatially multi-mode quantum correlations, allows the absolute calibration of a EMCCD camera from the analog regime down to the single photon counting level, just by adjusting the brightness of the quantum source. At single photon level EMCCD can be operated as an on-off detector, where quantum efficiency depends on the discriminating threshold. We develop a simple model to explain the connection of the two different regime demonstrating that the efficiency estimated in the analog (bright) regime allows to accurately predict the detector behaviour in the photo-counting regime and vice-versa. This work establishes a bridge between two regions of the optical measurements that up to now have been based on completely different standards, detectors and measurement techniques.
Absolute count of T and B lymphocyte subsets is decreased in systemic sclerosis
Gambichler T
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports on lymphocyte subpopulations in systemic sclerosis (SSc are conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the lymphocyte subsets in SSc patients who were not on immunosuppressive therapy. Methods Lymphocyte subsets were assessed in the peripheral blood of SSc patients (n = 29 and healthy controls (n = 29 using the four colour flow cytometry method. Correlation studies were also performed in order to assess the relationship between lymphocyte subsets and clinical parameters. Results The absolute count of lymphocytes (P = 0.0042, CD3+ (P = 0.0014, CD4+ (P = 0.0070, CD8+ (P = 0.021, and CD19+ cells (P = 0.024 was significantly decreased in SSc patients when compared to healthy controls. CD4+/CD8+ ratio and the absolute count of CD56+ cells observed in SSc patients did not significantly differ from controls (P = 0.165; P = 0.632, respectively. There was no substantial relationship between the lymphocyte subset levels and clinical features (i.e., SSc subtype, autoantibody profiles, organ involvement, except for a significant inverse correlation of CD19+ cells and the modified Rodnan skin score (r = -0.43, P = 0.020. Conclusion Our data support previous reports indicating that subsets of T lymphocytes as well as B lymphocytes play a role in the pathogenesis of SSc.
Avella, A; Ruo-Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Brida, G; Genovese, M
2016-04-15
We show how the same setup and procedure, exploiting spatially multimode quantum correlations, allows the absolute calibration of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled (EMCCD) camera from the analog regime down to the single-photon-counting level, just by adjusting the brightness of the quantum source. At the single-photon level, an EMCCD can be operated as an on-off detector, where quantum efficiency depends on the discriminating threshold. We develop a simple model to explain the connection of the two different regimes demonstrating that the efficiency estimated in the analog (bright) regime allows us to accurately predict the detector behavior in the photocounting regime and vice versa. This work establishes a bridge between two regions of the optical measurements that up to now have been based on completely different standards, detectors, and measurement techniques. PMID:27082359
Patrizio, Angela; Specht, Christian G
2016-10-01
The ability to count molecules is essential to elucidating cellular mechanisms, as these often depend on the absolute numbers and concentrations of molecules within specific compartments. Such is the case at chemical synapses, where the transmission of information from presynaptic to postsynaptic terminals requires complex interactions between small sets of molecules. Be it the subunit stoichiometry specifying neurotransmitter receptor properties, the copy numbers of scaffold proteins setting the limit of receptor accumulation at synapses, or protein packing densities shaping the molecular organization and plasticity of the postsynaptic density, all of these depend on exact quantities of components. A variety of proteomic, electrophysiological, and quantitative imaging techniques have yielded insights into the molecular composition of synaptic complexes. In this review, we compare the different quantitative approaches and consider the potential of single molecule imaging techniques for the quantification of synaptic components. We also discuss specific neurobiological data to contextualize the obtained numbers and to explain how they aid our understanding of synaptic structure and function. PMID:27335891
Value of the use of absolute lymphocyte as surrogate for CD4 count in resource poor situations
Oluwafemi Johnson Adegbamigbe
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The initiation of antiretroviral (ARV drugs and monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV treatment in developing nations such as sub-Sahara Africa is based on the clinical stage and level of CD4 count. Clinical stages can easily be determined using the World Health Organisation (WHO criteria, this is not so with CD4 count where the right equipment and expertise are not easily available. This lead to various studies being carried out in search of surrogates for CD4 count with use of total lymphocyte count (TLC being suggested by some studies. Objective: In situation where determination of CD4 cell count is not available or feasible, lymphocyte count is believed to be one alternative method for immunological classification of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Such assumption may not be true of every population. The objective is, therefore, to examine the correlation between the absolute lymphocyte count and the CD4+ lymphocyte count in HIV positive patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-five consecutive HIV positive patients were recruited for the study before the commencement of ARV drugs over a period of 13 months. The haemotological parameters such as the CD4 count was done by flow cytometry using Partec cyflow counter machine made in Germany, with strict adherence to the manufacturer′s standard operating procedure. TLC were also determined using Sysmex haematology blood analyser, following the manufacturer′s standard operating procedure. Patients were then grouped into CD4 and Total lymphocyte (TLC categories. These were then compared to determine if there is any correlation as shown in previous studies. Statistical analysis of data was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS and statistical significance of data was based on P value of less than 0.05. There was significant positive correlation (P value 0.000 between TLC and CD4 count. Results: Majority of the patients with TLC
Dhar Sandipan
2005-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of epidemiological studies, showing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis, were available, scant attention has been paid to the correlation between the parameters of the disease like severity, absolute eosinophil count and IgE level, which has been known to be associated inconsistently. Hence this study was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 102 patients of atopic dermatitis, both children and adults, and 107 age matched controls were studied at the Pediatric Dermatology clinic, Institute of Child Health and department of Dermatology, AMRI-Apollo hospitals, Kolkata. RESULTS: The average age of onset of atopic dermatitis was observed to be 4.55 years. Both the average absolute eosinophil count and IgE levels in patients of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than that of the controls. Each of these parameters showed significant correlation with severity of the disease and showed a nonhomogeneous distribution reflected by significant association with personal history of bronchial asthma and family history of atopy, when both parents were atopic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that clinical activity of the disease as recorded by the "SCORAD" index can be used as an indicator of the hematological abnormalities as well as to some extent as a prognostic indicator. Family history of atopy correlates with the hematological abnormalities only if both parents are involved and bronchial asthma is the only associated atopic condition which correlates with the parameters of the disease .
Madhuri Thakar; Bharati Mahajan; Trupti Joshi; Suvarna Sane; Ramesh Paranjape
2013-01-01
Background & objectives: Reliable CD4 counts are important for successful implementation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Availability of dry CD4 reagents can eliminate cold chain requirement reducing shipment and storage cost. An attempt was made in this study to validate the ReaPan and Rea T Count dry reagents developed by ReaMetrix against the original BD Biosciences liquid reagents. Method: Absolute counts and percentages of CD4, CD8 and CD3 + T cells obtained in 100 HIV infected ind...
Li X
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Xin Li, Zhiyu Han, Zhigang Cheng, Jie Yu, Xiaoling Yu, Ping Liang Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count (ALC in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC following thermal ablation. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between preoperative ALC and the clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in 423 RHCC patients who underwent curative thermal ablation. Correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC calculation, Kaplan–Meier curves, and multivariate regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The median time to recurrence was 12 months for RHCC patients after thermal ablation. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, preoperative ALC was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence, along with tumor differentiation and α-fetoprotein level. ALC ≥1.64×109/L defined by ROC calculation was associated with prolonged survival (area under the curve 0.741, P<0.001. Patients with ALC ≥1.64×109/L showed a mean survival of 20.2 months versus 11.6 months for patients with ALC <1.64×109/L (P<0.001. Patients were stratified into high and low groups according to ALC status. After excluding the basic parameters between groups, the 1- and 3-year recurrence rates in the high group were 20.9% and 29.5%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the low group (58.4% and 71.9%, respectively; P<0.001. The recurrence-free survival rates in the two groups analyzed by Kaplan–Meier curves were significantly different (P<0.001. Conclusion: Preoperative ALC is a powerful prognostic factor for RHCC recurrence after thermal ablation, which suggests that maintaining a high ALC in RHCC patients might improve cancer outcomes. Keywords: absolute lymphocyte count, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, thermal ablation, recurrence
A technique for the absolute measurement of the W-value for X-rays in counting gases
Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N
2000-08-11
A technique was developed for the absolute measurement of the W-value (the mean energy for the production of an electron-ion pair) for low-energy X-rays in a wide range of gases at atmospheric pressures, with a standard uncertainty better than 1%. This technique is based on the absolute measurement of the primary ionization charge produced by X-ray photons from a constant intensity monoenergetic X-ray source, e.g. a long lifetime radioactive source. The ionization charge is calibrated by the number of X-ray photons absorbed in the gas, counted with a photon detector. For this purpose, a hybrid detector system was tested and its use in W-value measurements was investigated. The technique was applied to pure xenon at 825 Torr with 5.9 keV X-rays and a W-value of 21.61{sub -0.10}{sup +0.14} eV was obtained for a 68% confidence level. The required corrections and the different factors contributing to the accuracy of the results are discussed. The advantages and limitations of this technique are explored and future developments are discussed.
Anno, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Akira; Ejiri, Kazutaka
1987-12-01
In order to estimate the absolute left ventricular volume (LVV) and the cradiac output (CO), gated equilibrium blood pool scintigraphy was performed. CO by radionuclide (RN) method was compared with CO simultaneously measured by thermodilution method (TDM) using Swan-Ganz catheter in 22 patients with cardiac diseases. To improve these determinations by RN, LVV using the count-based method was corrected by each of four transmission factors (TF1 = 1, TF2 (water) = e/sup -0.15d/, TF3 = e/sup -0.13d/ and TF4 = 1 - (1 - e/sup -0.125d/)/sup 1.26/ d: depth). We compared CO by RN with by TDM. CO by RN was significantly correlated with TDM: TF1 (CO (RN) = 0.23 x CO (TDM) + 0.08, r = 0.628, p < 0.002), TF (CO (RN) = 1.10 x CO (TDM) - 0.47, r = 0.914, p < 0.001), TF3 (CO (RN) = 0.89 x CO (TDM) - 0.30, r = 0.912, p < 0.001), and TF4 (CO (RN) = 0.71 x CO (TDM) - 0.23, r = 0.911, p < 0.001), respectively. These results indicate that the linear sttenuation correction is necessary and sufficient for accurate measurement of LVV and CO by RN using count-based method in clinical use.
Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)
We have studied a measurement of subcriticality by using the neutron correlation method. Furuhashi proposed an absolute measurement of subcriticality by using the third order neutron correlation factor X in addition to the second order neutron correlation factor Y. In actual experiments, the number of neutron counts data is not infinity so that we take the effect of the finite nature of the neutron counts data into account. We derived new formulas in consideration of the number of data and verified them. (author)
Hirase, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Takahashi, Hironobu; Moriwaki, Kensuke; Saito, Atsuro; Kozaki, Aiko; Ishida, Toshiaki; Yanai, Tomoko; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki
2015-11-01
Recent studies have reported that the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) during induction therapy is predictive of treatment outcome in de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, the significance of ALC on outcomes remains controversial. In the present study, we assessed the significance of ALC at day 29 (ALC-29), the end of induction therapy, on outcomes in our Japanese cohort. The outcomes of 141 patients aged ≤18 years with newly diagnosed ALL who were enrolled on the JACLS ALL-02 at our hospitals were analyzed in terms of ALC-29. Patients with ALC-29 ≥750/μL (n = 81) had a superior 5-year EFS (95.2 ± 2.7 vs 84.3 ± 4.8 %, P = 0.016) and OS (100 vs 87.0 ± 4.7 %, P = 0.0062). A multivariate analysis identified ALC-29 ≥750/μL as a significant predictor of improved EFS and OS after controlling for confounding factors. A multiple linear regression model revealed a significant inverse relationship between the percentage of blasts in bone marrow on day 15 and ALC-29 (P = 0.005). These results indicate that ALC is a simple prognostic factor in childhood ALL, and, thus, has the potential to refine current risk algorithms. PMID:26440971
Mohiuddin Khan Shourav
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Field curvature and other aberrations are encountered inevitably when designing a compact fluorescence imaging system with a simple lens. Although multiple lens elements can be used to correct most such aberrations, doing so increases system cost and complexity. Herein, we propose a wide field-of-view (FOV fluorescence imaging method with an unconventional optical-quality curved sample chamber that corrects the field curvature caused by a simple lens. Our optics simulations and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that a curved substrate with lens-dependent curvature can reduce greatly the distortion in an image taken with a conventional planar detector. Following the validation study, we designed a curved sample chamber that can contain a known amount of sample volume and fabricated it at reasonable cost using plastic injection molding. At a magnification factor of approximately 0.6, the curved chamber provides a clear view of approximately 119 mm2, which is approximately two times larger than the aberration-free area of a planar chamber. Remarkably, a fluorescence image of microbeads in the curved chamber exhibits almost uniform intensity over the entire field even with a simple lens imaging system, whereas the distorted boundary region has much lower brightness than the central area in the planar chamber. The absolute count of white blood cells stained with a fluorescence dye was in good agreement with that obtained by a commercially available conventional microscopy system. Hence, a wide FOV imaging system with the proposed curved sample chamber would enable us to acquire an undistorted image of a large sample volume without requiring a time-consuming scanning process in point-of-care diagnostic applications.
Shan E. Rauf; Saleem Ahmed Khan; Nadir Ali
2016-01-01
Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) encompasses a group of lymphoid neoplasms that are more common in children and arise from B-and T-lineage lymphoid precursor cells. The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), a new routine parameter in hematology analyzers, can give an indication of hemopoietic recovery like absolute neutrophil count (ANC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate IRF in excess of 5% was considered as IRF recovery. Materials and Methods: In th...
Nikzad, Shouleh; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Blacksberg, J; Hamden, Erika; Schiminovich, David; Martin, Chris; Morrissey, Patrick
2011-01-01
We have used Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-based delta doping technology to demonstrate near 100% internal quantum efficiency (QE) on silicon electron-multiplied Charge Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) for single photon counting detection applications. Furthermore, we have used precision techniques for depositing antireflection (AR) coatings by employing Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and demonstrated over 50% external QE in the far and near-ultraviolet in megapixel arrays. We have demonstrated that other device parameters such as dark current are unchanged after these processes. In this paper, we report on these results and briefly discuss the techniques and processes employed.
Absolute nuclear material assay
Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2010-07-13
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Absolute nuclear material assay
Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2012-05-15
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Shan E. Rauf
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL encompasses a group of lymphoid neoplasms that are more common in children and arise from B-and T-lineage lymphoid precursor cells. The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF, a new routine parameter in hematology analyzers, can give an indication of hemopoietic recovery like absolute neutrophil count (ANC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate IRF in excess of 5% was considered as IRF recovery. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 2.5 to 3 mL of EDTA blood of 45 ALL patients undergoing the remission induction phase of their treatment was sampled and analyzed with a Sysmex XE-5000 on day 1 and every second day thereafter until the day of recovery. ANC of >0.5x109/L on the day corresponding to the first of the three consecutive counts was considered as the day of ANC recovery. IRF recovery was an IRF in excess of 5%. Results: The mean age of the patients was 12.04±5.30 years; 25 patients (55.6% were male and 20 patients (44.4% were female. On day 1 of induction remission, the mean IRF value was 9.68±1.41, while the mean ANC value was 0.077±0.061. Mean recovery day for IRF was 11.84±7.44 and mean recovery day for ANC was 17.67±8.77 (twotailed p-value <0.0001 with 95% confidence interval. By day 28, out of 45 patients 36 (80% showed ANC recovery, while 41 (91% showed IRF recovery. The remaining patients who had not shown recovery by day 28 were further followed up and all of them showed recovery of both parameters by day 39. Conclusion: This study concluded that postinduction bone marrow hemopoietic recovery was earlier by IRF than ANC in children with ALL on chemotherapy
Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely
Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage
2015-01-01
The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…
Carella, A V; Moss, M.W.; Provost, V; Quinn, T C
1995-01-01
CD4+ T lymphocytes are currently the most common surrogate marker indicating disease progression in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since the cost of enumerating lymphocyte phenotypes is quite high, an inexpensive bead assay analyzed by light microscopy (cytosphere assay; Coulter Corporation, Hialeah, Fla.) was developed as an alternative method for counting CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. To evaluate the reliability of the cytosphere assay, heparinized blood was co...
Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb
2009-01-01
The concept of absolute time is a hypothetical model from the laws of classical physics postulated by Isaac Newton in the Principia in 1687. Although the Newtonian model of absolute time has since been opposed and rejected in light of more recent scholarship, it still provides a way to study science with reference to time and understand the phenomena of time within the scientific tradition. According to this model, it is assumed that time runs at the same rate for all the observers in the uni...
Costa, Carlos Casimiro da; Costa, Jacinta Casimiro da
2012-01-01
Tomorrow, I m recovering my Thursday child as an absolute beginner , Transporting you to the essential touch of surface skin and space, Only for you, i do not regret, looking for education in a materia set. My love is your love , my materiality is you making things, The legacy of our ethnography, craftsmen s old and disappear, make me strong hard feelings, Recovering experiences and knowledge sprinkled in powder of stone, wood and metal ( ) reflecting in your dirty face the ...
Phillips, Alfred, Jr.
Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .
Phelan, M C; Lawler, G
2001-05-01
This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...
Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...
Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully
Wade, Angela
2012-01-01
What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…
Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon;
2013-01-01
This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two e...
Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-12-01
This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: ^{240}Pu_{eff} mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.
The number of stars counted along a particular line of sight depends on the spatial distribution of stars, the luminosity function, and the absorption. Thus star count programs designed to constrain or determine one or more of these functions. Early efforts to understand the structure of our Galaxy, including the fundamentals of stellar statistics, were largely based on work that involved star counts. Since then a growing appreciation has developed for the variety of forms the density function and the luminosity function can take, especially the recognition of different stellar populations, each with different density and luminosity functions. In the simplest formulation two distinct populations are considered: disk and halo. This suggests two distinct formation histories, but uncertainty in the picture remains. (Auth.)
... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...
Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.
2012-01-01
We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....
Is Absolute Lymphocyte Count Just Another Prognostic Factor in Cancer?
Porrata, Luis F.; Markovic, Svetomir N.
2010-01-01
The role of host immunity in cancer clinical outcomes has been wellestablished in animal models. In humans, the impact of the immune system as a therapeutic maneuver to treat malignancies has been proven by the development of graft-versus-tumor effect observed in the allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, with few notable exceptions, no definitive conclusions have been reached as to the role of host immunity in humans and its impact on cancer outcomes. This article reviews the clinica...
In ''profile counting'', a counter is moved progressively along the whole length of the body, and is so collimated that, at each position, it records the radioisotope content of the whole width of the body, but of only a short section of its length. If the counting rate at each position is plotted against the distance of the counter from the vertex of the head, the ''profile'' so obtained gives a rapid and quantitative measure of the radioisotope distribution throughout the body. When a suitable isotope is selectively concentrated in certain organs or tissues of the body, the profile will show peaks indicative of the sites and extent of such concentration, the organs concerned being identified by two-dimensional mapping, and profile counts continued to follow the turnover or changes of concentration in these organs. This technique has been used in the study of I131 concentration and metabolism in thyroid carcinomata, and its value in the management of the radioiodine treatment of such tumours will be discussed. It has also been used in examining the distribution of labelled thyroxine and triiodothyronine after intravenous administration, and of yttrium-90 oxide particles after intrapulmonary artery injection; and of other isotopes by gamma radiation or bremsstrahlung. The method gives a clinically convenient simplification of whole body mapping which lends itself particularly to the quantitative comparison of isotope distribution at different intervals after a radioisotope dose, or after successive doses. (author)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
Çuhadar, C.Hakan
2008-01-01
Musicians are debated people in the academic circles with the claim of they have both various characteristics and different cognitive personalities on the analogy those other people. One of these different characteristics is absolute pitch ability. Absolute pitch (AP) is a cognitive ability which can be characterized as to identify any tones (labeling) at a given pitch without using any external references. According to the different studies which were held in different times, the prevalence ...
Okada, H.; Alekseev, I.; Bravar, A; Bunce, G.; Dhawan, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Gill, R; Haeberli, W.; Huang, H.; Jinnouchi, O.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Nass, A.; Saito, N; Stephenson, E.
2007-01-01
Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detector...
Absolute surface energy determination
Metois, J. J.; Muller, P.
2007-01-01
Experimental determination of absolute surface energies remains a challenge. We propose a simple method based on two independent measurements on 3D and 2D equilibrium shapes completed by the analysis of the thermal fluctuation of an isolated step. Using then basic equations (Wulff' theorem, Gibbs-Thomson equation, thermodynamics fluctuation of an isolated step) allows us to extract the absolute surface free energy of a singular face. The so-proposed method can be applied when (i) all orientat...
Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage
Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul
2001-01-01
In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...
Since the recent convincing evidence for massive neutrinos in oscillation experiments, the next task is to determine the absolute masses of neutrinos. A unique pattern of neutrino masses will be hopefully fixed in the future superbeam experiments and neutrino factories. However, the determination of the exact scale is more complicated and depends on the mass of the lightest neutrino ( mμ )min . If ( mμ)min ≥ 0.35 eV, the future tritium β decay experiments ( e.g. KATRIN) will have a chance to establish absolute neutrino masses. For smaller masses, 0.004 eV ≤ (mμ)min ≤ 0.35 eV, if neutrinos are Majorana particles, an additional information can be derived from the neutrinoless double β decay (ββ)0μ of nuclei and again the absolute neutrino masses can be fixed. If, however, (mμ)min ≤ 0.004 eV, none of the present and foreseeable future experiments is known to be able to fix the mass scale. (author)
Absolute calibration of photomultiplier based detectors - difficulties and uncertainties
Photomultiplier manufacturers can provide a calibration of quantum efficiency over a range of wavelengths with an accuracy of up to 2%. To convert these figures to absolute counting efficiency requires knowledge of photomultiplier collection efficiency, F. Traditional methods for determining F are discussed with emphasis on sources of error. Light sources emitting at a known photon rate allow the absolute quantum efficiency to be determined directly. It is important in all attempts at absolute calibration to appreciate the conditions which manufacturers apply when calibrating photomultipliers
Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters
The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments
OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.
2007-09-10
Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.
Okada, H; Bravar, A; Bunce, G; Dhawan, S; Eyser, K O; Gill, R; Haeberli, W; Huang, H; Jinnouchi, O; Makdisi, Y; Nakagawa, I; Nass, A; Saitô, N; Stephenson, E; Sviridia, D; Wise, T; Wood, J; Zelenski, A
2007-01-01
Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features \\textit{proton-proton} elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power $A_N$ of this process has allowed us to achieve $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} =4.2%$ in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of $A...
Absolute standardization of 106Ru by anti-coincidence method
The system of absolute standardization activity of radionuclide by anti-coincidence counting and live-time techniques was implemented at LNMRI in 2008 to reduce the impacts of some influence factors in the determination of the activity with coincidence counting technique used for decades in the lab, for example, the measurement time. With the anti-coincidence system, the variety of radionuclides that can be calibrated by LNMRI was increased, in relation to the type of decay. The objective of this work is the standardization of 106Ru by the method of counting anti-coincidence and estimate its measurement uncertainties. (author)
Optical tweezers absolute calibration
Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M
2014-01-01
Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...
Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE
2010-07-01
This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.
Absolute neutrino mass measurements
Wolf, Joachim
2011-10-01
The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.
Estimating Absolute Site Effects
Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L
2004-07-15
The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency
Be Resolute about Absolute Value
Kidd, Margaret L.
2007-01-01
This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…
Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny
1981-01-01
Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)
On Absolute Measurements of β-Emitting Radionuclides
4 π GM detectors are described and some of their characteristics presented. The absence of spurious pulses is shown by the measurement of the rate of arrival of intervals between pulses. Some problems related to the foil absorption and source absorption are considered using Sr90 and Y90. Aiming at correcting the counting losses in the foil and in a certain extent also the source absorption an experimental method which uses paired sources is presented. The preparation of standards of Bi210 (RaE) is described. A note is presented on the problem of foil absorption losses in scintillation absolute counting. (author)
... and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable ... Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: WBC Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White ...
ROE Absolute Sea Level Changes
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This raster dataset represents changes in absolute sea level along U.S. coasts from 1993 to 2014. Data were provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder (2015)...
Counting techniques-statistics
Referring to the determination of the activity of a given sample, the distribution of the counting results is analysed. The relation between the standard deviation and normal Gauss curve is studied. Student's -t-and X2 tests are presented in the systematic errors determination. Problems are discussed, such as: elimination of background radiation counting, optimum distribution of counting times, criterion of choice and adjustment of the equipment, as well as the elimination of doubtful results
1970-01-01
The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.
Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.
Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.
1971-01-01
Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-
Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources
MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.
1978-09-01
A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.
Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources
A 100-mg 252Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17O. Detection sensitivities of 239Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level
Counting trees using symmetries
Bernardi, Olivier
2012-01-01
We present a new approach for counting trees, and we apply it to count multitype Cayley trees and to prove the multivariate Lagrange inversion formula. The gist of our approach is to exploit the symmetries of refined enumerative formulas: proving these symmetries is easy, and once the symmetries are proved the formulas follow effortlessly. Somewhat surprisingly, our formula for the generating function of multitype Cayley trees appears to be new, and implies certain recent results by Bousquet-M\\'elou and Chapuy. We also adapt our approach to recover known enumerative formulas for cacti counted according to their degree distribution.
Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds
Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne
2010-01-01
Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.
Sublattice counting and orbifolds
Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne
2010-06-01
Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.
Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages
... you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.
Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...
Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.
2013-01-01
To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...
Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications
Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna
2015-09-01
Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.
An absolute measurement of #-v# of Cf252
An absolute measurement of v of Cf252. An absolute determination of the average number of neutrons, #-v#, emitted in the spontaneous fission of Cf252 has been made by counting the fission neutrons in a large liquid scintillator. The detection efficiency of this counter was measured as a function of neutron energy. Well-collimated neutrons were scattered into the scintillator by an anthracene crystal, which detected the corresponding recoil protons. Pulse-shape discrimination was employed to eliminate γ-ray background. The detection efficiency for Cf252 fission neutrons was found to be 0.703 ± 0.007, giving a value of 3.78 ± 0.04 for the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per Cf252 fission. (author)
Android Apps for Absolute Beginners
Jackson, Wallace
2011-01-01
Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl
Bias in Absolute Magnitude Determination from Parallaxes
Feast, Michael
2002-01-01
Relations are given for the correction of bias when mean absolute magnitudes are derived by the method of reduced parallaxes. The bias in the case of the derivation of the absolute magnitudes of individual objects is also considered.
Absolute calibration of JET ELE system
The first Michelson channel of the JET ECE system has been calibrated absolutely using a new high temperature source. The estimated uncertainties are of order +- 20% in the absolute spectral response and +- 10% in the relative spectral shape
Alpha scintillation radon counting
Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222Rn and 226Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines
Photon counting digital holography
Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen
2016-05-01
Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.
Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)
1996-09-01
As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)
Computerized radioautographic grain counting
In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system
Counting rate logarithmic circuits
This paper describes the basic circuit and the design method for a multidecade logarithmic counting ratemeter. The method is based on the charging and discharging of several RC time constants. An F.E.T. switch is used and the drain current is converted into a proportional voltage by a current to voltage converter. The logarithmic linearity was estimated for 4 decades starting from 50 cps. This circuit can be used in several nuclear instruments like survey meters and counting systems. This circuits has been developed as part of campbell channel instrumentation. (author)
The absolute calibration of semiconductor detectors in the Neutrino beam of CERN
The report describes a method for the calibration of semiconductor detectors. A nuclear emulsion is exposed to charged particles (muons) immediately in front of the detector. The muons also scatter delta electrons which give traces in the emulsion. The traces can be counted under a microscope. The separation of the muons and delta electrons takes place by angular distribution. The muons are counted per area unit. The flow is related to the signal of the detector and an absolute counting is achieved. (G.B)
Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.
2014-01-01
Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…
Counting Hexagonal Lattice Animals
Mohammed, Mohamud
2002-01-01
We describe Maple packages for the automatic generation of generating functions(and series expansions) for counting lattice animals(fixed polyominoes), in the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, of bounded but arbitrary width. Our Maple packages(complete with source code) are easy-to-use and available from my website.
Janjic, Milan
2007-01-01
In the first section of this paper we prove a theorem for the number of columns of a rectangular area that are identical to the given one. In the next section we apply this theorem to derive several combinatorial identities by counting specified subsets of a finite set.
Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures
Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony
2016-08-01
Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.
Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures
Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony
2016-01-01
Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.
A coincidence counting system for detection of low level activities
A system based on coincidence counting for measuring the absolute activity of isotopes in which a gamma ray is emitted by the nucleus following the capture of the orbital electron with a known half-life is described. If the half-life of the excited state is small compared to the resolving time of the coincidence circuit, the absolute activity of the source can be determined. The system consists of two NaI(Th) crystals, a high voltage supply, 2 preamplifiers, 2 amplifiers, two single channel analyzers, one coincident unit, and three sealers
Determination of Corrections in the Absolute Measurement of 137Cs
A method, of determining corrections in absolute measurements of 137Cs by 4π proportional counter is described. The correction for self-absorption of 137Cs beta particles from sources formed by vacuum deposition of CsCl on standard carrier films was determined. These samples, which had negligible self-absorption, were measured by 4π counter. The radioactive substance on the film was then dissolved, and by the addition of carrier was converted to a form similar to that of sources usually used for absolute measurement. The correction determined for self-absorption was higher than the value expected from comparison with other radionuclides having near Eβmax. The correction for internal conversion coefficient and gamma efficiency of the beta detector was determined with 137mBa samples. Barium was separated as BaSO4 precipitate and deposited on a standard carrier film used for absolute measurement with a layer thickness of about 1 mg/cm2. These samples were simultaneously measured by means of a 4π beta proportional counter and a Nal(Tl) scintillation counter. From corresponding counting rates in both counters, and from both known efficiencies, the value for a correction appropriate to one disintegration of 137mBa was calculated. The values measured were used further for computation of the internal conversion coefficient and the half-life of 137'mBa, which was ascertained to be 155 ± 3 s. (author)
Fragments of approximate counting
Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil
2014-01-01
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376
The right to count does not always count
Sodemann, Morten
2013-01-01
The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...
Measurement of the absolute speed is possible?
Sergey V. Shevchenko; Tokarevsky, Vladimir V.
2016-01-01
One of popular problems, which are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists. Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in oth...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation
Jaworski JM
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between
Gukov, Sergei
2016-01-01
Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts — from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence — will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.
This paper is a review of the various photon counting systems, used in astronomy, at optical wavelengths. Technological differences between available devices are introduced according to the processes applied to these photoelectrons (multiplication and/or acceleration), and their impact targets (phosphors, photodetectors, resistive or conductive anodes...). Two detection processes are involved: threshold discrimination above noise for most types of devices, and analog measurement for systems using resistive and wedge-and-strip anodes. Devices currently used for astronomical observations are presented, and their performance characteristics. These devices are: photomultipliers, which are monopixel detectors, using multiplication with dynodes; images intensifiers cameras, most frequently read with CCDs; analog devices with resistive or wedge-and-strip anodes, behind microchannel plates (MCP); Digicons, using direct electronic bombardment; the MAMA detector, with coincidence anodes behind MCP; and then the PAPA detector using masks encoding readout. Dead time effects, which define the dynamic range are presented with some details. Finally, because of the improvement of low level readout noise devices (CCDs), the field of application of the photon counting techniques confines to the blue and the UV part of the spectrum, at low signal to noise ratios
New Conformal Invariants in Absolute Parallelism Geometry
Youssef, Nabil L.; Soleiman, A.; Taha, Ebtsam H.
2016-01-01
The aim of the present paper is to investigate conformal changes in absolute parallelism geometry. We find out some new conformal invariants in terms of the Weitzenb\\"ock connection and the Levi-Civita connection of an absolute parallelism space.
Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system
Wanke, Michael C.
2016-07-12
Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.
Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application
Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David
2009-01-01
Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness
Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna
2008-01-01
This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…
Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.
Parish, Charles R.
1992-01-01
Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…
Improvement Of The Absolute Activity Determination Technique Of '125I In The Thyroid
A method for absolute determination of the activity of a 125I source based on the counting rate values of the 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo-peak is given in the literature. We had shown in previous works, that this method, within certain limitations, diminishes the geometry dependence of the activity determination for 125I sources and for measuring the uptake of 125I in human thyroid. In the present work we present a farther improvement of the accuracy of the absolute determination method
Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector
Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido
1996-07-01
In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)
The absolute determination of activity by the efficiency extrapolation method
As agent for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for the maintenance of the Australian standard of activity. The standard comprises activity measurement procedures involving the operation of 4 π β-γ coincidence counting equipment. The coincidence method requires the application of correction factors which depend on detection efficiency, such as arise for complex decay schemes and internal conversion. These corrections approach unity as the detection efficiency in the β-channel approaches 100 per cent. By performing activity determinations for a range of β detection efficiencies, an 'efficiency extrapolation' analysis can be applied which eliminates the need to determine the absolute detection efficiency for each channel
Fischer, Matthias; Jähn, Claudius; der Heide, Friedhelm Meyer auf; Ziegler, Martin
2008-01-01
For a fixed virtual scene (=collection of simplices) S and given observer position p, how many elements of S are weakly visible (i.e. not fully occluded by others) from p? The present work explores the trade-off between query time and preprocessing space for these quantities in 2D: exactly, in the approximate deterministic, and in the probabilistic sense. We deduce the EXISTENCE of an O(m^2/n^2) space data structure for S that, given p and time O(log n), allows to approximate the number of occluded segments up to arbitrary constant absolute error; here m denotes the size of the Visibility Graph--which may be quadratic, but typically is just linear in the size n of the scene S. On the other hand, we present a data structure CONSTRUCTIBLE in O(n*log(n)+m^2*polylog(n)/l) preprocessing time and space with similar approximation properties and query time O(l*log n), where l
LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK
Group, Nuclear Instrumentation
1966-10-01
The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.
Absolute measurement of neutron source emission rate with manganese bath method
The manganese bath method is one of the most widespread and exact method to measure neutron source emission rate (neutron source intensity) absolutely at present. Pouring some 56Mn solution with known activity into the bath, the system efficiency can be obtained from γ counts of 56Mn, which is measured by two NaI(Tl) detectors. From saturated counts of a 241Am-Be(α, n) neutron source in the bath, the source emission rate can be obtained. An standard 241Am-Be(α, n) source which is the transfer source of the CCRI(Ⅲ)-K9. AmBe international key comparison organized by the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, was measured absolutely with the neutron source emission rate standard equipment (manganese bath method). The result is coincident with the average value of the comparison within the uncertainties, therefore the reliability of the standard equipment is verified. (authors)
Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...
Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources
An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength
Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate
Millard, H.T., Jr.
1984-01-01
Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.
Phenotypic spandrel: absolute discrimination and ligand antagonism
François, Paul; Johnson, Kyle A.; Saunders, Laura N.
2015-01-01
We consider the general problem of absolute discrimination between categories of ligands irrespective of their concentration. An instance of this problem is immune discrimination between self and not-self. We connect this problem to biochemical adaptation, and establish that ligand antagonism - the ability of sub threshold ligands to negatively impact response - is a necessary consequence of absolute discrimination.Thus antagonism constitutes a "phenotypic spandrel": a phenotype existing as a...
Absolute Photoacoustic Thermometry in Deep Tissue
Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.
2013-01-01
Photoacoustic (PA) thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here, we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes...
'Araphid' diatom classification and the 'absolute standard'
Williams, David M.
2009-01-01
'Araphid' diatom classification is discussed from the point of view of an 'absolute standard' for taxonomic rank. The 'absolute standard' is the phylogenetic tree, its nodes, the included monophyletic groups and sub-groups. To illustrate this point a few species from the genus Licmophora are re-analysed and the resulting phylogenetic tree is discussed in terms of a possible classification, the groups and sub-groups and their ranks.
Absolute distance metrology for space interferometers
Swinkels, B L; Wendrich, T.J.; Bhattacharya, N; Wielders, A.A.; Braat, J.J.M.
2004-01-01
Space interferometers consisting of several free flying telescopes, such as the planned Darwin mission, require a complex metrology system to make all the components operate as a single instrument. Our research focuses on one of its sub-systems that measures the absolute distance between two satellites with high accuracy. For Darwin the required accuracy would be in the order of 10 μm over 250 meter. To measure this absolute distance, we are currently exploring the frequency sweeping interfer...
Introducing the mean absolute deviation 'effect' size.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme values. The paper then proposes the use of an easy to comprehend effect size based on the mean difference between treatment groups, divided by the mean...
A method to determine the absolute neutron output of small D-T neutron generators
We propose a standard method of establishing the absolute neutron output from small, D-T, 14 MeV neutron generators. This method uses a copper activation measurement in a configuration that we have calibrated with fission ionization chambers from NIST. The absolute uncertainty in this calibration is less than ± 7%. The copper activation method is insensitive to backgrounds from low energy scattered neutrons because it uses the 63Cu(n, 2n)62Cu reaction which has a 12 MeV threshold. With this calibration method, measurements of absolute neutron output are possible under a variety of experimental conditions, including those simulating nuclear well logging. In addition, the configuration of the copper samples that we propose gives high counting rates so that the statistical precision of the measurement of neutron output, depending upon the generator voltage and beam current, is on the order of 1%. (orig.)
Wamalwa Dalton C
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p 59 months of age (r = 0.68, p 3, age 12-35 months (CD4 count 3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count 3. WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories 59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.
Integrated counting system - user guide
The facilities of a nucleonic counting system in one module in the standard 6000 series and its use in applications is described. Details are given of ways of employing the module for the rapid and low cost development of computer-based systems in nucleonic counting applications. (author)
Hanford whole body counting manual
This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs
Hanford whole body counting manual
Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.
1987-05-01
This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.
A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity
T. J. McDougall
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.
When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg^{−1} in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.
To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.
Analyzing Adherence to Prenatal Supplement: Does Pill Count Measure Up?
Kristie E. Appelgren
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To determine if adherence as measured by pill count would show a significant association with serum-based measures of adherence. Methods. Data were obtained from a prenatal vitamin D supplementation trial where subjects were stratified by race and randomized into three dosing groups: 400 (control, 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day. One measurement of adherence was obtained via pill counts remaining compared to a novel definition for adherence using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D levels (absolute change in 25(OHD over the study period and the subject's steady-state variation in their 25(OHD levels. A multivariate logistic regression model examined whether mean percent adherence by pill count was significantly associated with the adherence measure by serum metabolite levels. Results. Subjects' mean percentage of adherence by pill count was not a significant predictor of adherence by serum metabolite levels. This finding was robust across a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. Based on our novel definition of adherence, pill count was not a reliable predictor of adherence to protocol, and calls into question how adherence is measured in clinical research. Our findings have implications regarding the determination of efficacy of medications under study and offer an alternative approach to measuring adherence of long half-life supplements/medications.
High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...
Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs
Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.
Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen
2016-05-01
This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959
Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield
Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.
2011-09-01
We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.
The clonogenic assay is the method of choice to determine cell reproductive death after in vitro irradiation treatment. Traditionally, colony quantification has been performed by manual counting, a very laborious, time-consuming and rather subjective task. In this study, we compared manual counting by two skilled investigators with automated counting using the freely available ClonoCounter program. Five human tumour cell lines were irradiated under normoxia (21% O2) or anoxia (2), after 24 h or 6 h anoxic preincubation. Colonies were quantified manually or using the ClonoCounter software. A positive correlation between the absolute number of colonies counted manually and automatically was shown. Though there was a general trend of underpredicting the absolute number of cell colonies when counting automatically, survival curves were very similar, and in none of the cell lines were significant differences in radiobiological parameters such as mean inactivation dose, surviving fraction at 2 Gy and oxygen enhancement ratio detected. Our results suggest that the ClonoCounter provides sufficient reliability to be implemented for counting human tumour colonies in in vitro irradiation experiments. In contrast to several previously reported computer-aided colony-counting methods, it is a freely available program, requiring only minimal instrument costs. (note)
Fundamental uncertainties in lung counting.
Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M
2007-10-01
The HML has investigated the effect the uncertainty introduced into an activity estimate from a lung count due to 1) replicate counts and 2) lung set variability. Replicate counts in the HML seem to only be affected by random statistics as the uncertainty can be predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. These findings from the lung set variability experiments suggest that a lung set has an unquantified uncertainty on its activity that adds a component to the uncertainty on the counting efficiency, and ultimately the activity estimate, as they can differ by as much as 30% at 17.5 keV or about 13% at 185.7 keV, when one is expecting only a 3% difference. PMID:17846529
Counting Word Frequencies with Python
William J. Turkel; Adam Crymble
2012-01-01
Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.
Counting Word Frequencies with Python
William J. Turkel
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.
Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed
Lægaard, Sune
2014-01-01
Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...
Absolute-stability results in infinite dimensions
Curtain, RF; Logemann, H; Staffans, O
2004-01-01
We derive absolute-stability results of Popov and circle-criterion type for infinite-dimensional systems in an input-output setting. Our results apply to feedback systems in which the linear part is the series interconnection of an input-output stable linear system and an integrator, and the nonline
The Weyl functor - Introduction to Absolute Arithmetic
Thas, Koen
2014-01-01
Starting from an ancient observation of Tits concerning the interpretation of symmetric groups as Chevalley groups over a (non-existing) field having only one element, we describe combinatorial geometry over this field, as well as Linear Algebra. We arrive at an "absolute mantra" which is one of the basic principles of the present book.
Time Function and Absolute Black Hole
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid
2006-01-01
Einstein’s theory of gravity is not consistent with quantum mechanics, because general relativity cannot be quantized. [1] But without conversion of force and energy, it is impossible to find a grand unified theory. A very important result of CPH theory is time function that allows we give a new ...... description of absolute black hole and before the big bang....
Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector
Groenland, Johannes Petrus Jacobus
1990-01-01
The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the informatio
Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification
Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen
2016-01-01
This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…
Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically
Shiyuan, Wei
2005-01-01
The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.
Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students
Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea
2011-01-01
This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…
Magnetoresistive transducer for absolute position detection
Groenland, J.P.J.
1984-01-01
In this paper a new method is presented for the measurement of absolute linear or angular position. The digital position information is recorded serially into one track of a suitable hard-magnetic medium. The stray field of this information layer determines the angular magnetisation distribution in
Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser
Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef
T118, - (2005), s. 41-44. ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004
ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE GANIL BEAM ENERGY
CASANDJIAN, JM; MITTIG, W; BEUNARD, R; GAUDARD, L; LEPINESZILY, A; VILLARI, ACC; AUGER, G; BIANCHI, L; CUNSOLO, A; FOTI, A; LICHTENTHALER, R; PLAGNOL, E; SCHUTZ, Y; SIEMSSEN, RH; WIELECZKO, JP
1993-01-01
The energy of the GANIL cyclotron beam was measured on-line during the Pb-208 + Pb-208 elastic scattering experiment ''Search for Color van der Waals Force in the Pb-208 + Pb-208 Mott scattering'' with an absolute precision of 7 x 10(-5) at approximately 1.0 GeV, which represents an improvement of o
Sharp coincidences for absolutely summing multilinear operators
Pellegrino, Daniel
2012-01-01
In this note we prove the optimality of a family of known coincidence theorems for absolutely summing multilinear operators. We connect our results with the theory of multiple summing multilinear operators and prove the sharpness of similar results obtained via the complex interpolation method.
Liquid scintillation counting as a calibration method for PAEC monitors
Measurements of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) of radon progeny are obligatory in Polish coal mines. Very important problem is a proper calibration of PAEC monitors for coal mining industry. It is very know fact, that is no possibility of producing of standard atmosphere of radon progeny. Therefore calibration is usually based on comparison of read-out of PAEC monitor with more counting of this filter immersed in a liquid scintillation counter (LSC) gives as a result an absolute method of PAEC measurements, because of very high efficiency for alpha and beta particles in liquid scintillator (almost 100%). (author). 30 refs, 2 figs
Balpardo, C; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P
2010-01-01
The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6 %) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital Coincidence Counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid Scintillation Counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and Defined Solid Angle Counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.
Cerenkov counting as a complement to liquid scintillation counting
A commercially available spectrometer was calibrated for liquid scintillation (LS) and Cerenkov counting efficiency (CCE) using National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable solutions. The CCE increased linearly over a 3 order of magnitude range in 40K β activity, and by 42% per MeV as β-energies increased from 0.300 to 3.54 MeV, achieving a maximum value of 80% for 106Ru/106Rh The CCE can be enhanced by 10-15% when a wavelength shifter is used. A comparison of the data showed that the CCE was typically 20-50% less than the LS counting efficiency for β-particles with maximum energies >1 MeV. Applications that utilize sequential CCE and LS counting to quantitate activity concentrations are discussed for samples containing two β-emitting nuclides of differing energies. (Author)
Hanford whole body counting manual
Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.
1990-06-01
This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.
Hanford whole body counting manual
This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs
An absolute measure for a key currency
Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito
It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.
From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes
Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don
2012-01-01
Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.
Barcenas, Everardo; Layaida, Nabil; Schmitt, Alan
2010-01-01
Regular tree grammars and regular path expressions constitute core constructs widely used in programming languages and type systems. Nevertheless, there has been little research so far on frameworks for reasoning about path expressions where node cardinality constraints occur along a path in a tree. We present a logic capable of expressing deep counting along paths which may include arbitrary recursive forward and backward navigation. The counting extensions can be seen as a generalization of graded modalities that count immediate successor nodes. While the combination of graded modalities, nominals, and inverse modalities yields undecidable logics over graphs, we show that these features can be combined in a decidable tree logic whose main features can be decided in exponential time. Our logic being closed under negation, it may be used to decide typical problems on XPath queries such as satisfiability, type checking with relation to regular types, containment, or equivalence.
Absolute Parallelism Geometry: Developments, Applications and Problems
Wanas, M. I.
2002-01-01
Absolute parallelism geometry is frequently used for physical applications. It has two main defects, from the point of view of applications. The first is the identical vanishing of its curvature tensor. The second is that its autoparallel paths do not represent physical trajectories. The present work shows how these defects were treated in the course of development of the geometry. The new version of this geometry contains simultaneous non-vanishing torsion and curvatures. Also, the new paths...
Cosmological frames for theories with absolute parallelism
Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco
2011-01-01
The vierbein (tetrad) fields for closed and open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies are hard to work out in most of the theories featuring absolute parallelism. The difficulty is traced in the fact that these theories are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations of the vierbein. We illustrate this issue in the framework of f(T) theories and Born-Infeld determinantal gravity. In particular, we show that the early Universe as described by the Born-Infeld scheme is singularity free ...
Absolute clock synchronisation and special relativity paradoxes
Ciborowski, Jacek; Wlodarczyk, Marta
2012-01-01
Solving special relativity paradoxes requires rigorous analysis of event timing, due to relative simultaneity in consequence of the Lorentz transformation. Since clock synchronisation is a convention in special theory of relativity, instead of the Einstein's procedure one may choose such that offers absolute simultaneity. We present in short the corresponding formalism in one spatial dimension. We show that paradoxes do not arise with this choice of synchronisation and descriptions of these i...
Absolute distance metrology for space interferometers
Swinkels, B L; Bhattacharya, N; Wielders, A.A.; Braat, J.J.M.
2005-01-01
Future space missions, among which the Darwin Space Interferometer, will consist of several free flying satellites. A complex metrology system is required to have all the components fly accurately in formation and have it operate as a single instrument. Our work focuses on a possible implementation of the sub-system that measures the absolute distance between two satellites with high accuracy. For Darwin the required accuracy is on the order of 70 micrometer over a distance of 250 meter. We a...
An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...
The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)
Levi-Civita, Tullio
2013-01-01
Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro
Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze
M. de Angelis
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.
Problems determining relative and absolute ages using the small crater population
Xiao, Zhiyong; Strom, Robert G.
2012-07-01
The small crater populations (diameter smaller than 1 km) are widely used to date planetary surfaces. The reliability of small crater counts is tested by counting small craters at several young and old lunar surfaces, including Mare Nubium and craters Alphonsus, Tycho and Giordano Bruno. Based on high-resolution images from both the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera and Kaguya Terrain Camera, small craters in two different diameter ranges are counted for each counting area. Large discrepancies exist in both the cumulative (absolute model ages) and relative plots for the two different size ranges of the same counting areas. The results indicate that dating planetary surfaces using small crater populations is highly unreliable because the contamination of secondaries may invalidate the results of small crater counts. A comparison of the size-frequency distributions of the small crater populations and impact ejected boulders around fresh lunar craters shows the same upturn as typical martian secondaries, which supports the argument that secondaries dominate the small crater populations on the Moon and Mars. Also, the size-frequency distributions of small rayed lunar and martian craters of probable primary origin are similar to that of the Population 2 craters on the inner Solar System bodies post-dating Late Heavy Bombardment. Dating planetary surfaces using the small crater populations requires the separation of primaries from secondaries which is extremely difficult. The results also show that other factors, such as different target properties and the subjective identification of impact craters by different crater counters, may also affect crater counting results. We suggest that dating planetary surfaces using small crater populations should be with highly cautious.
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…
Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof
Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk
then consists of a sequence (or tree) of rule applications and provides an independently checkable certificate of the validity of the result. This reduces the need to trust, or otherwise verify, the correctness of the vote counting software once the certificate has been validated. Using a rule...
Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts
Donevska-Todorova, Ana
2015-01-01
Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…
Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy
We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens. - Highlights: • Scan-averaged energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra are recorded in STEM. • Experimental and simulated EDX signals are shown to agree on an absolute scale. • Two independent methods are used for accurate thickness determination. • Probe channelling must be taken into account, even for very thin specimens. • Channelling effects are minimized for large probe-forming convergence angles
Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy
Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); D' Alfonso, A.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Taplin, D.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)
2015-10-15
We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens. - Highlights: • Scan-averaged energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra are recorded in STEM. • Experimental and simulated EDX signals are shown to agree on an absolute scale. • Two independent methods are used for accurate thickness determination. • Probe channelling must be taken into account, even for very thin specimens. • Channelling effects are minimized for large probe-forming convergence angles.
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL
Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P;
1996-01-01
percentages, and CD4/CD8 ratios for the same individual were stable for 31 seropositive and 51 seronegative individuals with repeated measurements. We found no significant differences in the changes during a 2- or 4-year period in CD4 percentages, CD8 percentages, absolute CD8 T-lymphocyte counts, CD4/CD8...... ratio, white blood cell counts, lymphocyte percentages, and absolute lymphocyte counts for HIV-2-seropositive compared with HIV-2-seronegative individuals. Only absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts changed more for the HIV-2-seropositive than for HIV-2-seronegative individuals (p = 0.037). HIV-2-infected...... individuals who lived with an HIV-2-infected spouse had a lower CD4/CD8 ratio and had higher mortality than HIV-2 infected individuals who lived with an uninfected spouse. However, there were no significant differences in immunological and hematological values for the 8 HIV-2 seropositive individuals who died...
Absolute measurements of the fast neutron flux in the reactor RA
The absolute neutron flux in the vertical VK-5 hole of the reactor RA was determined by using the 27Al (n, alpha) 24Na reaction, and by counting the 24Na - 2.5 MeV gamma line photopeak activity. A method for the determination of σeff as a mean value between the two large limiting cases of neutron spectra is used. The flux at the power level of 5 MW was found to be (2.5±0.9)·1012n/cm2sec (author)
The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program
Peter, George; Moose, Robert E.; Wessells, Claude W.
1989-03-01
The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program will utilize the high precision afforded by the JILAG-4 instrument to support geodetic and geophysical research, which involves studies of vertical motions, identification and modeling of other temporal variations, and establishment of reference values. The scientific rationale of these objectives is given, the procedures used to collect gravity and environmental data in the field are defined, and the steps necessary to correct and remove unwanted environmental effects are stated. In addition, site selection criteria, methods of concomitant environmental data collection and relative gravity observations, and schedule and logistics are discussed.
Prospects for absolute neutron activation analysis
The desirability for absolute neutron activation analysis(ANAA) is two-fold. Results by the comparitor method are only as good as the standards used, and also the method offers a chance of having the final results available within minutes of completing the analysis. In the past ANAA was not seriously considered because of the scarcity and poor qaulity of the nuclear data that were available. This situation is however steadily improving and the possible applications are being investigated. This report reviews the present status by considering the basic activation equation, calculation of parameters, the factors of importance and the size error one might expect
Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility.
Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario
2005-08-18
Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force ('absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells. PMID:16107829
Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Wallentin, Mikkel; Vuust, Peter
2014-01-01
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared......, we found that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate...
Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET
Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad
In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.
婷婷（整理）
2007-01-01
ABSOLUT与创意素来有着不解之缘。由Andy Warhal的ABSOLUT WARHOL至今，已有超过400位不同领域的创意大师为ABSOLUT的当代艺术宝库贡献了自己的得意之作。ABSOLUT的创意仿佛永远不会枯竭，而一系列的作品也让惊喜从未落空。
Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates
Pfeiffer, R. M.; E. Petracci
2011-01-01
We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function base...
Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.
Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B
2011-12-01
Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437
Reference counting for reversible languages
Mogensen, Torben Ægidius
2014-01-01
Modern programming languages and operating systems use heap memory that allows allocation and deallocation of memory to be decoupled, so they don't follow a stack discipline. Axelsen and Glück have presented a reversible heap manager where allocation and deallocation are each other's logical...... inverses: Freeing a block of memory is done by running the allocation procedure backwards. Axelsen and Glück use this heap manager to sketch implementation of a simple reversible functional language where pattern matching a constructor is the inverse of construction, so pattern-matching implies...... deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...
Isotope dilution strategies for absolute quantitative proteomics
The development of mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies for high-throughput protein identification has generated a concomitant need for protein quantification. Numerous MS-based relative quantification methodologies have been dedicated to the extensive comparison of multiple proteomes. On the other hand, absolute quantification methodologies, which allow the determination of protein concentrations in biological samples, are generally restricted to defined sets of proteins. Depending on the selected analytical procedure, absolute quantification approaches can provide accurate and precise estimations. These analytical performances are crucial for specific applications such as the evaluation of clinical bio-marker candidates. According to bioanalytical guidelines, accurate analytical processes require internal standards and quality controls. Regarding MS-based analysis of small molecules, isotope dilution has been recognized as the reference method for internal standardization. However, protein quantification methodologies which rely on the isotope dilution principle have been implemented in the proteomic field only recently. In these approaches, the sample is spiked with defined amounts of isotope-labeled analogue(s) of specific proteolytic peptide(s) (AQUA and QconCAT strategies) or protein(s) (PSAQ strategy). In this review, we present a critical overview of these isotope dilution methodologies. (authors)
Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts
Canale, Antonio; David B Dunson
2011-01-01
Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviatio...
Radioactivity determination by coincidence counting
The 4 π β-γ coincidence counting equipment used in the Lucas Heights radioisotope standards laboratory for international comparisons is described in detail. A radioactivity standard is a method rather than a material object; as such it can be specified clearly only by discussing fully the setting-up and operation of one particular set of equipment. This manual is written for persons who are setting up such equipment for the first time
10481 Abstracts Collection -- Computational Counting
Bürgisser, Peter; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark
2011-01-01
From November 28 to December 3 2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10481 ``Computational Counting'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in ge...
A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities
Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.
2011-01-01
The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…
Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding
Ponce, Gregorio A.
2008-01-01
Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…
Constraint Satisfaction with Counting Quantifiers
Madelaine, Florent; Stacho, Juraj
2011-01-01
We initiate the study of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) in the presence of counting quantifiers, which may be seen as variants of CSPs in the mould of quantified CSPs (QCSPs). We show that a single counting quantifier strictly between exists^1:=exists and exists^n:=forall (the domain being of size n) already affords the maximal possible complexity of QCSPs (which have both exists and forall), being Pspace-complete for a suitably chosen template. Next, we focus on the complexity of subsets of counting quantifiers on clique and cycle templates. For cycles we give a full trichotomy -- all such problems are in L, NP-complete or Pspace-complete. For cliques we come close to a similar trichotomy, but one case remains outstanding. Afterwards, we consider the generalisation of CSPs in which we augment the extant quantifier exists^1:=exists with the quantifier exists^j (j not 1). Such a CSP is already NP-hard on non-bipartite graph templates. We explore the situation of this generalised CSP on bipartite templ...
Muritala Abdulkabir
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Optimal designs for generalized linear models (GLM have received increasing attention in recent years. Most of this research focuses on binary data model. This research extends to count data models. The aim and objectives of this research work to determine the appropriate generalized linear model (GLM that is suitable for count data and identify a design that is best according to statistical optimality criteria, the data use for this research work are simulated data from R statistical package using uniform distribution with sample size 300. The simplest distribution use for modeling count data is Poisson distribution, quasi Poisson were carried out to test for over dispersion in the Poisson regression model and the formal way of dealing with over dispersion is negative binomial regression model, thus AIC was use to compare the two models, the Poisson regression model shows the best with minimum AIC. Furthermore optimal design were carried out using the optimality criterion that is the A and D optimality criterion, using design efficiency to compare the two (2 designs the optimality criterion with the highest efficiency is the best, thus D optimality criterion shows the best design.
Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts
Gheorghe Şteţca
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.
无
2007-01-01
CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been found to down-regulate immune activation in HIV-1 infection. However, whether the depletion of Treg benefits to the disease status of HIV infection remains undefined. To address this issue, we enumerated the Treg absolute counts and frequency in 75 antiviral-na(i)ve HIV-1-infected individuals in this study. It was found that HIV-infected patients displayed a significant decline in Treg absolute counts but a significant increase in Treg frequency. In addition, with disease progression indicated by CD4 T-cell absolute counts, circulating Treg frequency gradually increased; while Treg absolute counts were gradually decreased, suggesting that the alteration of Treg number closely correlated with disease progression in HIV infection.Functional analysis further showed that Treg efficiently inhibit both CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation in vitro. Thus, our findings indicates that Treg actively participate in pathogenesis of chronic HIV infection,influencing the disease progression.
Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.
2010-01-01
The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,
Providing reference standards and metrology for the few photon-photon counting community
Beaumont, Andrew R.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Ireland, Jane; White, Malcolm G.
2009-10-01
The main drivers for developing few-photon metrological techniques are the rapidly progressing field of quantum information processing, which requires the development of high-efficiency photon-counting detectors, and the wider use of photon-counting technology in biology, medical physics and nuclear physics. This paper will focus on the provision of standards for the few photon community and the development of techniques for the characterisation of photon-counting detectors. At the high-power end, microwatts, we are developing a low-power absolute radiometer as a primary standard that will be used to provide traceability over a much broader spectral range. At the few photon-photon-counting level we are developing a conventional calibration technique, which is traceable to the primary standard through a reference trap detector. This method can be used in both analogue and photon-counting modes and provides a convenient route for providing customer calibration at few-photon levels across the optical spectrum. At the photon-counting/single-photon level we are developing a technique based on correlated photons. These are produced via parametric downconversion and can be used to measure directly the detection efficiency of photon-counting detectors. A cross-validation of the correlated photon and conventional technique is reported. Finally we discuss this work in the context of an EU project, that is aimed at establishing the route towards the re-definition of the candela, the SI unit for optical radiation.
Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans
Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang
2016-03-01
A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.
How is an absolute democracy possible?
Joanna Bednarek
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.
Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium
Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be fn∼4.1x10-4 with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 108 neutrons per discharge.
Site specific estimation of cumulative absolute velocity
The presented paper shows some recent results for correlation between cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) and the macro-seismic intensity, magnitude and distance (attenuation functions). The analyses are based mainly on European strong motion data. The processing is performed separately for intermediate depth earthquakes (Vrancea seismic region), regional shallow earthquakes and moderate local earthquakes. The results show that CAV correlates with the intensity, magnitude and distance in a similar way as the peak values of strong motion. There is significant difference of expected CAV from local earthquakes and from strong regional seismic excitations. The local earthquakes, although producing high accelerations, are developing small CAV and respectively small damage potential. The analyses show that intermediate depth earthquakes may produce significant CAV on very large distances, i.e. they may affect large territories and produce damage. The attenuation functions developed are used for prediction of CAV on the site of Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria. (author)
Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication
Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.
2015-09-01
Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.
Tallahatchie NWR - Landbird Point Counts in 2009
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian point counts were done in selected areas of mature forest on Tallahatchie Refuge in 2009. Report contains summary of avain point counts done in mature...
Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...
Counting the Cycles of Light using a Self-Referenced Optical Microresonator
Jost, J. D.; Herr, T.; Lecaplain, C.; Brasch, V.; Pfeiffer, M. H. P.; Kippenberg, T. J.
2014-01-01
Phase coherently linking optical to radio frequencies with femtosecond mode-locked laser frequency combs enabled counting the cycles of light and is the basis of optical clocks, absolute frequency synthesis, tests of fundamental physics, and improved spectroscopy. Using an optical microresonator frequency comb to establish a coherent link between optical and microwave frequencies will extend optical frequency synthesis and measurements to areas requiring compact form factor, on chip integrati...
Djibril Wade
Full Text Available A new CD4 point-of-care instrument, the CyFlow miniPOC, which provides absolute and percentage CD4 T-cells, used for screening and monitoring of HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings, was introduced recently. We assessed the performance of this novel instrument in a reference laboratory and in a field setting in Senegal.A total of 321 blood samples were obtained from 297 adults and 24 children, all HIV-patients attending university hospitals in Dakar, or health centers in Ziguinchor. Samples were analyzed in parallel on CyFlow miniPOC, FACSCount CD4 and FACSCalibur to assess CyFlow miniPOC precision and accuracy.At the reference lab, CyFlow miniPOC, compared to FACSCalibur, showed an absolute mean bias of -12.6 cells/mm3 and a corresponding relative mean bias of -2.3% for absolute CD4 counts. For CD4 percentages, the absolute mean bias was -0.1%. Compared to FACSCount CD4, the absolute and relative mean biases were -31.2 cells/mm3 and -4.7%, respectively, for CD4 counts, whereas the absolute mean bias for CD4 percentages was 1.3%. The CyFlow miniPOC was able to classify HIV-patients eligible for ART with a sensitivity of ≥ 95% at the different ART-initiation thresholds (200, 350 and 500 CD4 cells/mm3. In the field lab, the room temperature ranged from 30 to 35°C during the working hours. At those temperatures, the CyFlow miniPOC, compared to FACSCount CD4, had an absolute and relative mean bias of 7.6 cells/mm3 and 2.8%, respectively, for absolute CD4 counts, and an absolute mean bias of 0.4% for CD4 percentages. The CyFlow miniPOC showed sensitivity equal or greater than 94%.The CyFlow miniPOC showed high agreement with FACSCalibur and FACSCount CD4. The CyFlow miniPOC provides both reliable absolute CD4 counts and CD4 percentages even under the field conditions, and is suitable for monitoring HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings.
Counting spanning trees in graphs
Azarija, Jernej
2012-01-01
The history of counting the number of spanning trees dates back into the year 1842 in which the German mathematician Gustav Kirchhoff derived a relation between the number of spanning trees of a graph G (τ(G)) and the determinant of a specific submatrix associated with G. After this result many other related results followed. For example in 1889 the British mathematician A. Cayley showed that the complete graph on n nodes has nn−2 spanning trees.The function τ can nowadays be found in the fi...
Pawlewicz, Jakub
2011-01-01
The main topic of this contribution is the problem of counting square-free numbers not exceeding $n$. Before this work we were able to do it in time (Comparing to the Big-O notation, Soft-O ($\\softO$) ignores logarithmic factors) $\\softO(\\sqrt{n})$. Here, the algorithm with time complexity $\\softO(n^{2/5})$ and with memory complexity $\\softO(n^{1/5})$ is presented. Additionally, a parallel version is shown, which achieves full scalability. As of now the highest computed value was for $n=10^{1...
Model Counting in Product Configuration
Kübler, Andreas; Küchlin, Wolfgang; 10.4204/EPTCS.29.5
2010-01-01
We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. In order to process these large formulas we developed and implemented a new model counter for non-CNF formulas. Our model counter can process formulas, whose CNF representations could not be processed up till now.
DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators
DC Action for Children, 2012
2012-01-01
This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…
Verification of 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates by an absolute method
Nuclear Safeguards is referred to a verification System by which a State can control all nuclear materials (NM) and nuclear activities under its authority. An effective and efficient Safeguards System must include a system of measurements with capabilities sufficient to verify such NM. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM Standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method has been investigated to verify the 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) type. The most intense gamma-ray signature at 185.7 keV emitted after α-decay of the 235U nuclei was employed in the method. The measuring system (an HPGe-spectrometer) was mathematically calibrated for efficiency using the general Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B. The calibration results and the measured net count rate were used to estimate the 235U mass content in fuel plates at different detector-to-fuel plate distances. Two sets of fuel plates, containing natural and low enriched uranium, were measured at the Fuel Fabrication Facility. Average accuracies for the estimated 235U masses of about 2.62% and 0.3% are obtained for the fuel plates containing natural and low enriched uranium; respectively, with a precision of about 3%
Absolute Neutron Fluence Measurements at the NIST Center for Neutron Research
Yue, A.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Anderson, E.; Snow, M.; Greene, G.; Laptev, A.
2015-10-01
Precise, absolute fluence measurements of cold and thermal neutron beams are of primary importance to beam-type determinations of the neutron lifetime, measurements of standard neutron cross sections, and the development of standards for neutron dosimetry. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a totally absorbing neutron detector based on absolute counting of the 10B(n,α1)7Li reaction 478 keV gamma ray has been used to perform fluence measurements with a precision of 0.06%. This detector has been used to improve the neutron fluence determination in the 2000 NIST beam neutron lifetime by a factor of five, significantly reducing the uncertainty in the lifetime result. Ongoing and possible future uses of the Alpha-Gamma device include 1) Calibration of the neutron fluence monitors that will be used in the upcoming NIST beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2; 2) The first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n,t)4He neutron cross section at sub-thermal neutron energy; 3) Measurements of the 10B(n, γ)11B and 235U(n,f) neutron cross sections; 4) A re-calibration of the national neutron standard NBS-1. The apparatus, measurement technique, and applications will be discussed.
Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions
In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: ''58m CO, ''77mSE, ''79mBR, ''87mSR,''89mY,''93mNB,''103mRh, ''107mAG, ''109mAG, ''113mIn, ''131mXe; ''133mXe,''135mBa, ''167mEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel
How much do women count if they not counted?
Federica Taddia
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all
Complete blood count and retinal vessel calibers.
Gerald Liew
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992-4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. RESULTS: All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p = 0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively, while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all. Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1-2 µm wider venular caliber. CONCLUSIONS: These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation.
Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence
Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett
2011-01-10
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System
Jeonggon Harrison Kim
2008-01-01
Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, resp...
Absolute value preconditioning for symmetric indefinite linear systems
Vecharynski, Eugene; Knyazev, Andrew V.
2011-01-01
We introduce a novel strategy for constructing symmetric positive definite (SPD) preconditioners for linear systems with symmetric indefinite matrices. The strategy, called absolute value preconditioning, is motivated by the observation that the preconditioned minimal residual method with the inverse of the absolute value of the matrix as a preconditioner converges to the exact solution of the system in at most two steps. Neither the exact absolute value of the matrix nor its exact inverse ar...
Counting hypermaps by Egorychev's method
Mednykh, Alexander; Nedela, Roman
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is to find explicit formulae for the number of rooted hypermaps with a given number of darts on an orientable surface of genus g≤ 3 . Such formulae were obtained earlier for g=0 and g=1 by Walsh and Arquès respectively. We first employ the Egorychev's method of counting combinatorial sums to obtain a new version of the Arquès formula for genus g=1 . Then we apply the same approach to get new results for genus g=2,3 . We could do it due to recent results by Giorgetti, Walsh, and Kazarian, Zograf who derived two different, but equivalent, forms of the generating functions for the number of hypermaps of genus two and three.
Counting solutions from finite samplings.
Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun
2012-02-01
We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted. PMID:22463290
Sediment varve counting with PIXE
The feasibility of the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique for varve counting of vertically taken marine and lacustrine sediments was studied aiming at its possible use as a dating procedure by observing the yearly variation of the constituent elements. The samples were impregnated with a low viscosity epoxy resin to obtain slabs with preserved layered structure suitable for the PIXE analyses. PIXE-spectra were taken as a function of depth distance and the normalized X-ray peak area variations were determined. Especially, concentration changes of silicon and iron were found to be clear. Due to the employed sample preparation technique the observed chlorine concentration corresponds to the amount of water in the initial sample. Maximum chlorine concentration appeared at positions where the Si and Fe concentrations were near minimum. By plotting the Si/Cl or Fe/Cl peak area ratios, an even more distinct position dependent variation was noted. (author)
Photon counting compressive depth mapping
Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C
2013-01-01
We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.
Pawlewicz, Jakub
2011-01-01
The main topic of this contribution is the problem of counting square-free numbers not exceeding $n$. Before this work we were able to do it in time (Comparing to the Big-O notation, Soft-O ($\\softO$) ignores logarithmic factors) $\\softO(\\sqrt{n})$. Here, the algorithm with time complexity $\\softO(n^{2/5})$ and with memory complexity $\\softO(n^{1/5})$ is presented. Additionally, a parallel version is shown, which achieves full scalability. As of now the highest computed value was for $n=10^{17}$. Using our implementation we were able to calculate the value for $n=10^{36}$ on a cluster.
Counting paths with Schur transitions
Diaz, Pablo; Veliz-Osorio, Alvaro
2016-01-01
In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.
Model Counting in Product Configuration
Andreas Kübler
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We describe how to use propositional model counting for a quantitative analysis of product configuration data. Our approach computes valuable meta information such as the total number of valid configurations or the relative frequency of components. This information can be used to assess the severity of documentation errors or to measure documentation quality. As an application example we show how we apply these methods to product documentation formulas of the Mercedes-Benz line of vehicles. In order to process these large formulas we developed and implemented a new model counter for non-CNF formulas. Our model counter can process formulas, whose CNF representations could not be processed up till now.
On The Absolute Measurement of Some Nuclear Material Samples
A state with nuclear activities should establish a system capable of controlling all nuclear material (NM) under its authority. Continuous improvement of a measuring system is an essential mandate such controlling system. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method was used to estimate uranium contents in some NM samples. NM was measured by an absolute method through combination of experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations
Warren, S.E.; McKay, R.G.; Aroesty, J.M.; Heller, G.V.; Kolodny, G.M.; Royal, H.D.
1987-01-01
Several radionuclide techniques have been used in routine clinical nuclear medicine practice as a means of quantitating left ventricular chamber volumes in man. Despite wide use and availability of the different techniques, however, there has not been a thorough comparison of radionuclide and contrast angiographic measurements performed in the same patients in close temporal proximity. Accordingly, in order to validate traditional methods of ventricular volume measurement, we have performed contrast ventriculography followed immediately (upon return of baseline hemodynamics) by gated radionuclide ventriculography in 34 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Absolute left ventricular end-diastolic volumes were determined from single-plane, right anterior oblique, end-diastolic contrast silhouettes using a standard area-length method. Radionuclide ventriculographic volumes were determined by three methods: planimetry (32 patients), counts-based (19 patients), and thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction (32 patients). With planimetry, an area-length method was used in which the modified left anterior oblique left ventricular image was assumed to be a prolate ellipsoid whose volume can be determined by measuring surface area and the ventricular long axis. With the counts-based technique, a blood sample was drawn at the midpoint of the radionuclide ventriculogram acquisition and counted with a gamma camera with appropriate attenuation factor correction. With the thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction technique, the left ventricular stroke volume was determined by dividing thermodilution cardiac output by the heart rate.
Calibration of nuclides by gamma-gamma sum peak coincidence counting
The feasibility of extending sum peak coincidence counting to the direct calibration of gamma-ray emitters having particular decay schemes was investigated, also checkings of the measurement accuracy, by comparing with more precise beta-gamma coincidence counting have been performed. New theoretical studies and experiments were developed, demonstrating the reliability of the procedure. Uncertainties of less than one percent were obtained when certain radioactive sources were measured. The application of the procedure to 60Co, 22Na, 47Ca and 148Pm was studied. Theoretical bases of sum peak coincidence counting were set in order to extend it as an alternative method for absolute activity determination. In this respect, theoretical studies were performed for positive and negative beta decay, and electron capture, either accompanied or unaccompanied by coincident gamma rays. They include decay schemes containing up to three daughter nuclide excited levels, for different geometrical configurations. Equations are proposed for a possible generalization of the procedure. (M.E.L.)
A flowrate measurement method by counting of radioactive particles suspended in a liquid
By external counting of fine #betta# emitting radioactive particles suspended in a liquid, the flowrate in a system of pipes can be measured. The study comprises three phases: 1. - The hydraulic validity of the method is demonstrated in laminar as well as in turbulent flow under certain conditions of particles size and density and of liquid viscosity. 2. - Radioactive labelling of microspheres of serumalbumin or ion exchange resins with indium 113m delivered by a generator Tin 113 → Indium 113m. 3. - Counting with a scintillation detector: a method of threshold overstepping is experimented with a mechanical or electronic simulator; the statistical study of particle superposition under the detector enables a correction for the resulting counting losses to be proposed. The method provides absolute measurements, but is particularly suitable to measure relative flowrates in a hydraulic network. It can be continuous and does not perturb the flow and the network. The accuracy of the method is analysed in details
Development of a superconducting absolute tensor gradiometer
Full text: Although the use of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials for the fabrication of SQUID-based magnetometers and gradiometers is now well established these materials remain more difficult to use than the alternative low-temperature superconducting materials. In particular, the lack of HTSC wires and the difficulty of forming superconducting connections means that the standard low-Tc design practice of forming gradiometer coils from superconducting wires, is not applicable in high-Tc materials. Designs for HTSC axial gradiometers [2] have been implemented only by means of electronic or software subtraction of the outputs of a pair of SQUID magnetometers, and generally have insufficient dynamic range to be rotated in the earth's magnetic field. In this work we describe the development of a new concept axial gradiometer which is implemented through the use of a flux transformer pick-up loop structure patterned on flexible superconducting tape that is inductively coupled to a SQUID-based magnetometer. This is the first example of a series axial gradiometer in HTSC materials and offers significant advantages over the two-SQUID systems mentioned above. The design provides sufficient dynamic range and intrinsic noise immunity to operate while rotated in the full earth's field. Data analysis facilitates the measurement of the absolute value of all five independent components of the magnetic gradient tensor using a set of three such gradiometers, each of which is rotated about its axis. Initial results are presented showing the measurement by a prototype instrument of the tensor gradient of a small bar magnet
Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A
Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.
2016-06-01
This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.
Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential
D. T. Shindell
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.
Injury count model for quantification of risk of occupational injury.
Khanzode, Vivek V; Maiti, J; Ray, P K
2011-06-01
Reduction of risk of occupational injuries is one of the most challenging problems faced by industry. Assessing and comparing risks involved in different jobs is one of the important steps towards reducing injury risk. In this study, a comprehensive scheme is given for assessing and comparing injury risks with the development of injury count model, injury risk model and derived statistics. The hazards present in a work system and the nature of the job carried out by workers are perceived as important drivers of injury potential of a work system. A loglinear model is used to quantify injury counts and the event-tree approach with joint, marginal and conditional probabilities is used to quantify injury risk. A case study was carried out in an underground coal mine. Finally a number of indices are proposed for the case study mine to capture risk of injury in different jobs. The findings of this study will help in designing injury intervention strategies for the mine studied. The job-wise risk profiles will be used to prioritise the jobs for redesign. The absolute indices can be applied for benchmarking job-wise risks and the relative indices can be used for comparing job-wise risks across work systems. PMID:21432706
Very high count rate gamma spectroscopy
Recent improvements in the electronics that amplify and analyze gamma photon-induced pulses have made it possible for HPGe coaxial detectors to accept input rates of one-million, one-MeV gamma photons-per-second and still provide the spectroscopist with spectra that can be analyzed. Data are presented that illustrate peak area variances and changes in counting uncertainty statistics due to the greatly extended count rate range. Software algorithms are presented that allow gain shift and peak resolution to be adjusted automatically on a sample-by-sample basis. Relationships are developed between integrated count rate and the variances of full energy photon peak area and counting uncertainty when using the real time correction mode of pulse processing. Finally, the results of integrating hardware and software into a system are used to illustrate that quantitative gamma spectroscopy over counting rates of one- to one-million counts-per-second are achievable
Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers
Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul
2014-01-01
Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at...
Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)
Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.
2010-12-01
Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.
Absolute electronegativity and hardness correlated with molecular orbital theory
Pearson, Ralph G.
1986-01-01
The concepts of absolute electronegativity, χ, and absolute hardness, η, are incorporated into molecular orbital theory. A graphic and concise definition of hardness is given as twice the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. Useful correlations can now be made between chemical behavior, visible-UV absorption spectra, optical polarizability, ionization potentials, and electron affinities.
Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.
Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.
This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute value in the Cartesian…
Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.
Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.
This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute…
Absolute neutronic performance of SNS from gold foil application
The determination of absolute neutron fluxes by white beam activation of thick gold foils in conjuction with spectral analysis by time-of-flight monitors is described. A numerical integration procedure is presented and the method applied to determining the absolute performance of SNS from data obtained during the initial commissioning run in December 1984. (author)
Karst Water System Investigated by Absolute Gravimetry
Quinif, Y.; Meus, P.; van Camp, M.; Kaufmann, O.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Vandiepenbeeck, M.; Camelbeeck, T.
2006-12-01
The highly anisotropic and heterogeneous hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers are difficult to characterize and present challenges for modeling of storage capacities. Little is known about the surface and groundwater interconnection, about the connection between the porous formations and the draining cave and conduits, and about the variability of groundwater volume within the system. Usually, an aquifer is considered as a black box, where water fluxes are monitored as input and output. However, water inflow and outflow are highly variable and cannot be measured directly. A recent project, begun in 2006 sought to constrain the water budget in a Belgian karst aquifer and to assess the porosity and water dynamics, combining absolute gravity (AG) measurements and piezometric levels around the Rochefort cave. The advantage of gravity measurements is that they integrate all the subsystems in the karst system. This is not the case with traditional geophysical tools like boring or monitoring wells, which are soundings affected by their near environment and its heterogeneity. The investigated cave results from the meander cutoff system of the Lomme River. The main inputs are swallow holes of the river crossing the limestone massif. The river is canalized and the karst system is partly disconnected from the hydraulic system. In February and March 2006, when the river spilled over its dyke and sank into the most important swallow hole, this resulted in dramatic and nearly instantaneous increases in the piezometric levels in the cave, reaching up to 13 meters. Meanwhile, gravity increased by 50 and 90 nms-2 in February and March, respectively. A first conclusion is that during these sudden floods, the pores and fine fissures were poorly connected with the enlarged fractures, cave, and conduits. With a rise of 13 meters in the water level and a 5% porosity, a gravity change of 250 nms-2 should have been expected. This moderate gravity variation suggests either a
Resonance ionization spectroscopy: Counting noble gas atoms
The purpose of this paper is to describe new work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions). When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. We show that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective. (orig./FKS)
Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts
Durrer, Ruth
2016-01-01
We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.
High-precision absolute coordinate measurement using frequency scanned interferometry
We reported previously on measurements of absolute distance with frequency scanned interferometry (FSI) method [1, 2]. In this paper, we extend the FSI method into 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional high-precision absolute coordinate measurements using a single laser. Absolute position is determined by several related absolute distances measured simultaneously. The achieved precision on X and Y in 2- and in 3-dimensional measurements is confirmed to be below 1 μm, while the precision in Z (in 3D case) is found to be about 2 μm. The last one is limited by the accuracy of the available translational stage used in the tests. A much more powerful laser and a better real-time data acquirement system will be required in case of measurements of larger absolute distances
In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m2), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m2). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs
Counting results for sparse pseudorandom hypergraphs I
Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu; Mota, Guilherme O.; Schacht, Mathias; Taraz, Anusch
2016-01-01
We establish a so-called counting lemma that allows embeddings of certain linear uniform hypergraphs into sparse pseudorandom hypergraphs, generalizing a result for graphs [Embedding graphs with bounded degree in sparse pseudorandom graphs, Israel J. Math. 139 (2004), 93-137]. Applications of our result are presented in the companion paper [Counting results for sparse pseudorandom hypergraphs II].
Lazy reference counting for the Microgrid
R. Poss; C. Grelck; S. Herhut; S.-B. Scholz
2012-01-01
This papers revisits non-deferred reference counting, a common technique to ensure that potentially shared large heap objects can be reused safely when they are both input and output to computations. Traditionally, thread-safe reference counting exploit implicit memory-based communication of counter
A simple bivariate count data regression model
Shiferaw Gurmu; John Elder
2007-01-01
This paper develops a simple bivariate count data regression model in which dependence between count variables is introduced by means of stochastically related unobserved heterogeneity components. Unlike existing commonly used bivariate models, we obtain a computationally simple closed form of the model with an unrestricted correlation pattern.
Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?
Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret
2014-01-01
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…
2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013
2013-01-01
"Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…
Mediation Analysis for Count and Zero-Inflated Count Data without Sequential Ignorability
Guo, Zijian; Small, Dylan S.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Cheng, Jing
2016-01-01
Count or zero-inflated count data are common in many studies. Most existing mediation analysis approaches for count data assume sequential ignorability of the mediator. This is often not plausible because the mediator is not randomized so that there are unmeasured confounders associated with the mediator and the outcome. In this paper, we consider causal methods based on instrumental variable (IV) approaches for mediation analysis for count data possibly with a lot of zeros that do not requir...
CORRELATION BETWEEN CLINICAL PROFILE, CD 4 COUNT AND TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT IN HIV INFECTED PERSONS
Keshava; Manjunath
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: HIV infection can be monitored by laboratory and clinical markers of disease progression. In the absence of CD 4 count , the use of Total Lymphocyte Count has been advocated to predict CD 4 count and to stage HIV disease. This study was undertaken to show whether the TLC accurately predicts a low CD 4 count in HIV infected persons and its clinical correlation. METHODOLOGY: The data for the study was collected from HIV positive inpatien...
Cheng, Miranda C N
2007-01-01
The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N=4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the "immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.
Radon 222 metrology is required to obtain higher accuracy in assessing human health risks from exposure to natural radiation. This paper describes the development of a cryogenic facility that allows absolute measurements of radon 222 in order to obtain a primary standard. The method selected is the condensation of a radon 222 sample on a geometrically defined cold surface with a constant, well known and adjustable temperature and facing an alpha particles detector. Counting of the alpha particles reaching the detector and the precisely known detection geometry provide an absolute measurement of the source activity. After describing the cryogenic facility, the measurement accuracy and precision are discussed and a comparison made with other measurement systems. The relative uncertainty is below 1 pc (1 σ). The facility can also be used to improve our knowledge of the nuclear properties of radon 222 and to produce secondary standards. (author)
Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka
Mahawatte, P.; Hewamanna, R. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka). Radioisotope Centre)
1991-01-01
Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of {sup 232}Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of {sup 228}Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author).
Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka
Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of 232Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of 228Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author)
Measuring the absolute magnetic field using high-Tc SQUID
SQUID normally can only measure the change of magnetic field instead of the absolute value of magnetic field. Using a compensation method, a mobile SQUID, which could keep locked when moving in the earth's magnetic field, was developed. Using the mobile SQUID, it was possible to measure the absolute magnetic field. The absolute value of magnetic field could be calculated from the change of the compensation output when changing the direction of the SQUID in a magnetic field. Using this method and the mobile SQUID, we successfully measured the earth's magnetic field in our laboratory
Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength
Ulich, B. L.
1974-01-01
Absolute measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the absolute calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as absolute calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.
Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey
Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.
2012-12-01
Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO
Absolute f-values for resonance lines of neutral titanium
Absolute f-values for 13 resonance lines of Ti i have been experimentally measured by the atomic-beam method. Difficulties in evaporation of titanium were overcome by using a TiC boat, and gettering effects were determined by comparing microbalance weighings of instantaneous deposit rates with quantitative chemical analyses of total deposits. Comparisons are made with other experimental results, and conversion factors are given for placing previously published relative f-values on an absolute scale. Also, the effect of an improved absolute scale for Ti i gf-values on the abundance of titanium in the solar photosphere is discussed
Absolute measurements of the fast neutron capture cross section of 115In
The 115In(n,#betta#)/sup 116m1/In cross section has been absolutely determined at neutron energies of 23, 265 and 964 keV. These energies are the median neutron energies of the three photo-neutron sources. Sb-Be, Na-CD2 and Na-Be, utilized in this work. The measurements are independent of other cross section data except for corrections amounting to less than 10%. Independent determinations of the reaction rate, detector efficiency, neutron source strength, scalar flux and target masses were performed. Reaction rates were determined by beta counting of the /sup 116ml/In decay activity using a 4π gas flow proportional counter. Detector efficiency was measured using 4π#betta#-#betta# coincidence counting techniques and the foil absorber method of efficiency extrapolation for correction of complex decay scheme effects. Photoneutron source emission rates were determined by intercomparison with the NBS-II calibrated 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron source in the University of Michigan Manganese Bath. The normalized scalar flux was calculated from the neutron emission angular distribution results of the Monte Carlo computer program used to model neutron and gamma transport in the source. Target mass determinations were made with a microbalance. Correction factors were applied for competing reaction activities, neutron scattering from experiment components, room-return induced activities, spectral effects in the manganese bath and the neutron energy spectra of the photoneutron sources. Experimental cross section results were normalized to the source median energy using energy spectra d cross section shape data. The absolute cross sections obtained for the 115In(n,#betta#)/sup 116ml/In reaction were 588 +- 12, 196 +- 4 and 200 +- 3 millibarns at 23, 265 and 964 keV, respectively
Practical Gamma Counting of Unirradiated Uranium-235
During the fabrication of reactor fuel elements it is necessary to have assurance regarding the accuracy of the fabricator's uranium assignment within the specified tolerances. Destructive analysis of random samples is both expensive and time-consuming. Where the uranium-bearing components are suitable for gamma counting, a non-destructive method of assay can be used with greater efficiency and equal accuracy. The particular method described was used for checking fuel cores of nominal 30 wt.% enriched uranium in aluminium measuring about two inches square by 0.080 in. and 0.160 in. thick. The equipment was a basic Nal scintillation counter equipped with a single-channel analyser. The analyser, however, was operated with a very wide window covering both the 90-keV and 184-keV peaks characteristic of uranium-235. In practice, the threshold level acid the window opening, were adjusted to give the optimum maximum count rate as indicated by a ratemeter. The counting of a fuel core was then performed with the Nal crystal essentially unshielded and located several inches above the fuel core. The counting time was adjusted to yield a total count in the range of 105 to 106 in order to minimize the counting error. Effects due to variations in the counting geometry and to non-uniform uranium distribution were minimized by the relatively large separation of the crystal from the fuel core. Effects due to shifting of analyser window were minimized by use of a wide opening. To compensate for possible non-uniform uranium distribution through the thickness of a fuel core, each core was counted on both sides. The total count obtained in this manner was directly proportioned to the uranium-235 content of the fuel core. In application, the counting equipment was set up in the fabricator's plant and a number of production fuel cores were counted. The plotting of the total counts against the fabricator's uranium-235 assignment revealed an unexpected error in the fabricator's system
Absolute value preconditioning for symmetric indefinite linear systems
Vecharynski, Eugene
2011-01-01
We introduce a novel strategy for constructing symmetric positive definite (SPD) preconditioners for linear systems with symmetric indefinite coefficient matrices. The strategy is motivated by the observation that the preconditioned minimal residual method with the inverse of the absolute value of the coefficient matrix as a preconditioner converges to the exact solution of the system in at most two steps. Neither the exact absolute value of the coefficient matrix, nor its exact inverse are computationally feasible to construct in general. However, as the proof of concept, we provide two practical examples of SPD preconditioners, which are based on the suggested approach, called absolute value preconditioning. The first example is for strictly (block) diagonally dominant coefficient matrices, where we propose using the inverse to the absolute value of the (block) diagonal as the preconditioner. Our second example is less intuitive. We consider a model problem with a shifted discrete negative Laplacian, and su...
Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations
Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.
1973-01-01
The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.
Absolute angular calibration of a submarine km3 neutrino telescope
A requirement for neutrino telescope is the ability to resolve point sources of neutrinos. In order to understand its resolving power a way to perform absolute angular calibration with muons is required. Muons produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere offer an abundant calibration source. By covering a surface vessel with 200 modules of 5 m2 plastic scintillator a surface air shower array can be set up. Running this array in coincidence with a deep-sea km3 size neutrino detector, where the coincidence is defined by the absolute clock timing stamp for each event, would allow absolute angular calibration to be performed. Monte Carlo results simulating the absolute angular calibration of the km3 size neutrino detector will be presented. Future work and direction will be discussed.
Summary of the Absolute neutrino mass scale parallel branch session
Mangano, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Napoli - Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Zuber, K. [Institut fuer Kern - und Teilchenphysik Technische Universitaet, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)
2011-08-15
We summarize the talks presented to the Absolute neutrino mass scale parallel session of NOW2010, mainly focused on neutrinoless double beta decay in its theoretical and experimental aspects and the role of the neutrino mass scale in cosmology.
Doi, Mayumi; Hiroe, Michiaki; Marumo, Fumiaki (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Itoh, Haruki; Taniguchi, Koichi
1993-06-01
The nuclear stethoscope is a newly developed device for monitoring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) with a pair of cadmium telluride detector for both left ventricular count (first channel) and background count (second channel). Although it is useful for evaluating the cardiac function during exercise, the methodology of the calculation for distinguishing the net ventricular blood count from the background count has not been established yet. In order to establish a reasonable method to calculate EF, we measured EF using a nuclear stethoscope and conventional gated blood pool scintigraphy in 20 healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent two supine ergometer exercise tests consisting of the 3 stages for the nuclear stethoscope and blood pool scintigraphy. The EF was determined with the following three methods for the nuclear stethoscope: (1) Cut-off level was fixed at 70% of first channel, (2) Cut-off level at 75%, and (3) Cut-off level was determined by the background count obtained from second channel. There was a poor relationship between the EFs obtained from gated blood scintigraphy and the EFs from the nuclear stethoscope calculated by any of these methods. Regarding the EF calculated using the background count, however, the delta values of EF between rest and any of the 3 stages during exercise correlated closely to those EF from blood scintigraphy. When we apply the EF-at-rest value obtained from blood pool scintigraphy to analysis with the nuclear stethoscope, the EFs of 3 stages indicated good correlation (Stage I r=0.91, Stage II r=0.82, Stage III r=0.69). These results suggest that detecting the background count is useful in order to measure the left ventricular EF with the nuclear stethoscope. Since the absolute value of EF does not necessarily correlate to that from blood pool scintigraphy in this mehod, it is recommended to evaluate only the changing values of the EF. (author).
The nuclear stethoscope is a newly developed device for monitoring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) with a pair of cadmium telluride detector for both left ventricular count (first channel) and background count (second channel). Although it is useful for evaluating the cardiac function during exercise, the methodology of the calculation for distinguishing the net ventricular blood count from the background count has not been established yet. In order to establish a reasonable method to calculate EF, we measured EF using a nuclear stethoscope and conventional gated blood pool scintigraphy in 20 healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent two supine ergometer exercise tests consisting of the 3 stages for the nuclear stethoscope and blood pool scintigraphy. The EF was determined with the following three methods for the nuclear stethoscope: 1) Cut-off level was fixed at 70% of first channel, 2) Cut-off level at 75%, and 3) Cut-off level was determined by the background count obtained from second channel. There was a poor relationship between the EFs obtained from gated blood scintigraphy and the EFs from the nuclear stethoscope calculated by any of these methods. Regarding the EF calculated using the background count, however, the delta values of EF between rest and any of the 3 stages during exercise correlated closely to those EF from blood scintigraphy. When we apply the EF-at-rest value obtained from blood pool scintigraphy to analysis with the nuclear stethoscope, the EFs of 3 stages indicated good correlation (Stage I r=0.91, Stage II r=0.82, Stage III r=0.69). These results suggest that detecting the background count is useful in order to measure the left ventricular EF with the nuclear stethoscope. Since the absolute value of EF does not necessarily correlate to that from blood pool scintigraphy in this mehod, it is recommended to evaluate only the changing values of the EF. (author)
An Adaptive Smoother for Counting Measurements
Counting measurements associated with nuclear instruments are tricky to carry out due to the stochastic process of the radioactivity. Indeed events counting have to be processed and filtered in order to display a stable count rate value and to allow variations monitoring in the measured activity. Smoothers (as the moving average) are adjusted by a time constant defined as a compromise between stability and response time. A new approach has been developed and consists in improving the response time while maintaining count rate stability. It uses the combination of a smoother together with a detection filter. A memory of counting data is processed to calculate several count rate estimates using several integration times. These estimates are then sorted into the memory from short to long integration times. A measurement position, in terms of integration time, is then chosen into this memory after a detection test. An inhomogeneity into the Poisson counting process is detected by comparison between current position estimate and the other estimates contained into the memory in respect with the associated statistical variance calculated with homogeneous assumption. The measurement position (historical time) and the ability to forget an obsolete data or to keep in memory a useful data are managed using the detection test result. The proposed smoother is then an adaptive and a learning algorithm allowing an optimization of the response time while maintaining measurement counting stability and converging efficiently to the best counting estimate after an effective change in activity. This algorithm has also the specificity to be low recursive and thus easily embedded into DSP electronics based on FPGA or micro-controllers meeting 'real life' time requirements. (authors)
Absolute transition probabilities in Sc I and Sc II
Absolute atomic transition probabilities for emission lines from 70 levels in Sc I and Sc II are reported. The transition probabilities are from emission branching ratios measured using the 1.0-m Fourier-transform spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory. Radiative lifetimes, measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence, provide the normalization for converting the branching ratios to absolute transition probabilities. These results are compared with other experimental and theoretical transition probabilities
No-arbitrage conditions and absolutely continuous changes of measure
Claudio Fontana
2013-01-01
We study the stability of several no-arbitrage conditions with respect to absolutely continuous, but not necessarily equivalent, changes of measure. We first consider models based on continuous semimartingales and show that no-arbitrage conditions weaker than NA and NFLVR are always stable. Then, in the context of general semimartingale models, we show that an absolutely continuous change of measure does never introduce arbitrages of the first kind as long as the change of measure density pro...
Vision-based absolute navigation for the Martian landing
Martínez Torío, Alexandra
2013-01-01
Future European missions aspire to bring soil samples from Mars back to Earth. The precise identification of the site from which samples are taken leads to major constraints as to the landing accuracy of the lander. Vision-based absolute navigation now appears to be the most promising navigation method for correcting errors originated from the interplanetary voyage at the point of re-entry. The thesis has consisted in improving the vision-based absolute navigation simulator developed for the ...
Absolute Baseline for Testing of Electronic Distance Meters
Jaroslav Braun; Filip Dvořáček; Martin Štroner
2014-01-01
The paper deals with the construction and determination of coordinates of the absoluteEDMs baseline in a laboratory with 16 pillars with forced centring. Leica Absolute TrackerAT401 (standard deviation of distance measurement: 5 μ m, standard deviation of anglemeasurement: 0.15 mgon), which is designed for very accurate industrial measurements,was used for our purpose. Lengths between the baseline points were determined with astandard deviation of 0.02 mm. The baseline is used for determining...
The absolute infrared magnitudes of type Ia supernovae
Meikle, W P S
1999-01-01
The absolute luminosities and homogeneity of early-time infrared (IR) light curves of type Ia supernovae are examined. Eight supernovae are considered. These are selected to have accurately known epochs of maximum blue light as well as having reliable distance estimates and/or good light curve coverage. Two approaches to extinction correction are considered. Owing to the low extinction in the IR, the differences in the corrections via the two methods are small. Absolute magnitude light curves...
McGregor, Grant Duncan
2008-12-16
In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.
Blood leucocyte count in the human fetus.
Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Jenkins, E; Layton, D. M.; Nicolaides, K H
1992-01-01
Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts increased linearly and the number of neutrophils increased exponentially from a mean value of 0.2 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 0.8 x 10(9)/...
The Pragmatics of "Unruly" Dative Absolutes in Early Slavic
Daniel E. Collins
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This chapter examines some uses of the dative absolute in Old Church Slavonic and in early recensional Slavonic texts that depart from notions of how Indo-European absolute constructions should behave, either because they have subjects coreferential with the (putative main-clause subjects or because they function as if they were main clauses in their own right. Such "noncanonical" absolutes have generally been written off as mechanistic translations or as mistakes by scribes who did not understand the proper uses of the construction. In reality, the problem is not with literalistic translators or incompetent scribes but with the definition of the construction itself; it is quite possible to redefine the Early Slavic dative absolute in a way that accounts for the supposedly deviant cases. While the absolute is generally dependent semantically on an adjacent unit of discourse, it should not always be regarded as subordinated syntactically. There are good grounds for viewing some absolutes not as dependent clauses but as independent sentences whose collateral character is an issue not of syntax but of the pragmatics of discourse.
Global absolut gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71
Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard
2015-04-01
The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall absolute gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 absolute gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of absolute gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an absolute gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated absolute gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.
Mourning Dove Call-count Survey
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) Call-Count Survey was developed to provide an index to population size and to detect annual changes in mourning dove breeding...
Liquid scintillation counting of novel radionuclides
The theoretical background of counting radionuclides in liquid scintillators is presented. The effects of quenching and finite scintillator size are briefly described and the theory is justified by an experimental comparison between 55Fe and 3H in which all facets of the theory are important. Counting efficiencies for other nuclides decaying by 100% electron capture are calculated and compared with efficiencies for the β emitters 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Also included are comments on the special problems associated with counting plutonium in biological materials. The essential conclusion is that in order to improve the technique and avoid unnecessary pitfalls it is necessary to have a sound understanding of the underlying theory of liquid scintillation counting
CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and...
Four square mile survey pair count instructions
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set...
Furbearer track count index testing and development
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Indices of abundance can be useful in monitoring furbearer populations where actual counts of individual animals are difficult. I sampled marten and snowshoe hare...
Taxonomic counts of cognition in the wild
Lefebvre, Louis
2010-01-01
In 1985, Kummer & Goodall pleaded for an ecology of intelligence and proposed that innovations might be a good way to measure cognition in the wild. Counts of innovation per taxonomic group are now available in hundreds of avian and primate species, as are counts of tactical deception, tool use and social learning. Robust evidence suggests that innovation rate and its neural correlates allow birds and mammals to cope better with environmental change. The positive correlations between taxonomi...
A Generic Multivariate Distribution for Counting Data
Capistrán, Marcos; Christen, J. Andrés
2011-01-01
Motivated by the need, in some Bayesian likelihood free inference problems, of imputing a multivariate counting distribution based on its vector of means and variance-covariance matrix, we define a generic multivariate discrete distribution. Based on blending the Binomial, Poisson and Negative-Binomial distributions, and using a normal multivariate copula, the required distribution is defined. This distribution tends to the Multivariate Normal for large counts and has an approximate pmf versi...
How to count an introduction to combinatorics
Allenby, RBJT
2010-01-01
What's It All About? What Is Combinatorics? Classic Problems What You Need to Know Are You Sitting Comfortably? Permutations and Combinations The Combinatorial Approach Permutations CombinationsApplications to Probability Problems The Multinomial Theorem Permutations and Cycles Occupancy Problems Counting the Solutions of Equations New Problems from Old A ""Reduction"" Theorem for the Stirling Numbers The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle Double Counting Derangements A Formula for the Stirling NumbersStirling and Catalan Numbers Stirling Numbers Permutations and Stirling Numbers Catalan Numbers Pa
SIS Detectors for Terahertz Photon Counting System
Ezawa, Hajime; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ukibe, Masahiro; Fujii, Go; Shiki, Shigetomo
2016-07-01
An Intensity interferometer with photon counting detector is a candidate to realize a THz interferometer for astronomical observations. We have demonstrated that synthesis imaging is possible even with intensity interferometers. An SIS junction (or STJ) with low leakage current of 1 pA is a suitable device for photon counting detectors. Readout circuit utilizing FETs with low gate leakage, low gate capacitance, and fast response is discussed.
Photon counting statistics using a digital oscilloscope
Ricci, M. L. Martinez; Mazzaferri, J.; Bragas, A. V.; Martinez, O. E.
2006-01-01
We present a photon counting experiment designed for an undergraduate physics laboratory. The statistics of the number of photons of a pseudo-thermal light source is studied in two limiting cases: much longer and much shorter than the coherence time, giving Poisson and Bose-Einstein distributions, respectively. The experiment can be done in a reasonable time using a digital oscilloscope without the need of counting boards. The use of the oscilloscope has the advantage of allowing the storage ...
Differential expression analysis for sequence count data
Anders, Simon; Huber, Wolfgang
2010-01-01
High-throughput sequencing assays such as RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq or barcode counting provide quantitative readouts in the form of count data. To infer differential signal in such data correctly and with good statistical power, estimation of data variability throughout the dynamic range and a suitable error model are required. We propose a method based on the negative binomial distribution, with variance and mean linked by local regression and present an implementation, DESeq, as an R/Bioconductor ...
Remote system for counting of nuclear pulses
In this work, it is describe technically the remote system for counting of nuclear pulses, an integral system of the project radiological monitoring in a petroleum distillation tower. The system acquires the counting of incident nuclear particles in a nuclear detector which process this information and send it in serial form, using the RS-485 toward a remote receiver, which can be a Personal computer or any other device capable to interpret the communication protocol. (Author)
Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease.
Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Noble, P N; Layton, D. M.; Nicolaides, K H
1992-01-01
The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in these cells and the degree of fetal anaemia. Possible mechanisms for le...
The Complexity of Approximately Counting Stable Matchings
Chebolu, Prasad; Martin, Russell
2010-01-01
We investigate the complexity of approximately counting stable matchings in the $k$-attribute model, where the preference lists are determined by dot products of "preference vectors" with "attribute vectors", or by Euclidean distances between "preference points" and "attribute points". Irving and Leather proved that counting the number of stable matchings in the general case is $#P$-complete. Counting the number of stable matchings is reducible to counting the number of downsets in a (related) partial order and is interreducible, in an approximation-preserving sense, to a class of problems that includes counting the number of independent sets in a bipartite graph ($#BIS$). It is conjectured that no FPRAS exists for this class of problems. We show this approximation-preserving interreducibilty remains even in the restricted $k$-attribute setting when $k \\geq 3$ (dot products) or $k \\geq 2$ (Euclidean distances). Finally, we show it is easy to count the number of stable matchings in the 1-attribute dot-product ...
Optimal Private Halfspace Counting via Discrepancy
Muthukrishnan, S
2012-01-01
A range counting problem is specified by a set $P$ of size $|P| = n$ of points in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, an integer weight $x_p$ associated to each point $p \\in P$, and a range space ${\\cal R} \\subseteq 2^{P}$. Given a query range $R \\in {\\cal R}$, the target output is $R(\\vec{x}) = \\sum_{p \\in R}{x_p}$. Range counting for different range spaces is a central problem in Computational Geometry. We study $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithms for range counting. Our main results are for the range space given by hyperplanes, that is, the halfspace counting problem. We present an $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithm for halfspace counting in $d$ dimensions which achieves $O(n^{1-1/d})$ average squared error. This contrasts with the $\\Omega(n)$ lower bound established by the classical result of Dinur and Nissim [PODS 2003] for arbitrary subset counting queries. We also show a matching lower bound on average squared error for any $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithm for hal...
Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults.
Carel, R S; Eviatar, J
1985-09-01
The relationships between white blood cell (WBC) count, smoking, and other health variables were determined among 35,000 apparently healthy men and women. The effect of smoking on the WBC count was greater than that of all other variables. The leukocyte level and the variance in WBC count values increased with increased smoking intensity. The relationship between smoking intensity and leukocyte level is expressed quantitatively by the following regression equation: WBC (10(3)/mm3) = 7.1 + 0.05(SM), where SM has seven values according to the smoking level. Multiple regression analysis with additional variables other than smoking did not much improve the predictive value of the equation. The effect of smoking on WBC count could be only partially explained by an inflammatory process, e.g., chronic bronchitis. Relationships of statistical significance (but mostly with r values of less than 0.10) were found between WBC count and the following variables: hemoglobin, heart rate, weight (or Quetelet index), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, sex, ethnic origin, systolic blood pressure, height, blood sugar, and diastolic blood pressure. The normal WBC count range for smokers differs from that of nonsmokers and is shifted to the right according to the smoking level. This may have both a diagnostic and prognostic significance in different clinical settings. PMID:4070192
Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics
The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations
Judge, Darrell L.
1994-01-01
A prototype spectrometer has been developed for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. The energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.
People living with HIV infection / AIDS - A study on lymph node FNAC and CD4 count
Shobhana A
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Between July 1997 and December 2000, 1616 HIV seropositive persons were identified by Western Blot test at the School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Four hundred seventy two (29.2% of them had generalized lymphadenopathy. CD4 count could be done in only 54 of these 472 subjects (11.4%. These 54 patients, consisting of 40 males (74% and 14 females (26% were the subjects of the study. Their mean age was 29.5 years. In all these subjects, FNAC was done from the enlarged lymph nodes (non-inguinal. Reactive hyperplasia was seen in 30 cases (55.5% whose absolute CD4 count varied between 411-945 cells/µL (median value 670 cells/µL. Evidence of tuberculous lymphadenitis was detected in 22 (41% with CD4 counts varying between 113 and 422 cells/µL (median value 212 cells/µL. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was diagnosed in 2 cases (3.7% with CD4 count 79-113 cells/µL. All patients had evidence of HIV-1 infection, excepting one case of dual infection (HIV-1 and 2.
Survey of systems for concentration and low background counting of tritium in water
This paper surveys systems used for concentrating and counting tritium activities in the range 0.1-5 000 TU. It should serve as a guide to the factors involved in such measurements, for scientists interested in practical applications of natural and bomb-produced tritium as a tracer, and for those who wish to construct similar apparatus. In most tritium-counting systems the criterion to be applied in comparing methods is the time required to achieve the desired rms relative precision. This time decreases with increasing sample activity, increasing amount of sample in the counter and with decreasing background. Counting systems compared are gas counters and the filling gases, scintillation counters and scintillators. The best proportional counters are considerably better than the best scintillation counters, but benzene synthesis and assay by liquid scintillation counting is as good as the best Geiger counters. To concentrate a single sample by a factor of 10, thermal diffusion is quicker and gives a more accurate enrichment factor. However, as thermal diffusion columns are bulky, it is easier with electrolysis to run simultaneously a larger number of samples, and the reproducibility is adequate for most purposes. The absolute accuracy of measurements at different laboratories is compared and it is shown that the standard deviation is generally better than about ±2%. (author)
Simple unbiased estimation of absolute free energies for biomolecules
Ytreberg, F M
2005-01-01
One reason that free energy difference calculations are notoriously difficult in molecular systems is due to insufficient conformational overlap, or similarity, between the two states or systems of interest. The degree of overlap is irrelevant, however, if the absolute free energy of each state can be computed. We present a method for calculating the absolute free energy that employs a simple construction of an exactly computable reference system which possesses high overlap with the state of interest. The approach requires only a physical ensemble of conformations generated via simulation, and an auxiliary calculation of approximately equal CPU cost. Moreover, the calculations can converge to the correct free energy value even when the physical ensemble is incomplete or improperly distributed. We use the approach to correctly predict free energies for test systems where the absolute values can be calculated exactly, and also to predict the conformational equilibrium for leucine dipeptide in GBSA implicit sol...
Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCCCN
New absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCCCN (cyanoacetylene or propiolonitrile) in the range of 0–10 eV electron energy are presented here, which have been determined from a new analysis of previously reported data (Graupner et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 117). The highest cross sections are observed for the formation of CN− at 5.3 eV and CCCN− at 5.1 eV; approximately 0.06 Å2 and 0.05 Å2 respectively. As part of the re-analysis, it was necessary to determine absolute cross sections for electron-impact ionization of HCCCN with the binary-encounter Bethe method. These electron-impact ionization absolute cross sections for HCCCN are also presented here; the maximum value was found to be ∼6.6 Å2 at ∼80 eV. (paper)
An algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity in the global ocean
T. J. McDougall
2009-02-01
Full Text Available To date, density and other thermodynamic properties of seawater have been calculated from Practical Salinity, S_{ P}. It is more accurate however to use Absolute Salinity, S_{ A} (the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater. Absolute Salinity S_{ A} can be expressed in terms of Practical Salinity S_{ P} as
S_{ A}=(35.165 04 g kg^{-1}/35S_{ P}+δ S_{ A}(φ, λ, p
where δ S_{ A} is the Absolute Salinity Anomaly as a function of longitude φ, latitude λ and pressure. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, the Absolute Salinity Anomaly is zero. When seawater is not of standard composition, the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg^{−1} in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (φ, λ, p in the world ocean.
To develop this algorithm we use the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. To expand our data set we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally. We approximate the laboratory-determined values of δ S_{ A} of the 811 seawater samples as a series of simple functions of the silicate concentration of the seawater sample and latitude; one function for each ocean basin. We use these basin-specific correlations and a digital atlas of silicate in the world ocean to deduce the Absolute Salinity
Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting
Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas
2013-01-01
]. •We give an O(n loglog n)-space data structure for approximate 2-D orthogonal range counting that can compute a (1+δ)-factor approximation to the count in O(loglog n) time for any fixed constant δ>0. Again, our bounds match the state of the art for the 2-D orthogonal range emptiness problem. •Lastly......Close Abstract We present three new results on one of the most basic problems in geometric data structures, 2-D orthogonal range counting. All the results are in the w-bit word RAM model. •It is well known that there are linear-space data structures for 2-D orthogonal range counting with worst......-case optimal query time O(log_w n). We give an O(n loglog n)-space adaptive data structure that improves the query time to O(loglog n + log_w k), where k is the output count. When k=O(1), our bounds match the state of the art for the 2-D orthogonal range emptiness problem [Chan, Larsen, and Pătraşcu, SoCG 2011...
Genetic regulatory networks that count to 3.
Lehmann, Malte; Sneppen, Kim
2013-07-21
Sensing a graded input and differentiating between its different levels is at the core of many developmental decisions. Here, we want to examine how this can be realized for a simple system. We model gene regulatory circuits that reach distinct states when setting the underlying gene copy number to 1, 2 and 3. This distinction can be considered as counting the copy number. We explore different circuits that allow for counting and keeping memory of the count after resetting the copy number to 1. For this purpose, we sample different architectures and parameters, only considering circuits that contain repressive links, which we model by Michaelis-Menten terms. Interestingly, we find that counting to 3 does not require a hierarchy in Hill coefficients, in contrast to counting to 2, which is known from lambda phage. Furthermore, we find two main circuit architectures: one design also found in the vertebrate neural tube in a development governed by the sonic hedgehog morphogen and the more robust design of a repressilator supplemented with a weak repressilator acting in the opposite direction. PMID:23567648
Delta count-rate monitoring system
A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount
Alavi S.M
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Lymphocyte CD4+count, a standard laboratory test for staging of HIV infection, is expensive and unavailable in resource-restricted countries. Total lymphocyte count (TLC and hemoglobin (Hb are recommended as simple & inexpensive surrogates. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation, sensitivity and predictive power of these parameters as substitutes for CD4 count. One hundred HIV patients enrolled in this analytic descriptive study in Ahvaz, a city in the South of Iran, from 2005 to 2006. They were tested for CD4 count, TLC, Hb, and hematocrit (Hct. The cutoffs were determined as: 200 cells/µL, 1200 cells/µL, 12 g/dl and 30%, respectively. We used Sys Max SE 9500 for CBC and Flow cytometry for CD4 count. The correlation coefficient established correlation between values. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were calculated. 2 females (%2 and 98 males (%98 of the mean age of 32±5 years were studied. 87 cases (%87 were IV drug users, the majority having a history of imprisonment. The mean CD4 count, TLC, Hb and Hct were 279±225, 2102±1250, 10.7±2.4 and 30.4±9.0, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between CD4 count and TLC (R = 0.645, P = 0.001, but no correlation was seen between CD4 count and Hb or Hct (R= 0.451, P=0.056 and R= 0.375, P=0.816 respectively. This study shows that TLC is a suitable surrogate marker for CD4 count. Hb and Hct are of limited value in predicting CD4 counts and should not be substituted for CD4counts.
Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone
Hiroaki Miyaoka
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.
On the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield
Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Blanco Ramos, Francisco; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando
2014-01-01
The absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield is a key parameter for the energy reconstruction of extensive air showers registered by fluorescence telescopes. In previous publications, we reported a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the air-fluorescence generation that allowed the theoretical evaluation of this parameter. This simulation has been upgraded in the present work. As a result, we determined an updated absolute value of the fluorescence yield of 7.9 +/- 2.0 ph/MeV for the band ...
Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure
Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.
Absolute Baseline for Testing of Electronic Distance Meters
Jaroslav Braun
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the construction and determination of coordinates of the absoluteEDMs baseline in a laboratory with 16 pillars with forced centring. Leica Absolute TrackerAT401 (standard deviation of distance measurement: 5 μ m, standard deviation of anglemeasurement: 0.15 mgon, which is designed for very accurate industrial measurements,was used for our purpose. Lengths between the baseline points were determined with astandard deviation of 0.02 mm. The baseline is used for determining systematic and randomerrors of distance meters and for accuracy of distance meters at short distances commonin engineering surveying for purposes of mechanical engineering.
Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry
Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju
2008-01-01
We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.
A general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters
Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun
2016-04-01
Although the relativistic manifestations of gravitational fields in gravimetry were first studied 40 years ago, the relativistic effects combined with free-fall absolute gravimeters have rarely been considered. In light of this, we present a general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters in a local-Fermi coordinates system, where we focus on effects related to the measuring devices: relativistic transverse Doppler effects, gravitational redshift effects and Earth’s rotation effects. Based on this model, a general relativistic expression of the measured gravity acceleration is obtained.
Clinical application of absolute ethanol as an embolizing material
Transcatheter infusion of absolute ethanol was applied clinically in 3 cases of artificial embolization: 25 yrs old female with bilateral renal angiomyolipoma, 19 yrs old female with right paralumbar liposarcoma and 25 yrs old male with hypernephroma of right kidney. Selective or subselective manual infusion was made and 9 to 22 cc of pure ethanol was delivered in a speed of 1 to 2 cc per second. The sclerosing effect of absolute ethanol was potent. However, all 3 cases revealed mild post-embolization syndrome
Counting Processes for Retail Default Modeling
Kiefer, Nicholas Maximilian; Larson, C. Erik
Counting processes provide a very flexible framework for modeling discrete events occurring over time. Estimation and interpretation is easy, and links to more familiar approaches are at hand. The key is to think of data as "event histories," a record of times of switching between states...... in a discrete state space. In a simple case, the states could be default/non-default; in other models relevant for credit modeling the states could be credit scores or payment status (30 dpd, 60 dpd, etc.). Here we focus on the use of stochastic counting processes for mortgage default modeling, using data...... by these different methods? We address this question in the counting process framework. In fact, MI is associated with lower d...
Multi-window counting of radioactivity
In counting of radioactivity, using for example gas proportional (GP) or liquid scintillation (LS) counters, one can set up two or more electronic windows, which can measure two or more radiation components. In this work, we derived general equations for n-window counting in matrix notation, including mutual crosstalk between the windows using both the ratio (not normalized) and the fraction (normalized) methods. A solution for n radiation components is presented. For the two-window measurements, we report complete statistical analysis of the results including propagation of all uncertainties. The decision-level and the detection-limit equations were derived including crosstalk correction, uncertainties of the variables, Gaussian continuity correction, interference correction, and the overdispersion correction. Numerical verifications of the two-window systems are presented, including conditions for the detection of a minor component in the presence of a major component. In addition, limited experimental verifications of the two-window systems using LS counting are reported.
Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data
Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.
2005-01-01
We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.
Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts
Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole;
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and...... investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. METHOD: In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of...
Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA
Cox, Colin
2013-06-01
The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.
Whole body counting of radon daughters
This paper reports on five adult males that were exposed for one hour to radon and radon daughter products in an exposure chamber and subsequently measured for radon daughter product activity in the chest region by whole body counting methods. The gamma-ray detection rate was approximated by a single exponential with a 35 minute half period, consistent with the physical decay of a mixture of RaB and RaC. About half of the deposited activity was associated with internal deposition and half with external deposition on clothing, skin and hair. The average counting rate from radon daughters on clothing was 10 times the average from skin and hair. Under as well as outer clothing contributed substantially to the counting rate. A strong correlation was found between internal and external deposition indicating that total activity provides a useful index of internal deposition
Moraes, D; Nygård, E
2008-01-01
This ASIC is a counting mode front-end electronic optimized for the readout of CdZnTe/CdTe and silicon sensors, for possible use in applications where the flux of ionizing radiation is high. The chip is implemented in 0.25 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain shaper stage with 21 ns peaking time, two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 118 mV/fC and an equivalent noise charge of about 711 e−, for a detector capacitance of 5 pF. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and pixel detectors.
Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.
Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto
2015-08-01
Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications. PMID:26738016
Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.
Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James
2008-06-01
The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526
Count-to-count time interval distribution analysis in a fast reactor
The most important kinetic parameters have been measured at the zero power fast reactor CORAL-I by means of the reactor noise analysis in the time domain, using measurements of the count-to-count time intervals. (Author) 69 refs
The lost castle of Count Rodrigo Gonzalez
Ehrlich, Michael
2015-01-01
This article suggests that a castle called Toron built in 1137 by Count Rodrigo of Lara, and granted to the Templar Order was in Summil, where remains of a Crusader castles are still visible (ca. 25 km from Ascalon, in south west Israel). This opinion opposes a consensual view that the castle built by Count Rodrigo was in Latrun, midway between Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem. This identifi cation is based on names’ similarity and on the universal opinion that Latrun was a Templar castle. In this arti...
Interpretation of automated blood cell counts
Zühre Kaya
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation
Advances in photon counting for bioluminescence
Ingle, Martin B.; Powell, Ralph
1998-11-01
Photon counting systems were originally developed for astronomy, initially by the astronomical community. However, a major application area is in the study of luminescent probes in living plants, fishes and cell cultures. For these applications, it has been necessary to develop camera system capability at very low light levels -- a few photons occasionally -- and also at reasonably high light levels to enable the systems to be focused and to collect quality images of the object under study. The paper presents new data on MTF at extremely low photon flux and conventional ICCD illumination, counting efficiency and dark noise as a function of temperature.
Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.
2005-11-01
An analytical approach was proposed for simultaneously determining an inelastic mean-free path (IMFP) and a surface excitation parameter (SEP) with absolute units by the analysis of an absolute experimental reflection electron energy loss spectrum. The IMFPs and SEPs in Ni were deduced for electrons of 300 to 3000 eV. The obtained IMFPs were in good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M equation. The Chen-type empirical formula was proposed for determining the SEP. The results confirmed the applicability of the present approach for determining the IMFP and SEP for medium-energy electrons.
CORRELATION BETWEEN CLINICAL PROFILE, CD 4 COUNT AND TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT IN HIV INFECTED PERSONS
Keshava
2014-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: HIV infection can be monitored by laboratory and clinical markers of disease progression. In the absence of CD 4 count , the use of Total Lymphocyte Count has been advocated to predict CD 4 count and to stage HIV disease. This study was undertaken to show whether the TLC accurately predicts a low CD 4 count in HIV infected persons and its clinical correlation. METHODOLOGY: The data for the study was collected from HIV positive inpatients and outpatients of KIMS Hospital , Bangalore fr om March 2004 to March 2006. A total 50 patients were subjected to clinical examination and relevant investigations including CD 4 Count and TLC. RESULTS: In our study , males (39 , outnumbered females (11. The major risk factor for HIV infection in these patients was unprotected , multiple sexual contacts. Fever , Anorexia , Weight loss , Lethargy , Cough , Diarrhea and Mouth ulcers were the common presenting symptoms. Tuberculosis , Chronic diarrhea , Oropharyngeal candidiasis were the most common opportunistic i nfections. Majority of the patients had CD 4 Count less than 350 cells/μl and were symptomatic. The Total Lymphocyte Counts of 1750 cells/μl and 2450 cells/μl correlated to CD 4 counts of 200 cells/μl and 350 cells/μl respectively. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUS ION: There was a highly significant correlation between CD 4 Count and Total Lymphocyte Count. TLC can be used as an effective laboratory tool to monitor disease progression in HIV infected persons where CD 4 is not available and in resource poor countries .
Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC
Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A
2012-01-01
Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...
Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar;
2015-01-01
Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate...
Absolute configuration of some dinorlabdanes from the copaiba oil
A novel ent-dinorlabdane (Ι)-13(R)-14,15-dinorlabd-8(17)-ene-3,13-diol was isolated from commercial copaiba oil along with two known dinorlabdanes. The absolute configuration of these dinorditerpenes was established for the first time through synthesis starting from known (Ι)-3-hydroxycopalic acid, which was also isolated from the same oleoresin. (author)
Absolute configuration of some dinorlabdanes from the copaiba oil
Romero, Adriano L.; Baptistela, Lucia H.B.; Imamura, Paulo M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: imam@iqm.unicamp.br
2009-07-01
A novel ent-dinorlabdane ({iota})-13(R)-14,15-dinorlabd-8(17)-ene-3,13-diol was isolated from commercial copaiba oil along with two known dinorlabdanes. The absolute configuration of these dinorditerpenes was established for the first time through synthesis starting from known ({iota})-3-hydroxycopalic acid, which was also isolated from the same oleoresin. (author)
Estimation of Transition Probabilities Using Median Absolute Deviations
Kim, C. S.; Schaible, Glenn D.
1988-01-01
The probability-constrained minimum absolute deviations (MAD) estimator appears to be superior to the probability-constrained quadratic programming estimator in estimating transition probabilities with limited aggregate time series data Futhermore, one can reduce the number of columns in the probability-constrained MAD simplex tableau by adopting the median property
Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars
Moatsos, M.
2015-01-01
The global absolute poverty rates of the World Bank demonstrate a continued decline of poverty in developing countries between 1983 and 2012. However, the methodology applied to derive these results has received extensive criticism by scholars for requiring the application of PPP exchange rates and
A simplified method of absolute measurement for liquid scintillation counter
A absolute measurement for simplified determining the activities of LS. sample is described. The total uncertainty of 2.0% and confidence level of 99.7% are given by the method, and as a example, three samples of 14C (n-hexadecane) are measured
Absolute cross-section of turbojet aviation engine calculation
Ryabokon, Evgen
2012-01-01
The calculation method of three-dimensional model of turbojet aviation engine is offered, thus the form of turbine vanes with spiralling is described like parametric surface. The method allows make the calculation of absolute cross-section (ACS) of turbojet aviation engines with different geometrical parameters. The calculation results of ACS of aviation engine are presented.
Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansions
BISWAJYOTI SAHA
2016-08-01
For an arithmetical function $f$ with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the $\\sum_{n\\leq N}$ f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan’s totient functions.
Modeling and forecasting outliers and level shifts in absolute returns
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. van der Leij (Marco); R. Paap (Richard)
2001-01-01
textabstractDue to high and low volatility periods, time series of absolute returns experience temporary level shifts (that is, periods with outliers) which differ in length and size. In this paper we put forward a new model which can describe and forecast the location and size of such level shifts.
Determination of absolute structure using Bayesian statistics on Bijvoet differences
Hooft, R.W.W.; Straver, L.H.; Spek, A.L.
2008-01-01
A new probabilistic approach is introduced for the determination of the absolute structure of a compound which is known to be enantiopure based on Bijvoet-pair intensity differences. The new method provides relative probabilities for different models of the chiral composition of the structure. The o
Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions
Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva
2012-01-01
Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…
An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.
Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation. PMID:27462490
Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay
Medina Rigoberto
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the "freezing" technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.
Invalid phase values removal method for absolute phase recovery.
Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia
2016-01-10
A novel approach is presented for more effectively removing invalid phase values in absolute phase recovery. The approach is based on a detailed study involving the types and cases of invalid phase values. Meanwhile, some commonalities of the existing removal algorithms also are thoroughly analyzed. It is well known that rough absolute phase and fringe order maps can very easily be obtained by temporal phase unwrapping techniques. After carefully analyzing the components and fringe order distribution of the rough fringe order map, the proposed method chiefly adopts an entirely new strategy to refine a pure fringe order map. The strategy consists of three parts: (1) the square of an image gradient, (2) subregion areas of the binary image, and (3) image decomposition and composition. In combination with the pure fringe order map and a removal criterion, the invalid phase values can be identified and filtered out from the rough absolute phase map. This new strategy not only gets rid of the limitations of traditional removal methods but also has a two-fold function. The paper also offers different metrics from the experiment to evaluate the quality of the final absolute phase. In contrast with other removal methods, experimental results have verified the feasibility, effectiveness, and superiority of the proposed method. PMID:26835776
Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task
de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando
2012-01-01
When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…
Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects
Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S
2015-01-01
Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...
Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series
Prem Chandra
2001-05-01
In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.
Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes
The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...
Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine
Behenna, Douglas C.
2011-04-01
We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Absolutely minimal Lipschitz extension of tree-valued mappings
Naor, Assaf
2010-01-01
We prove that every Lipschitz function from a subset of a locally compact length space to a metric tree has a unique absolutely minimal Lipschitz extension (AMLE). We relate these extensions to a stochastic game called {\\bf Politics} - a generalization of a game called {\\bf Tug of War} that has been used in \\cite{PSSW09} to study real-valued AMLEs.
Absolute differential yield of parametric x-ray radiation
The results of measurements of absolute differential yield of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) in thin single crystal are presented for the first time. It has been established that the experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations according with kinematical theory. The influence of density effect on PXR properties is discussed. (author). 19 refs., 7 figs
GNSS Absolute Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey
Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.; Geoghegan, C.
2011-12-01
Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and compare absolute calibrations to the traditional NGS relative calibrations.
Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects
Alvarez-Candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.; Silva, J. S.
2016-02-01
Context. Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are extremely difficult to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, HV, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, but only few are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V-band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of TNOs, many of which have been observed and modeled within the program "TNOs are cool", which is one of the Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V-band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering a magnitude variability that is due to the rotational light-curve. Results: We obtained 237 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, six of which were without previously reported measurements. Including the data from the literature, we report a total of 110 absolute magnitudes with their respective phase coefficients. The average value of HV is 6.39, bracketed by a minimum of 14.60 and a maximum of -1.12. For the phase coefficients we report a median value of 0.10 mag per degree and a very large dispersion, ranging from -0.88 up to 1.35 mag per degree.
7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Count per pound. 51.1242 Section 51.1242 Agriculture... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single...
20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the... subsidy if you are married and live with your spouse as of the month for which we determine...
Project and construction of counting system for neutron probe
A counting system was developed for coupling neutron probe aiming to register pulses produced by slow neutron interaction in the detector. The neutron probe consists of fast neutron source, thermal neutron detector, amplifier circuit and pulse counting circuit. The counting system is composed by counting circuit, timer and signal circuit. (M.C.K.)
Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.
Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.
2010-07-01
We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.
Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.
Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.
This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…
Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.
Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.
This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile…
Interpretation of automated blood cell counts
Zühre Kaya
2013-01-01
Complete blood count (CBC) tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters,...
Counting Using Hall Algebras I. Quivers
Fei, Jiarui
2011-01-01
We survey some results on counting the rational points of moduli spaces of quiver representations. We then make generalizations to Grassmannians and flags of quiver representations. These results have nice applications to the cluster algebra. Along the way, we use the full Hopf structure of the Hall algebra of a quiver.
Multidimensional time-correlated single photon counting
Becker, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Axel
2006-10-01
Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is based on the detection of single photons of a periodic light signal, measurement of the detection time of the photons, and the build-up of the photon distribution versus the time in the signal period. TCSPC achieves a near ideal counting efficiency and transit-time-spread-limited time resolution for a given detector. The drawback of traditional TCSPC is the low count rate, long acquisition time, and the fact that the technique is one-dimensional, i.e. limited to the recording of the pulse shape of light signals. We present an advanced TCSPC technique featuring multi-dimensional photon acquisition and a count rate close to the capability of currently available detectors. The technique is able to acquire photon distributions versus wavelength, spatial coordinates, and the time on the ps scale, and to record fast changes in the fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity of a sample. Biomedical applications of advanced TCSPC techniques are time-domain optical tomography, recording of transient phenomena in biological systems, spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging, FRET experiments in living cells, and the investigation of dye-protein complexes by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We demonstrate the potential of the technique for selected applications.
Approximate counting by hashing in bounded arithmetic
Jeřábek, Emil
2009-01-01
Roč. 74, č. 3 (2009), s. 829-860. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * approximate counting * universal hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009
Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.
Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…
Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.
Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…
A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts
K. Antonio; E.W. Frees; E.A. Valdez
2009-01-01
In this paper, we use multilevel models to analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization consisting of most of the general insurers in Singapore. Our data comes from the financial records of automobile insurance policies followed over a peri
A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts
K. Antonio; E.W. Frees; E.A. Valdez
2010-01-01
It is common for professional associations and regulators to combine the claims experience of several insurers into a database known as an 'intercompany' experience data set. In this paper, we analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization co
Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver
De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.
2008-01-01
The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in
The analysis of dependent count data.
Engel, J.
1987-01-01
In the literature, methods have been presented for the analysis of count data classified by fixed and crossed factors under the assumptions that this data can be modeled by independent binomial or Poisson distributions. In general, the mean value of these distributions depends on the levels of the c
Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers
We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number nK is read into a K-qudit register through its interaction with a stream of n particles passing in a nearby wire; this step corresponds to a quantum Fourier transformation from the Hilbert space of particles to the Hilbert space of qudit states. An inverse quantum Fourier transformation provides the number n in the base-d representation; the inverse transformation is fully quantum at the level of individual qudits, while a simpler semiclassical version can be used on the level of qudit registers. Combining registers of qubits, qutrits, and qudits, where d is a prime number, with a simpler single-shot measurement allows us to find the powers of 2, 3, and other primes d in the number n. We show that the counting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.
Bivariate Count Data Regression Using Series Expansions: With Applications
A. Colin Cameron; Per Johansson
2004-01-01
Most research on count data regression models, i.e. models for there the dependent variable takes only non-negative integer values or count values, has focused on the univariate case. Very little attention has been given to joint modeling of two or more counts. We propose parametric regression models for bivariate counts based on squared polynomial expansions around a baseline density. The models are more flexible than the current leading bivariate count model, the bivariate Poisson. The mode...
Changes in full blood count parameters in leptospirosis: a prospective study
2014-01-01
Background Leptospirosis presents diagnostic challenges to clinicians, in settings where other acute febrile illness are prevalent. The patterns of serial changes in haematological parameters in leptospirosis has not been evaluated previously. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with leptospirosis in two hospitals in Sri Lanka. Leptospirosis was diagnosed based on WHO clinical criteria with confirmation using Microscopic Agglutination Test titre > 400 or 4 fold rise between acute and convalescent samples. Full blood count parameters were analysed up to the 14th day of illness. Results Data from 201 patients with leptospirosis were available. Leukocyte counts and absolute neutrophil counts showed a decline over the first 5 days of illness, then rose until the end of the second week. On day 3 of fever, the majority (75%) had normal leukocyte counts, and by day 5, leukocytosis was seen only in 38.1%; leucopenia was an uncommon finding. Lymphopenia was seen in over half on day 5, declining to just under a quarter of patients by day 10. Platelets declined over the first 6 days and then gradually rose. Thrombocytopenia was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients by day 5. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels declined over the course of illness. Total white cell and neutrophil counts were higher, and haemoglobin and haematorcrit were significantly lower, in patients with severe disease. Conclusions Neither leukocytosis nor lymphopenia were prominent features, while thrombocytopenia was seen during the 3rd to 5th day of illness, with dropping haemoglobin levels. Neutrophilia and low haemoglobin levels appear to predict severe disease. These findings may be of use to clinicians in differentiating leptospirosis from other acute infections like dengue, and could help in predicting severe leptospirosis. PMID:25018781
Fast GPU-based absolute intensity determination for energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction
This paper presents a novel method for fast determination of absolute intensities in the sites of Laue spots generated by a tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystal after exposure to white synchrotron radiation during an energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction experiment. The Laue spots are taken by means of an energy-dispersive X-ray 2D pnCCD detector. Current pnCCD detectors have a spatial resolution of 384 × 384 pixels of size 75 × 75 μm2 each and operate at a maximum of 400 Hz. Future devices are going to have higher spatial resolution and frame rates. The proposed method runs on a computer equipped with multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) which provide fast and parallel processing capabilities. Accordingly, our GPU-based algorithm exploits these capabilities to further analyse the Laue spots of the sample. The main contribution of the paper is therefore an alternative algorithm for determining absolute intensities of Laue spots which are themselves computed from a sequence of pnCCD frames. Moreover, a new method for integrating spectral peak intensities and improved background correction, a different way of calculating mean count rate of the background signal and also a new method for n-dimensional Poisson fitting are presented.We present a comparison of the quality of results from the GPU-based algorithm with the quality of results from a prior (base) algorithm running on CPU. This comparison shows that our algorithm is able to produce results with at least the same quality as the base algorithm. Furthermore, the GPU-based algorithm is able to speed up one of the most time-consuming parts of the base algorithm, which is n-dimensional Poisson fitting, by a factor of more than 3. Also, the entire procedure of extracting Laue spots' positions, energies and absolute intensities from a raw dataset of pnCCD frames is accelerated by a factor of more than 3
Fast GPU-based absolute intensity determination for energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction
Alghabi, F.; Send, S.; Schipper, U.; Abboud, A.; Pietsch, U.; Kolb, A.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a novel method for fast determination of absolute intensities in the sites of Laue spots generated by a tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystal after exposure to white synchrotron radiation during an energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction experiment. The Laue spots are taken by means of an energy-dispersive X-ray 2D pnCCD detector. Current pnCCD detectors have a spatial resolution of 384 × 384 pixels of size 75 × 75 μm2 each and operate at a maximum of 400 Hz. Future devices are going to have higher spatial resolution and frame rates. The proposed method runs on a computer equipped with multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) which provide fast and parallel processing capabilities. Accordingly, our GPU-based algorithm exploits these capabilities to further analyse the Laue spots of the sample. The main contribution of the paper is therefore an alternative algorithm for determining absolute intensities of Laue spots which are themselves computed from a sequence of pnCCD frames. Moreover, a new method for integrating spectral peak intensities and improved background correction, a different way of calculating mean count rate of the background signal and also a new method for n-dimensional Poisson fitting are presented.We present a comparison of the quality of results from the GPU-based algorithm with the quality of results from a prior (base) algorithm running on CPU. This comparison shows that our algorithm is able to produce results with at least the same quality as the base algorithm. Furthermore, the GPU-based algorithm is able to speed up one of the most time-consuming parts of the base algorithm, which is n-dimensional Poisson fitting, by a factor of more than 3. Also, the entire procedure of extracting Laue spots' positions, energies and absolute intensities from a raw dataset of pnCCD frames is accelerated by a factor of more than 3.
Technique of absolute efficiency determination for gamma radiation semiconductor detectors
Simple technique is suggested to determine the absolute efficiency (E) of semiconductor detectors (SCD) which employes low-intensity neutron sources wide spread in scientific laboratories. The technique is based on using radioactive nuclide gamma radiation in decay chains of heavy element fission fragments, uranium-235, for example. Cumulative yields of a number of nulcides following heavy element fission are measured to a high accuracy (1-5%), which permits to . the value E is determined for a wide energy range (from X- ray to some MeV); using a nuclide with a well known decay scheme and measured to a high accuracy cumulative yield 140La, for example, one can calibrate in absolute values comparatively easily obtained plots of the SCD relative efficiency. The technique allows to determine the E value for extended plane (and volumetric) sources of an arbitrary form. Some nuclides, convenient for the determination of E, and their nuclear characteristics are tabulated
Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer
Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.
2016-03-01
A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.
Combinatorial Selection and Least Absolute Shrinkage via the CLASH Algorithm
Kyrillidis, Anastasios
2012-01-01
The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for linear regression exploits the geometric interplay of the $\\ell_2$-data error objective and the $\\ell_1$-norm constraint to arbitrarily select sparse models. Guiding this uninformed selection process with sparsity models has been precisely the center of attention over the last decade in order to improve learning performance. To this end, we alter the selection process of LASSO to explicitly leverage combinatorial sparsity models (CSMs) via the combinatorial selection and least absolute shrinkage (CLASH) operator. We provide concrete guidelines how to leverage combinatorial constraints within CLASH, and characterize CLASH's guarantees as a function of the set restricted isometry constants of the sensing matrix. Finally, our experimental results show that CLASH can outperform both LASSO and model-based compressive sensing in sparse estimation.
Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity
Loczi, Lajos
2014-05-19
We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.
A proposal to measure absolute environmental sustainability in lifecycle assessment
Bjørn, Anders; Margni, Manuele; Roy, Pierre-Olivier;
2016-01-01
sustainable are therefore increasingly important. Such absolute indicators exist, but suffer from shortcomings such as incomplete coverage of environmental issues, varying data quality and varying or insufficient spatial resolution. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that life cycle assessment (LCA...... study evaluating emission scenarios for personal residential electricity consumption supplied by production from 45 US coal fired electricity plant. Median values of derived CFs are 0.16–0.19 ha year kg−1 for common acidifying compounds. CFs are generally highest in Northern Europe, Canada and Alaska...... supporting decisions aimed at simultaneously reducing environmental impacts efficiently and maintaining or achieving environmental sustainability. We have demonstrated that LCA indicators can be modified from being relative to being absolute indicators of environmental sustainability. Further research should...
From Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) to Absolute Fluxes
Heap, S. R.; Lindler, D.
2016-05-01
Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R˜1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18–1.03 μ. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsl/. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We have therefore developed an observing procedure, data-reduction procedure, and correction algorithms that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1%.
A direct way to observe absolute molecular handedness
Vager, Zeev
2014-01-01
Unique labeling of chiral stereo-centers must include their handedness. The conventional method that has been developed to do this was originated by three chemists: R.S. Cahn, C. Ingold, and V. Prelog (CIP) and is formally known as R,S nomenclature. It requires knowledge of the spatial absolute configuration of that center. Traditionally, experimental methods of extracting handedness go through the absolute configuration and only then through the application of the CIP convention. Here we show that a direct experimental method of determination of the natural handedness by the polarization of tunneling electrons is almost always compatible with the CIP convention. By the sole use of symmetry arguments we show that the chiral molecule symmetry withdraws the need of fine structure splitting. As a consequence, the polarization of electrons tunneling through the molecular electric dipole direction uniquely determines their handedness. The symmetry breaking argument that induces lack of fine-structure splitting eli...
Absolute Configurations of Zingiberenols Isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes.
Khrimian, Ashot; Shirali, Shyam; Guzman, Filadelfo
2015-12-24
Two stereoisomeric zingiberenols in ginger were identified as (3R,6R,7S)-1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol (2) and (3S,6R,7S)-1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol (5). Absolute configurations were assigned by utilizing 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol stereoisomers and two gas-chromatography columns: a 25 m Hydrodex-β-6TBDM and 60 m DB-5MS. The C-6 and C-7 absolute configurations in both zingiberenols match those of zingiberene present abundantly in ginger rhizomes. Interestingly, zingiberenol 2 has recently been identified as a male-produced sex pheromone of the rice stink bug, Oebalus poecilus, thus indicating that ginger plants may be a potential source of the sex pheromone of this bug. PMID:26606508
Improved Absolute Approximation Ratios for Two-Dimensional Packing Problems
Harren, Rolf; van Stee, Rob
We consider the two-dimensional bin packing and strip packing problem, where a list of rectangles has to be packed into a minimal number of rectangular bins or a strip of minimal height, respectively. All packings have to be non-overlapping and orthogonal, i.e., axis-parallel. Our algorithm for strip packing has an absolute approximation ratio of 1.9396 and is the first algorithm to break the approximation ratio of 2 which was established more than a decade ago. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme (mathcal{PTAS}) for strip packing where rotations by 90 degrees are permitted and an algorithm for two-dimensional bin packing with an absolute worst-case ratio of 2, which is optimal provided mathcal{P} not= mathcal{NP}.
Beam energy absolute measurement using K-edge absorption spectrometers
A method is presented of absolute energy measurement with an accuracy of triangle Ε ∼ 10-4Εo by direct measurement of the bend angle in a high-precision magnetic dipole using two opposite-direction short (about 2 mm long) high-field-intensity magnets (bar Β dipole much-lt Βshortmag) installed at each end and two K-edge absorption spectrometers. Using these spectrometers and the hard x-ray synchrotron radiation created by the short magnets, a bend angle of 4.5 arc deg for the CEBAF energy bandwidth can be measured with an accuracy of a few units of 10-6 rad, and the main sources of systematic errors are the absolute measurement of the field integral and the determination of the centroid of the synchrotron beam at a wavelength equal to the K-edge absorption of the chosen substance
Correction due to finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters
Nagornyi, V D; Zanimonskiy, Y Y
2010-01-01
Correction due to finite speed of light is among the most inconsistent ones in absolute gravimetry. Formulas reported by different authors yield corrections scattered up to 8 $\\mu$Gal with no obvious reasons. The problem, though noted before, has never been studied, and nowadays the correction is rather postulated than rigorously proven. In this paper we investigate the problem from several prospectives, find the corrections for different types of absolute gravimeters, and establish relationships between different ways of implement them. The obtained results enabled us to analyze and understand the discrepancies in the results of other authors. We found that the correction derived from the Doppler effect is accountable only for $\\tfrac{2}{3}$ of the total correction due to finite speed of light, if no signal delays are considered. Another major source of inconsistency was found in the tacit use of simplified trajectory models.
Absolute technique for neutron source calibration by radiation induced activity
The neutron yield from a Radium Beryllium neutron source has been determined experimentally by the induced Mn-56 activity. The neutron source was placed in the center of a tank filled with aqueous manganese sulphate (MnSO4) solution. Irradiation time usually lasted about 16-18 hours in order to secure saturation. The average induced Mn-56 activity within the MnSO4 bath was then measured by the use of NaI scintillation detector. This detector was placed in a sealed aluminum jacket at the center of the tank. This detector was connected with the necessary electronic counting system and was pre calibrated against a 4 πβ-γ coincidence counting system. The efficiency of the NaI counting system as a function of MnSO4 solution density is investigated as well as the proper dimension of the used tank for the sake of calibration purposes. The neutron leakage within the MnSO4 baths was also investigated for different dimensions of tanks. The experimental errors involved in the counting system were also considered. The numerical value of neutron yield from the used radium beryllium neutron source was given with its corresponding statistical errors as (1.10 + 0.065) x 106 neutron per second
Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis
Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC; Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /INFN, Rome; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.
2009-12-09
By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.
Parameterized Absolute Parallelism: A Geometry for Physical Applications
Wanas, M. I.
2000-01-01
Absolute parallelism (AP) geometry is frequently used for physical applications. Although it is wider than Riemannian geometry, it has two main defects. The first is that its path equation does not represent physical trajectories of any test particle. The second is the identical vanishing of its curvature tensor. The present work shows that parameterizing this geometry would solve the two problems. Furthermore, the resulting parameterized AP-structure is more general than both the conventiona...
Parameterized Absolute Parallelism: A Geometry for Physical Applications
WANAS, Mamdouh Ishaac
2000-01-01
Absolute parallelism (AP) geometry is frequently used for physical applications. Although it is wider than the Riemannian geometry, it has two main defects. The first is that its path equation does not represent physical trajectories of any test particle. The second is the identical vanishing of its curvature tensor. The present work shows that parameterizing this geometry would solve the two problems. Furthermore, the resulting parameterized (AP)-structure is more general than both the conve...
Assignment of Absolute Configuration to SCH 351448 via Total Synthesis∫
Lael L. Cheung; Marumoto, Shinji; Anderson, Christopher D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.
2008-01-01
The synthesis and absolute configuration of SCH 351448, an interesting ionophoric natural product, are reported herein. Mukaiyama aldol-Prins and segment-coupling Prins reactions were employed to construct the constituent tetrahydropyrans of SCH 351448. Efforts to assemble the C2-symmetric core of the natural product by a templated olefin metathesis strategy are described, however, a stepwise fragment assembly was ultimately utilized to complete the target molecule.
Absolute Total np and pp Cross Section Determinations
Arndt, R A; Laptev, A B; Strakovsky, I I; Workman, R L
2008-01-01
Absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses of NN scattering data. These cross sections are compared with most recent ENDF/B and JENDL data files, and the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B and JENDL evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region.
BMO solvability and absolute continuity of harmonic measure
Hofmann, Steve; Le, Phi
2016-01-01
We show that for a uniformly elliptic divergence form operator $L$, defined in an open set $\\Omega$ with Ahlfors-David regular boundary, BMO-solvability implies scale invariant quantitative absolute continuity (the weak-$A_\\infty$ property) of elliptic-harmonic measure with respect to surface measure on $\\partial \\Omega$. We do not impose any connectivity hypothesis, qualitative or quantitative; in particular, we do not assume the Harnack Chain condition, even within individual connected comp...
On the Absolute Continuity of the Blackwell Measure
Bárány, Balázs; Kolossváry, István
2015-04-01
In 1957, Blackwell expressed the entropy of hidden Markov chains using a measure which can be characterised as an invariant measure for an iterated function system with place-dependent weights. This measure, called the Blackwell measure, plays a central role in understanding the entropy rate and other important characteristics of fundamental models in information theory. We show that for a suitable set of parameter values the Blackwell measure is absolutely continuous for almost every parameter in the case of binary symmetric channels.
Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey
Mader, G.; Bilich, A.; Geoghegan, C.
2012-04-01
Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and outline future planned refinements to the system.
The Romantic subject as an absolutely autonomous individual:
Cunta, Miljana
2004-01-01
This essay deals with the Romantic subject as a philosophical and literary category. Recognizing the diversity and complexity of literary production in the Romantic period, this study does not attempt to treat all the many aspect sof this subject, but it instead focuses upon a few: the role of nature,the status of imagination, and the subject's relation to the transcendental reality. In its relation to these issues, the Romantic subject appears as an absolutely autonomous individual, one who ...
Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models
Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir
2016-04-01
We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.
Control system for absolute laser interferometry with semiconductor lasers
Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef
Brno: Vysoké učení technické v Brně, 2004 - (Boušek, J.; Háze, J.), s. 468-473 ISBN 80-214-2701-9. [EDS '04 /11./ Electronic Devices and Systems Conference. Brno (CZ), 09.09.2004-10.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065009 Keywords : Semiconductor laser * absolute laser interferometry * wavelength scanning interferometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers
Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter
The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment
Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths
Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron; Kristensen, Anders
2014-01-01
numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is...... account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media....
Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis: The Origin, Control, and Amplification of Chirality
Delden, Richard A. van; Feringa, Bernard
1999-01-01
One of the fundamental and intriguing aspects of life is the homochirality of the essential molecules. From the early days of stereochemistry, the origin of chirality in biological systems has been a challenge to the chemical sciences and numerous theories and experiments have been reported. Despite the great progress in asymmetric synthesis, there are only a few genuine absolute asymmetric syntheses known today. Novel approaches based on the interplay of molecular biology, organic chemistry,...
Concave Minimization for Sparse Solutions of Absolute Value Equations
刘晓红; 樊婕; 李文娟
2016-01-01
Based on concave function, the problem of finding the sparse solution of absolute value equations is relaxed to a concave programming, and its corresponding algorithm is proposed, whose main part is solving a series of linear programming. It is proved that a sparse solution can be found under the assumption that the connected matrixes have range space property(RSP). Numerical experiments are also conducted to verify the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay
Rigoberto Medina
2008-02-01
Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the Ã¢Â€ÂœfreezingÃ¢Â€Â technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.
Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation
Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang
2008-01-01
To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.
The Intonation of absolute questions of Brazilian Portuguese
Cantero Serena, Francisco José; Font Rotchés, Dolors
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe three melodic patterns of absolute interrogatives from a phonetic point of view, obtained from a corpus in Goiás (Brazil). The patterns are: a) Rising Final Inflection (30% to 52%), b) Rising-Falling Final Inflection, c) High Nucleus Final Inflection. These patterns have been established from the acoustic analysis and standardisation of 55 questions and from the verification of their validity in a perception test. We compared them with interrogative patterns obtained...
THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET
We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1rc covering ∼2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ∼ 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ∼2000-2400 A). The uvw1rc - b colors show a scatter of ∼0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ∼1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.
Absolute cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data
Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J. M.
2013-01-01
We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform absolute normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the dynamic spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the dynamic susceptibility. Formulas that c...
The possible advantages of the mean absolute deviation 'effect' size.
Gorard, S.
2013-01-01
A range of ‘effect’ sizes already exists, for presenting a relatively easy to interpret estimate of a difference or change between two sets of observations. All are based on use of the standard deviation of the observations, involving squaring and then square-rooting, which makes results hard to interpret, hard to teach and may distort extreme scores. An effect size based on the simpler mean absolute deviation overcomes these issues to some extent, while being at least as efficient and...
Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability
Patrícia Vanzella; E Glenn Schellenberg
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP pos...
The Unity of Chemistry and Physics: Absolute Reaction Rate Theory
Hinne Hettema
2012-01-01
Henry Eyring's absolute rate theory explains the size of chemical reaction rate constants in terms of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and quantum chemistry. In addition it uses a number of unique concepts such as the 'transition state'. A key feature of the theory is that the explanation it provides relies on the comparison of reaction rate constant expressions derived from these individual theories. In this paper, the example is used to develop a naturalized notion of reduction and th...
Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson
Abe, K; Dragic, J; Fujii, H; Gershon, T; Haba, J; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Igarashi, Y; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Katayama, N; Kichimi, H; Krokovnyi, P P; Limosani, A; Nakamura, I; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nozaki, T; Ozaki, H; Ronga, F J; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Stamen, R; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, J; Hoshi, Y; Neichi, K; Aihara, H; Hastings, N C; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, K; Iwasaki, M; Kakuno, H; Kusaka, A; Nakahama, Y; Tanabe, K; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Bedny, I; Bondar, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Kuzmin, A; Poluektov, A; Root, N; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Usov, Yu; Zhilich, V; Aoki, K; Enari, Y; Hara, K; Hayasaka, K; Hokuue, T; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Kishimoto, N; Kozakai, Y; Kubota, T; Miyazaki, Y; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Sato, N; Senyo, K; Yoshino, S; Arakawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Miyata, H; Tamura, N; Watanabe, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aushev, T; Bay, A; Hinz, L; Jacoby, C; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Villa, S; Wicht, J; Zürcher, D; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Gokhroo, G; Majumder, G; Bahinipati, S; Drutskoy, A; Goldenzweig, P; Kinoshita, K; Kulasiri, R; Sayeed, K; Schwartz, A J; Somov, A; Bakich, A M; Cole, S; McOnie, S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Stöck, H; Varvell, K E; Yabsley, B D; Balagura, V; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Liventsev, D; Medvedeva, T; Mizuk, R; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Tikhomirov, I; Uglov, T; Tian, Y BanX C; Barberio, E; Dalseno, J; Dowd, R; Moloney, G R; Sevior, M E; Taylor, G N; Tse, Y F; Urquijo, P; Barbero, M; Browder, T E; Guler, H; Jones, M; Li, J; Nishimura, K; Olsen, S L; Peters, M; Rorie, J; Sahoo, H; Uchida, K; Varner, G; Belous, K S; Shapkin, M; Sokolov, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Fratina, S; Gorisek, A; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Zupanc, A; Blyth, S; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Hou, S; Kuo, C C; Bozek, A; Kapusta, P; Lesiak, T; Matyja, A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Rózanska, M; Wiechczynski, J; Bracko, M; Korpar S; Brodzicka, J; Chang, M C; Kikuchi, N; Mikami, Y; Nagamine, T; Schonmeier, P; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Shen, Y T; Tsai, Y T; Ueno, K; Wang, C C; Wang, M Z; Wu, C H; Cheon, B G; Choi, J H; Ha, H; Kang, J S; Won, E; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Chuvikov, A; Garmash, A; Marlow, D; Ziegler, T; Dash, M; Mohapatra, D; Piilonen, L E; Yusa, Y; Fujikawa, M; Hayashii, H; Imoto, A; Kataoka, S U; Miyabayashi, K; Noguchi, S; Krizan, P; Golob, B; Seidl, R; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hara, T; Heffernan, D; Miyake, H; Hasegawa, Y; Satoyama, N; Takada, N; Nitoh, O; Hoshina, K; Ishino, H; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Mori, T; Ono, S; Watanabe, Y; Iwabuchi, M; Kim, Y J; Liu, Y; Sarangi, T R; Uchida, Y; Kang, J H; Kim, T H; Kwon, Y J; Kurihara, E; Kawai, H; Park, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Yang He Young; Kumar, R; Singh, J B; Soni, N; Lange, J S; Leder, G; MacNaughton, J; Mandl, F; Mitaroff, W A; Pernicka, M; Schwanda, C; Widhalm, L; Matsumoto, T; Nakagawa, T; Seki, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Sakaue, H; Teramoto, Y; Ogawa, A; Shibuya, H; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Sakamoto, H; Wang, C H; Schümann, J; Stanic, S; Xie, Q L; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P
2006-01-01
The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.
Mass Spectrometry-Based Approaches Toward Absolute Quantitative Proteomics
Kito, Keiji; Ito, Takashi
2008-01-01
Mass spectrometry has served as a major tool for the discipline of proteomics to catalogue proteins in an unprecedented scale. With chemical and metabolic techniques for stable isotope labeling developed over the past decade, it is now routinely used as a method for relative quantification to provide valuable information on alteration of protein abundance in a proteome-wide scale. More recently, absolute or stoichiometric quantification of proteome is becoming feasible, in particular, with th...
Absolute orientations from EBSD measurements - as easy as it seems?
Kilian, Rüdiger; Bestmann, Michel; Heilbronner, Renée
2016-04-01
In structural geology, some problems can be addressed by inspecting the crystal orientation of grains in a rock. Deriving shear senses, kinematics of flow, information on deformation processes and recrystallization are some examples. Usually, oriented samples are taken in the field and, if inspected in an universal stage, the researcher has full control over the procedure and can make sure that the derived orientation is related to our geographic reference frame - that it is an absolute orientation. Nowadays, usage of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has greatly improved the information in the derived data (fully crystal orientations, mappings, etc…), and the speed of data acquisition. However, this comes to the price of having to rely on the vendor supplied software and machine setup. Recent benchmarks and comparison of reference data revealed that for various EBSD setups around the world, the orientation data defaults to the wrong absolute orientation. The absolute orientation is not correctly derived - it commonly suffer a 180 degree rotation around the normal of the sample surface. In this contribution we will discuss the implications of such erroneous measurements and what kind of interpretations derived by orientation and texture data will be affected.
Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical
Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France); Selby, Talitha M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Washington County Campus, West Bend, Wisconsin 53095 (United States)
2012-04-07
Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.
The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet
Brown, Peter J; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T; Hoversten, Erik A; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Berk, Daniel Vanden
2010-01-01
We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby(redshift z = 0.004--0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way (MW) extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1_rc covering ~2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ~3000--4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ~2000-2400 A). The uvw1_rc-b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2-uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with ...
Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.
Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X
2016-01-01
A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134
Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network
Yue Guo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4’’ wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.
A direct way to observe absolute molecular handedness
We claim that the polarization of electrons tunneling through the molecular electric dipole direction uniquely determines the handedness of chiral centers. Unique labeling of chiral stereo-centers must include their handedness. The conventional method is formally known as the R, S nomenclature or the Ingold–Prelog priority (CIP) rules. It requires knowledge of the spatial absolute configuration of that center. Traditionally, experimental methods of extracting handedness go through the absolute configuration and only then would the CIP convention be applied. Here we show that a direct experimental method of determination of the natural molecular handedness by the polarization of tunneling electrons is almost always compatible with the CIP convention. By the sole use of symmetry arguments we show that the chiral molecular symmetry eliminates the need of fine structure splitting. As a consequence, the polarization of electrons tunneling through the molecular electric dipole direction uniquely determines their handedness. - Highlights: • Handedness determination through polarization of tunneling electrons. • The asymmetry of chiral centers dictates quenching of angular momentum. • The need for absolute structural information for CIP is circumvented. • The natural definition of handedness of centers. • The importance of electric dipole for the new handedness determination
The use of absolute values improves performance of estimation formulae
Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya
2013-01-01
an absolute value was 0.49 and 0.27 ml/min respectively, which is lower than previously reported. Precision was 12.95 and 16.33 and accuracy expressed as P30 was over 92.43% for CKD-EPI. There were no significant differences in GFR between the reference method and the estimation formulae. CONCLUSIONS......: The performance of CKD-EPI and MDRD formulae can be significantly improved in the individual patient if the absolute values are used by removing the BSA normalization factor. Absolute estimated GFR by CKD-EPI is comparable to measured GFR, improving the performance of this formula in the assessment of......BACKGROUND: Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) by equations such as Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) is usually expressed as a Body Surface Area (BSA) indexed value (ml/min per 1.73 m²). This can have severe...
Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry
Dong, Yue
Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.
Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.
Gaudin, Sylvestre
2011-02-01
The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables. PMID:21302027
Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement
Differences and quotients can be defined using Friedel pairs of reflections and applied in refinement to enable absolute structure to be determined precisely even for light atom crystal structures. Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement
How fast can quantum annealers count?
We outline an algorithm for the quantum counting problem using adiabatic quantum computation (AQC). We show that the mechanism of quantum-adiabatic evolution may be utilized toward estimating the number of solutions to a problem, and not only to find them. Using local adiabatic evolution, a process in which the adiabatic procedure is performed at a variable rate, the problem of counting the number of marked items in an unstructured database is solved quadratically faster than the corresponding classical algorithm. The above algorithm provides further evidence for the potentially powerful capabilities of AQC as a paradigm for more efficient problem solving on a quantum computer, and may be used as the basis for solving more sophisticated problems. (paper)
MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts
Kajisawa, M; Suzuki, R; Tokoku, C; Uchimoto, Y K; Yoshikawa, T; Akiyama, M; Ichikawa, T; Ouchi, M; Omata, K; Tanaka, I; Nishimura, T; Yamada, T; Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru
2006-01-01
We use very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We have observed a 4x7 arcmin^2 field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), and our data reach J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5sigma, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J-K>2.3 is 2.35+-0.31 arcmin^-2 at K22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 222 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of low-mass galaxies are blue while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.
MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts
Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru
2006-12-01
We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5σ, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.
Efficient Prime Counting and the Chebyshev Primes
Michel Planat
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The function where is the logarithm integral and the number of primes up to is well known to be positive up to the (very large Skewes' number. Likewise, according to Robin's work, the functions and , where and are Chebyshev summatory functions, are positive if and only if Riemann hypothesis (RH holds. One introduces the jump function at primes and one investigates , , and . In particular, , and for . Besides, for any odd , an infinite set of the so-called Chebyshev primes. In the context of RH, we introduce the so-called Riemann primes as champions of the function (or of the function . Finally, we find a good prime counting function , that is found to be much better than the standard Riemann prime counting function.
Pharmacy Automation-Pill Counting Design
Omer Mohamed Adam Adlan
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Dispensing medications in a community pharmacy was a time-consuming operation. The pharmacist dispensed most prescriptions that were in tablet or capsule form with a simple tray and spatula. Many new medications were being developed by pharmaceutical manufacturers at an ever-increasing pace, and the prices of those medications were rising steeply. A typical community pharmacist was working longer hours and often forced to hire additional staff to handle increased workloads. This extra workload did not allow the time to focus on safety issues. This new factor led to the concept of using a machine to count medications. This paper introduces a design based on using microcontrollers for counting tablets and capsules . A production flow is build to automate the whole operations
Recent progress with digital coincidence counting
Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by ANSTO as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue to digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4Π beta detector and a NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software based algorithms. The system is operational and results are now being routinely collected and analysed. Some of the early work is presented for Co-60, Na-22 and Sm-153
BMI in relation to sperm count
Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L;
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with...... meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men......) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21...
Photon Counting OTDR : Advantages and Limitations
Eraerds, Patrick; Zhang, Jun; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas
2010-01-01
We give detailed insight into photon counting OTDR (nu-OTDR) operation, ranging from Geiger mode operation of avalanche photodiodes (APD), analysis of different APD bias schemes, to the discussion of OTDR perspectives. Our results demonstrate that an InGaAs/InP APD based nu-OTDR has the potential of outperforming the dynamic range of a conventional state-of-the-art OTDR by 10 dB as well as the 2-point resolution by a factor of 20. Considering the trace acquisition speed of nu-OTDRs, we find that a combination of rapid gating for high photon flux and free running mode for low photon flux is the most efficient solution. Concerning dead zones, our results are less promising. Without additional measures, e.g. an optical shutter, the photon counting approach is not competitive.
Spectrum library concept and pulse shape analysis in liquid scintillation counting
Kaihola, L. [Wallac Oy, Turku (Finland)
1997-03-01
Wallac introduced in 1990 a new absolute liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, Digital Overlay Technique (DOT) to correct for quench. This method allows quantization of multilabel samples by referring to library spectra which are generated against chemical and color quench indices at the factory. The libraries can further be expanded to any beta emitter by user with a method called fine tuning, which can be carried out even with a single sample. Spectrum libraries are created over the whole spectrum range of the radionuclide and allow automatic identification of a single label beta emitting radionuclide, called Easy Count method. Another improvement in LSC is commercial introduction of Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) in 1986 by Wallac. This method recognizes alpha particle decay by pulse shape and leads to excellent sensitivity in alpha counting because most of the background signal in LSC comprises of short or beta like pulses. PSA detects alpha events in the presence of high excess of beta activity over alphas, up to a ratio 100000 to 1. (orig.)
Spectrum library concept and pulse shape analysis in liquid scintillation counting
Wallac introduced in 1990 a new absolute liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, Digital Overlay Technique (DOT) to correct for quench. This method allows quantization of multilabel samples by referring to library spectra which are generated against chemical and color quench indices at the factory. The libraries can further be expanded to any beta emitter by user with a method called fine tuning, which can be carried out even with a single sample. Spectrum libraries are created over the whole spectrum range of the radionuclide and allow automatic identification of a single label beta emitting radionuclide, called Easy Count method. Another improvement in LSC is commercial introduction of Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) in 1986 by Wallac. This method recognizes alpha particle decay by pulse shape and leads to excellent sensitivity in alpha counting because most of the background signal in LSC comprises of short or beta like pulses. PSA detects alpha events in the presence of high excess of beta activity over alphas, up to a ratio 100000 to 1. (orig.)
Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses
Caldwell, C E; Baldry, I K; Collins, C A; Schaye, J; Bird, S
2016-01-01
The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary CMB data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g., X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, ...
Exact and approximate Bayesian estimation of net counting rates
The stochastic fluctuations in the number of disintegrations, which had already been studied experimentally by Rutherford and other investigators at the beginning of the twentieth century, make estimation of net counting rates in the presence of background counts a challenging statistical problem. Exact and approximate Bayesian estimates of net count rates using Poisson and normal distributions for the number of counts detected during varying counting intervals are derived. The posterior densities for the net count rate are derived and plotted for uniform priors. The graphs for the exact, Poisson based, and for the approximate posterior densities of the background and net count rates, resulting from the normal approximation to the Poisson distribution, were compared. No practical differences were found when the number of observed gross counts is large. Small numerical differences in the posterior expectations and standard deviation of the counting rates appeared when the number of observed counts was small. A table showing some of these numerical differences for different background and gross counts is included. A normal approximation to the Poisson is satisfactory for the analysis of counting data when the number of observed counts is large. Some caution has to be exercised when the number of observed counts is small. (author)
Counting and Arithmetic of the Inca
Ximena Catepillán; Waclaw Szymanski
2012-01-01
The Inca Empire - the greatest pre-Columbian empire on the American continent - extended from Ecuador to central Chile for more than five thousand miles. Its capital was Cuzco established in the high Peruvian Andes. This highly advanced civilization developed a counting system used to run the empire - in particular, to build the 14,000 mile road structure and monumental architecture. Some of the algorithms believed to be used by the Inca to do computations using a yupana, an ancient calculati...
Synchronous counting and computational algorithm design
Dolev, Danny; Korhonen, Janne H.; Lenzen, Christoph; Rybicki, Joel; Suomela, Jukka
2013-01-01
Consider a complete communication network on $n$ nodes, each of which is a state machine. In synchronous 2-counting, the nodes receive a common clock pulse and they have to agree on which pulses are "odd" and which are "even". We require that the solution is self-stabilising (reaching the correct operation from any initial state) and it tolerates $f$ Byzantine failures (nodes that send arbitrary misinformation). Prior algorithms are expensive to implement in hardware: they require a source of...
What counts as evidence of inclusive education?
Florian, Lani
2014-01-01
Inclusive education takes many forms, raising important questions about what constitutes good practice, what counts as evidence of such practice and how it can be known. This paper responds to Göransson and Nilholm’s critical review of research on inclusive education by considering why a clear working definition of inclusion has thus far proved elusive. It agrees that new types of studies and more theoretically informed work is needed if knowledge about inclusive education is to advance. A fr...
Inventory verification measurements using neutron multiplicity counting
Ensslin, N.; Foster, L.A.; Harker, W.C.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.
1998-12-31
This paper describes a series of neutron multiplicity measurements of large plutonium samples at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The measurements were corrected for bias caused by neutron energy spectrum shifts and nonuniform multiplication, and are compared with calorimetry/isotopics. The results show that multiplicity counting can increase measurement throughput and yield good verification results for some inventory categories. The authors provide recommendations on the future application of the technique to inventory verification.
Step Counting Using Smartphone-Based Accelerometer
Ms. Najme Zehra Naqvi
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method for counting the number of steps taken by a user, while walking at any variable speed, using smartphone-based accelerometer. For this purpose, the steps are detected based on a relation between frequency of step, which varies inversely with speed of motion, and the magnitude of accelerometer signal. The pattern of the forward acceleration was observed to arrive at the final relation.
Counting Lattice Animals in High Dimensions
Luther, Sebastian; Mertens, Stephan
2011-01-01
We present an implementation of Redelemeier's algorithm for the enumeration of lattice animals in high dimensional lattices. The implementation is lean and fast enough to allow us to extend the existing tables of animal counts, perimeter polynomials and series expansion coefficients in $d$-dimensional hypercubic lattices for $3 \\leq d\\leq 10$. From the data we compute formulas for perimeter polynomials for lattice animals of size $n\\leq 11$ in arbitrary dimension $d$. When amended by combinat...
Frontal subregions mediating Elevator Counting task performance
MacPherson, S. E.; Turner, M. S.; Bozzali, M; Cipolotti, L.; Shallice, T.
2010-01-01
Deficits in sustained attention may lead to action slips in everyday life as irrelevant action sequences are inappropriately triggered internally or by the environment While deficits in sustained attention have been associated with damage to the frontal lobes of the brain little is known about the role of the frontal lobes in the Elevator Counting subtest of the Test of Everyday Attention In the current study 55 frontal patients subdivided into medial orbital and lateral subgroups 18 patients...
Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons
Frank, Luděk; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona; Lejeune, M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 106, 09 JAN (2015), 013117:1-5. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : graphene * ultralow energy STEM * counting graphene layers * clean ing of graphene * 2D crystals Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014
Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO)
The Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO) has been in operation at the Soudan Mine, MN since March 2003. In the past two years, we have gamma-screened samples for the Majorana, CDMS and XENON experiments. With individual sample exposure times of up to two weeks we have measured sample contamination down to the 0.1 ppb level for 238U / 232Th, and down to the 0.25 ppm level for 40K
Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.
Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence
2015-02-01
The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to an NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural, and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:26353243
Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators
Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-03-01
Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.
Statistical treatment of nuclear counting results
Dolićanin Ćemal B.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Since the exact time a specific nucleus undergoes radioactive decay cannot be specified, nor can showers caused by secondary cosmic rays be predicted, statistical laws play an important role in almost all cases of experimental nuclear physics. This paper describes the method for the statistical treatment of nuclear counting results obtained experimentally by taking into account random variables pertaining to both frequent and infrequent phenomena. When processing counting measurement data, it is recommended to first discard spurious random variables that spoil the statistics by using Chauvenet’s criterion, as well as to test if the results in the statistical sample follow a unique statistical distribution by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (U-test. The verification of the suggested statistical method was performed on counting statistics obtained both from the radioactive source Cs-137 and background radiation, expected to follow the normal distribution and the Poisson distribution, respectively. Results show that the application of the proposed statistical method excludes random fluctuations of the radioactive source or of the background radiation from the total statistical sample, as well as possible inadequacies in the experimental set-up and show an extremely effective agreement of the theoretical distribution of random variables with the corresponding experimentally obtained random variables.
Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility
Brown, Tim
2006-10-01
The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.
Galactic structure studies with BATC star counts
Du, C; Ma, J; Chen, A B C; Yang, Y; Li, J; Wu, H; Jiang, Z; Chen, J; Du, Cuihua; Zhou, Xu; Ma, Jun; Chen, Alfred B-C; Yang, Yanbin; Li, Jiuli; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhaoji; Chen, Jiansheng
2003-01-01
We report the first results of star counts carried out with the National Astronomical Observatories (NAOC) 60/90 cm Schmidt Telescope in 15 intermediate-band filters from 3000 to 10000 {\\AA} in the BATC survey. We analyze a sample of over 1400 main sequence stars ($14\\le$V$\\le21$), which lie in the field with central coordinates R.A.=$09^h53^m13^s.30$ and DEC=47$^\\circ49^{\\prime}00^{\\prime\\prime}.0$ (J2000). The field of view is 0.95 deg$^{2}$, and the spatial scale was $1\\arcsec.67$. In our model, the distribution of stars perpendicular to the plane of the Galaxy is given by two exponential disks (thin disk plus thick disk) and a de Vaucouleurs halo. Based on star counts, we derive the scale heights of the thin disk to be $320^{+14}_{-15}$ pc and of the thick disk to be $640^{+30}_{-32}$ pc, respectively, with a local density of $7.0\\pm1%$ of the thin disk. We find that the observed counts support an axial ratio of $c/a\\le0.6$ for a de Vaucouleurs $r^{1/4}$ law, implying a more flattened halo. We also derive...
Evaluating multi-exposure speckle imaging estimates of absolute autocorrelation times.
Kazmi, S M Shams; Wu, Rebecca K; Dunn, Andrew K
2015-08-01
Multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI) is a camera-based flow-imaging technique for quantitative blood-flow monitoring by mapping the speckle-contrast dependence on camera exposure duration. The ability of laser speckle contrast imaging to measure the temporal dynamics of backscattered and interfering coherent fields, in terms of the accuracy of autocorrelation measurements, is a major unresolved issue in quantitative speckle flowmetry. MESI fits for a number of parameters including an estimate of the electric field autocorrelation decay time from the imaged speckles. We compare the MESI-determined correlation times in vitro and in vivo with accepted true values from direct temporal measurements acquired with a photon-counting photon-multiplier tube and an autocorrelator board. The correlation times estimated by MESI in vivo remain on average within 14±11% of those obtained from direct temporal autocorrelation measurements, demonstrating that MESI yields highly comparable statistics of the time-varying fields that can be useful for applications seeking not only quantitative blood flow dynamics but also absolute perfusion. PMID:26258378
Absolute calibration of neutron detectors in the 10--30 MeV energy range
A central problem in fast neutron research is that of finding the absolute efficiency of neutron detectors. Using the associated particle method for this purpose, we have designed a chamber to count He particles from the D(d,n)3He or the T(d,n)4He reaction in coincidence with neutron events. The reactions take place in deuterium or tritium gas and a ΔE solid state counter at 800, 650, or 430 to the 2-10 MeV deuteron beam direction detects the He particles with 100 percent efficiency. To reduce background we allow the deuterons to pass out of the gas chamber through a Ni window and stop the beam approximately 150 cm from the counters. With the D(d,n)3He reaction we have obtained approximately 2 percent efficiency calibration of the central portion of a liquid scintillator in the 9-10 MeV energy range. With the T(d,n) reaction this calibration can be extended to approximately 27 MeV and the efficiency can be mapped out as a function of position in the scintillator
Direct and Absolute Quantification of over 1800 Yeast Proteins via Selected Reaction Monitoring.
Lawless, Craig; Holman, Stephen W; Brownridge, Philip; Lanthaler, Karin; Harman, Victoria M; Watkins, Rachel; Hammond, Dean E; Miller, Rebecca L; Sims, Paul F G; Grant, Christopher M; Eyers, Claire E; Beynon, Robert J; Hubbard, Simon J
2016-04-01
Defining intracellular protein concentration is critical in molecular systems biology. Although strategies for determining relative protein changes are available, defining robust absolute values in copies per cell has proven significantly more challenging. Here we present a reference data set quantifying over 1800Saccharomyces cerevisiaeproteins by direct means using protein-specific stable-isotope labeled internal standards and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry, far exceeding any previous study. This was achieved by careful design of over 100 QconCAT recombinant proteins as standards, defining 1167 proteins in terms of copies per cell and upper limits on a further 668, with robust CVs routinely less than 20%. The selected reaction monitoring-derived proteome is compared with existing quantitative data sets, highlighting the disparities between methodologies. Coupled with a quantification of the transcriptome by RNA-seq taken from the same cells, these data support revised estimates of several fundamental molecular parameters: a total protein count of ∼100 million molecules-per-cell, a median of ∼1000 proteins-per-transcript, and a linear model of protein translation explaining 70% of the variance in translation rate. This work contributes a "gold-standard" reference yeast proteome (including 532 values based on high quality, dual peptide quantification) that can be widely used in systems models and for other comparative studies. PMID:26750110
Absolute calibration of TFTR neutron detectors for D-T plasma operation
The two most sensitive TFTR fission-chamber detectors were absolutely calibrated in situ by a D-T neutron generator (∼5 x 107 n/s) rotated once around the torus in each direction, with data taken at about 45 positions. The combined uncertainty for determining fusion neutron rates, including the uncertainty in the total neutron generator output (±9%), counting statistics, the effect of coil coolant, detector stability, cross-calibration to the current mode or log Campbell mode and to other fission chambers, and plasma position variation, is about ±13%. The NE-451 (ZnS) scintillators and 4He proportional counters that view the plasma in up to 10 collimated sightlines were calibrated by scanning. the neutron generator radially and toroidally in the horizontal midplane across the flight tubes of 7 cm diameter. Spatial integration of the detector responses using the calibrated signal per unit chord-integrated neutron emission gives the global neutron source strength with an overall uncertainty of ±14% for the scintillators and ±15% for the 4He counters
A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness
Daniel B Levinson
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.
CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names TF to U
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...
Dahomey NWR - Avian Point Counts Reforestation Areas in 2009
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains summary of avain point counts done in reforested areas on Dahomey NWR in 2009 including the actual point count data sheets. Data may have been put...
Testing Crater Counting Assumptions with the Cratered Terrain Evolution Model
Minton, D. A.; Richardson, J. E.; Fassett, C. I.
2015-05-01
Using CTEM to answer the questions; 1) How close to Poisson-distributed are crater count uncertainties? and 2) How does observed clustering in crater count densities of large craters relate to the changes in the impactor flux?
Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database
Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...
CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...
CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...
Ablation of tumor and inflammatory tissue with absolute ethanol
Absolute ethanol was used to ablate tumors, inflammatory lesions, and end-stage nephrosclerotic kidneys in 38 patients. Thirty patients had various types of renal tumors, and 3 had chronic end-stage renal failure with malignant hypertension. One patient had a fibrosarcoma of the right leg and one had a metastatis in the humerus from a renal carcinoma. A large adrenal carcinoma was treated with absolute ethanol in a patient who had liver metastases that were ablated one year after the first procedure. An additional patient had metastatic liver disease from a non-functioning adrenal carcinoma. The remaining patient had an extensive hypervascular inflammatory lesion (tuberculosis and aspergilloma) of the right upper pulmonary lobe. In addition to ethanol, coils were introduced in one patient and Gelfoam in another. The amount of ethanol used ranged from 5 to 50 ml. Twenty-two patients suffered from considerable transient pain during ethanol injection, but sedation was necessary in only 3 of them. Skin necrosis appeared in 2 patients requiring plastic reconstruction in one of them. Two patients died within 5 days of the procedure unrelated to the ablation. Two patients presented upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 2 days of the ethanol injection and one of these died in acute renal failure. One patient suffered from left colonic infarction after left renal tumor ablation, but survived for several months. Absolute ethanol was a useful and efficient sclerosing agent causing extensive tumor destruction and marked reduction of the vascularity in tumor and inflammatory lesions, but caused an 18% complication rate. (orig.)
Quantitative clinical uptake measurements using conjugate counting
While the use of conjugate counting for determination of organ uptake in human subjects has been extensively described, in the present study the determination of the organ uptake of ortho-iodohippurate presented several opportunities for validation of the in vivo counting data. Ortho-iodohippurate is distributed in the extracellular space, is largely extracted on each pass through the kidneys, and is not significantly deiodinated in vivo. Thus, the kidney uptake rate should be proportional to the blood level, the appearance rate of activity in the bladder is equal to the disappearance rate from the kidneys, and direct measurement of activity in the urine after voiding provides an internal standard for imaging measurements of bladder activity. Since the activity levels in the kidneys, bladder, and remainder of the body changed fairly rapidly, especially in the first 20 to 30 minutes following injection, posterior images of the trunk including kidneys and bladder were obtained continuously using a gamma camera fitted with a diverging collimator for 30 minutes and then at intervals for several hours. Simultaneous conjugate counting determinations were made using a whole body scanning system previously described at these meetings. Imaging data corrected for decay and adjacent background were fitted by least squares methods to curves representing a sum of exponentials, and the curves were normalized to the conjugate uptake measurements. The uptake curves of the kidneys and bladder matched well with the direct measurements of the urinary excretion. Data were collected in 16 normal subjects, and the estimated absorbed dose was calculated for the kidneys, the bladder and the remainder of the body for seven radioisotopes of iodine. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables
Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms
New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective
An exact exponential time algorithm for counting bipartite cliques
Kutzkov, Konstantin
2012-01-01
We present a simple exact algorithm for counting bicliques of given size in a bipartite graph on n vertices. We achieve running time of O(1.249^n), improving upon known exact algorithms for finding and counting bipartite cliques.......We present a simple exact algorithm for counting bicliques of given size in a bipartite graph on n vertices. We achieve running time of O(1.249^n), improving upon known exact algorithms for finding and counting bipartite cliques....
Modeling female fertility using inflated count data models
Maria Melkersson; Dan-Olof Rooth
2000-01-01
For modeling complete female fertility we propose a zero-and-two-inflated count data model, which accounts for a relative excess of both zero and two children. As the underlying distribution of counts we use the standard Poisson distribution and the more general Gamma count distribution. We compare our proposed model with standard count data models by using data on complete fertilities for a sample of Swedish women. The preferred specification for Swedish fertility data is the zero-and-two in...
Absolute Measurement of Quantum-Limited Interferometric Displacements
Thiel, Valérian; Treps, Nicolas; Roslund, Jonathan
2016-01-01
A methodology is introduced that enables an absolute, quantum-limited measurement of sub-wavelength interferometric displacements. The technique utilizes a high-frequency optical path modulation within an interferometer operated in a homodyne configuration. All of the information necessary to fully characterize the resultant path displacement is contained within the relative strengths of the various harmonics of the phase modulation. The method, which is straightforward and readily implementable, allows a direct measurement of the theoretical Cram\\'er-Rao limit of detection without any assumptions on the nature of the light source.
Verification of Absolute Calibration of Quantum Efficiency for LSST CCDs
Coles, Rebecca; Chiang, James; Cinabro, David; Gilbertson, Woodrow; Haupt, justine; Kotov, Ivan; Neal, Homer; Nomerotski, Andrei; O'Connor, Paul; Stubbs, Christopher; Takacs, Peter
2016-01-01
We describe a system to measure the Quantum Efficiency in the wavelength range of 300nm to 1100nm of 40x40 mm n-channel CCD sensors for the construction of the 3.2 gigapixel LSST focal plane. The technique uses a series of instruments to create a very uniform flux of photons of controllable intensity in the wavelength range of interest across the face of the sensor. This allows the absolute Quantum Efficiency to be measured with an accuracy in the 1% range. This system will be part of a production facility at Brookhaven National Lab for the basic components of the LSST camera.
System Design of the ATLAS Absolute Luminosity Monitor
Anghinolfi, Francis; Franz, Sebastien; Iwanski, W; Lundberg, B; PH-EP
2007-01-01
The ATLAS absolute luminosity monitor is composed of 8 roman pots symmetrically located in the LHC tunnel. Each pot contains 23 multi anode photomultiplier tubes, and each one of those is fitted with a front-end assembly called PMF. A PMF provides the high voltage biasing of the tube, the frontend readout chip and the readout logic in a very compact arrangement. The 25 PMFs contained in one roman pot are connected to a motherboard used as an interface to the backend electronics. The system allows to configure the front-end electronics from the ATLAS detector control system and to transmit the luminosity data over Slink.
Testing and evaluation of thermal cameras for absolute temperature measurement
Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Fischer, Joachim; Matyszkiel, Robert
2000-09-01
The accuracy of temperature measurement is the most important criterion for the evaluation of thermal cameras used in applications requiring absolute temperature measurement. All the main international metrological organizations currently propose a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of measurement accuracy. We propose a set of parameters for the characterization of thermal measurement cameras. It is shown that if these parameters are known, then it is possible to determine the uncertainty of temperature measurement due to only the internal errors of these cameras. Values of this uncertainty can be used as an objective criterion for comparisons of different thermal measurement cameras.
An Algorithm for Solving the Absolute Value Equation
Rohn, Jiří
2009-01-01
Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 589-599. E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : absolute value equation * algorithm * regularity * singularity * theorem of the alternatives Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www. math .technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol18_pp589-599.pdf
Stability of array spectroradiometers and their suitability for absolute calibrations
Nevas, Saulius; Teuber, Annette; Sperling, Armin; Lindemann, Matthias
2012-04-01
An investigation of the short- and long-term stability of various low-end and high-end array spectroradiometers is presented. Potentially weak points of array spectroradiometers with respect to their suitability for absolute calibrations are pointed out. The influence of ambient conditions on relevant instrumental characteristics and their temporal stability is discussed. It is shown that the temporal stability of some instruments can be significantly affected by high ambient humidity. Most important ambient temperature effects on instrument properties are also discussed.
Computability of Homology for Compact Absolute Neighbourhood Retracts
Collins, Pieter; Contributed Papers
2009-01-01
In this note we discuss the information needed to compute the homology groups of a topological space. We argue that the natural class of spaces to consider are the compact absolute neighbourhood retracts, since for these spaces the homology groups are finite. We show that we need to specify both a function which defines a retraction from a neighbourhood of the space in the Hilbert cube to the space itself, and a sufficiently fine over-approximation of the set. However, neither the retraction ...
Medium-frequency acceleration transducers and their absolute calibration methods
After a brief review of the principle of operation and principal calibration characteristics of accelerometers, this article presents in the middle frequency range ie, 5 Hz to 10 kHz, two absolute methods of calibration of their sensitivity. These two methods consist of: a method of interference measurement of the accelerometers displacement which for a given frequency will permit calculation of the resultant level of acceleration; an electrical reciprocity method. They require the measurement of mechanical and electrical levels which can be easily referred to National Standards and the interrelation between their frequency range and their acceleration levels permits their cross-comparison
The absolute threshold photodetachment cross-section of Al-
The total absolute photodetachment cross-section of the aluminum anion, Al-, is calculated in the threshold spectral region for photons of wave numbers 3400 - 3650cm-1 using the zero-core contribution (ZCC) model. A computer least-squares curve fit is used to test the validity of the Wigner threshold law and the deviation from recent experimental measurements of the relative photodetachment cross-section. It is found that the best agreements is achieved with a smaller core radius rο=1.60 Angstrom rather than the value of 1.82 Angstrom used earlier. (authors). 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER
Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 1010 n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 108 n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.
Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Diynediol from Psathyrella scobinacea
WU Jianzhong; WU Yikang; JIAN Yajun; ZHANG Yihua
2009-01-01
All the four isomers of Scobidiynediol (hepta-4,6-diyne-2,3-diol), a natural product isolated from white-rot fungus Psathyrella scobinacea, were synthesized using either (R)-or(S)-lactate as the source of chirality. The rela-tive configurations of the diols were established by NOE experiments performed on the cyclic acetonides. The rela-tive as well as absolute configurations of the natural Scobidiynediol was assigned as (2S,3S) through comparison of the optical rotation and 1H NMR data.
Absolute Measurement Fiber-optic Sensors in Large Structural Monitoring
无
2003-01-01
The security of civil engineering is an important task due to the economic, social and environmental significance. Compared with conventional sensors, the optical fiber sensors have their unique characteristics.Being durable, stable and insensitive to external perturbations,they are particular interesting for the long-term monitoring of civil structures.Focus is on absolute measurement optical fiber sensors, which are emerging from the monitoring large structural, including SOFO system, F-P optical fiber sensors, and fiber Bragg grating sensors. The principle, characteristic and application of these three kinds of optical fiber sensors are described together with their future prospects.
Full Counting Statistics of Stationary Particle Beams
Kiukas, J; Werner, R F
2010-01-01
We present a general scheme for treating particle beams, including stationary beams, as many particle systems. This includes the full counting statistics and the requirements of Bose/Fermi symmetry. We treat in detail a model of a source, creating particles in a fixed state, which then evolve under the free time evolution, and we determine the resulting stationary beam in the far field. In comparison to the one-particle picture we obtain a correction from Bose/Fermi statistics, which depends on the emission rate.
A new sieve for distinct coordinate counting
无
2010-01-01
We present a new sieve for the distinct coordinate counting problem.This significantly improves the classical inclusion-exclusion sieve for this problem,in the sense that the number of terms is reduced from 2(k 2) to k!,and reduced further to p(k) in the symmetric case,where p(k) denotes the number of partitions of k.As an illustration of applications,we give an in-depth study of a basic example arising from coding theory and graph theory.
Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting
Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter
Counting lattice animals in high dimensions
Luther, Sebastian; Mertens, Stephan
2011-09-01
We present an implementation of Redelemeier's algorithm for the enumeration of lattice animals in high-dimensional lattices. The implementation is lean and fast enough to allow us to extend the existing tables of animal counts, perimeter polynomials and series expansion coefficients in d-dimensional hypercubic lattices for 3 lattice animals of size n lattice animals of size n <= 14 and arbitrary d. We also use the enumeration data to compute numerical estimates for growth rates and exponents in high dimensions that agree very well with Monte Carlo simulations and recent predictions from field theory.
Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium
This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of 235U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, 235U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations
Ball, Keith
2011-01-01
How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai
Optimal Planar Orthogonal Skyline Counting Queries
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Larsen, Kasper Green
2014-01-01
counting queries, i.e. given a query rectangle R to report the size of the skyline of P\\cap R. We present a data structure for storing n points with integer coordinates having query time O(lg n/lglg n) and space usage O(n). The model of computation is a unit cost RAM with logarithmic word size. We prove...... that these bounds are the best possible by presenting a lower bound in the cell probe model with logarithmic word size: Space usage nlgO(1) n implies worst case query time Ω(lg n/lglg n)....
Applied categorical and count data analysis
Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin M
2012-01-01
Introduction Discrete Outcomes Data Source Outline of the BookReview of Key Statistical ResultsSoftwareContingency Tables Inference for One-Way Frequency TableInference for 2 x 2 TableInference for 2 x r TablesInference for s x r TableMeasures of AssociationSets of Contingency Tables Confounding Effects Sets of 2 x 2 TablesSets of s x r TablesRegression Models for Categorical Response Logistic Regression for Binary ResponseInference about Model ParametersGoodness of FitGeneralized Linear ModelsRegression Models for Polytomous ResponseRegression Models for Count Response Poisson Regression Mode
An approximation algorithm for counting contingency tables
Barvinok, Alexander; Luria, Zur; Samorodnitsky, Alex; Yong, Alexander
2008-01-01
We present a randomized approximation algorithm for counting contingency tables, mxn non-negative integer matrices with given row sums R=(r_1, ..., r_m) and column sums C=(c_1, ..., c_n). We define smooth margins (R,C) in terms of the typical table and prove that for such margins the algorithm has quasi-polynomial N^{O(ln N)} complexity, where N=r_1+...+r_m=c_1+...+c_n. Various classes of margins are smooth, e.g., when m=O(n), n=O(m) and the ratios between the largest and the smallest row sum...
Optimal Planar Orthogonal Skyline Counting Queries
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Larsen, Kasper Green
counting queries, i.e. given a query rectangle R to report the size of the skyline of P\\cap R. We present a data structure for storing n points with integer coordinates having query time O(lg n/lglg n) and space usage O(n). The model of computation is a unit cost RAM with logarithmic word size. We prove...... that these bounds are the best possible by presenting a lower bound in the cell probe model with logarithmic word size: Space usage nlgO(1) n implies worst case query time Ω(lg n/lglg n)....
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS FOR COUNTING PRIME NUMBERS
V.J.DEVASIA
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper two arithmetic progressions are proposed for listing and counting the prime numbers less than or equal to a given integer. From these progressions, how one can filter out prime numbers is the topic of discussion in this paper. An easy to implement formula is presented to compute the number of primes by eliminating the number of composite numbers in an iterative and recursive manner. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate how the procedure works in an efficient and simple way.
20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section... Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and live with your spouse in the month you file for a subsidy, or when we redetermine your eligibility for...
Putting Counting to Work: Preschoolers' Understanding of Cardinal Extension
Muldoon, Kevin; Lewis, Charlie; Freeman, Norman H.
2003-01-01
Preschool children are often good at counting things but seem slow to learn that there is more to counting than simply finding out how many are in a single set. Counting is useful when comparing sets and when creating new sets to match existing ones. This is part of the numerical understanding that educators wish to foster in schools. In two…
Low-background β count and α spectrum measuring instrument
An low-background β count and α spectrum measuring instrument which is used to ocean radiation investigation is introduced in this paper. It capable of simultaneously measure low activity β count and analyse α spectrum. Overcome by using two sets of Instrument were measured β count and α spectrum of trouble, and reduce the measurement error. (authors)
Development of New Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System
ZHU; Li-qun; XU; Xiao-ming; BAI; Lei; LI; Xin-jun; GU; Shao-gang; HE; Li-xia; WANG; Mian
2012-01-01
<正>The development of a new neutron counting system (Fig. 1) for 200 L drummed radioactive waste measurement has been accomplished in this year. This waste neutron counting system is mainly used for solid radioactive waste classification. It is based on the passive neutron counting technique. The amount of radionuclide contained in the waste is
Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities have been made of radiochemically pure solutions of 223Ra in equilibrium with its decay progeny, which had been previously standardised by 4π(liquid scintillation)-γ digital coincidence counting techniques. Two high-purity germanium γ-ray spectrometers were used which had been accurately calibrated using a suite of primary and secondary radioactive standards. Comparison of the activity concentration determined by the primary technique against γ-ray spectrometry measurements using the nuclear data evaluations of the Decay Data Evaluation Project exhibited a range of ~18% in the most intense γ-ray emissions (>1% probability) of the 223Ra decay series. Absolute γ-ray emission probabilities and standard uncertainties have been determined for the decay of 223Ra, 219Rn, 215Po, 211Pb, 211Bi and 207Tl in equilibrium. The standard uncertainties of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities quoted in this work show a significant improvement over previously reported γ-ray emission probabilities. Correlation coefficients for pairs of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities from the decays of the radionuclides 223Ra, 219Rn and 211Pb have been determined and are presented. The α-transition probabilities of the 223Ra have been deduced from P(γ+ce) balance using the γ-ray emission probabilities determined in this work with some agreement observed with the published experimental values of the α-emission probabilities. - Highlights: • Discrepancies found within currently published γ-ray emission probabilities. • Absolute γ-ray emission probabilities of decay series in equilibrium determined. • Significant improvement in precision of measured values. • Closer agreement between deduced and experimental α transition probabilities. • Correlation coefficients presented for γ-emissions of 223Ra, 219Rn and 211Pb
ABSOLUTELY E-PURE MODULES AND E-PURE SPLIT MODULES
Yan Hangyu
2011-01-01
We first introduce the concepts of absolutely E-pure modules and Epure split modules. Then, we characterize the IF rings in terms of absolutely E-pure modules. The E-pure split modules are also characterized.
Photomultipliers are extensively used in scintillation counting for the detection and analysis of ionizing radiation. The utilization of these detectors in a variety of technical disciplines have made standard test procedures desirable so that measurements may have the same meaning to all manufacturers and users. This standard is not intended to imply that all tests and procedures described herein are mandatory for every application, but only that such tests as are carried out on photomultipliers for scintillation and Cerenkov counting should be performed in accordance with the procedures given in this document
Changes in count and function of splenic lymphocytes from patients with portal hypertension
Zong-Fang Li; Shu Zhang; Gao-Bo Lv; Ying Huang; Wei Zhang; Song Ren; Jun Yang; Shuang-Suo Dang
2008-01-01
AIM: To investigate changes in numbers and proliferative function of splenic lymphocytes in patients with hypersplenism due to portal hypertension (PH), to provide evidence for further study of immune status of the spleen during PH.METHODS: Twelve spleens from patients with hypersplenism due to PH served as the PH group, and four spleens from cases of traumatic spleen rupture were regarded as the control group. After weighing the spleen, lymphocytes were separated and counted using a cell counting plate to calculate the lymphocyte count per gram of spleen tissue (relative quantity) and total lymphocyte count in whole spleen (absolute quantity). The immunohistochemical SP method was used to observe the density and distribution of lymphocytes in the spleen. The MTT method was used to observe changes in lymphocyte proliferative function.RESULTS: As compared to the control group, the splenic lymphocytes in the PH group showed that: (1) There was no difference in distribution but a significant decrease in density; (2) the number of lymphocytes per gram of spleen (relative quantity) decreased significantly [(0.822±0.157) × 108 vs (1.174±0.254) × 108, P < 0.01];(3) with the significant increase in the weight of the PH spleen (832.6±278.2 g vs 211.7±85.6 g, P < 0.01),the total quantity of lymphocytes (absolute quantity)increased significantly [(0.685±0.072) × 1011 vs (0.366±0.057) × 1011, P < 0.01]; and (4) the proliferative function of lymphocytes was enhanced: T lymphocytes,(0.022±0.005 vs 0.015±0.003, P < 0.05), and B lymphocytes (0.034±0.006 vs 0.023±0.001, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Although lymphocyte density in the spleen decreased in patients with PH, the total quantity of lymphoytes increased because spleen weight increased greatly, along with the proliferating function. With respect to changes in lymphocytes, PH spleens may still have immune function, although it may be disordered. However,complete evaluation of the immune function of the spleenin PH
Usage Tests of Oak Moss Absolutes Containing High and Low Levels of Atranol and Chloroatranol.
Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus
2014-01-01
Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects ...
Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics
In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the 'respiratory burst' process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.
Testing gravity with gravitational wave source counts
Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.
2016-08-01
We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise ratio (ρ) from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as {R}-1, thus we expect the source counts to follow {{d}}{N}/{{d}}ρ \\propto {ρ }-4. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the strain falls as {R}-γ , where γ =1 recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled Universe, and forecast the sensitivity of future observations to deviations from standard General Relativity. We first consider the case of few objects, seven sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on γ, finding γ \\gt 0.33 at 95% confidence level. The distribution of our simulated sample is very consistent with the distribution of the trigger events reported by Advanced LIGO. Future measurements will improve these constraints: with 100 events, we estimate that γ can be measured with an uncertainty of 15%. We generalize the formalism to account for a range of chirp masses and the possibility that the signal falls as {exp}(-R/{R}0)/{R}γ .