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Sample records for absoluta meyrick lepidoptera

  1. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae): A new pest of tomato in Serbia

    Ivo Toševski; Jelena Jović; Milana Mitrović; Tatjana Cvrković; Oliver Krstić; Slobodan Krnjajić

    2011-01-01

    Tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a devastating pest of tomato originating from South America has been recorded in Serbia on three localities: in tomato main greenhouse and open field production area located in the vicinity of town Leskovac (South Serbia), in surroundings of the village Donji Vrtogos (near town Vranje, South Serbia) and in a greenhouses complex in Kraljevci (60 km west of Belgrade). The presence of ...

  2. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the Tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in tomato field

    Gözel, Çiğdem; KASAP, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a very challenging pest that causes economical losses in tomato production. This devastating pest originated from South America was the first time detected in İzmir province of Turkey in August 2009. The efficacy of the infective juveniles (IJs) of four native entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species, Steinernema affine (Bovien) (isolate 46), S. carpocapsae (Weiser) (isolate 1133), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (isolate 879) a...

  3. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae: a New Pest of Tomato in Serbia

    Ivo Toševski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, a devastating pest of tomato originating from South America has been recorded in Serbia on three localities: in tomato main greenhouse and open field production area located in the vicinity of town Leskovac (South Serbia, in surroundings of the village Donji Vrtogoš (near town Vranje, South Serbia and in a greenhouses complex in Kraljevci (60 km west of Belgrade. The presence of T. absoluta was confirmed by morphological and molecular study of the collected specimens.

  4. Domates güvesi, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)'in hayat tablosu

    ERDOĞAN, Pervin; BABAROĞLU, Numan

    2014-01-01

    The life history of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) [Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)], was studied at 25±1ºC and humidity 65±5% in the laboratory. For this purpose, development and survival of immature stages, adult longevity, fecundity and ovipositon period of T. absoluta were studied. According to the results, it was determined that the width of the head capsule of larvae for first, second, third and fourth were 0.157, 0.293, 0.391 and 0.751 mm respectively. The intrinsic rate of in...

  5. Domates güvesi [(Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] ve Biyolojik Mücadelesi

    ÖZTEMİZ, Sevcan

    2013-01-01

    Özet: Domates güvesi, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), Türkiye'ye 2009 yılında giriş yapmış olup, karantina zararlı listesine dâhildir. Ülkenin hemen hemen tüm bölgelerine çok hızlı bir şekilde yayılmıştır. Sera ve açık alandaki domates bitkileri fide döneminden hasat sonuna kadarki tüm gelişme döneminde zarara uğrayabilir. T. absoluta domates meyve verim ve kalitesini düşürmekte,  % 100'e ulaşan oranda verim kayıplarına neden olmaktadır. T. absoluta larvaları bi...

  6. Parasitoids Complex of the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick 1917), (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Hatay Turkey

    DOĞANLAR, Mikdat; YİĞİT, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In Hatay, Turkey, parasitoid complex and distribution of the Tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) was studied in 2010. The study was carried out in Samandağ, Yayladağı, Altınözü, Reyhanlı, Kumlu, Kırıkhan and Antakya, mainly in a greenhouse belonging to Mustafa Kemal University, in which organic farming has been conducted without any pesticide applications. Infestation level of the pest was very high on leaves and fruits of tomato in each locality. In the gre...

  7. Insecticide effect of cyantraniliprole on tomato moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae in field trials

    Patricia Larraín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae has traditionally been managed in Chile with organophosphate, pyrethroid, and nereistoxin insecticides; all of these have wide action spectra and high toxicity and many of them have developed rapid resistance. It is therefore important to have new molecules which are effective in controlling this pest; how ever, these molecules must have lower toxicity and greater selectivity for beneficial fauna to produce a more sustainable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of T. absoluta control with cyantraniliprole insecticide, which has desirable characteristics for programs of integrated pest management of tomato; we thus performed three trials in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. These trials evaluated the control of T. absoluta using different doses of two formulations: cyantraniliprole 10 OD (oil dispersion with or without surfactants (Dyne-Amic, Codacide applied to leaves and cyantraniliprole 20 SC (suspension concentrate applied to soil. Trials used a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The effect of treatments was compared with standard insecticides and a control without insecticide. The degree of control was estimated by foliar and fruit damage at harvest. Results indicate a reduction in fruit damage between 75% and 85% for foliar applications and 82% for soil applications of cyantraniliprole. It is concluded that both formulations of cyantraniliprole were effective to reduce damage caused by the tomato moth larva in both the foliage and fruit of tomato.

  8. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected on tomato plants in lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Marchiori, C H; Silva, C G; Lobo, A P

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21 degrees 14'43"S; 44 degrees 59'59"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae), one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae), and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae). The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil. PMID:15622852

  9. Population Development of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under Simulated UK Glasshouse Conditions

    Phil Northing; Jacobson, Robert J.; Weiqi Luo; Anastasia Korycinska; Lisa F. Blackburn; Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson; Mathers, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of tomato plants in South America. It was first recorded in the UK in 2009 where it has been subjected to eradication policies. The current work outlines T. absoluta development under various UK glasshouse temperatures. The optimum temperature for Tuta development ranged from 19–23 °C. At 19 °C, there was 52% survival of T. absoluta from egg to adult. As temperature increased (23 °C and above) development time of the moth would appear t...

  10. Interaction between larval α-amylase of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and proteinaceous extracts from plant seeds

    Esmaeily Mojtaba; Bandani Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pest of solanaceae and it prefers tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a wide range of seed proteinaceous extracts from different plant families against T. absoluta α-amylase activity. The effect of pH on the inhibitory activity of seed extracts showed that seed extracts of amaranth along with a wheat cultivar (Alvand, Aflak, Sarvd...

  11. Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 degree C, 14:10 photo period and 60 ± 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). Survival of the T. bactrae immature was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. (author)

  12. [Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    Virgala, María B Riquelme; Botto, Eduardo N

    2010-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1ºC, 14:10 photoperiod and 60 ± 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r m). Survival of the T. bactrae immatures was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. PMID:20878000

  13. Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Virgala, Maria B. Riquelme, E-mail: mbriquelme@cnia.inta.gov.a [Universidade Nacional de Lujan, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Zoologia Agricola; Botto, Eduardo N., E-mail: enbotto@cnia.inta.gov.a [Instituto de Microbiologia y Zoologia Agricola (IMYZA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 {+-} 1 degree C, 14:10 photo period and 60 {+-} 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). Survival of the T. bactrae immature was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. (author)

  14. Growth inhibitory effects of bio- and synthetic insecticides on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Ali Kemal BİRGÜCÜ; BAYINDIR, Alime; ÇELİKPENÇE, Yakup; KARACA, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to found out the potential efficacy of some bio- and synthetic insecticides used against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in tomato greenhouses. Chlorantraniliprole+abamectin, metaflumizone, azadirachtin, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis+azadirachtin mixture were applied by spraying method on tomato leaf, which 5 third-stage larvae existed on. Distilled water was used as a control to compare with insecticides. Each of the applic...

  15. Population Development of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under Simulated UK Glasshouse Conditions.

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Mathers, James J; Blackburn, Lisa F; Korycinska, Anastasia; Luo, Weiqi; Jacobson, Robert J; Northing, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of tomato plants in South America. It was first recorded in the UK in 2009 where it has been subjected to eradication policies. The current work outlines T. absoluta development under various UK glasshouse temperatures. The optimum temperature for Tuta development ranged from 19-23 °C. At 19 °C, there was 52% survival of T. absoluta from egg to adult. As temperature increased (23 °C and above) development time of the moth would appear to decrease. Population development ceases between 7 and 10 °C. Only 17% of eggs hatched at 10 °C but no larvae developed through to adult moths. No eggs hatched when maintained at 7 °C. Under laboratory conditions the total lifespan of the moth was longest (72 days) at 13 °C and shortest (35 days) at both 23 and 25 °C. Development from egg to adult took 58 days at 13 °C; 37 days at 19 °C and 23 days at 25 °C. High mortality of larvae occurred under all temperatures tested. First instar larvae were exposed on the leaf surface for approximately 82 minutes before fully tunnelling into the leaf. Adult longevity was longest at 10 °C with moths living for 40 days and shortest at 19 °C where they survived for 16 days. Generally more males than females were produced. The potential of Tuta absoluta to establish populations within UK protected horticulture is discussed. PMID:26464384

  16. Population Development of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under Simulated UK Glasshouse Conditions

    Phil Northing

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick is a major pest of tomato plants in South America. It was first recorded in the UK in 2009 where it has been subjected to eradication policies. The current work outlines T. absoluta development under various UK glasshouse temperatures. The optimum temperature for Tuta development ranged from 19–23 °C. At 19 °C, there was 52% survival of T. absoluta from egg to adult. As temperature increased (23 °C and above development time of the moth would appear to decrease. Population development ceases between 7 and 10 °C. Only 17% of eggs hatched at 10 °C but no larvae developed through to adult moths. No eggs hatched when maintained at 7 °C. Under laboratory conditions the total lifespan of the moth was longest (72 days at 13 °C and shortest (35 days at both 23 and 25 °C. Development from egg to adult took 58 days at 13 °C; 37 days at 19 °C and 23 days at 25 °C. High mortality of larvae occurred under all temperatures tested. First instar larvae were exposed on the leaf surface for approximately 82 minutes before fully tunnelling into the leaf. Adult longevity was longest at 10 °C with moths living for 40 days and shortest at 19 °C where they survived for 16 days. Generally more males than females were produced. The potential of Tuta absoluta to establish populations within UK protected horticulture is discussed.

  17. Report of A Larval Parasitoid of Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae from Iran

    Sohrabi Fariba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick is one of the most devastating pests of greenhouse and outdoor tomato crops. Since it is a newly introduced pest in Iran, there is an important need to search for its natural enemies. In the course of a survey on the natural enemies of this pest, samplings were carried out in tomato greenhouses heavily infested with the tomato leafminer, in the Borazjan region of the Bushehr province in Iran. Leaves with mines were reared in the laboratory until emergence of parasitoids. A single parasitoid species of the family Eulophidae was reared and identified as Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood 1833. This species is reported for the first time on the tomato leafminer in Iran. Such information may help in developing biological control programs to control this serious pest.

  18. Evaluation of the synthetic major component of the sex pheromone of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Ferrara, F A; Vilela, E F; Jham, G N; Eiras, A E; Picanco, M C; Attygalle, A B; Svatos, A; Frighetto, R T; Meinwald, J

    2001-05-01

    In wind-tunnel bioassays, dispensers loaded with 1 microg of the synthetic major component (3E,8Z, 11Z)-3,8,11-tetradecatrienyl acetate (TDTA) of the sex pheromone emitted by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) females were found to be highly attractive to conspecific males. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of five trap designs. The best trap, baited with 100 microg of the synthetic sex pheromone caught on average 1,200 males per trap per night, while those baited with virgin females caught only 201 males. The male response to this pheromone is restricted to the same early-morning time window during which females exhibit calling behavior. The high biological activity of the synthetic pheromone suggests that it could be useful for pest monitoring and in mating disruption. PMID:11471943

  19. Bioactivity of Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) derived molecules on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Dichloromethane (DIC) leaf and fruit extracts of Trichiliapallida Swartz were obtained for the isolation and identification of molecules with insecticide activity against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). DIC leaf extracts of T. pallida yielded six compounds, the triterpenes 24-methylenecycloarta-3β-ol (TRIT-1), 24-methylenecycloarta-3β-26-diol (TRIT-2) and cycloarta-23-eno-3β,25-diol (TRIT-3), the sterols 24-methylene-3,22-dihydroxycholesterol (EST-1), 24-methylenecholesterol (EST-2) and 24-methylene-3β,4β,22-trihydroxycholesterol (EST-3), while the fruit extract yielded the limonoid gedunine (LIM). These molecules were dissolved in acetone and sprayed at 0.1% on tomato leaflets infested with newly-hatched larvae. Larval mortality at day 5 and 9 after infestation, larval and pupal developmental time and survival, pupal weight and adult malformation were evaluated. TRIT-1, EST-1 and LIM were the most effective against T. absoluta due to larval development arrestment and reduced larval survivorship. (author)

  20. [Bioactivity of Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) derived molecules on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    da Cunha, Uemerson S; Vendramim, José D; Rocha, Waldireny C; Vieira, Paulo C

    2008-01-01

    Dichloromethane (DIC) leaf and fruit extracts of Trichiliapallida Swartz were obtained for the isolation and identification of molecules with insecticidal activity against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). DIC leaf extracts of T. pallida yielded six compounds, the triterpenes 24-methylenecycloarta-3beta-ol (TRIT-1), 24-methylenecycloarta-3beta-26-diol (TRIT-2) and cycloarta-23-eno-3beta,25-diol (TRIT-3), the sterols 24-methylene-3,22-dihydroxycholesterol (EST-1), 24-methylenecholesterol (EST-2) and 24-methylene-3beta,4beta,22-trihydroxycholesterol (EST-3), while the fruit extract yielded the limonoid gedunine (LIM). These molecules were dissolved in acetone and sprayed at 0.1% on tomato leaflets infested with newly-hatched larvae. Larval mortality at day 5 and 9 after infestation, larval and pupal developmental time and survival, pupal weight and adult malformation were evaluated. TRIT-1, EST-1 and LIM were the most effective against T. absoluta due to larval development arrestment and reduced larval survivorship. PMID:19169560

  1. Estandarización de un bioensayo y evaluación preliminar de tres formulaciones comerciales de Bacillus thuringiensis sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Lorena Ramírez; Natalia Ramírez; Luz Stella Fuentes; Jaime Jiménez; Javier Hernández-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    La polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es una de las plagas más devastadoras del tomate en Colombia y países suramericanos, produciendo pérdidas de hasta el 100% en cultivos sin protección. En 2009, T. absoluta se detectó en España, Portugal y países del mediterráneo, además de Inglaterra, Bulgaria y Alemania. Para su control se utilizan insecticidas químicos que generan resistencia e impacto ambiental y de salud. La alternativa de utilizar biopesticidas contr...

  2. CAPTURE OF Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) WITH LIGHT TRAP IN TOMATO CROP CAPTURA DE Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) COM ARMADILHA LUMINOSA NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO TUTORADO

    Aline Cavalcante Rodrigues de Oliveira; Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso; Rosana Gonçalves Barros; Paulo Marçal Fernandes; Eli Regina Barboza de Souza

    2008-01-01

    A traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta) representa um sério problema à tomaticultura, não somente pela intensidade de ataque, mas também por sua ocorrência durante todo o ciclo da cultura. No Brasil, esta praga tem sido controlada, quase exclusivamente, com inseticidas, o que é indesejável, tanto po...

  3. CAPTURE OF Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE WITH LIGHT TRAP IN TOMATO CROP CAPTURA DE Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE COM ARMADILHA LUMINOSA NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO TUTORADO

    Aline Cavalcante Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta represents a serious problem for the tomato crop, not only due to the intensity of its attack, but also to its occurrence during all the crop cycle. In Brazil, this pest has been controlled almost exclusively with insecticides, what is undesirable for economic and environmental reasons. In order to get more information on the control of this pest this research was carried out, in Ouro Verde (Goiás State, Brazil, from September through October 2002, to evaluate the use of light  traps for capture of adult T. absoluta specimens. The treatments used were: 1 black lamp; 2 BLB lamp; 3 Grolux lamp; and 4 fluorescent daylight lamp. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with four replications. The parameter to evaluate treatment capture efficiency was the counting of the adult T. absoluta specimens trapped. The results showed that the BLB and ultraviolet lamps were the most efficient treatments. Therefore, both can help to control the tomato leafminer in integrated pest management programs.

    KEY-WORDS: Tomato pinworm; integrated pest management; tomato.

    A traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta representa um sério problema à tomaticultura, não somente pela intensidade de ataque, mas também por sua ocorrência durante todo o ciclo da cultura. No Brasil, esta praga tem sido controlada, quase exclusivamente, com inseticidas, o que é indesejável, tanto por motivos econômicos, quanto ambientais. Visando a obter maiores informa

  4. Consumo de mesofilo foliar por Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1971 (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae em três cultivares de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill Leaf mesophyll consumption by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1971 (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae in three cultivars of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Paulo Cesar Bogorni

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A "traça-do-tomateiro", Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, é uma das principais pragas do tomateiro na atualidade. Suas larvas atacam folhas, hastes, brotos, flores e frutos, causando severos danos à cultura. Trabalhos de quantificação do dano são relativamente raros e restringem-se à contagem do número de frutos atacados e estimativa dos danos foliares, nos testes de controle químico. Desta forma, realizou-se este trabalho objetivando quantificar o consumo de mesofilo foliar por este inseto em três cultivares de tomateiro (Carmem, Santa Clara e Empire. No Laboratório de Entomologia, do Departamento de Fitossanidade da Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, foi realizada a criação de lagartas nas três cultivares de tomateiro, sob condições controladas (temp. 25±1°C; U.R. 65±10% e fotofase de 12h. Através do uso de um medidor de área foliar (Li-cor Model LI-3000 mediu-se a área de mesofilo foliar consumida, correspondente ao dano em cada um dos ínstares. Não foram observadas diferenças no consumo de mesofilo foliar nas três cultivares. O consumo no 4º ínstar foi significativamente superior aos demais, chegando na cultivar Santa Clara, a mais consumida, a 2,207±0,258cm², valor equivalente a 78,9% do total consumido durante a fase larval."Tomato leafminer", Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the main pests of tomato crop nowadays. Its larvae attack leaves, stems, sprouts, flowers and fruits, causing severe damage to the crop. Reports on damage are quite rare and restricted to counting the attacked fruits and estimating the leaf damage in same papers about chemical control. Thus, this report aimed at quantifying the T. absoluta consumption in three tomato cultivars (Carmem, Santa Clara and Empire. Larvae were bred in three tomato cultivars at the "Laboratório de Entomologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade

  5. Determination of adult population development of Tomato Leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] in tomato growing areas in Şanlıurfa province

    mamay, mehmet; YANIK, Ertan

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed in tomato growing areas of Çamlıdere, Göktepe and Yığınak location in Şanlıurfa during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. In the study, we intended to determine some critical time points (such as first adult emergence, maximum adult flight, number of generations per year and flight activity in nature) in the population dynamics of Tomato Leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] in Şanlıurfa. Adult population dynamic of Tomato Leafminer was monito...

  6. Effect of two solanaceous plants on developmental and population parameters of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Pereyra, Patricia C; Sánchez, Norma E

    2006-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important tomato pest that also feeds on other host-plants from the Solanceae family. We studied the effect of two cultivated plants, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) and potato Solanum tuberosum L. on the development and populational parameters of T. absoluta related with host-plant suitability. Larval developmental time, pupal weight, mean fecundity and an index of host-plant quality (IPQ = pupal weight / frass weight) were estimated. Age-specific survivorship and fecundity life tables were constructed in the laboratory to evaluate the following populational parameters: net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and generation time (T). Larval developmental time was shorter and pupal weight was higher (P absoluta fed on potato the potential population increase requires attention. Under appropriate climatic conditions, spatial and temporal coincidence between crop and pest, T. absoluta could become a pest for the potato crop. PMID:17144141

  7. Evaluation of parasitism and predation of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) by Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    R. Payer; Figueiredo, E.; Mexia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Se realizaron dos ensayos para evaluar un eventual comportamiento de parasitismo y/o depredación del parásito eulófido Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) en orugas de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917). El primero se llevó a cabo en placas de Petri con hojas de tomate conteniendo minas con orugas de T. absoluta y el segundo utilizando plántulas de tomate previamente infestado en maceta. No se ha observado parasitismo pero se verificó depredación en ambos ensayos, especialmente en larvas L 2 y L 3 ...

  8. Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Argentina.

    Luna, M G; Wada, V I; La Salle, J; Sánchez, N E

    2011-01-01

    We report the first record of Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitizing larvae of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), in tomato crops in Northern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Tomato moth larvae were sampled during four consecutive growing cycles, between 2003 and 2005, in 10 sites. Neochrysocharis formosa was present only in organic outdoor and protected crops, and predominantly during the late season. Parasitism rates varied from 1.5% to 5%. The finding of this species is a new record for Argentina and South America, and T. absoluta is a new host record. PMID:21710041

  9. Insecticide resistance in two populations of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) from Turkey

    Yalçın, Melis; Mermer, Serhan; Kozacı, Leyla Didem; Turgut, Cafer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the resistance of two (Aydın and Urla) populations of T. absoluta against five commonly used insecticides (indoxacarb, spinosad, azadirachtin, chlorantraniliprole and metaflumizone) were determined. Further, the activity of insecticide detoxifying enzymes [gluthation-S-transferase (GST) and esterase (EST)] was also evaluated to confirm the resistance. Aydın population of T. absoluta had higher resistant values 8-fold, 3.79-fold, 6.4-fold and 1.84-fold for indoxacarb, metaflumiz...

  10. Efectividad de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos Sobre Larvas de Polilla del Tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Effectivity of Entomopathogenic Fungus Strains on Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Larvae

    Marta Rodríguez; Marcos Gerding; Andrés France

    2006-01-01

    La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, es una plaga importante en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) en Chile. Estudios de laboratorio fueron realizados para evaluar la virulencia y efectividad de Qu-M558 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y Qu-B912 de Beauveria bassiana. La primera evaluación fue realizada aplicando concentraciones de 0 a 10(8) conidia mL-1 directamente sobre larvas de tercer estadio mediante el sistema de pulverización torre Potter. Las compara...

  11. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected on tomato plants in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Parasitóides de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) coletados em plantas de tomate em Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    C.H. Marchiori; Silva, C.g.; A. P. Lobo

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21º14'43"S; 44º59'59"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae), one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae), and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae). The rate of parasitism for the three spec...

  12. Evaluación de Cepas Nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis Como una Alternativa de Manejo Integrado de la Polilla del Tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) en Chile Evaluation of Native Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis as an Alternative of Integrated Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Chile

    Lorena Niedmann Lolas; Luis Meza-Basso

    2006-01-01

    La polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la plaga más devastadora del cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) en Chile, produciendo pérdidas del 60 al 100% en campos no tratados con insecticidas. Puesto que las plagas de insectos están desarrollando niveles de resistencia a los insecticidas convencionales, existe interés por estrategias de control que incluyen el empleo de biopesticidas. En el presente trabajo se estudió el potencial de aislados na...

  13. Optimization of a Trap for Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Trials to Determine the Effectiveness of Mass Trapping.

    Lobos, E; Occhionero, M; Werenitzky, D; Fernandez, J; Gonzalez, L M; Rodriguez, C; Calvo, C; Lopez, G; Oehlschlager, A C

    2013-10-01

    Management of the South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, with insecticides has led to the widespread development of insect resistance. Mass trapping using traps baited with the female-produced sex pheromone is an attractive alternative for the management of this pest. The current study evaluated several commercial trap designs for capture of T. absoluta. Based on its small size and ease of handling, the most effective trap is a small plastic container with entry windows cut on the sides filled with motor oil over water. These traps are most effective when placed near ground level. Tests of septa containing 0.1 or 0.2 mg of the pheromone (95:5) E4, Z8-14Ac/E4,Z8,Z11-14Ac were slightly more attractive than septa loaded with 0.5, 1.0, or 2 mg during the first week of use, but the latter three loadings were slightly more attractive than the first two loadings after 9 weeks. Ideal trap baits were loaded with 0.5 mg of pheromone. Higher numbers of T. absoluta were captured near upwind borders of tomato fields suggesting that treatments against T. absoluta should be concentrated near upwind parts of fields. Comparisons of conventional insecticide treatment versus mass trapping to manage T. absoluta damage in three different test sites showed that even when initial captures in monitoring traps were high (>35 males trap(-1) day(-1)), mass trapping at 48 traps/ha reduced leaf damage more efficiently than conventional insecticide treatment. Based on the typical insecticide recommendations against T. absoluta, mass trapping is an economically viable alternative. PMID:23949978

  14. Some Ecological and Behavioral Aspects of the Tomato Leaf Miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Hussein Samir Abd El-Rahman Salama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary investigations were carried out to determine the insect behavior of Tuta absoluta towards different factors. Observations showed that the moth is nocturnal in habits. It is most active at dusk and dawn and rest among leaves of the host plant during the day, showing greater morning-crepuscular activity. It prefers to infest leaves of its host plants followed by sepals, leaf neck and stem. Also, the apical part of the tested plants showed to be more attractive to the females‘ oviposition compared to the median and basal parts. The best time for mating started in the morning. The insect can discriminate between different host plants. It showed more preference to tomato followed by black nightshade, eggplant, potato and pepper. The larvae are sensitive to light and it prefers the dark zones. The larvae with its taste receptors are able to discriminate between host plants and other chemicals. For instance, it showed great sensitivity to various sugars in varying degrees. The flight range of the moth was determined and it showed the ability to fly for a distance of 0.4 km overnight.

  15. Bioactivity of Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) derived molecules on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae); Bioatividade de moleculas isoladas de Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Cunha, Uemerson S. da [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: uscunha@ufpel.edu.br; Vendramim, Jose D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Rocha, Waldireny C.; Vieira, Paulo C. [Universidade de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-11-15

    Dichloromethane (DIC) leaf and fruit extracts of Trichiliapallida Swartz were obtained for the isolation and identification of molecules with insecticide activity against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). DIC leaf extracts of T. pallida yielded six compounds, the triterpenes 24-methylenecycloarta-3{beta}-ol (TRIT-1), 24-methylenecycloarta-3{beta}-26-diol (TRIT-2) and cycloarta-23-eno-3{beta},25-diol (TRIT-3), the sterols 24-methylene-3,22-dihydroxycholesterol (EST-1), 24-methylenecholesterol (EST-2) and 24-methylene-3{beta},4{beta},22-trihydroxycholesterol (EST-3), while the fruit extract yielded the limonoid gedunine (LIM). These molecules were dissolved in acetone and sprayed at 0.1% on tomato leaflets infested with newly-hatched larvae. Larval mortality at day 5 and 9 after infestation, larval and pupal developmental time and survival, pupal weight and adult malformation were evaluated. TRIT-1, EST-1 and LIM were the most effective against T. absoluta due to larval development arrestment and reduced larval survivorship. (author)

  16. Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae, a predatory species of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in Iran

    Sohrabi Fariba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is a major worldwide pest of tomato crops, both in the greenhouse and in open field cultivations. Since this pest’s new introduction in Iran, it has caused extensive damage. Chemicals have mainly been used to control this pest. The purpose of our research was to identify the indigenous predators of the tomato leafminer, associated with tomato in the Borazjan region of the Bushehr province, Iran. From March to May 2014, infested tomato leaves were collected from protected tomato crops. A predator species from the family Miridae was found, reared, and identified as Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter 1895. This species is reported for the first time on tomato leafminer in Iran. Identification of important natural enemies provides a scientific basis for including these predators in the biological programs against this pest.

  17. Efectividad de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos Sobre Larvas de Polilla del Tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Effectivity of Entomopathogenic Fungus Strains on Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Larvae

    Marta Rodríguez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, es una plaga importante en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum L. en Chile. Estudios de laboratorio fueron realizados para evaluar la virulencia y efectividad de Qu-M558 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y Qu-B912 de Beauveria bassiana. La primera evaluación fue realizada aplicando concentraciones de 0 a 10(8 conidia mL-1 directamente sobre larvas de tercer estadio mediante el sistema de pulverización torre Potter. Las comparaciones fueron realizadas calculando el área bajo la curva del progreso de la mortalidad a través del tiempo. No se observaron diferencias en las áreas entre aislamientos (P = 0,384. La CL50 y CL90 para Qu-B912 fue de 10(4,4 y 10(7,6 conidias mL-1, y para Qu-M558 de 10(5,4 y 10(9,1 conidias mL-1,respectivamente. Un segundo estudio fue realizado aplicando sobre hojas de tomate suspensiones de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1 del aislamiento Qu-B912, a través de la torre de pulverización Potter. Larvas del tercer estadio de T. absoluta fueron alimentadas con estas hojas infectadas. Trece días después de la inoculación los porcentajes de mortalidad alcanzaron un 68% a la máxima concentración de inóculo.The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is a serious pest on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. crops in Chile. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the virulence and effectiveness of the isolates Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate Qu-M558 and Beauveria bassiana isolate Qu-B912, on third instar of T. absoluta larvae. The first evaluation was carried out spraying directly on third instar larvae, spore suspensions (0 to 10(8 conidia mL-1 of each isolate through a Potter tower. Comparisons were made by calculating the area under a mortality progress curve. Differences were not observed in the areas between isolates (P = 0.384. The LC50 and LC90 for Qu-B912 were 10(4.4 and 10(7.6 conidia mL-1, and for Qu-M558 were 10(5.4 and 10(9.1 conidia mL-1

  18. Evaluación de Cepas Nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis Como una Alternativa de Manejo Integrado de la Polilla del Tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae en Chile Evaluation of Native Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis as an Alternative of Integrated Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in Chile

    Lorena Niedmann Lolas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la plaga más devastadora del cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. en Chile, produciendo pérdidas del 60 al 100% en campos no tratados con insecticidas. Puesto que las plagas de insectos están desarrollando niveles de resistencia a los insecticidas convencionales, existe interés por estrategias de control que incluyen el empleo de biopesticidas. En el presente trabajo se estudió el potencial de aislados nativos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt con actividad tóxica contra esta plaga. Los aislados de Bt fueron colectados de muestras de suelo provenientes de la VII Región del país, y fueron caracterizados empleando diferentes criterios: morfología de la colonia y de la inclusión paraesporal, electroforesis en condiciones desnaturantes, análisis Western y bioensayos contra larvas de T. absoluta. Usando la técnica Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR se obtuvo una clasificación del contenido génico utilizando partidores específicos. Todas las cepas nativas seleccionadas poseían genes de la familia cry1. Dos aislados mostraron una actividad tóxica relevante contra la larva de T. absoluta y podrían constituir una alternativa para el control de esta plaga. Estas cepas resultaron ser más efectivas que el aislado obtenido desde el producto comercial Dipel (B.thuringiensis var. kurstaki The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the most devastating insect pest of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crops in Chile, producing losses from 60 to 100% in non-insecticide treated fields. Because pests are evolving to resistance levels to convencional insecticides, there is interest for alternative strategies including the use of biopesticides. In this work the insecticidal potential of native Bacillusthuringiensis (Bt strains against this plague was studied. Bt isolates were collected from soil samples of the VII Region of Chile

  19. Effect of two solanaceous plants on developmental and population parameters of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Pereyra, Patricia; Sánchez, Norma Elba

    2006-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important tomato pest that also feeds on other host-plants from the Solanceae family. We studied the effect of two cultivated plants, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) and potato Solanum tuberosum L. on the development and populational parameters of T. absoluta related with host-plant suitability. Larval developmental time, pupal weight, mean fecundity and an index of host-plant quality (IPQ = pupal weight / frass weight) were estimated. Ages-pecific survivo...

  20. Biologia e exigências térmicas de cinco linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae criadas em ovos de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Biology and thermal requeriments of five Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae strains, reared on eggs of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a biologia e as exigências térmicas de cinco linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae coletadas em áreas comerciais de tomate, no Estado do Espírito Santo, em ovos da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, sob diferentes temperaturas constantes e flutuantes. A duração do ciclo de desenvolvimento (ovo-adulto das cinco linhagens de T. pretiosum criadas em ovos de T. absoluta foi afetada significativamente pela temperatura, na faixa das constantes (15 a 30°C. Esse mesmo fato não foi observado nas temperaturas alternadas (26/14 e 29/16°C. O desempenho das linhagens nas diferentes temperaturas mostrou que L2 e L5 apresentaram os melhores resultados quanto à taxa de emergência de seus descendentes. A razão sexual das cinco linhagens foi afetada pela temperatura, havendo diferença significativa entre os valores obtidos nas faixas das temperaturas (constante e alternada estudadas. As linhagens de T. pretiosum apresentaram uma temperatura base (tb que variou de 8,70 a 13,45°C, e uma constante térmica (K de 90,09 a 159,43 graus/dia.The objective of this research was to evaluate the biology and the thermal requeriments of five strains of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae collected in commercial areas of tomato, in Espírito Santo State, on eggs the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under constant and alternating temperatures. The duration of the development cycle (egg-adult of the five strains of T. pretiosum reared in eggs of T. absoluta was affected significantly by the temperature, in the band of the constants (15 to 30°C. This same fact was not observed in the alternated temperatures (26/14 and 29/16°C. The performance of the strains in the different temperatures, showed that L2 and L5 presented the best results concerning the emergency rate of their descendants of viability

  1. Intensity of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae attacks on Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Leaves Intensidade de ataque de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae e de Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae em folhas de Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of height of leaves in the canopy of plants, leaf organic compounds, concentrations of leaf nitrogen and potassium, leaf trichomes and cristalliferous idioblasts densities on the attack intensity of three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara crops by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae, under field conditions. The experimental design was arranged in randomized blocks, with three replications, each being one tomato crop. Analysis of variance and the Tukey’s multiple range test (5% significance were used to test the effect of canopy height, trichome and cristalliferous idioblasts densities on the number of mines produced by T. absoluta and Liriomyza spp. and on the number of T. absoluta eggs. Pearson’s correlation (5% significance was used to evaluate the relationships between leaf organic compounds, leaf N and K concentrations, leaf trichome and cristalliferous idioblasts densities and the number of mines produced by T. absoluta and Liriomyza spp. and the number of T. absoluta eggs. Highest insect attack occurred in the final stage of the culture. A higher number of Liriomyza spp. mines/leaf was recorded in the lower (1.50 than in the upper (0.02 level of the tomato plants, the opposite was observed for the number of T. absoluta eggs/leaf (0.13 and 0.57, respectively. The number of T. absoluta mines/leaf concentrated more on the median (10.23 and apical regions (8.63 than on the basal (4.93. No significant effect of the trichomes and cristalliferous idioblasts densities of leaves was noted on T. absoluta and Liriomyza ssp. populations. Apparently, the terpenes affected oviposition of T. absoluta while leaf potassium affected Liriomyza spp. attack.Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar as influências da posição das folhas no dossel das plantas, dos compostos orgânicos foliares, das concentrações de nitrogênio e

  2. Estandarización de un bioensayo y evaluación preliminar de tres formulaciones comerciales de Bacillus thuringiensis sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Lorena Ramírez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es una de las plagas más devastadoras del tomate en Colombia y países suramericanos, produciendo pérdidas de hasta el 100% en cultivos sin protección. En 2009, T. absoluta se detectó en España, Portugal y países del mediterráneo, además de Inglaterra, Bulgaria y Alemania. Para su control se utilizan insecticidas químicos que generan resistencia e impacto ambiental y de salud. La alternativa de utilizar biopesticidas contra esta plaga es de importancia creciente. En este estudio se evaluaron cinco métodos de bioensayo para medir adecuadamente la toxicidad sobre larvas de T. absoluta de tres productos comerciales: Dipel®, XenTary® y Turilav®, formulaciones a base de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. El método de Inmersión del folíolo, con el producto Dipel®, causó el 100% de mortalidad de larvas y 96% de supervivencia del testigo; este método presentó diferencias significativas al segundo (F=0,025, p>0,05 y cuarto (F=0,0018, p>0,05 día después de la aplicación (DDA. El método de Aspersión foliar por aerógrafo produjo 100% de mortalidad de larvas con Dipel® al segundo DDA (F=7,94x10-10, p> 0,05, y produjo diferencias significativas también al cuarto DDA (F=3,45x10-6, p>0,05. Los métodos Foliolos sumergidos y Medio de cultivo provocaron una alta mortalidad en el control por lo que fueron rechazados. El uso de Dipel®, XenTari® y Turilav® en concentración de 1,25 g/L causó entre 80-100% de mortalidad entre el segundo y octavo DDA en tres métodos evaluados válidos (i, ii, v, además corrobora la actividad biológica de B. thuringiensis sobre este insecto plaga. Palabras clave: Tuta absoluta, Bacillus thuringiensis, Dipel®, XenTary®, Turilav® Abstract: The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is one of the most devastating pest of tomato in Colombia and South American countries producing losses of up to 100% on unprotected

  3. Susceptibilidad de poblaciones europeas de Tuta absoluta(Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) a insecticidas y respuesta a la selección

    Martínez Aguirre, María del Rosario; García Vidal, Lidia; Bielza Lino, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    El control integrado de plagas basado en los agentes de control biológico se ha impuesto en los cultivos hortícolas intensivos. Sin embargo, estos protocolos siguen requiriendo de los fitosanitarios. Para mantener y aumentar la eficacia de estos programas es vital la prevención del desarrollo de resistencias a los productos insecticidas utilizados. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), comúnmente conocida como la polilla del tomate, es un reto fitosanitario de la horticultura intensiva, pon...

  4. Interaction between larval α-amylase of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and proteinaceous extracts from plant seeds

    Esmaeily Mojtaba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most destructive pest of solanaceae and it prefers tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a wide range of seed proteinaceous extracts from different plant families against T. absoluta α-amylase activity. The effect of pH on the inhibitory activity of seed extracts showed that seed extracts of amaranth along with a wheat cultivar (Alvand, Aflak, Sarvdasht, Alborz, and Kavir produced more than a 50% inhibition of the insect amylase. Aflak wheat seed extract at 10 μg, inhibited 81% of the insect amylase. This percent was the highest inhibition achieved. The other proteinaceous seed extracts had a lower effect on the enzymatic activity. Probit analysis showed that Aflak, Kavir, Alborz, Alvand, Sarvdasht, and amaranth inhibited the amylase activity with an I50 of 1.94, 3.24, 3.46, 3.31, 4.97, and 15.39 μg, respectively. The effect of pH on the inhibition of the α-amylase showed the highest inhibition of Amaranth and wheat, at a pH value of 8.0, which corresponds to the pH of the insect’s gut. Gel electrophoresis assays confirmed the spectrophotometric assays showing that the α-amylase of the insect gut was affected by the presence of the seed extracts. In the gel assay, a high concentration (14 μg protein of amaranth proteinaceous seed extract greatly decreased the intensity of the α-amylase band. A high concentration of the Aflak wheat cultivar (10 μg protein caused the disappearance of the amylase band in the gel. Thus, it is concluded that the physiochemical environment of the insect gut affects the interaction between digestive α-amylase and the metabolites. The experiments showed that seed proteinaceous extracts from non-host plant species, produced more inhibition of the insect amylase when compared to the host plant species. It appears that with evolution, adaptation took place so that insect

  5. Línea base de susceptibilidad y selección de poblaciones resistentes de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    García Vidal, Lidia; Martínez Aguirre, María del Rosario; Bielza Lino, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta, es en la actualidad la plaga más importante del cultivo de tomate. El control químico es necesario para el control de esta plaga, por lo que hay que desarrollar estrategias que eviten el desarrollo de resistencias a los insecticidas eficaces para su control y desarrollar nuevos insecticidas compatibles con los enemigos naturales y polinizadores. En este trabajo se ha evaluado la susceptibilidad de distintas poblaciones de T. absoluta a los ...

  6. [Selection of isolates of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and their compatibility with insecticides used in tomato crop].

    Pires, Lauricí M; Marques, Edmilson J; Oliveira, José V de; Alves, Sérgio B

    2010-01-01

    The activity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana towards eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was evaluated. Our data showed that the isolates were pathogenic to both developmental stages tested and the eggs were more susceptible than the 1st instars. The isolates URPE-6 and URPE-19 of M. anisopliae were more pathogenic to eggs and larvae, respectively. The compatibility of these two isolates with the insecticides chlorfenapyr, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, and neem were evaluated. Spinosad and indoxacarb were compatible with the two M. anisopliae isolates in all tested concentrations. At the average recommended concentration, chlorfenapyr was compatible to URPE-6 and abamectin to UFPE-19. The use of entomopathogenic fungi associated with compatible insecticides may be a useful alternative to control T. absoluta. PMID:21271067

  7. [Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta. PMID:21120389

  8. Efficacy of insect-proof nets used in Tunisian tomato greenhouses against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and potential impact on plant growth and fruit quality

    A. Harbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect-proof screens constitute efficient physical means of protecting horticultural crops against insect pests and their use has become widespread. However, they may have a negative impact on plant growth and fruit quality by modifying climatic parameters of greenhouses. In case of tomato crops, they are used mainly against white flies and the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. In Tunisia, tomato plastic tunnels are often netted following two modalities: i complete netting of the greenhouse under the plastic screen (total netting; or ii netting only doors and lateral aeration windows (partial netting. Weekly monitoring of T. absoluta in two tomato greenhouses with different netting setups using pheromone traps and sampling of leaves and fruits showed no differences in the levels of infestation by the pest with a maximum average values of 6.66 eggs/leaf, 4.16 larvae/leaf and 4.16 mines/leaf. The maximum infestation rate of leaves was 86.66% and that of fruits was 10.83%. No effects of the netting setup used on plant growth parameters were detected. However, the study of fruit quality parameters revealed significant decrease in sugar contents in tomato fruits when using total netting setup (4.26°Brix versus 3.68°Brix. Recommendations regarding the combined use of pheromones traps and insect-proof nets are given and possibilities to enhance the efficiency of nets as physical barrier against T. absoluta are explored.

  9. Bazı bitkisel ekstraktların Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)'nın farklı biyolojik dönemlerine etkisi

    Şenel, Melike

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Laurus nobilis L. (Defne) ve Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Biberiye) bitkilerinin ethanol ve hegzan ekstraktlarının 1- 30 mg/ml arasında hazırlanmış maksimum 14 farklı konsantrasyonlarının Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)' nın yumurta bırakmayı engelleyici, yumurta açılmasına ve çıkan larvalara ergin döneme kadar toksik etkisi, üçüncü dönem larva ve pupalara toksik etkilerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmalar 25±1 0C sıcaklık % 65±5 orantılı nem ve 16: 8 aydınlık: karanlık aydınlatmalı ...

  10. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)

    Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira; Cláudia Helena Cysneiros Matos; Eduardo Hatano

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control o...

  11. Bioatividade do extrato aquoso de sementes de nim sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) em três formas de aplicação Bioactivity of aqueous neem seeds extract on the Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in three ways of application

    Rita de Cássia Rodrigues Gonçalves-Gervásio; José Djair Vendramim

    2007-01-01

    No presente trabalho, avaliaram-se as atividades translaminar, sistêmica e de contato do extrato aquoso de sementes de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim) sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Foram realizados três experimentos envolvendo extratos aquosos de sementes de nim em concentrações de 0,5; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 g por 100 mL de água. Esses extratos foram aplicados no solo, na superfície adaxial de folíolos de tomateiro e diretamente sobre as lagartas. Quando os extratos foram ap...

  12. Genetic Variability of the Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta Meirick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Tunisia, Inferred from RAPD-PCR Variabilidad Genética del Minador de Hojas de Tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) en Túnez desde RAPD-PCR

    Asma Bettaibi; Maha Mezghani-Khemakhem; Dhia Bouktila; Hanem Makni; Mohamed Makni

    2012-01-01

    The tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta Meyrick has invaded tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crop in Tunisia since 2008 and is representing today a major threat to the production of this crop. In this study, we used the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) technology to assess the genetic variability within and among seven populations of T. absoluta, collected on tomato from different regions in Tunisia. Using five RAPD-PCR primers and 108 individuals, 140 polym...

  13. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick

    Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control of T. absoluta. However, this possibility must be better understood before it could be recommended, because Pyemotes sp. could also cause dermatitis in the humans.O ácaro Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae é um parasita de várias espécies de insetos e exibe o processo de fisogastria na reprodução. É registrada a ocorrência de Pyemotes sp. sobre a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, que sofreu redução considerável de suas populações em condições de laboratório. Este ácaro foi observado parasitando larvas, pupas e adultos de T. absoluta e suas fêmeas fisogástricas apresentaram coloração esverdeada. As larvas e adultos de T. absoluta atacados por Pyemotes sp. exibiram paralisia em poucos minutos, devido à injeção de toxinas por parte do ácaro. Observou-se que um único indivíduo de T. absoluta pode suportar muitas fêmeas fisogástricas de Pyemotes sp., permitindo que outra geração do ácaro continuasse a se reproduzir. O ácaro Pyemotes sp. surge como uma possibilidade para o controle biológico de T. absoluta, mas sua utilização deve ser melhor avaliada já que é uma espécie causadora de dermatites em humanos.

  14. Bioatividade do extrato aquoso de sementes de nim sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em três formas de aplicação Bioactivity of aqueous neem seeds extract on the Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in three ways of application

    Rita de Cássia Rodrigues Gonçalves-Gervásio

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliaram-se as atividades translaminar, sistêmica e de contato do extrato aquoso de sementes de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. Foram realizados três experimentos envolvendo extratos aquosos de sementes de nim em concentrações de 0,5; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 g por 100 mL de água. Esses extratos foram aplicados no solo, na superfície adaxial de folíolos de tomateiro e diretamente sobre as lagartas. Quando os extratos foram aplicados no solo, em vasos contendo plantas de tomate, houve mortalidade de 48,3 a 100,0% das lagartas, indicando que foram absorvidos e translocados na planta. Também ocorreu mortalidade larval de 57,0 a 100,0% quando os extratos foram aplicados na superfície adaxial do folíolo, evidenciando o efeito translaminar. Quando foi aplicado diretamente sobre lagartas com seis dias de idade, observou-se mortalidade de 52,4 a 95,4%, demonstrando a ação de contato do composto e seu potencial para controle da traça-do-tomateiro.This work, aimed to study the translaminar, systemic and contact action of aqueous neem seeds extracts on the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. Three experiments with aqueous neem seeds extracts at concentrations of 0.5; 1.0; 5.0 and 10.0g/100 mL of water were conducted. These extracts were applied in the soil, in adaxial surface of the tomato plant foliole and directly over the insect. When the extracts were applied in the soil of pots containing tomato plants, the larval mortality rate was 48.3% to 100.0%, indicating that the extracts were absorbed and transferred inside the plant. There was also a larval mortality of 57.0% to 100.0% when the extracts were applied over the foliole adaxial surface, which shows the translaminar action. When the extracts were applied directly over larvae six days old, the larval mortality rate was 52.4% to 95.4%, which shows the action of contact of the extracts and its potential to control the

  15. Spreading, Infestation and Damage Rates and Adult Population Monitoring of Tomato Leaf Miner [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] on Open Field Tomato Grown in the South Marmara Region of Turkey

    ÇETİN, Gürsel; GÖKSEL, Pınar; DURA, Onur; HANTAŞ, Cemil

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine spreading, infestation and fruit damage rates and adult population monitoring of Tomato leaf miner, (Tuta absoluta, Meyrick) on open field tomato grown in the South Marmara Region (Bilecik, Bursa, Kocaeli, Sakarya and Yalova provinces) of Turkey in 2011-2012. As result of spreading studies carried out according to systematic sampling method, it was determined that all tomato locations in every province were infested by this pest. Infestation rate...

  16. Mutation (G275E) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit is associated with high levels of resistance to spinosyns in Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Silva, Wellington M; Berger, Madeleine; Bass, Chris; Williamson, Martin; Moura, Danielle M N; Ribeiro, Lílian M S; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2016-07-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta, now a major pest of tomato crops worldwide, is primarily controlled using chemical insecticides. Recently, high levels of resistance to the insecticide spinosad have been described in T. absoluta populations in Brazil. Selection of a resistant field-collected strain led to very high levels of resistance to spinosad and cross-resistance to spinetoram, but not to other insecticides that target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In this study the mechanisms underlying resistance to spinosad were investigated using toxicological, biochemical and molecular approaches. Inhibition of metabolic enzymes using synergists and biochemical assessment of detoxification enzyme activity provided little evidence of metabolic resistance in the selected strain. Cloning and sequencing of the nAChR α6 subunit from T. absoluta, the spinosad target-site, from susceptible and spinosad-resistant strains were done to investigate the role of a target-site mechanism in resistance. A single nucleotide change was identified in exon 9 of the α6 subunit of the resistant strain, resulting in the replacement of the glycine (G) residue at position 275 observed in susceptible T. absoluta strains with a glutamic acid (E). A high-throughput DNA-based diagnostic assay was developed and used to assess the prevalence of the G275E mutation in 17 field populations collected from different geographical regions of Brazil. The resistant allele was found at low frequency, and in the heterozygous form, in seven of these populations but at much higher frequency and in the homozygous form in a population collected in the Iraquara municipality. The frequency of the mutation was significantly correlated with the mortality of these populations in discriminating dose bioassays. In summary our results provide evidence that the G275E mutation is an important mechanism of resistance to spinosyns in T. absoluta, and may be used as a marker for resistance monitoring in

  17. Genetic Variability of the Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta Meirick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, in Tunisia, Inferred from RAPD-PCR Variabilidad Genética del Minador de Hojas de Tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae en Túnez desde RAPD-PCR

    Asma Bettaibi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta Meyrick has invaded tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. crop in Tunisia since 2008 and is representing today a major threat to the production of this crop. In this study, we used the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR technology to assess the genetic variability within and among seven populations of T. absoluta, collected on tomato from different regions in Tunisia. Using five RAPD-PCR primers and 108 individuals, 140 polymorphic fragments were recorded. From 335 different RAPD phenotypes generated, 71 were redundant and 264 unique to a specific population. The genetic structure of T. absoluta was investigated using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, genetic distances (Fst and multidimensional scaling (MDS. We detected a high genetic diversity within and among populations in conjunction with a significant differentiation between populations, suggesting that different founder genotypes would have been responsible of the introduction of T. absoluta in Tunisia. The presence of overlapping phenotypes probably indicates migration events between populations, mainly through infested plant material carried by humans.El minador de hojas de tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick ha invadido el cultivo del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en Túnez desde 2008 y actualmente representa una importante amenaza para su producción. En este estudio usamos la tecnología de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar-reacción de cadena polimerasa (RAPD-PCR para evaluar la variabilidad genética dentro y entre siete poblaciones de T. absoluta, colectadas desde tomate en diferentes regiones de Túnez. Usando cinco primers RAPD-PCR y 108 individuos, se registraron 140 fragmentos polimórficos. Se generaron 335 fenotipos RAPD diferentes, entre los cuales 71 fueron redundantes y 264 únicos para una población específica. La estructura genética de T. absoluta se investigó usando análisis de varianza molecular

  18. Farklı Patates Çeşitleri Üzerindeki Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae'nın Yaşam Çizelgeleri

    Nur TÜREN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted under laboratory conditions at 25±1 °C, % 65±5 relative humidity and 16:8 LD photoperiod. The developmental period, mortality rates and life tables of Tuta absoulta on the potato varieties of Alegria, Marabel, Marfona and Lady Olympia were studied Total developmental durations of the immature stages were 24.22, 21.00, 25.75 and 27.50 on the potato varieties of Alegria, Marabel, Marfona and Lady Olympia, respectively. Total mortality rates of the immature stages were 26.7, 33.3, 30 and 40% on the potato varieties of Alegria, Marabel, Marfona and Lady Olympia, respectively. The life-tables’ parameters of Tuta absoluta on Alegria, Marabel, Marfona and Lady Olympia patato varieties were found for net reproductive rates (R0 as 13.39, 8.31, 8.25 and 4.98 females/females/generation, intrinsic rate of increase (rm; 0.088, 0.081 and 0.073, 0.056 females/female/day, mean generation time (T0; 29.6, 25.7, 29.0 and 28.7 day, respectively. When all parameters investigated, it was found that T. absoluta could complete their devolopment and be reproduced on all potato varieties. But, Alegria was determined as the most suitable variety fort tis pest

  19. Novas pragas agrícolas na Ilha de S. Nicolau - Cabo Verde: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep.:Gelechiidae) e Bactrocera invadens (Drew, Tsuruta & White) (Dipt.: Tephritidae)

    Duarte, Melissa Vanize dos Anjos da Costa

    2013-01-01

    In the last two years, invasive species that are pests of agricultural crops were introduced in some of the islands of the archipelago of Cape Verde with a high economic impact in agriculture. These include the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae) and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae). In order to assess the presence of these pests on the island of São Nicolau, attractive traps were settled in four areas with banana...

  20. Efficiency of Trapping Systems for Detecting Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Roda, Amy L; Brambila, Julieta; Barria, Jorge; Euceda, Xavier; Korytkowski, Cheslavo

    2015-12-01

    Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a pest of tomato, was recently detected in Panama in Central America and now threatens to expand into the important tomato production areas of Mexico and the United States. Moths caught in T. absoluta pheromone-baited traps must be removed and dissected to confirm the species present before containment and mitigation strategies are put in place. Timely processing of traps can be hindered by the presence of numerous similar nontarget moths that cannot be easily prescreened. Trapping systems using dry bucket traps or Delta traps with either hot melt pressure sensitive adhesives (HMPSA) or cool melt adhesives were evaluated for their effectiveness in trapping T. absoluta and for their ease in allowing identification of nontarget moths. Delta traps in Panama with HMPSA and cool melt adhesives both trapped T. absoluta with equal efficacy. In Florida, nontarget moths were easier to prescreen from bucket traps and HMPSA inserts. Importantly, moths found in bucket traps as well as on cool melt adhesive inserts were of a lower quality than those on HMPSA inserts, making identification more difficult. Studies conducted in Florida and Panama tomato and potato fields showed that commercially produced pheromones containing only the main pheromone component ((3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate) or containing both the main and minor pheromone component ((3E, 8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl) attracted nontarget moths. Survey programs, particularly large-scale ones, should consider the application of alternative trapping systems or new adhesives available in order to facilitate the visual prescreening of nontarget moths. PMID:26318003

  1. Selección de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Huevos de la Polilla del Tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates Selection for Egg Control of Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) Eggs

    Marta Rodríguez S.; Marcos Gerding P.; Andrés France

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio en laboratorio sobre la patogenicidad de 64 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y 70 de Beauveria bassiana, en huevos de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta. La primera evaluación se realizó por aplicación directa de suspensiones de 10(7) conidias mL-1 para cada aislamiento, con el sistema de pulverización de la torre de Potter. La mortalidad y esporulación sobre huevos fueron significativamente mayores con los aislamientos M. anisopliae Qu-M558 y B. bass...

  2. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations. PMID:22928311

  3. Selección de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Huevos de la Polilla del Tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates Selection for Egg Control of Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae Eggs

    Marta Rodríguez S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en laboratorio sobre la patogenicidad de 64 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y 70 de Beauveria bassiana, en huevos de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta. La primera evaluación se realizó por aplicación directa de suspensiones de 10(7 conidias mL-1 para cada aislamiento, con el sistema de pulverización de la torre de Potter. La mortalidad y esporulación sobre huevos fueron significativamente mayores con los aislamientos M. anisopliae Qu-M558 y B. bassiana Qu-B911, Qu-B912 y Qu-B928. Estos aislamientos fueron evaluados nuevamente en suspensiones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1. Los aislamientos Qu-M558 y Qu-B912, produjeron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad sobre la base del cálculo del área bajo la curva del progreso de mortalidad de huevos, 80 y 60%, respectivamente.A pathogenicity study of 64 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and 70 Beauveria bassiana isolates against tomato moth Tuta absoluta eggs, was carried out under laboratory conditions. The first evaluation was accomplished by spraying suspensions of 10(7 conidias mL-1 of each isolate directly on eggs, through a Potter tower. Mortality and conidia production on the eggs were significantly higher with the isolates M. anisopliae Qu-M558 and B. bassiana Qu-B911, Qu-B912 and Qu-B928. These isolates were newly evaluated using increasing conidia concentrations (0 to 10(8 conidia mL-1 of each of the five selected isolates. The isolates Qu-B912 and Qu-M558 produced the highest mortality percentages based on the area under mortality progress curve for each concentration, 80 and 60%, respectively.

  4. Effect of silicon on the morphology of the midgut and mandible of tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae

    MC dos Santos; AM Resende Junqueira; VG Mendes de Sá; JC Zanúncio; JE. Serrão

    2015-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important insect pest causing serious losses to tomato plantations in Brazil. Some populations of T. absolute are reported to present insecticide resistance resulting in its control failure and the use of alternative control based on silicon, which is clean and sustainable, can reduce pesticide use, increasing fruit quality and protecting the environment. This study evaluated changes in the morphology of the midgut and the mandibles of ...

  5. Número de ínstares larvais de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) em genótipos de tomateiro Number of larval instars of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in tomato genotypes

    Teresinha Augusta Giustolin; José Djair Vendramim; José Roberto Postali Parra

    2002-01-01

    A traça Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) é uma das principais pragas do tomateiro no Brasil e tem sido controlada quase que exclusivamente com inseticidas, o que é indesejável tanto por motivos econômicos quanto ambientais. Esses problemas podem ser minimizados com métodos alternativos de controle, tal como a resistência varietal que é uma alternativa interessante, mas que ainda precisa ser mais estudada. Visando obter mais informações sobre a relação inseto-planta, estudou-se o número de instares da ...

  6. RESPUESTA DE LA POLILLA DEL TOMATE, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), A INSECTICIDAS EN ARICA Tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) response to insecticides in Arica, Chile

    Erika R. Salazar; Jaime E Araya

    2001-01-01

    Se comparó la susceptibilidad larvaria de la polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), colectada en tomate (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill.) en Azapa, Arica (18º 31’ lat. Sur, 70º 11’ long. Oeste), mediante pruebas de toxicología con varias dosis de insecticidas de uso común, aplicados sobre grupos de larvas de dos niveles de desarrollo (estadíos 1-2 y 3-4). Para determinar la resistencia a los insecticidas se calcularon las DL50, DL90 y pendientes de las regresiones entre mortalidad (probit...

  7. Control of population number of tomato leaf miner tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) in the Strumica region

    Spasov, Dusan; Spasova, Dragica; Atanasova, Biljana; Mitev, Vasil

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to monitor and control the size of the population of tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) in the Strumica region. Tests were carried out on production plot on acreage of 0,1, in the area of the village Boriovo over two harvests, spring and summer. Pest monitoring was performed using yellow sticky traps that were set against reflector measuring 50 W bulb which lit the plate, where the miner T.absoluta following the light was trapped. Control of t...

  8. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to Tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917 Metodologia de bioensaio para estudos de toxicidade de formulações comerciais de inseticidas a Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917

    Tarcísio Visintin da Silva Galdino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that represent field conditions for fast-acting insecticides (neurotoxics and inhibitors of respiration and slow-acting insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis and insect growth regulators. The leaf-dip method was the most efficient method for toxicity studies of insecticides formulations to T. absoluta. We verified that bioassays with fast-acting insecticides should be performed with glass Petri dishes containing one tomato foliole from the 4th leaf from the plant apex infested with 10 larvae of 3rd instar and these bioassays can last 48 hours. Conversely, bioassays with slow-acting insecticides should be performed with two-liter transparent PET bottles containing the 4th leaf from the plant apex, with their petioles immersed in a glass bottle containing 120 mL of water, and this leaf should be infested with 10 larvae of 2nd instar and this bioassays can last seven days.O principal método utilizado no controle da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é a aplicação de inseticidas. As técnicas atuais de avaliação da toxicidade de inseticidas sobre essa praga não simulam a situação de campo e não possibilitam a verificação se as doses usadas no campo são eficientes no seu controle. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se desenvolver uma metodologia que represente as condições de campo para inseticidas de ação rápida (neurotóxicos e inibidores respiratórios e de ação lenta (Bacillus thuringiensis e reguladores de

  9. Pests on tomatoes caused by tomato leaf miner tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) in Strumica region

    Spasov, Dusan; Spasova, Dragica; Atanasova, Biljana; Mitev, Vasil

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this research project is to understand the damage caused by the miner Tuta absoluta Meyrick and make a comparison between the tomato damage caused by the tomato leaf miner in the spring and summer harvests of tomatoes. According to our surveys the damages on tomatoes were much larger in the second, apart from damaged tomatoes in the first harvest. Tomato plants from the first harvest, most evident, had damages on the tomato leaves, and it is important to emphasize that on ...

  10. Potential Toxicity of α-Cypermethrin-Treated Nets on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Biondi, A; Zappalà, L; Desneux, N; Aparo, A; Siscaro, G; Rapisarda, C; Martin, T; Tropea Garzia, G

    2015-06-01

    Insect-proof nets are thought to be effective physical barriers to protect tomato crops against several insect pests, including the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, protected tomato crops are frequently infested by this destructive pest, and there is a higher infestation of plants closer to openings in Mediterranean greenhouses, suggesting that immigrating adults can easily walk on these protective materials and find a way to reach the crop. Laboratory bioassays were carried out to characterize the potential toxicity of α-cypermethrin-treated insect-proof nets (Agronet) against T. absoluta adults. The data showed that the net acts mainly through a variety of chronic sublethal effects rather than acute ones. Reduced longevity and, more markedly, a reduced number of laid eggs were observed after the moths were exposed to the treated net over the duration of their lifetimes. A Y-tube experiment showed that the treated net does not affect the T. absoluta olfaction cues for host location. In contrast, when the moths were given the option to choose either the treated or the untreated net in laboratory cages, they significantly preferred the untreated one. The toxicological significance and the functional implications of these subtle effects for the implementation of integrated T. absoluta management strategies are discussed. PMID:26470245

  11. Effect of silicon on the morphology of the midgut and mandible of tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae

    MC dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is an important insect pest causing serious losses to tomato plantations in Brazil. Some populations of T. absolute are reported to present insecticide resistance resulting in its control failure and the use of alternative control based on silicon, which is clean and sustainable, can reduce pesticide use, increasing fruit quality and protecting the environment. This study evaluated changes in the morphology of the midgut and the mandibles of T. absoluta larvae caused by feeding with compounds containing silicon. Larvae of T. absoluta were fed on tomato leaves with different compounds containing silicon and the histology of the midgut of fourth instar larvae was analyzed. The mandibles of all larval stages were dissected and analysed by scanning electron microscopy. There were no changes in the morphology of the mandibles of the larvae of T. absoluta fed on silicon compared to the control group. Larvae of T. absoluta from the control group and the treatments where the calcium silicate was applied to the soil had not differences in the morphology of the midgut epithelial cells, which had four cell types: digestive, goblet, regenerative and mycetocyte cells. In larvae of T. absoluta obtained from silicon-based treatments applied to the leaves, the midgut epithelium showed detachment of the basal membrane, which can characterize the possible effect of this toxic element to larvae of T. absoluta.

  12. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) : Tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia.[br/] Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would beneÞt from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitismo...

  13. Biologia de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 em dieta artificial

    Mihsfeldt Laila Herta

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver uma dieta artificial para a criação da traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta sem a dependência do hospedeiro natural (tomateiro. A dieta empregada tem como fontes protéicas germe de trigo, levedura, caseína e farelo de soja, além do feijão, que foi a variável do trabalho. A dieta mais adequada para a criação da traça-do-tomateiro foi o hospedeiro natural, no caso, as folhas de tomateiro ?Santa Clara? e, dentre os meios artificiais, o que se mostrou mais promissor foi aquele com feijão Branco acrescido de pó de folha de tomateiro. Este pó de folhas apresentou um efeito fagoestimulante, diminuindo a mortalidade inicial e aumentando a viabilidade total do inseto no meio artificial. O número de ínstares foi constante e igual a 4, tanto nas dietas artificiais como na dieta natural, indicando a adequação nutricional dos meios artificiais.

  14. Biologia de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) em dieta artificial Biology of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) reared on artificial diet

    Laila Herta Mihsfeldt; José Roberto Postali Parra

    1999-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver uma dieta artificial para a criação da traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta) sem a dependência do hospedeiro natural (tomateiro). A dieta empregada tem como fontes protéicas germe de trigo, levedura, caseína e farelo de soja, além do feijão, que foi a variável do trabalho. A dieta mais adequada para a criação da traça-do-tomateiro foi o hospedeiro natural, no caso, as folhas de tomateiro ‘Santa Clara’ e, dentre os meios artificiais, o que se most...

  15. RESPUESTA DE LA POLILLA DEL TOMATE, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, A INSECTICIDAS EN ARICA Tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick response to insecticides in Arica, Chile

    Erika R. Salazar

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la susceptibilidad larvaria de la polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, colectada en tomate (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill. en Azapa, Arica (18º 31’ lat. Sur, 70º 11’ long. Oeste, mediante pruebas de toxicología con varias dosis de insecticidas de uso común, aplicados sobre grupos de larvas de dos niveles de desarrollo (estadíos 1-2 y 3-4. Para determinar la resistencia a los insecticidas se calcularon las DL50, DL90 y pendientes de las regresiones entre mortalidad (probit y dosis (log. Se verificó la resistencia a los insecticidas estudiados, pues las DL50 al menos duplicaron aquellas en Ovalle y Quillota, localidades donde T. absoluta presentó la mayor resistencia en otro estudio. Deltametrina y mevinfos fueron los compuestos menos y más tóxicos, respectivamente. Las larvas de ambos niveles de desarrollo fueron igualmente susceptibles a deltametrina, mientras que las larvas grandes fueron más resistentes a mevinfos que las pequeñas. Los resultados con esfenvalerato y lambda - cihalotrina sobre larvas grandes, y metamidofos en larvas pequeñas fueron muy variables, lo que impidió un buen ajuste probit y la evaluación de resistencia a estos compuestos en dichos grupos larvarios. El parásito también puede haber desarrollado resistencia a insecticidas, lo que puede explicar que en el Valle se hayan restablecido sus poblaciones. La posible resistencia de parásitos, presentes incluso en tratamientos insecticidas a dosis extremadamente altas, podría haber afectado la precisión de las regresiones obtenidas, especialmente sobre larvas grandes.Larval susceptibility of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick collected on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill. crops in Azapa, Arica (18º 31’ S lat, 70º 11’ W long, Chile, was compared by toxicological tests with several commonly used insecticide doses applied on two development stage larvae groups (stadia 1-2 and 3-4. To determine resistance to insecticides, LD50, LD90, and

  16. Evaluación del nivel de resistencia de plantas de tomate a la polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick) mediante un bioensayo simple

    Gilardón, Elsa; Gorustovich, M.; Petrinich, Catalina; Olsen, Ana; Hernández, Carmen; Collavino, Graciela; Gray, Liliana

    1998-01-01

    Se describe un bioensayo en invernáculo para evaluar poblaciones segregantes de tomate para la resistencia a la polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick = Scrobipalpuloides absoluta Meyrick). Se evaluaron dos cultivares de Lycopersicon esculentum y tres accesiones silvestres del género Lycopersicon. Se infestaron hojas jóvenes completamente expandidas de plantas adultas cultivadas en macetas en invernáculo, con hojas de tomate que llevaban larvas neonatas de polilla. El grado de infestación ...

  17. NATIVE LARVAL PARASITOIDS ASSOCIATED WITH TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK) IN GREENHOUSE TOMATO CROPS OF SOUTHERN SARDINIA.

    Nannini, M; Atzori, F; Pisci, R; Sanna, F

    2014-01-01

    Since its first detection in Sardinia (Italy), Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been reported as a major pest of greenhouse tomatoes. In recent years, however, a tendency toward a progressive reduction of tomato borer infestation levels has been observed. The reasons behind this decline are probably diverse, including both the increase in growers' ability to manage the pest and the adaptation of native predators and parasitoids to the new prey/host. In order to assess the species composition of the parasitoid complex associated with T. absoluta larvae in Sardinian greenhouse tomatoes, a two-year (2010/11) survey was conducted in one of the island's major horticultural areas (Pula, Cagliari). An estimate of the levels of parasitism caused by native wasps was also carried out. The occurrence of larval parasitoids of T. absoluta was detected in approximately half of the crops monitored. The average parasitism rate recorded in tomato plants infested by tomato borer larvae was 1.3%. Moreover, while no parasitism was observed in 76.4% of the samples collected, only 3.0% of the samples showed a parasitism rate exceeding 10%. The highest rates were recorded in spring and summer, with a peak in July (4.8%). Of 159 adult parasitoids recovered from infested leaves, 62.9% were found to belong to a Necremnus sp. near artynes (Walker), 34.6% to a Necremnus sp. near tidius (Walker), and 2.5% to Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). These results show that some native parasitoids have adapted to T. absoluta in the study area. Although parasitoid abundance in tomato crops appeared to be low, their contribution for the control of tomato borer infestation could possibly be enhanced through the application of conservation biological control measures. PMID:26084097

  18. Indirect selection of industrial tomato genotypes rich in zingiberene and resistant to Tuta absoluta Meyrick.

    Lima, I P; Resende, J T V; Oliveira, J R F; Faria, M V; Resende, N C V; Lima Filho, R B

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining tomato cultivars resistant to pests through interspecific crosses between commercial cultivars and wild accessions is an important tool in integrated pest management. The aim of this study was to select tomato genotypes with high zingiberene (ZGB) levels that are resistant to the South American tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick) and to estimate genetic parameters of ZGB inheritance from the interspecific cross Solanum lycopersicum cultivar 'Redenção' x Solanum habrochaites var. hirsutum (PI-127826 accession). F2 plants with different ZGB contents were selected and submitted to a tomato moth resistance test. ZGB content exhibits high broad sense heritability, with incomplete dominance of lower ZGB content. Furthermore, the level of ZGB in leaflets was estimated to be controlled by two genes. These results show that high ZGB levels are effective at conferring resistance to the South American tomato moth. PMID:26634470

  19. Fontes de resistência a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 em tomateiro Sources of resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 in tomato

    André Luiz Lourenção

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de encontrar fontes de resistência à traça Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyr., em tomateiro, foram avaliados diversos genótipos das espécies Lycopersicon esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium e L. peruvianum. Em triagem inicial em casa de vegetação, as introduções NAV 29 e NAV 115, pertencentes a L. peruvianum, destacaram-se como os genótipos mais resistentes a esse inseto, apresentando a menor perda de área foliar. Uma linhagem de L. pimpinellifolium, NAV 98, mostrou-se menos atacada nos ponteiros que os genótipos de L. esculentum. Uma mistura de pólen de NAV 29 e NAV 115 foi utilizada para polinização de plantas dessas duas introduções, e as sementes obtidas desse processo denominaram-se NAV 29/115. A seguir, foi feito experimento em casa de vegetação envolvendo NAV 29/115, NAV 98, 'Rio Grande' e 'Pavesetter', sendo esses dois cultivares de L. esculentum de crescimento determinado. A infestação foi artificial, através de plantas fortemente infestadas pela traça e colocadas entre as plantas do experimento. Avaliações feitas periodicamente estimando visualmente a porcentagem de área foliar consumida pelas lagartas de S. absoluta, evidenciaram alta resistência de NAV 29/115 em relação aos demais materiais. O presente trabalho mostra que NAV 29, NAV 115 e NAV 29/115, genótipos de L. peruvianum, constituem promissoras fontes de resistência à traça S. absoluta.Eighty-five wild and cultivated tomato accessions, being 71 Lycopersicon esculentum, 10 L. pimpinellifolium and 4 L. peruvianum, were evaluated in greenhouse, under artificial infestation, for resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyr. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. NAV 29 and NAV 115 (L. peruvianum showed the least foliar damage while NAV 98 (L. pimpinellifolium was less attacked in the buds than cultivated tomatoes (L. esculentum. Then, a comparative trial was carried out among the Rio Grande and Pacesetter tomato cultivars, NAV 98 and NAV 29/115 (mixed

  20. Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) as an efficient predator of the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in Europe. A review

    De BACKER, L.; Caparros Megido, R.; Haubruge, E.; Verheggen, FJ.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), originates from South America, and remains one of the main tomato pests in this continent. Since its introduction to Europe in 2006, Mediterranean countries have also been exposed to this pest. Because of the endophytic habits of the larvae and ability of adults to reproduce parthenogenetically, chemicals and sexual pheromone- based control methods generate poor results. Recently, the use of biocontrol agents, such as Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur ...

  1. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Thomas Bawin; Lara De Backer; David Dujeu; Pauline Legrand; Rudy Caparros Megido; Frédéric Francis; François J. Verheggen

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by ...

  2. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area. PMID:24331616

  3. Functional Response of Three Species of Predatory Pirate Bugs Attacking Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Ramos, Rodrigo S; Gontijo, Lessando M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2015-04-01

    The functional response and predation parameters of three species of predatory pirate bugs Amphiareus constrictus (Stal), Blaptostethus pallescens Poppius, and Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were evaluated at four different densities of eggs of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing a tomato leaf disk infested with the pest eggs, and maintained inside growth chamber with environmental conditions of 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. A. constrictus and B. pallescens showed a type III functional response where predation increased at a decreasing rate after egg density was higher than 12 per leaf disk, reaching an upper plateau of 18.86 and 25.42 eggs per 24 hours, respectively. By contrast, O. tristicolor showed a type II functional response where the number of eggs preyed upon increased at a decreasing rate as egg density increased, reaching an upper limit of 15.20 eggs per 24 hours. The predator equations used in this study estimated handling time of 1.25, 0.87, 0.96 h for A. constrictus, B. pallescens, and O. tristicolor, respectively. The lower handling time and possible higher attack rate of B. pallescens suggests a higher efficiency and probably greater impact on the pest population. If conservation or classical biological control of T. absoluta is to be implemented, then prioritizing which natural enemy species is the most efficient is an important first step. PMID:26313178

  4. Spatial patterns of parasitism of the solitary parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Sánchez, Norma E; Pereyra, Patricia C; Luna, María G

    2009-04-01

    We examined the interaction between the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a key pest of tomato crops in South America, and its main solitary larval parasitoid, Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The pattern of parasitism of T. absoluta by the parasitoid was studied at three scales on tomato crops: plant, leaf, and leaflet. Host density, spatial distributions of both host and parasitoid, percentages of parasitism, variation in the probability and risk of parasitism in relation to host density, and the spatial density dependence were assessed in a horticultural region in Argentina. The spatial distribution of T. absoluta was clumped at all sites and scales, whereas that of P. dignus was much more variable, fitting to negative, positive binomial distributions and to Poisson series. Percentages of parasitism were as follows: site 1, 17.06%; site 2, 27.53%; site 3, 26.47%; site 4, 45.95%. Parasitoid aggregation in relation to host density was found at leaf and leaflet scales. However, the proportion of parasitized hosts was independent of host density. The variability of parasitism rates exhibited at the three spatial scales seems to result in partial refuges for the host, which might contribute to the persistence of the interaction between host and parasitoid. We discuss our field observations in relation to ecological theory and its potential application to the biological control of T. absoluta on tomato. PMID:19389284

  5. Traça Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) em cultivares de tomateiro tratadas com extratos aquosos de Trichilia pallida Swartz Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) on tomato cultivars treated with aqueous extracts of Trichilia pallida Swartz

    José Djair Vendramim; Ariane Paes de Barros Werckmeister Thomazini

    2001-01-01

    A traça Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) é atualmente uma das principais pragas do tomateiro no Brasil. Com o objetivo de obter um método de controle eficiente e não poluente, avaliou-se a atividade dos extratos aquosos de folhas e ramos de Trichilia pallida Swartz associados a duas cultivares de tomateiro (Santa Clara e IPA-5) sobre essa praga. Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento do inseto em folhas de cada uma das cultivares previamente submersas nos extratos a 1% de concentração, avaliando-se a duração...

  6. Control biológico de la polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) mediante la gestión de míridos depredadores

    Mollá Hernández, Óscar

    2013-01-01

    La polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es una plaga clave en el cultivo del tomate en Sudamérica de donde es originaria. Esta plaga es capaz de provocar pérdidas del 100% en el cultivo si no se adoptan medidas para su control, ya que sus larvas se alimentan vorazmente de hojas, tallos y frutos. A finales de 2006 se detectó su presencia en Castellón (España) y desde entonces se ha expandido rápidamente a otros países de la Cuenca Mediterránea, norte y centro d...

  7. Traça Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) em cultivares de tomateiro tratadas com extratos aquosos de Trichilia pallida Swartz

    Vendramim José Djair; Thomazini Ariane Paes de Barros Werckmeister

    2001-01-01

    A traça Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) é atualmente uma das principais pragas do tomateiro no Brasil. Com o objetivo de obter um método de controle eficiente e não poluente, avaliou-se a atividade dos extratos aquosos de folhas e ramos de Trichilia pallida Swartz associados a duas cultivares de tomateiro (Santa Clara e IPA-5) sobre essa praga. Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento do inseto em folhas de cada uma das cultivares previamente submersas nos extratos a 1% de concentração, avaliando-se a duração...

  8. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  9. Presencia de phthorimaea operculella y tuta absoluta (lepidoptera: gelechiidae), capturados en trampas con feromonas, en cultivos de tomate en quíbor, venezuela Presence of Phthorimaea operculella and Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), captured in pheromone traps, In tomato plantings at Quíbor, Venezuela

    Jorge Salas

    2007-01-01

    La presencia poblacional del minador grande de la hoja del tomate (o polilla de la papa) Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) y el minador pequeño Tuta (=Scrobipalpula) absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) fue evaluada en siembras experimentales de tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., localizadas en el campo experimental de Quíbor, estado Lara, Venezuela, durante los años 2001, 2002 y 2003. Dicha evaluación se realizó a través de la captura de machos en trampas cebadas con la feromona se...

  10. Laboratory Population Parameters and Field Impact of the Larval Endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on its Host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tomato Crops in Argentina.

    Nieves, Eliana L; Pereyra, Patricia C; Luna, María G; Medone, Paula; Sánchez, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a key pest of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L., crops in Central and South America. At present it is dispersing rapidly in Africa and Eurasian continents as an invasive pest, threatening worldwide tomato production. Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid reported as the main natural enemy of T. absoluta in commercial tomato. To gain knowledge of the potential role of P. dignus in the biological control of this pest, we determined its population parameters in laboratory and the parasitoid's impact on T. absoluta in the field. In laboratory, lifetime fecundity was 193 eggs per female, and longevity was 24 and 26 d for female and male, respectively. The finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.15 per female per day and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was 0.14. The net reproductive rate (R0) was found to be 51.2, and generation time (T) 28.8 d. The time for doubling the population (DT) was 5 d. Furthermore, field parasitism of T. absoluta varied between 33 and 64% in the different years studied. Population parameters estimated in this study can be considered baseline information for a mass-rearing protocol of this parasitoid. Moreover, growth rates of P. dignus, particularly rm, and its impact on field populations of T. absoluta indicated that this parasitoid is a valuable candidate for biological control of this pest. PMID:26470295

  11. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops. PMID:24498728

  12. Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur as an efficient predator of the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick in Europe. A review

    De Backer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, originates from South America, and remains one of the main tomato pests in this continent. Since its introduction to Europe in 2006, Mediterranean countries have also been exposed to this pest. Because of the endophytic habits of the larvae and ability of adults to reproduce parthenogenetically, chemicals and sexual pheromone-based control methods generate poor results. Recently, the use of biocontrol agents, such as Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae, has been investigated as an alternative means of control, the results of which are presented in this review. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a mirid bug that is widely used to control different phytophagous insects in integrated pest management strategies through Europe. Several studies have confirmed the high predation potential of M. pygmaeus on T. absoluta under laboratory and semi-field conditions. This predator spontaneously colonizes tomato greenhouses in the southern Mediterranean countries. The use of banker plants (i.e., plants that provide a habitat to the predator improves the colonization ability of this natural enemy. Hence, if the local population size is low, an augmentative strategy could be adopted. Predators may be released before or after the onset of pest infestation, with recommendations varying depending on natural population densities of both the pest and predator. The efficiency of M. pygmaeus has also been evaluated when used in combination with other biocontrol agents or with chemicals. This work presents an overview of different types of control strategies using M. pygmaeus against the tomato leafminer, T. absoluta.

  13. Traça Tuta absoluta (Meyrick em cultivares de tomateiro tratadas com extratos aquosos de Trichilia pallida Swartz Tuta absoluta (Meyrick on tomato cultivars treated with aqueous extracts of Trichilia pallida Swartz

    José Djair Vendramim

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A traça Tuta absoluta (Meyrick é atualmente uma das principais pragas do tomateiro no Brasil. Com o objetivo de obter um método de controle eficiente e não poluente, avaliou-se a atividade dos extratos aquosos de folhas e ramos de Trichilia pallida Swartz associados a duas cultivares de tomateiro (Santa Clara e IPA-5 sobre essa praga. Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento do inseto em folhas de cada uma das cultivares previamente submersas nos extratos a 1% de concentração, avaliando-se a duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal e o peso de pupas. A cultivar IPA-5 provocou alongamento da fase larval e, quando associada aos extratos de folhas e de ramos, reduziu a viabilidade pupal do inseto. Os extratos de folhas e de ramos também alongaram o período larval de T. absoluta, na cultivar Santa Clara. O extrato de folhas foi mais prejudicial ao desenvolvimento da traça do que o extrato de ramos dessa planta, reduzindo a viabilidade larval em ambas as cultivares.The tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick is one of the main tomato pests in Brazil. With the objective of obtaining an efficient and not pollutant method of control, the activity of aqueous extracts of Trichilia pallida Swartz leaves and twigs on this pest was studied associated to the tomato cultivars Santa Clara and IPA-5. The development of the insect was observed on leaves of each cultivar, previously treated with extracts at 1% of concentration. Length and viability of larval and pupal stages and pupal weight were evaluated. The larval period of the insect was more prolonged on 'IPA-5' and, when associated with leaf and twig extracts, reduced pupal viability. Leaf and twig extracts also prolonged the larval stage in 'Santa Clara'. The leaf extract affected more negatively the insect development than the twig extract, reducing larval viability on both cultivars.

  14. EFECTO DEL IMIDACLOPRID EN EL CONTROL DE LA POLILLA DEL TOMATE (TUTA ABSOLUTA MEYRICK) EFFICACY OF IMIDACLOPRID TO CONTROL THE TOMATO BORER (TUTA ABSOLUTA MEYRICK)

    Marcelo Dante Collavino; Rosana Alejandra Giménez

    2008-01-01

    La grave incidencia de Tuta absoluta en la producción de tomate, el alto uso de plaguicidas para su control, el riesgo de contaminación del ambiente y la generación de resistencia hacen que sea muy importante encontrar formas alternativas de control eficiente de esta plaga. Con el fin de evaluar la eficacia del imidacloprid en el control de la polilla del tomate, en distintas dosis y formas de aplicación se desarrolló este ensayo en condiciones de invernáculo. Para ello se prepararon dos dilu...

  15. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Megido, Rudy Caparros; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research. PMID:26462946

  16. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  17. Mating behaviour of female Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): polyandry increases reproductive output

    Lee, M S; Albajes Garcia, Ramon; Eizaguirre Altuna, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important pest of tomato. Mass trapping of males has seldom proved an effective control measure, probably due to the pest"s reproductive biology. There are few studies on female mating behaviour. For this reason, this study aimed to determine female mating frequency and its effects on reproductive output and female longevity; the effects of male mating status on female reproductive output and longevity and the fate of the spermatophore inside the bursa copulatrix...

  18. Sexual pheromone traps with light for mass trapping of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), yes or no ?

    Matos, Tiago; Figueiredo, Elisabete; Mexia, António

    2012-01-01

    In an assay performed in November 2010, adults captured in sexual pheromone water traps with and without light were counted. In traps with light a part of the insects were sampled for sex identification. Water traps for mass trapping which combined the attractive effect of sexual pheromone and light captured higher levels of Tuta absoluta adults than the traditional ones, with pheromone bait only. However, these traps were unable to capture females of T. absoluta...

  19. Evaluación del parasitoide, Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) como agente de control biológico de la “polilla del tomate”, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    Nieves, Eliana Lorena

    2013-01-01

    En el Cinturón Hortícola de La Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires), el cultivo de tomate constituye una de las actividades productivas más importantes, tanto en invernáculo como al aire libre. La “polilla del tomate” Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), de origen Neotropical, es la plaga clave del cultivo de tomate en esta región. El control de este insecto se lleva a cabo casi exclusivamente utilizando plaguicidas, lo que trae aparejado toxicidad sobre la salud humana y el ambie...

  20. Pheromone-based management strategies to control the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). A review

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2013-01-01

    We here review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. After presenting the general principles of sex pheromone-based control strategies, we describe strategies used to control T. absoluta inc...

  1. Biologia di Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), interazioni con l’ambiente e valutazione di tecniche di contenimento ecocompatibili

    Frati, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) è un lepidottero originario dell’America meridionale, infeudato a pomodoro e ad altre solanacee coltivate e spontanee. Con l’attività trofica le larve causano mine fogliari e gallerie nei frutti, con conseguenti ingenti danni alle colture. T. absoluta è stato segnalato per la prima volta in Italia nel 2008 e in Piemonte nel 2009. Pertanto le ricerche sono state condotte per rilevarne la distribuzione in Piemonte, studiarne l’andamento di popolazione in condizioni natur...

  2. Número de ínstares larvais de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick em genótipos de tomateiro

    Giustolin Teresinha Augusta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A traça Tuta absoluta (Meyrick é uma das principais pragas do tomateiro no Brasil e tem sido controlada quase que exclusivamente com inseticidas, o que é indesejável tanto por motivos econômicos quanto ambientais. Esses problemas podem ser minimizados com métodos alternativos de controle, tal como a resistência varietal que é uma alternativa interessante, mas que ainda precisa ser mais estudada. Visando obter mais informações sobre a relação inseto-planta, estudou-se o número de instares da traça em dois genótipos de tomateiro Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum (PI 134417 -- resistente e L. esculentum (`Santa Clara' - suscetível. O experimento foi desenvolvido em câmara climatizada em duas temperaturas (26 ± 0,5 e 30 ± 0,5ºC. As lagartas recém-eclodidas foram alimentadas com folhas dos dois genótipos. Diariamente foram retiradas 15 lagartas de cada tratamento para medições da largura da cápsula cefálica. O desenvolvimento do inseto seguiu a regra de Dyar e, em qualquer das situações testadas, apresentou quatro ínstares larvais.

  3. Potential for direct interference between natural enemies of Tuta absoluta on tomato

    Desneux, Nicolas; Pizzol, Jeannine; Thomas, Cecile; Pautrat, E.; Bearez, Philippe; Poncet, Christine; Tabone, Elisabeth; Kabiri, Firouz; Frandon , Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) has recently invaded some Mediterranean countries and is a key agricultural threat to tomato production. Among possibilities for controlling this pest, oophagous parasitoids have shown promising potential for controlling the pest before yield decrease, and one species in particular, Trichogramma achaeae, is currently proposed in Spain and France for inundative biological control of T. absoluta. In greenhouses, Miridae pre...

  4. Biology of two key palaearctic larval ectoparasitoids when parasitizing the invasive pest Tuta absoluta

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Arno, Judit; Gabarra, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years following the invasion of European tomato crops by the invasive South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous larval parasitoid species were recorded as natural enemies of this pest. Necremnus cf. artynes (Walker) and to a lesser extent Stenomesius sp. nr. japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) have been frequently reported attacking T. absoluta in tomato greenhouses in Europe and they are considered as...

  5. Activités antimicrobiennes et insecticides de Thymus capitatus, Daucus crinitus et Tetraclinis articulata sur la mineuse Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) et la microflore pathogène de la tomate Lycopersicum esculentum

    BEN YAHIA, Née BOUAYAD ALAM SAMIRA

    2015-01-01

    Tuta (Meyrick)absoluta L3 L2 %80 . T. articulata T. capitatus L1 %100 5 % 100 T. capitatus 2 41 T. articulata 2μG/ml T. articulata D. crinitus Trichoderma sp., T. capitatus sp2 A. solani F.oxysporum Pinicillium sp1 F.oxysporum Abstract This study aims to propose alternative solutions based on the use of natural products "biopesticides" to fight against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) and other pathogens considered as serious threat for tomato pro...

  6. The expression profile of detoxifying enzyme of tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrik (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to chlorpyrifos

    Idin Zibaee; Ali Reza Bandani; Ghodratollah Sabahi

    2016-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrich) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide. The persistent use of organophosphate insecticide to control this pest has led to resistance. However, there is no report on the susceptibility and resistance mechanism of field population of Tuta absoluta (Meyrik) from Iran. Furthermore, the toxicity and impact of chlorpyrifos on metabolic enzymes in this pest remains unknown. The populations of T. absoluta from Rasht in I...

  7. Pheromone-based management strategies to control the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. A review

    Caparros Megido, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We here review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. After presenting the general principles of sex pheromone-based control strategies, we describe strategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection, population monitoring, mass annihilation and mating disruption techniques.

  8. Parasitism of Tuta absoluta in tomato plants by Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in response to host density and plant structures Parasitismo de Tuta absoluta por Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em resposta a densidade do hospedeiro e estruturas da planta

    Cristina Arantes Faria; Jorge Braz Torres; Adriana Maria Vieira Fernandes; Angela Maria Isidro Farias

    2008-01-01

    One important factor determining the efficacy of parasitoids is the way they exploit different host patch. This study evaluated the response of females of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to the oviposition sites of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on processing tomato plants. In fully developed caged tomato plants T. absoluta moths were released, followed by the release of T. pretiosum females 12h later. After 24h of parasitoid release, the moth...

  9. Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in tomato

    Elaine Ferrari de Brito; Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin; Roney de Carvalho Macedo Silva; Leandro do Prado Ribeiro; José Djair Vendramim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1), all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. me...

  10. Life Table Parameters of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Different Varieties of Tomato.

    Gharekhani, G H; Salek-Ebrahimi, H

    2014-10-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), a tomato leaf miner, is one of the destructive pests of tomatoes, which is native to South America, and has been considered as a quarantined pest for Iran since 2010 while it has quickly spread all around the country and is known as a key pest in tomato-cultured regions since 2012. In the current study, the life table parameters of T. absoluta were studied on cut leaves of three greenhouse cultivars of tomato including 'Atabay', 'Cluse', and 'Perenses'. Data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. Results showed differences in the duration of egg, larvae, pupae, and adults. Meanwhile, the life table parameters including intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and gross reproductive rate (GRR) were categorized increasingly based on the feeding on Cluse, Atabay, and Perenses, respectively. The findings of the current study showed that the Cluse could be nominated as an unsuitable host for tomato leaf miner among cultivars because of its negative influences on the pest's biological parameters. Moreover, these results may develop the finding and screening process of relatively resistant cultivars to be used in the management of T. absoluta. PMID:26309265

  11. Biology and developmental strategies of the Palaearctic parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the neotropical moth Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Siscaro, Gaetano; Zappalà, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    During the years after the invasion of Western Palaearctic tomato crops by the South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous generalist parasitoids have been recorded on this new host. Among these, Bracon nigricans Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region, and has been frequently recovered from South American tomato leafminer. However, most of the available data on this species deal with taxonomic aspects and its recovery in faunistic surveys. The current study documents the biology of B. nigricans on South American tomato leafminer, and provides a scientific basis for its inclusion in South American tomato leafminer management programs in Afro-Eurasia. We studied several B. nigricans life-history traits relevant to juvenile development and reproduction by females. B. nigricans proved to be an idiobiont and a synovigenic ectoparasitoid of mature South American tomato leafminer larvae. Several B. nigricans reproductive traits were influenced by the age of the mothers; on average, the progeny had a slightly male-biased sex ratio (60% males) and a low rate of successful development (37%). Adult females lived 42.8 d and produced an average of 29.8 offspring. These biological parameters yielded an intrinsic rate of increase of 0.052. Females showed behavioral plasticity in host use, as initial host paralysis was followed by host-feeding, oviposition, or host rejection, with a consequent high mortality rate among hosts exposed to parasitism. Although further field studies are needed, these data, obtained in laboratory conditions, suggest that B. nigricans should be considered as a potential biological control agent of in newly invaded areas of the Palaearctic region. PMID:24020276

  12. Identification and Risk Assessment for Worldwide Invasion and Spread of Tuta absoluta with a Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Phytosanitary Measures and Management

    Tonnang, Henri E. Z.; Mohamed, Samira F.; Khamis, Fathiya; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    To support management decisions, molecular characterization of data and geo-reference of incidence records of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were combined with data on the biology and ecology of the pest to estimate its climatic suitability and potential spread at regional and global scale. A CLIMEX model was developed and used for the global prediction of current and future climate-induced changes in the distributional shifts of T. absoluta. Results revealed that temperat...

  13. Parasitism of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) by Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Luna, María G; Sánchez, Norma E; Pereyra, Patricia C

    2007-08-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to measure selected life history traits and the functional response of the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck), a major enemy of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in tomato crops in South America. Newly mated P. dignus females were individually exposed to 10 host larvae in mines for 24 h. We determined developmental time from egg to pupal formation and pupal stage duration, female adult life span, fecundity, reproductive period, daily parasitism rate, and sex ratio of offspring. For the functional response experiment, treatments consisted of six host densities: 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, or 30 larvae. The number and proportion of parasitized hosts were calculated for each density. The shape of the functional response curve was analyzed by logistic regression. P. dignus females attacked hosts daily, exhibiting modest lifetime fecundity (approximately 32 parasitized hosts per female) and a female-biased offspring sex ratio. Female adult life span was 36 d. P. dignus showed a type I functional response within the range of host densities tested. We observed that females detect and parasitize the host within a wide range of densities, including low densities. The functional response curve reached an asymptote at a mean density of six hosts per day and seemed not to be egg-limited. Percent parasitism was approximately 30%. The ecological implications of the results in relation to the potential of P. dignus for the biological control of T. absoluta in tomato are discussed. PMID:17716480

  14. Efficacy of enthomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Contreras, J; Mendoza, J E; Martínez-Aguirre, M R; García-Vidal, L; Izquierdo, J; Bielza, P

    2014-02-01

    The tomato borer Tuta absoluta Meyrick is a serious tomato pest that has lately undergone a rapid expansion, causing severe crop losses. An integrated management is required to control this insect, within which biological control is now beginning to play a key role. In this regard, the effectiveness of a liquid formulation based on strains of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (4.46 x 10(9) viable conidia per milliliter), applied together with irrigation water, has been evaluated by laboratory tests on different populations of T. absoluta. A bioassay method has been developed to test the efficacy of the product. The technique chosen has been validated and the different studied populations have been typified according to their susceptibility, determining the baseline susceptibility of the pest to the fungus. The results revealed a complete efficacy of M. anisopliae against pupae of T. absoluta at the recommended label rate (5.58 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter) for the populations assayed. Moreover, a notably lower dose was also sufficiently effective to control the tomato borer populations because values of LC90 lower than 3 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter were obtained unfailingly. The most sensitive populations were those collected in Almeria and Nijar, Spain, with LC50 values of 0.21 and 0.22 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter(-1), respectively. The average value obtained for LC50 was 0.34 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter(-1) and 2 x 10(9) for LC90. These results show the potential of M. anisopliae to control pupae of the tomato borer in integrated pest management programs. PMID:24665693

  15. The winterflying adelid Nematopogon stenochlora (Meyrick, 1912) discovered in Spain (Lepidoptera, Adelidae)

    Karsholt, Ole; Kozlov, Mikhail V.

    2011-01-01

    Nematopogon stenochlora (Meyrick, 1912), described from Algeria, is for the first time reported from Europe. The specimens collected in the province of Malaga, Spain have the genitalia indistinguishable from the holotype of N. stenochlora, although externally they resemble N. dorsiguttella...

  16. Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in tomato

    Elaine Ferrari de Brito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1, all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. medium; however, no extracts reduced the weight of the surviving larvae. The extract from P. amalago var. medium at the concentration of 1,011 mg L-1 caused a significant lengthening of the larval and pupal stages. The ethanolic leaf extract of P. amalago var. medium is promising for the control of T. absoluta larvae in tomato, since it exhibits acute toxicity toward these caterpillars at the concentration of 2,000 mg L-1 and affects the insect's development by reducing its survival and lengthening the larval and pupal stages.

  17. A report on the occurrence of eulophid parasitoids on the Cashew Leaf Miner Acrocercops syngramma Meyrick (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae

    Kaliaperumal Vanitha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surveys were conducted from 2011 to 2015 in cashew plantations to document the parasitoids of cashew leaf miner. Three eulophid parasitoids, viz., Chrysocharis sp., Closterocerus sp. and Aprostocetus sp. were recorded for the first time as parasitoids on the larvae of Cashew Leaf Miner, Acrocercops syngramma Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae.  Among the parasitoids, Chrysocharis sp. was dominant recording 99.0 % abundance.  The parasitism of leaf miner larvae was observed from September onwards, which reached its peak during November coinciding with the population of leaf miner larvae.  Chrysocharis sp. was found to be a solitary parasitoid, completing its life cycle within the mine of leaf miner and emerging as an adult.  Parasitization was noticed only on the third and fourth instar leaf miner larvae but not on the first and second instar larvae. In cashew plantations, leaf miner parasitism ranged from 37 to 58% by Chrysocharis sp.  

  18. Chenopodium album L. : Tuta absoluta Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)’nın yeni bir konukçusu

    ÖGÜR, Ekrem; ÜNLÜ, Levent; Karaca, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out on weeds which were grown in cultural areas to determine the secondary hosts of tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Povolny) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) that the pest can feed, develop and reproduce during the absence of tomato in Konya, Turkey in 2013. Typical feeding damages of tomato moth, conspicuous mines and galleries between leaf epidermal layers which contained black larval frass, were observed on the leaves of Chenopodium album L. (Common lamb’s quarters) (Chenopodiac...

  19. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    Juan F. Costa; Erick Yábar; Ernesto Gianoli

    2009-01-01

    El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm) y Quiquijana (3100 msnm). Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los...

  20. Efeito de dietas artificiais para a alimentação de adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em laboratório Effect of artificial diets for the adults of Bonagota cranaodes feeding (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in laboratory

    Fabiana Lazzerini da Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae submetidos a tratamentos com água, solução de mel a 10%, solução de mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja e sem alimento foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC transparente para avaliar a fecundidade, longevidade e viabilidade de ovos em laboratório a 25±1°C e 70±10% de UR. Maior longevidade de fêmeas e machos e número de ovos/fêmea foram obtidos nos substratos compostos de mel a 10% (17,75 dias, 17,35 dias e 14,07 ovos/postura e mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja (18,25 dias, 18,20 dias e 12,71 ovos/postura. A viabilidade dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. O substrato alimentar mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja, apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao substrato composto de apenas mel a 10% sobre a longevidade, fertilidade e viabilidade dos ovos. Entretanto, devido ao menor custo, a dieta a base de mel apresenta melhor potencial de utilização para manutenção da criação do inseto em laboratório.Adults of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae were maintained in cages of transparent PVC without food, with water, and fed with honey solution at 10% and with honey solution at 10% + 25% of beer only with water and without feeding to evaluate their fecundity, longevity and viability of eggs in growth to (25±1°C and 70±10% of RU. The longevity of females and males was longer and number of eggs/female were obtained in the mean substratum composed of honey at 10% (17,75 days, 17,35 days and 14,07 eggs/posture and honey at 10% + 25% of beer (18,25 days, 18,20 days and 12,71 eggs/posture. The viability of the eggs and the duration of the embryonic period was similar in all the treatments. The mean with honey at 10% + 25% of beer, presented effects similar to the mean composed with honey at 10% regarding to the longevity, fertility and viability of eggs of B. cranaodes. However, due to the lower cost, the diet based only in honey represents

  1. The expression profile of detoxifying enzyme of tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrik (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae to chlorpyrifos

    Idin Zibaee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrich (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide. The persistent use of organophosphate insecticide to control this pest has led to resistance. However, there is no report on the susceptibility and resistance mechanism of field population of Tuta absoluta (Meyrik from Iran. Furthermore, the toxicity and impact of chlorpyrifos on metabolic enzymes in this pest remains unknown. The populations of T. absoluta from Rasht in Iran displayed LC30; 4332, LC50; 5010 and LC90; 7027 μg larva-1 to chlorpyrifos. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos could be synergized more bydiethyl maleate (DEM and triphenylphosphate (TPP whereas the synergistic effect of piperonylbutoxide (PBO was not efficient as well as two other synergists. The synergistic effect ranged from 1.3 to 1.9-fold in 24 h and 1.2 to 1.5-fold in 48 h. The exposure with chlorpyrifos for 24 and 48 h significantly increased the activities of esterase and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, while there were no significant changes in glutathione-S-transferase. Field populations of T. absoluta from Iran displayed less susceptibility to chlorpyrifos and had a relatively high LC50 in compare to other previous studies. Esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase might be involved in the metabolism, and hence resistance to, chlorpyrifos in this pest.

  2. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Juan  F Costa; Walter Cosio; Maritza Cardenas; Erick Yábar; Ernesto Gianoli

    2009-01-01

    Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae), in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the capacity of E. me...

  3. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  4. Taxonomic study of the genus Promalactis Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Oecophoridae) from Hainan Island, China (II).

    Hu, Sha; Wang, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Ten species of the genus Promalactis Meyrick, 1908 are treated from Hainan Island, China. Eight species are described as new: P. falciprocessa sp. nov.; P. bilobulata sp. nov.; P. longivalvaris sp. nov.; P. pugnivalvata sp. nov.; P. termelliptica sp. nov.; P. gladiata sp. nov.; P. lucida sp. nov. and P. latitaeniata sp. nov.; the male of P. caperatiella Kim et Park, 2014 and the female of P. clavata Du, Li et Wang, 2011 are reported for the first time in science; and P. caperatiella Kim et Park, 2014 is newly recorded in China. Images of adults and genitalia are provided. PMID:27395739

  5. Control of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Open-Field Tomatoes by Indigenous Natural Enemies Occurring in Israel.

    Shaltiel-Harpaz, Liora; Gerling, Dan; Graph, Shaul; Kedoshim, Hendrika; Azolay, Lotem; Rozenberg, Tamir; Nachache, Yaakov; Steinberg, Shimon; Allouche, Arnon; Alon, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), had established in Israel by 2010, attacking both open-field tomatoes and greenhouse crops.We searched for its natural enemies in open-field tomatoes, and tried to determine their potential for controlling this pest. We surveyed the local natural enemies in open tomato fields and measured their impact on pest populations in an unsprayed field. We assessed the suppressive ability of the dominant hemipteran predator, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter, against T. absoluta under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the impact of its augmentation on T. absoluta control in open-field tomatoes. We found five natural enemy species:the predator, N. tenuis, two braconids, and two eulophids. Predation accounted for 64.5±9.2% (mean ± SE) of T. absoluta larval mortality, whereas parasitism accounted for 20.96±7.5%. Together, they eliminated the pest population at tomato harvest time. Under controlled conditions, predation by N. tenuis rose from 58 to 72% with increased density of T. absoluta, suggesting positive density dependence. The reduction of T. absoluta (83%) by N. tenuis was higher than that of Bemisia tabaci (32%), suggesting a preference of N. tenuis for T. absoluta. Augmentation of N.tenuis was as effective as conventional treatment insecticide treatment, and plant damage was low and did not seem to affect yield. Results indicate that reduced pesticide use enables indigenous natural enemies, particularly N.tenuis, to successfully control T. absoluta and prevent crop damage in open-field tomatoes. PMID:26567332

  6. Parasitismo sobre eurysacca melanocampta meyrick (lepidoptera: gelechiidae) en dos localidades de cusco, perú.

    Juan F. Costa; Yábar,Erick; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm) y Quiquijana (3100 msnm). Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de ...

  7. Biological aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificial diets with different protein sources

    Biology aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick fed on artificial diets with different protein sources were studied: D1-white bean, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2-common bean and yeast and D3-common bean, yeast and wheat germ, evaluating the duration and viability of all developmental stages (egg, larval, prepupa and pupa) and of the total cycle (egg-adult), sex ratio, pupa weight, fecundity, longevity and life table of fertility. Tests were conducted in the laboratory at 25 ± 1 deg C, 65 ±10% RH and 14h of photophase. Duration of the egg stage was 6.6 days on all diets. The longest duration of larval and prepupal stages on D1 and pupal stages on D2, resulting in a longer duration of the total cycle on these two diets (30,9 and 30,8 days). The total viability was higher than 62% on all diets, and there was no statistical difference among the treatments. The number of instars was four or five on all treatments. The lowest fecundity was observed in D1. Based on the fertility life table, D3 was the most suitable diet for rearing A. sphaleropa, due to the lowest development time (T), the highest finite increasing rate (l), and total viability exceeding 75%. (author)

  8. Capítulo V: evaluación de especies silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. como fuente de resistencia al insecto plaga Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick y su intento de transferencia a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de campo, se evaluaron 32 introducciones silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. y una de la especie cultivada, L. esculentum Mill, con el fin de determinar la resistencia a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. Se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. Como bordes se colocaron tres variedades comerciales susceptibles al insecto (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli Y Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" con el fin de tener una fuente de infestación natural y permanente del cogollero dentro del experimento. Se evaluaron los caracteres número de cogollos afectados, número de hojas dañadas, número de ampollas e intensidad de daño. Todas las introducciones de L. hirsutum y L. peruvianum fueron altamente resistentes. Las introducciones 1406 y 1407 de L. pimpinellifolium también fueron altamente resistentes. La introducción 1759 de L. esculentum y L. esculentum var. ceraciforme fueron muy susceptibles. Las introducciones de L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum no tuvieron dificultad para hibridarse con L. esculentum var. Tropic. El cruzamiento L. esculentum x L. peruvianum no presentó semilla híbrida y se requirió efectuar cultivo de embriones inmaduros, in vitro, utilizando el medio Murashige & Skoog pero sin lograrse resultados positivos.

    Thirty two (32 wild accessions of Lycopersicon sp. and one (1 cultivated accession of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill were evaluated to determinate the resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. The experiment was conducted with a complete random design and four repetitions. Three (3 susceptibles cultivated accessions of L. esculentum (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli and Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" were sowed to have natural infestation of S. absoluta. Damage intensity, number of buds damaged, number of leaves demaged and number of "blister" in the leaves were evaluated, All evaluated accessions of L. peruvianum showed heigh resistence. 1406 and 1407 accessions of L. pimpinellifolium

  9. Tuta absoluta (Povolny, 1994), an important agricultural pest in Malta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Dandria, David; Catania, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Tuta absoluta appeared for the first time in the Maltese Islands in April 2009. Details of the morphology and biology of this agricultural pest are provided. The damage caused on tomatoes and the possible impact on Maltese agriculture is discussed.

  10. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Efficacy of insecticides against the «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and their residual effects on the parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    María B. Riquelme Virgala; Eduardo N. Botto; César Lafalce

    2006-01-01

    La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los m...

  11. Domates güvesi (Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917), Lep.: Gelechiidae)'nde insektisit direncinin önlenmesi ve geciktirilmesi olanaklarının araştırılması

    Usluy, Melis

    2013-01-01

    Domates güvesi (Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917), Lep.: Gelechiidae) en önemli domates zararlılarından birisidir. Türkiye'ye zararlının ilk giriş yaptığı Urla ilçesinde ve yoğun domates üretimi yapılan Aydın ilinde % 50 - 100'e varan ürün kayıplarına neden olması nedeniyle, kimyasal mücadele uygulanmaktadır. Yoğun kimyasal kullanımı nedeniyle zararlının kullanılan insektisitlere karşı direnç oluşturduğu görülmüştür. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada Urla ve Aydın bölgelerinde Domates güvesinin insektisitl...

  12. Interrelated responses of tomato plants and the leaf miner Tuta absoluta to nitrogen supply.

    Larbat, R; Adamowicz, S; Robin, C; Han, P; Desneux, N; Le Bot, J

    2016-05-01

    Plant-insect interactions are strongly modified by environmental factors. This study evaluates the influence of nitrogen fertilisation on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Santa clara and the leafminer (Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Greenhouse-grown tomato plants were fed hydroponically on a complete nutrient solution containing either a high nitrogen concentration (HN) sustaining maximum growth or a low nitrogen concentration (LN) limiting plant growth. Insect-free plants were compared with plants attacked by T. absoluta. Seven and 14 days after artificial oviposition leading to efficacious hatching and larvae development, we measured total carbon, nitrogen and soluble protein as well as defence compounds (phenolics, glycoalkaloids, polyphenol oxidase activity) in the HN versus LN plants. Only in the HN treatment did T. absoluta infestation slightly impair leaf growth and induce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in the foliage. Neither the concentration of phenolic compounds and proteins nor the distribution of nitrogen within the plant was affected by T. absoluta infestation. In contrast, LN nutrition impaired T. absoluta-induced PPO activity. It decreased protein and total nitrogen concentration of plant organs and enhanced the accumulation of constitutive phenolics and tomatine. Moreover, LN nutrition impaired T. absoluta development by notably decreasing pupal weight and lengthening the development period from egg to adult. Adjusting the level of nitrogen nutrition may thus be a means of altering the life cycle of T. absoluta. This study provides a comprehensive dataset concerning interrelated responses of tomato plants and T. absoluta to nitrogen nutrition. PMID:26661406

  13. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Efficacy of insecticides against the «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and their residual effects on the parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    María B. Riquelme Virgala

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los mismos sobre Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja. Se registró la mortalidad de la polilla cada cuatro días, desde la aplicación hasta la emergencia de los adultos. El efecto sobre el parasitoide, se evaluó a través del número de huevos parasitados por hembra expuesta durante 48 horas a folíolos tratados, y su mortalidad luego de 1, 3, 7, 14 y 30 días de la pulverización. Todos los productos ocasionaron una mortalidad de T. absoluta mayor al 65% después de 12 días de aplicados. El Bt fue el único insecticida que no afectó la supervivencia y el parasitismo de T. bactrae . Estos resultados aportan información de interés para la selección de plaguicidas, a emplearse en programas de manejo integrado.The «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick is one of the key pests of tomato crops in Argentina. The compatible use of chemical and biological control is the main purpose of integrated pest management. Selective pesticides that can be successfully used to control pest without adverse side effects on natural enemies are highly required. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of control of T. absoluta and the residual effect on the oophagous parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja of the following insecticides: triflumuron, abamectin, chlorfenapyr, and an experimental strain of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Mortality of T. absoluta was evaluated every 4 days from pesticide spraying until adult emergency. The effect of pesticides on

  14. Ocorrência de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) em macieira Occurrence of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple tree

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro; Alexandre de Souza; Edson Luiz Belli; Ranyse Barbosa Querino da Silva; Roberto Antonio Zucchi

    2004-01-01

    A lagarta-enroladeira Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) é nativa da América do Sul, sendo importante praga em macieira no Brasil. O controle é realizado exclusivamente com inseticidas, e o controle biológico é pouco explorado, motivo pelo qual há necessidade de conhecer os inimigos naturais da lagarta-enroladeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de parasitóides de ovos de B. cranaodes. Os levantamentos foram realizados de janeiro de 2000 a novembro de 2001, coletando posturas ...

  15. Ocorrência de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em macieira Occurrence of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple tree

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-enroladeira Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick é nativa da América do Sul, sendo importante praga em macieira no Brasil. O controle é realizado exclusivamente com inseticidas, e o controle biológico é pouco explorado, motivo pelo qual há necessidade de conhecer os inimigos naturais da lagarta-enroladeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de parasitóides de ovos de B. cranaodes. Os levantamentos foram realizados de janeiro de 2000 a novembro de 2001, coletando posturas em folhas de macieiras, Hortência (Hydrangia macrophyla e Hera (Hedera sp., em Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina. No período, foram observadas 6,6% de posturas parasitadas, sendo que, destas, 22,3% dos ovos estavam parasitados. Os parasitóides foram identificados como Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. Este é o primeiro registro de ocorrência de T. pretiosum parasitando ovos de B. cranaodes em pomares comerciais de macieira no Brasil.Apple leaf roller, Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick is native from South America and it is one of the most important apple pests in Brazil. Its control is exclusively done by insectides and biological control isn't frequently applied. In this way is necessary to know the parasitoids associated with apple leaf roller. The objective of this study was to detect the parasitism occurrence on B. cranaodes eggs in the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil. From January 2000 to November 2001; 1,700 masses were collected on leaves of apple tree, Hydrangea macrophyla and Hedera sp. in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina State. During this period egg parasitism was registered in 6.6% of masses where 22.3% of the eggs suffered parasitism. The parasite identified was Trichogramma pretiosum. This is the first record of parasitizing of Trichogramma pretiosum in B. cranaodes eggs in commercial apple orchards in Brazil.

  16. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  17. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  18. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

    Morais, Helena C.; Mangabeira, Jacimary A. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Ecologia]. E-mail: morais@unb.br; Cabral, Berites C.; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: irdiniz@unb.br

    2007-11-15

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c{sup 2} = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c{sup 2} 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  19. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c2 = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c2 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  20. Identification and Risk Assessment for Worldwide Invasion and Spread of Tuta absoluta with a Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Phytosanitary Measures and Management.

    Henri E Z Tonnang

    Full Text Available To support management decisions, molecular characterization of data and geo-reference of incidence records of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae were combined with data on the biology and ecology of the pest to estimate its climatic suitability and potential spread at regional and global scale. A CLIMEX model was developed and used for the global prediction of current and future climate-induced changes in the distributional shifts of T. absoluta. Results revealed that temperature and moisture characterized T. absoluta population growth while the pest ability to survive the cold, hot, wet and dry stress conditions are the primary characteristics defining its range frontiers. Simulated irrigation also played an important role in the model optimization. Model predictions suggest that T. absoluta represents an important threat to Africa, Asia, Australia, Northern Europe, New Zealand, Russian Federation and the United States of America (USA. Under climate change context, future predictions on distribution of T. absoluta indicated that the invasive nature of this pest will result in significant crop losses in certain locations whereas some parts of Africa may witness diminution in ranges. The following scenarios may occur: 1 T. absoluta damage potential may upsurge moderately in areas of Africa where the pest currently exists; 2 a range diminution in temperate to Sahel region with moderate upsurge in damage potential; 3 a range expansion in tropical Africa with reasonable upsurge of damage potential. These possible outcomes could be explained by the fact that the continent is already warm, with the average temperature in majority of localities near the threshold temperatures for optimal development and survival of T. absoluta. Outputs from this study should be useful in helping decision-makers in their assessment of site-specific risks of invasion and spread of T. absoluta with a view to developing appropriate surveillance, phytosanitary

  1. Identification and Risk Assessment for Worldwide Invasion and Spread of Tuta absoluta with a Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Phytosanitary Measures and Management.

    Tonnang, Henri E Z; Mohamed, Samira A; Mohamed, Samira F; Khamis, Fathiya; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    To support management decisions, molecular characterization of data and geo-reference of incidence records of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were combined with data on the biology and ecology of the pest to estimate its climatic suitability and potential spread at regional and global scale. A CLIMEX model was developed and used for the global prediction of current and future climate-induced changes in the distributional shifts of T. absoluta. Results revealed that temperature and moisture characterized T. absoluta population growth while the pest ability to survive the cold, hot, wet and dry stress conditions are the primary characteristics defining its range frontiers. Simulated irrigation also played an important role in the model optimization. Model predictions suggest that T. absoluta represents an important threat to Africa, Asia, Australia, Northern Europe, New Zealand, Russian Federation and the United States of America (USA). Under climate change context, future predictions on distribution of T. absoluta indicated that the invasive nature of this pest will result in significant crop losses in certain locations whereas some parts of Africa may witness diminution in ranges. The following scenarios may occur: 1) T. absoluta damage potential may upsurge moderately in areas of Africa where the pest currently exists; 2) a range diminution in temperate to Sahel region with moderate upsurge in damage potential; 3) a range expansion in tropical Africa with reasonable upsurge of damage potential. These possible outcomes could be explained by the fact that the continent is already warm, with the average temperature in majority of localities near the threshold temperatures for optimal development and survival of T. absoluta. Outputs from this study should be useful in helping decision-makers in their assessment of site-specific risks of invasion and spread of T. absoluta with a view to developing appropriate surveillance, phytosanitary measures and

  2. [Population growth rate of the depredating Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and of the Tuta absoluta (Leptoptera: gelechiidae) in wintering place].

    Vivan, Lúcia M; Torres, Jorge B; Barros, Reginaldo; Veiga, Antônio F S L

    2002-03-01

    The fertility life table of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) preying either on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) caterpillars or on alternative prey Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) under greenhouse conditions (30 +/- 5 degrees C, 61 +/- 23% RH) were studied. The life table was also determined for the pest T. absoluta under the same conditions. The net reproductive rate (Ro) and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were higher 14.13 and 46.32 times for predators fed on T. molitor prey, however, the generation time (T) was similar between prey. The pest T. absoluta showed Ro and rm higher 2.15 and 32.10 times than those achieved for predators fed on this pest. However, females fed on a suitable prey T. molitor showed higher Ro and rm than those yielded for the pest. The survival curves were similar for P. nigrispinus females fed on both prey and classified as being type II by Weibull analysis. The results suggest that P. nigrispinus is able to maintain its population preying only on T. absoluta caterpillars; however, the life table parameters determined individually for both showed that the pest produces more generations per year and faster population natural growth than the predator. PMID:12298240

  3. Parasitism of Tuta absoluta in tomato plants by Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in response to host density and plant structures Parasitismo de Tuta absoluta por Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em resposta a densidade do hospedeiro e estruturas da planta

    Cristina Arantes Faria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available One important factor determining the efficacy of parasitoids is the way they exploit different host patch. This study evaluated the response of females of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae to the oviposition sites of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae on processing tomato plants. In fully developed caged tomato plants T. absoluta moths were released, followed by the release of T. pretiosum females 12h later. After 24h of parasitoid release, the moth oviposition sites were mapped according to the plant canopy, and levels of parasitism assessed. The parasitism rate varied from 1.5 to 28%. There was not influence of plant structures on parasitism, except for the absence of parasitism on the plant apex. Levels of both T. absoluta oviposition and parasitism by T. pretiosum were higher on the upper third of the plant, decreasing downward along the plant canopy.Um dos fatores que podem determinar a eficácia de parasitóides é como esses agentes de controle biológico exploram o habitat de seus hospedeiros. Este estudo avaliou a resposta de fêmeas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae à oviposição da praga Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em tomate industrial. Mariposas de T. absoluta foram liberadas em gaiolas contendo plantas de tomate e, após 12h, foi realizada a liberação de fêmeas de T. pretiosum. Após 24h da liberação do parasitóide, a oviposição da praga foi mapeada de acordo com as estruturas no dossel da planta de tomate e, posteriormente, foram determinados os níveis de parasitismo. O parasitismo de ovos da praga variou de 1,5 a 28%. Não houve influência significativa das estruturas da planta na taxa de parasitismo dos ovos da praga, exceto pela ausência de parasitismo na parte apical da planta. Ambos os níveis de oviposição de T. absoluta e parasitismo por T. pretiosum foram maiores no terço superior da planta de tomate.

  4. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  5. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on different phases of the evolutive cycle of pinworm - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera,Gelechiidae)

    The effects of different gamma radiation (Cobalt-60) doses on different phases of the evolutive cycle of Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) have been studied under laboratory conditions in the laboratory of Entomology of Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all the treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma beam-650 was used. The doses utilized ranged from of 0,0 (Control) to 3250 Gy with a dose rate of 1110 Gy/h. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions at 25± 2 deg C, 70 ± 5% of relative humidity and photo period of (12:12). It was verified that the lethal doses were: for eggs - 70 Gy; for larvae - 200 Gy e for pupae - 300 Gy. The sterilizing dose for adults from irradiated larvae was 45 Gy. The sterilizing dose for the crossing of irradiated female with normal males (FI X MN) was 100 Gy and for normal female with irradiated male (FN x MI) was 150 Gy, in the both crosses, doses refer to irradiation of pupae. The sterilizing dose for adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults, (FI x MN) and (FN x MI, were 150 and 200 Gy, respectively. The average longevity of adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults was 8,3 days. The immediate lethal dose for adults was 3250 Gy. (author)

  6. Determination of levels of damage caused by different densities of Tuta absoluta populations (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under greenhouse conditions

    Cely P. Liliana; Cantor Fernando; Rodríguez Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of infestations with Tuta absoluta on the growth and development of tomato plants under greenhouse conditions, six densities of the pest were evaluated (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 females/plant). A complet...

  7. Étude de l’efficacité de différentes souches de trichogrammes vis-à-vis de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) en serres expérimentales

    Legendre, Gaspar; Buradino, Maurane; Trottin, Yannie; Leyre, Jean-Michel; Baffert, Véronique; Colombel, Etty; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Le ravageur invasif de la tomate, Tuta absoluta, continue son expansion dans le bassin méditerranéen et entraîne des dégâts importants sur les cultures. Les méthodes de lutte biologique mises en place actuellement impliquent l’utilisation de l’auxiliaire exotique Trichogramma achaeae. La production de ce parasitoïde oophage est onéreuse. Des souches autochtones de trichogrammes ayant une efficacité comparable vis-à-vis de T. absoluta mais moins couteux à produire ont été recherchés. Des souch...

  8. Farklı Patates Çeşitleri Üzerindeki Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)'nın Yaşam Çizelgeleri

    TÜREN, Nur; Bülent YAŞAR

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted under laboratory conditions at 25±1 °C, % 65±5 relative humidity and 16:8 LD photoperiod. The developmental period, mortality rates and life tables of Tuta absoulta on the potato varieties of Alegria, Marabel, Marfona and Lady Olympia were studied Total developmental durations of the immature stages were 24.22, 21.00, 25.75 and 27.50 on the potato varieties of Alegria, Marabel, Marfona and Lady Olympia, respectively. Total mortality rates of the immature stages were 2...

  9. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on different phases of the evolutive cycle of pinworm - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera,Gelechiidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 nas diferentes fases do ciclo evolutivo da traca do tomateiro - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    Groppo, Gerson Antonio

    1996-10-01

    The effects of different gamma radiation (Cobalt-60) doses on different phases of the evolutive cycle of Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) have been studied under laboratory conditions in the laboratory of Entomology of Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all the treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma beam-650 was used. The doses utilized ranged from of 0,0 (Control) to 3250 Gy with a dose rate of 1110 Gy/h. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions at 25{+-} 2 deg C, 70 {+-} 5% of relative humidity and photo period of (12:12). It was verified that the lethal doses were: for eggs - 70 Gy; for larvae - 200 Gy e for pupae - 300 Gy. The sterilizing dose for adults from irradiated larvae was 45 Gy. The sterilizing dose for the crossing of irradiated female with normal males (FI X MN) was 100 Gy and for normal female with irradiated male (FN x MI) was 150 Gy, in the both crosses, doses refer to irradiation of pupae. The sterilizing dose for adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults, (FI x MN) and (FN x MI, were 150 and 200 Gy, respectively. The average longevity of adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults was 8,3 days. The immediate lethal dose for adults was 3250 Gy. (author)

  10. Padrão de oviposição e tabela de vida da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae Oviposition pattern and life table of South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A traça-do-tomateiro apresentou maior oviposição ao colonizar tomateiros cultivados em sistema convencional em relação ao orgânico em estudos prévios realizados no campo. Visando confirmar e entender o padrão observado no campo, aspectos bioecológicos como oviposição e mortalidade de imaturos foram comparados em condições semi-controladas de casa de vegetação com plantas cultivadas em vasos com solo proveniente do sistema orgânico e convencional. Adultos da traça-do-tomateiro foram liberados na casa de vegetação e após 24h, as plantas infestadas foram transferidas para outra casa de vegetação, para acompanhamento de coortes horizontais. Os ovos naturalmente depositados pela traça-do-tomateiro foram localizados na planta e demarcados. Em seguida, a folha foi ensacada. Diariamente as plantas foram observadas, registrando a fase de desenvolvimento do inseto e a ocorrência de morte, até que todos os insetos completassem seu ciclo de vida. A oviposição pela traça-do-tomateiro em plantas com solos oriundos do sistema convencional foi duas vezes maior do que em plantas com solos do sistema orgânico. A curva de sobrevivência da fase imatura e a tabela de vida da traça-do-tomateiro em casa de vegetação mostraram que a sobrevivência em plantas com solo orgânico e convencional não apresentaram diferenças. Assim as diferenças no comportamento de padrão de oviposição observadas a campo provavelmente não estão relacionadas com o desempenho da progênie e podem ser influenciado pelo ambiente proporcionado pelo sistema orgânico de produção.The tomato pinworm presented higher oviposition when colonizing tomato plants cropped in conventional system than in organic system, in previous field studies. Aiming to confirm and to understand the observed pattern in the field, bioecological processes, such as oviposition and mortality of immatures, were compared on ploted plants in soil from organic and conventional systems in semi-controlled conditions of greenhouse. Tomato pinworm adults were released in the greenhouse, the infested plants were transfered to another greenhouse after 24h, to track horizontal cohort. Naturally deposited eggs were located, marked and the leaf was caged. Each plant was observed daily and development stage or death was registered until all individuals completed the life cycle or died. Oviposition by tomato pinworm was 2-fold higher in plants growing in soil from conventional system than from organic system. The survivorship curve of immatures and life table in the greenhouse showed that there was no difference in organic and conventional plants. Thus, the difference in the oviposition pattern observed in the field is not related to the progeny performance and can be influenced by the environment of organic tomato crop system.

  11. Ação de produtos naturais sobre a sobrevivência de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e seletividade de inseticidas utilizados na produção orgânica de videira sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Action of natural products on the survival of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and selectivity of insecticides used in the organic production of vine on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, foi estudado o efeito de formulações comerciais de inseticidas, com ênfase para os produtos permitidos na produção orgânica (nim, piretro natural e extrato pirolenhoso para o controle de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e sua atuação sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, em laboratório. Os inseticidas Natuneem® (1500ppm de Azadirachta indica por litro e o extrato pirolenhoso (Biopirol 7 M®, nas dosagens de 250 e 500mL 100L-1, não foram eficientes no controle de A. sphaleropa quando aplicados sobre folhas de videira (Vitis sp. cultivar "Chardonnay", enquanto que o piretro natural (250 e 500mL 100L-1 resultou em mortalidade significativa de 77,65 e 85,88% dos insetos, respectivamente, 120 horas após a aplicação. O efeito secundário foi avaliado sobre adultos do parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum, seguindo a metodologia da International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC. Os inseticidas Natuneem® (500mL 100L-1, Biopirol 7 M® (500mL 100L-1 e Dipel DF® (100g 100L-1 foram inócuos (99% de redução no parasitismo, respectivamente, equivalendo-se ao efeito do fosforado Lebaycid 500® (100mL 100 L-1.This work was conducted to study the effect of commercial formulations of insecticides with emphasis on that allowed in the organic production (neem, natural piretro and pirolenhoso extract to control Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and their performance on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae adults. The insecticides Natuneem® (1500ppm of azadirachtin L-1 and the pirolenhoso extract (Biopirol 7 M® (250 and 500mL 100L-1 were not efficient in the control of A. sphaleropa when applied over grapevine leaves (Vitis sp. cultivate Chardonnay. Natural piretro (250 and 500mL 100L-1 resulted in a mortality of 77.65 and 85.88% of insects, respectively 120 hours

  12. Lepidoptera

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    , undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...... occurs as two distinct subspecies on Madeira Island and Deserta Grande, respectively. We also comment on taxonomic and nomenclatorial problems in a number of species and provide information on host plants in Madeira and other biological details. Index to Latin names of Lepidoptera and host plants are...

  13. Lepidoptera

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie;

    2012-01-01

    established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe...... for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries...

  14. Preparación sustentable y evaluación de actividad biológica de fenilpropanoides frente a la polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Pérez, María Emilia

    2016-01-01

    El uso masivo de plaguicidas sintéticos en la agricultura ha desencadenado una serie de problemáticas ambientales que comenzaron a visualizarse en la década de 1960 y se agudizaron posteriormente. Las intoxicaciones de los trabajadores agrícolas y de poblaciones asentadas en esas zonas, la presencia de residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos y su persistencia en el ambiente, la ruptura de los mecanismos de control biológico natural y el desarrollo de resistencia en las poblaciones de plagas ...

  15. Biological activity of three alkyl cinnamates on young larvae of Tuta absoluta.

    Perez, M E; Haramboure, M; Mirande, L; Romanelli, G P; Schneider, M I; Autino, J C

    2013-01-01

    The "tomato moth," Tuto absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a neotropical oligophagous insect considered a key pest of tomato crops. It was detected in Europe seven years ago and quickly spread to several regions of Asia and North Africa. In Argentina, its control is done by chemical pesticides mainly. The indiscriminate use of chemical broad spectrum pesticides have caused several problems in the control of this pest due to resistance mechanism involved to several insecticides including pyrethroids, organophosphates and biopesticides. In this context, the searching and evaluation of new compounds- compatible with integrated pest management programs- has become relevant. Within the phenylpropanoids, alkyl cinnamates, whether natural or synthetic, have been reported with biological activity: repellence, antifeedant and insecticide. Therefore, the cinnamates could be a valuable alternative to replace the conventional insecticides. The aim of this work was to study the antifeedant effect of three alkyl cinnamates (methyl, ethyl and propyl cinnamate) on the consumption rate patterns of second instar larvae of T. absoluta. A series of concentrations of each compound (100, 250 and 500 micrograms/milliliter) were prepared using acetone (analytical grade) - distilled water as solvent and a surfactant (Tween 80) was added to each solution to improve the wet of leaves. Tomato leaf disks of 2 cm diameter were treated by immersion in each solution during 15 seconds. Afterward, the treated discs were dried under fume hood and each disk was placed in a plastic capsule. A larva with 6-8 hours of starvation was added to each experimental unit. Each treatment was replicated between 24-30 times. The area consumed by each larva was measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours post-treatment. We also evaluated development time, weight of the pupa, adult emergence, fecundity and fertility as sublethal effects. The results were analyzed using ANOVA test. None of the compounds tested

  16. Prospects for the biological control of Tuta absoluta in tomatoes of the Mediterranean basin.

    Urbaneja, Alberto; González-Cabrera, Joel; Arnó, Judit; Gabarra, Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Since its detection in the Mediterranean basin at the end of 2006 and later in other European countries, the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), has become a serious threat to tomato crops. In newly infested areas, it is especially problematic during the first years of its presence. Nevertheless, after 2-3 years, the incidence of T. absoluta has become less severe in certain areas. There are several factors contributing to this decline, such as the increase in growers' knowledge of pest behaviour and biology and the correct application of integrated pest control strategies. The impact of opportunistic native natural enemies (fortuitous biological control) should be considered as one of the key factors in this decline. In this review, available information on indigenous natural enemies is updated, and the current pest management approaches used against T. absoluta are addressed. Finally, future scenarios for biological control of this pest are discussed. PMID:22730076

  17. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  18. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Mateus R Campos

    Full Text Available The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2 = 0.71. Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51 indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully

  19. Tuta absoluta: dinamica di popolazione, nemici naturali e prove di lotta in Sardegna

    Deliperi, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep.: Gelechiidae) in Sardinia infests tomato and other cultivated and spontaneous solanaceous plants. In the laboratory, larvae developed on tomato leafs forming only one mine. A relationship among the head capsule width, the larval length and the mine length on leaves was found for each of the four larval instars. The population dynamics was studied from October to June in a non-heated tomato greenhouse, where four generations of the insect pest were recorded. Femal...

  20. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Elsa Gilardón; Mariana Pocovi; Carmen Hernández; Ana Olsen

    2001-01-01

    Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silve...

  1. Frações de Trichilia pallens com atividade inseticida sobre Tuta absoluta Fractions of Trichilia pallens with insecticidal activity against Tuta absoluta

    Uemerson Silva da Cunha; José Djair Vendramim; Waldireny Caldas Rocha; Paulo César Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar frações de extratos aquosos e orgânicos da meliácea Trichilia pallens, com atividade inseticida sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Extratos aquosos liofilizados (EAL) a 3% de folhas e ramos de T. pallens foram ressuspendidos em água e aplicados sobre folíolos de tomateiro infestados com lagartas recém-eclodidas. Com base na mortalidade aos 5 e 10 dias após a infestação (dai), os EAL de folhas foram mais eficientes que os de ramos. ...

  2. Estimativa de Trichogramma pretiosum para controle de Tuta absoluta em tomateiro estaqueado Estimate of Trichogramma pretiosum to control Tuta absoluta in stalked tomato

    Dirceu Pratissoli; Robson Thomaz Thuler; Gilberto Santos Andrade; Luiz Carlos Marozzi Zanotti; Alexandre Faria da Silva

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o número ideal de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a ser liberado em campo para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). O experimento foi implantado em casa de vegetação, onde, 60 dias após o transplantio, plantas de tomate foram infestadas com 200 ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), na proporção de 70% no terço superior das plantas, 24% no terço médio e 6% no terço inferior. Fêmeas de T. pretiosum foram liberadas na...

  3. Avaliação de volumes de calda proporcionados por diferentes pontas de pulverização no controle de Tuta absoluta (Meirick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em tomate rasteiro = Evaluation of diferent application volumes on the control of Tuta absoluta (Meirick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in tomato crop

    Cristina Abi Rached Iost

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle da traça-do-tomateiro em função dos volumes de aplicação. O levantamento da infestação da praga foi realizado avaliando-se o número de lagartas e de lesões com e sem lagarta viva e o número de ovos em folhas e frutos. Os tratamentos realizados foram o inseticida chlorfluazuron na dosagem de 80 mL p.c. 100 L-1, aplicado com as pontas: TJ6011002, TJ6011004, TX04VK e TX12VK cada uma utilizando, respectivamente, o volume de calda de: 200, 600, 200 e 600 L ha-1; e o pulverizador costal motorizado (100 L ha-1; todos com e sem o adjuvante polioxietileno alquil fenol éter (1 mL 10 L-1 de água e mais uma testemunha. Verificou-se que os tratamentos com e sem adjuvantes não diferiram entre si. Porém, houve diferença entre os volumes utilizados, sendo menor a ocorrência de lesões nas parcelas tratadas com o volume de 600 L ha-1. Houve também diferença em relação ao uso do adjuvante para o volume de 200 L ha-1, sendo que o número de ovos foi superior sem a sua utilização. Neste trabalho, foi observada a importância do monitoramento no controle de pragas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the control of Tuta absoluta with different application volumes in field tomato. The evaluation of pest level infestation was performed recording the number ofpinworms, lesions with or without live pinworms, and the number of eggs on tomato leaves and fruits. The treatments were: TJ6011002 (200 L ha-1, TJ6011004 (600 L ha-1, TX04VK (200 L ha-1, TX12VK (600 L ha-1 and a knapsack sprayer (100 L ha-1; they were all appliedwith and without adjuvant. A pest check without application was included. Chlorfluazuron was used at the dosage of 100 mL 100 L-1. No significative differences were observed among treatments with or without adjuvant and the check. However, significant differences wereobserved between nozzles. The lowest lesion incidence was observed in the treatment with nozzle TJ6011004 (600 L ha-1

  4. Reproductive Biology and Functional Response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a Natural Enemy of the Tomato Moth, Tuta absoluta

    Savino, Vivina; Carlos E. Coviella; Luna, María G.

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectopara...

  5. Frações de Trichilia pallens com atividade inseticida sobre Tuta absoluta Fractions of Trichilia pallens with insecticidal activity against Tuta absoluta

    Uemerson Silva da Cunha

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar frações de extratos aquosos e orgânicos da meliácea Trichilia pallens, com atividade inseticida sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. Extratos aquosos liofilizados (EAL a 3% de folhas e ramos de T. pallens foram ressuspendidos em água e aplicados sobre folíolos de tomateiro infestados com lagartas recém-eclodidas. Com base na mortalidade aos 5 e 10 dias após a infestação (dai, os EAL de folhas foram mais eficientes que os de ramos. Numa segunda etapa, foram obtidos, por maceração, extratos de folhas a 1%, em hexano (HEX, diclorometano (DIC e metanol (MET como descrito anteriormente, tendo-se incluído acetona e água como controles. Entre os extratos, o DIC foi o mais promissor como fonte de substâncias com atividade inseticida sobre lagartas de T. absoluta. Na seqüência, por meio de partição líquido-líquido do extrato DIC de folhas, obtiveram-se as frações em HEX, MET, acetato de etila (AET, n-butanol (NBU e aquosa (AQ. Destas frações, a AQ a 0,1% do extrato em DIC foi considerada a mais promissora como fonte de substâncias com atividade inseticida sobre T. absoluta.This work aimed at identifying fractions of aqueous and organic extracts of the meliaceous Trichilia pallens with insecticidal activity against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. Leaf and twig freeze-dried aqueous extracts (FDA of T. pallens were resuspended in water at a concentration of 3% and sprayed over tomato leaflets, which were infested with newly-hatched larvae. Larval mortality at 5 and 10 days after infestation (dai were higher for leaf extracts. In a second set of experiments, 1% leaf extracts were produced by maceration in hexane (HEX, dichloromethane (DIC and methanol (MET, and tested as described before, using acetone and water as controls. DIC extracts were the most promising as a source of substances with insecticidal activity against T. absoluta larvae, and were further

  6. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta Role of 2-tridecanone and type VI glandular trichome on tomato resistance to Tuta absoluta

    Elsa Gilardón; Mariana Pocovi; Carmen Hernández; Graciela Collavino; Ana Olsen

    2001-01-01

    O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), na linhage...

  7. Parasitismo de ovos de tuta absoluta por Trichogramma pretiosum em diferentes genótipos de tomateiro Egg parasitism of tuta absoluta by Trichogramma pretiosum in different genotypes of tomato

    RITA DE CÁSSIA RODRIGUES GONÇALVES-GERVÁSIO; AMÉRICO IORIO CIOCIOLA; LENIRA VIANA COSTA SANTA-CECÍLIA; WILSON ROBERTO MALUF

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do teor de 2-tridecanona (2-TD) em três genótipos de tomateiro (TOM-556, HI-1 e PI 134417) no parasitismo de ovos de Tuta absoluta Meyrick, 1917 por Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879. Instalaram-se dois experimentos para verificar o parasitismo em plantas isoladas e em conjunto. A porcentagem de parasitismo em TOM-556 foi significativamente superior à verificada em HI-1 e PI 134417. Observou-se maior número de ovos parasitados quando contido...

  8. Attraction and oviposition of Tuta absoluta females in response to tomato leaf volatiles.

    Proffit, Magali; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Reis, Ronaldo; Witzgall, Peter; Lima, Eraldo

    2011-06-01

    The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a devastating pest of cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum throughout South and Central America and Europe. We aimed to characterize the behavioral mechanisms and the chemical cues involved in host selection of T. absoluta females by chemical analysis of tomato leaf volatiles, wind tunnel attraction assays, and oviposition bioassays. Tomato leaf odor elicited in mated females upwind orientation flight followed by landing as well as egg-laying, demonstrating the essential role of plant volatiles in T. absoluta host-finding behavior. In wind tunnel and oviposition choice experiments, T. absoluta females significantly preferred tomato S. lycopersicum over wild tomato Solanum habrochaites, which is resistant to larval feeding. This indicates that leaf volatiles provide information on the suitability of plants as larval hosts. Mated females also discriminated three cultivars of S. lycopersicum according to their volatile profiles. Headspace collections from leaves of these three cultivars contained large amounts of β-phellandrene, followed by limonene, 2-carene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene, which together accounted for more than 70% of tomato foliage headspace. Most leaf volatiles were released by all three cultivars, but they showed significant differences with respect to the presence of a few minor compounds and blend proportion. This is an initial study of the volatile signatures that mediate attraction and oviposition of tomato leafminer T. absoluta in response to its main host, tomato. PMID:21559877

  9. Nitrogen and water availability to tomato plants triggers bottom-up effects on the leafminer Tuta absoluta

    Peng Han; Anne-Violette Lavoir; Jacques Le Bot; Edwige Amiens-Desneux; Nicolas Desneux

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of various levels of nitrogen inputs (optimal, insufficient and excessive) and water inputs (optimal, low drought and high drought) to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) on survival and development of an invasive tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth i.e. plant height and the number of nodes declined under insufficient or excessive nitrogen treatment. Compared to optimal N, insufficient N treatment decreased leaf N...

  10. Fatores de mortalidade na fase de ovo de Tuta absoluta em sistemas de produção orgânica e convencional de tomate.

    Maria Alice de Medeiros; Edison Ryoiti Sujii; Helena Castanheira de Morais

    2011-01-01

    A traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep.: Gelechiidae) está sujeita a fatores de mortalidade bióticos como predadores e parasitoides e fatores abióticos como água da irrigação e da chuva que influenciam sua dinâmica populacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a importância desses fatores na sobrevivência de ovos da traça-do-tomateiro. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Embrapa Hortaliças, de 1/8/2004 a 7/11/2005, em plantio de tomate e tomate consorciado em sistema o...

  11. Biología reproductiva del ectoparasitoide Dineulophus phthorimaeae De Santis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) y su interacción con el endoparasitoide Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) : Implicancias para el control biológico de la polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Savino, Vivina

    2014-01-01

    El control biológico consiste en la utilización de una o varias especies de enemigos naturales para reducir la densidad poblacional de una plaga. Estos enemigos naturales o agentes de control biológico pueden ser manipulados, ya sea introduciéndolos, aumentando su número, o conservándolos en el agroecosistema. Los insectos parasitoides, en especial los pertenecientes al orden Hymenoptera, son considerados importantes agentes de control biológico por su ubicuidad, eficiencia de búsqueda y ata...

  12. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  13. Estimativa de Trichogramma pretiosum para controle de Tuta absoluta em tomateiro estaqueado Estimate of Trichogramma pretiosum to control Tuta absoluta in stalked tomato

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o número ideal de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a ser liberado em campo para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O experimento foi implantado em casa de vegetação, onde, 60 dias após o transplantio, plantas de tomate foram infestadas com 200 ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, na proporção de 70% no terço superior das plantas, 24% no terço médio e 6% no terço inferior. Fêmeas de T. pretiosum foram liberadas nas proporções de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 32 parasitóides por ovo do hospedeiro. Independentemente do terço da planta analisado, a proporção de 16 parasitóides por ovo apresentou os melhores resultados. Esta é a proporção mais próxima da ideal, para liberação em plantios comerciais de tomate estaqueado, visando o controle da traça-do-tomateiro.The objective of this work was to estimate the ideal number of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to be released in field for the tomato leafminer control Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in which tomato plants with 60 days, after the transplantation, were infested with 200 eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, an alternative host, in the subsequent ratios: 70% of eggs were put on the top of the plants, 24% on the medium height and 6% on the very bottom of the plants. Females of T. pretiosum were released following the ratios of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 parasitoids per host egg. Independently of the three distinct plant parts (top, medium or bottom, the ratio of 16 parasitoids per host egg delivered the best results. This ratio value was closer to the ideal number for field releasing in commercial crop production of stalked tomato, aiming the tomato leafminer control.

  14. Parasitismo de ovos de tuta absoluta por Trichogramma pretiosum em diferentes genótipos de tomateiro

    GONÇALVES-GERVÁSIO RITA DE CÁSSIA RODRIGUES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do teor de 2-tridecanona (2-TD em três genótipos de tomateiro (TOM-556, HI-1 e PI 134417 no parasitismo de ovos de Tuta absoluta Meyrick, 1917 por Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879. Instalaram-se dois experimentos para verificar o parasitismo em plantas isoladas e em conjunto. A porcentagem de parasitismo em TOM-556 foi significativamente superior à verificada em HI-1 e PI 134417. Observou-se maior número de ovos parasitados quando contidos em plantas individualizadas. Supõe-se que a presença num mesmo ambiente de plantas com diferentes teores do aleloquímico possa ter influenciado o comportamento parasítico de T. pretiosum.

  15. Reproductive biology and functional response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a natural enemy of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta.

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E; Luna, María G

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2-15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

  16. Grote vraag naar lokstof Tuta absoluta

    Griepink, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    Pherobank van Wageningen UR draait overuren door de Tuta absoluta. De mot die in het Middellandse Zeegebied een sterk groeiend probleem is in de tomatenteelt, werd dit jaar voor het eerst ook in Nederland gevonden. Pherobank levert lokstoffen die in Spanje en andere landen worden gebruikt om de mot te bestrijden

  17. Ultrastructure of Tuta absoluta parasitized eggs and the reproductive potential of females after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Pires, Laurici M; Marques, Edmilson J; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Teixeira, Alvaro A C; Alves, Luis C; Alves, E Sérgio B

    2009-02-01

    Among the microorganisms used in biological control, the muscadine fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. is produced and formulated world wide aiming to control pests from several agricultural crops. This work evaluated effects of M. anisopliae isolate UFRPE-6 on the fecundity and mortality of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) females and the mechanism of infection on eggs. The infection of the females by the fungus did not affect their oviposition and fecundity; however it affected the survival with total and confirmed mortality of 54.2% and 37.14%, respectively. The eggs were treated with suspension at concentration of 10(6)conidia/mL. The analysis under scanning electron microscopy showed that conidia germination and penetration processes in the eggs of T. absoluta started within the period of 6h after the inoculation. Several hyphal bodies were observed from 12h and an intense extrusion of the mycelium covering all the external surface of the eggs 72h after inoculation. Despite its moderate activity in adults, the isolate URPE-6 of M. anisopliae showed promising in the control of T. absoluta due to its pathogenicity and virulence to eggs from this pest. PMID:18789707

  18. Ecotoxicity of insecticides of frequent use in tomatoes on Trichogramma achaeae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Saelices Martínez, Rosa Mª; López, A.; Amor Parrilla, Fermín; Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Fernández Gallego, Mª del Mar; Garzón Hidalgo, Agustín; Morales, Ignacio; Velázquez Cruz, Eduardo Javier; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Adán del Río, Ángeles; Estal Padillo, Pedro Del; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Budia Marigil, Maria Flor

    2013-01-01

    Since Tuta absoluta(Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was detected in 2006 as a new pest in tomato crops in Spain, several natural enemies have been reported tocontrol this pest. In biological control programs, the native parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja&Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is used against T.absoluta. However, the most common control practice is based on use of pesticides,and in the frame of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, the knowledge on the acti...

  19. POBREZA ABSOLUTA Y RELATIVA EN BOLIVIA

    Rodrigo Julian Mogrovejo Monasterios

    2010-01-01

    El carácter multidimensional de la pobreza obliga a estudiar no sólo un tipo de ella, sino una variedad de pobrezas. Por lo tanto, en el presente artículo estudiaremos la incidencia de la pobreza en Bolivia en sus dos concepciones teóricas, la absoluta y la relativa. En cuanto a la primera, se hace referencia a la pobreza de ingresos y a las necesidades básicas insatisfechas que padece la población, y respecto a la segunda, o pobreza relativa, se describe la pobreza más allá de su pobreza de ...

  20. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects.

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-Yan; Niu, Chang-Ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment "optimal water-high salinity" increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water. PMID:27619473

  1. Maatregelen bij mogelijke vestiging van tomatenmineermot Tuta absoluta

    Linden, van der, E.H.; Staaij, van der, M.

    2010-01-01

    Het optreden van Tuta absoluta kan worden vastgesteld door middel van feromoonvallen. Het is minstens zo belangrijk om gewaswaarnemingen te doen. De jonge mijnen onderscheiden zich niet eenvoudig van mijnen van mineervliegen. In oudere mijnen is duidelijk plaatselijke ophoping van uitwerpselen te zien. In mijnen van mineervliegen is dat alleen een onderbroken zwarte streep. Rupsen van Tuta absoluta kunnen worden bestreden met abametine (Vertimec) en spinosad (Tracer). Bij aanvang van de teelt...

  2. A Guerra Absoluta de Clausewitz nas Invasões Francesas

    Gonçalves, Flávio, 1929-1988

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho, intitulado: “A Guerra Absoluta de Clausewitz nas Invasões Francesas”, tem como principal objetivo identificar os aspetos do conceito de Guerra Absoluta de Clausewitz que ocorreram durante o período das Invasões Francesas. Pretende-se esclarecer a importância do povo durante o período das Invasões Francesas, facto que deve ser de conhecimento público, de modo que exibam orgulho e tenham perfeita noção daquil...

  3. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta

    Gilardón Elsa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., na linhagem resistente PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum e em suas progênies F1 e F2. Foram avaliadas ainda as possíveis associações entre a concentração de 2-tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro. O grau médio de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro em 'Uco Plata' foi significativamente superior ao obtido em PI 134417. Ainda que a concentração de 2-tridecanona tenha sido significativamente superior no parental resistente, a presença deste metabólito somente explicaria parcialmente a resistência (R² = 8,17%. Não se detectaram diferenças significativas na densidade de tricomas tipo VI entre o parental suscetível e o resistente. Este comportamento ocorreu independentemente do conteúdo de 2-tridecanona e do grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro.

  4. Chlorantraniliprole/lambda-cyhalothrin, a new insecticide mixture to control Tuta absoluta and Spodoptera littoralis in tomato.

    Fanigliulo, A; Mancino, O; Fanti, P; Crescenzi, A

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed in the period May-July 2011 by Bioagritest test facility according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), in the land of Eboli (SA), southern Italy, with the purpose to test a new insecticide mixture in the defense strategies of processing tomato against Tuta absoluta and Spodoptera littoralis. The insecticide mixture Chlorantraniliprole 100 g/lambda-Cyhalothrin 50 g/l 0,4 It/ha was applied in a tomato field in four (A-B-C-D) application timings (a.t.) alone (treatment 2) and in two a.t. (A-B) combined with emamectin benzoate 0.5%, 1,5 Kg/ha (a.t. C-D) (treatment 3). Its effect in containing insect populations was compared with that exerted by emamectin benzoate 0.5%, 1,5 Kg/ha (a.t. A-B-C-D) (treatment 4) and the combination of chlorantraniliprole 35%, 0.115 Kg/ha (a.t. A-B) and indoxacarb 30% 0.125 Kg/ha (a.t. C-D) (treatment 5). Application of treatments (trt.) and mode of assessment (2 assessments), recording and measurements followed the guidelines foreseen by EPPO Standards PP1/150 and PP1/275. The lepidoptera infestation in the tomato crop was very high on both the leaves and fruits, and this enabled us to evaluate the efficacy of the tested products in conditions of severe pests infestation. If we consider the leaf damage, either as number of mines by T. absoluta or as % of leaf erosion by S. litteralis, all the treatments values were statistically lower than control, but with no difference among them. But when using as an infestation threshold the percentage of damaged fruits (much more relevant in economic terms), we observed statistically significant differences among treatments. Actually, treatment with chlorantraniliprole-lambda-cyhalothrin mixture was significantly more effective than the one with emamectin benzoate in reducing the attack of T. absoluta on tomato fruits, in both dates of assessments. As concerns damage by S. littoralis on the fruits, at the first assessment, trt. 2 and trt. 5

  5. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.;

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as...

  6. Sex Pheromone of Tomato Pest .I.Scrobipalpuloides absoluta./I. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Svatoš, Aleš; Attygalle, A. B.; Jham, G. N.; Frighetto, R. T. S.; Vilela, E. F.; Šaman, David; Meinwald, J.

    1996-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (1996), s. 787-800. ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/93/0102 Grant ostatní: US- Latin America Cooperative Science Program(BR) NSF-INT-9202380 Impact factor: 1.273, year: 1996

  7. Acylsugars in tomato leaflets confer resistance to the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta Meyr

    Resende Juliano Tadeu Vilela; Maluf Wilson Roberto; Faria Marcos Ventura; Pfann Alessandra Zawadzki; Nascimento Ildon Rodrigues do

    2006-01-01

    Acylsugars present in the accession 'LA716' of Lycopersicon pennellii play an important role in the resistance to Tuta absoluta. This paper investigates the possible association between the resistance to T. absoluta and the acylsugar contents in F2 and F2BC1 tomato plants derived from the interspecific crossing between L. esculentum 'TOM-584' and L. pennellii 'LA716'. From the F2 population, four high acylsugars and one low acylsugars plants were selected and tested for Tuta absoluta resistan...

  8. An integrative study of Necremnus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with invasive pests in Europe and North America: taxonomic and ecological implications

    Gebiola, Marco; Bernardo,Umberto; Ribes, Antoni; Gibson, Gary A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The species of Necremnus attacking two invasive pests of tomato and canola in Europe and North America, respectively, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been revised using an integrative taxonomy approach. Molecular data from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I and the nuclear D2 expansion region of the 28S ribosomal subunit and internal transcribed spacer 2, the discovery of new morphologica...

  9. Desarrollo biológico e instalación del mírido depredador Nesidiocoris tenuis en el cultivo del tomate con quistes desencapsulados de Artemia sp. como alimento alternativo

    ALONSO VALIENTE, MIQUEL

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) caused great damage in tomato crops during the first years after its introduction in 2006. After several years using insecticides, its integrated management was improved via the use of the predatory mirid Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae). N. tenuis is currently used in southeastern Spanish greenhouses. This predator is reared by several companies using the eggs of the mill moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) ...

  10. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed. PMID:18767741

  11. GENUS EI:IOTIS MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: OECOPHORIDAE) NEW FOR CHINA

    Shu-xiaWang

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the genus Erotis Meyrick for the first time from China. Two new species Erotis expansa sp. nov. and Erotis punctalosa sp. nov. are described. E. expansa sp. nov. is related to E. phosphora Meyrick both in appearance and in the male genitalia, but can be differentiated from the latter by uncus broader and slightly concave at middle of caudal margin, gnathos nearly as long as uncus and valva with costa almost straight in the male genitalia. E. punctalosa resembles E. expansa sp. nov. externally, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by the female genitalia: eighth tergite caudally almost straight; two signa large thorn-like, basal plate irregularly triangular in shape, with fine spines along anterior margin. The photographs of the adults and the genital structures of the new species are provided. A key to all the known species of Erotis is given.

  12. Nitrogen and water availability to tomato plants triggers bottom-up effects on the leafminer Tuta absoluta.

    Han, Peng; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Le Bot, Jacques; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of various levels of nitrogen inputs (optimal, insufficient and excessive) and water inputs (optimal, low drought and high drought) to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) on survival and development of an invasive tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth i.e. plant height and the number of nodes declined under insufficient or excessive nitrogen treatment. Compared to optimal N, insufficient N treatment decreased leaf N content and increased the carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) whereas an excess of N had no effect on both leaf N content and leaf C/N ratio. Sub-optimal nitrogen supplies, water treatments and their interactions, significantly reduced the leafminer survival rate and slowed down its development. Together with the findings from three recent companion studies, we assumed that a combination of changes in nutritional value and chemical defense could explain these observed effects. Furthermore, our findings supported both the "Plant vigor hypothesis" and the "Nitrogen limitation hypothesis". PMID:24675796

  13. Identification of mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in the voltage-gated sodium channel of the tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta).

    Haddi, Khalid; Berger, Madeleine; Bielza, Pablo; Cifuentes, Dina; Field, Linda M; Gorman, Kevin; Rapisarda, Carmelo; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris

    2012-07-01

    The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera) is a significant pest of tomatoes that has undergone a rapid expansion in its range during the past six years and is now present across Europe, North Africa and parts of Asia. One of the main means of controlling this pest is through the use of chemical insecticides. In the current study insecticide bioassays were used to determine the susceptibility of five T. absoluta strains established from field collections from Europe and Brazil to pyrethroids. High levels of resistance to λ cyhalothrin and tau fluvalinate were observed in all five strains tested. To investigate whether pyrethroid resistance was mediated by mutation of the para-type sodium channel in T. absoluta the IIS4-IIS6 region of the para gene, which contains many of the mutation sites previously shown to confer knock down (kdr)-type resistance to pyrethroids across a range of different arthropod species, was cloned and sequenced. This revealed that three kdr/super-kdr-type mutations (M918T, T929I and L1014F), were present at high frequencies within all five resistant strains at known resistance 'hot-spots'. This is the first description of these mutations together in any insect population. High-throughput DNA-based diagnostic assays were developed and used to assess the prevalence of these mutations in 27 field strains from 12 countries. Overall mutant allele frequencies were high (L1014F 0.98, M918T 0.35, T929I 0.60) and remarkably no individual was observed that did not carry kdr in combination with either M918T or T929I. The presence of these mutations at high frequency in T. absoluta populations across much of its range suggests pyrethroids are likely to be ineffective for control and supports the idea that the rapid expansion of this species over the last six years may be in part mediated by the resistance of this pest to chemical insecticides. PMID:22504519

  14. Fatores de mortalidade na fase de ovo de Tuta absoluta em sistemas de produção orgânica e convencional de tomate

    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lep.: Gelechiidae está sujeita a fatores de mortalidade bióticos como predadores e parasitoides e fatores abióticos como água da irrigação e da chuva que influenciam sua dinâmica populacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a importância desses fatores na sobrevivência de ovos da traça-do-tomateiro. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Embrapa Hortaliças, de 1/8/2004 a 7/11/2005, em plantio de tomate e tomate consorciado em sistema orgânico e tomate em sistema convencional. As avaliações consistiram em: 1 coleta de ovos no campo em diferentes épocas do ciclo da cultura e sua incubação em laboratório até a emergência do parasitoide ou eclosão da lagarta; 2 exposição de ovos sentinelas no campo por 72 horas; 3 ovos marcados e acompanhados a cada 24 horas até eclosão das lagartas em campo. Ovos coletados no campo e incubados em laboratório mostraram que a mortalidade por Trichogramma sp. foi de 32%. A mortalidade dos ovos que permaneceram no campo (metodologia 2 e 3, evidenciaram que o parasitismo por Trichogramma sp. foi de 12% e que os predadores e o efeito mecânico da água produziram 36% de mortalidade dos ovos. Essa diferença revela que a permanência dos ovos no campo os expõe à competição com predadores e a mortalidade causada pelo efeito mecânico da água reduzindo o recrutamento de Trichogramma sp. Parasitoides de ovos, predadores generalistas associados à ação da água acarretaram maior mortalidade de T. absoluta em sistemas de produção orgânica de tomate.

  15. Métodos de valoración absoluta

    Fuentes Martín, Federico; Lozano Gutierrez, María del Carmen

    2003-01-01

    La aplicación de métodos de valoración absoluta y relativa (usados para las compañías tradicionales) a las empresas de Internet, se ha visto limitada básicamente por las peculiaridades de éstas empresas. En este sentido hay que considerar la ausencia de cash flow positivos y la incertidumbre de obtenerlos en un futuro inmediato, además de tener una historia muy limitada de tasas de descuento, sobre todo teniendo en cuenta que para estimar tasas de descuento apropiadas, generalm...

  16. El carácter contingente de la necesidad absoluta

    Guzmán, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Una de las más frecuentes críticas dirigidas contra Hegel es quesu sistema crea una totalidad finalizante que determina lo que es como absolutamente necesario. La Ciencia de la Lógica, siendo el edificio conceptual de dicho sistema, es el lugar más apropiado para determinar el significado específico de los conceptos utilizados por Hegel. A continuación se ofrece un análisis detallado del capítulo sobre realidad (Wirklichkeit), para mostrar cómo el concepto de necesidad absoluta no sólo incluy...

  17. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter;

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies of the...... Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna on...

  18. Plume moths of Malawi (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    Kovtunovich, V; Ustjuzhanin, P; Murphy, R

    2014-01-01

    A review of Pterophoridae of Malawi is presented; 96 species from 35 genera and five subfamilies are recorded. Fourteen species are described as new: Agdistis nyasa Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Platyptilia mugesse Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Stenoptilia juniper Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Sphenarches mulanje Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp.nov., Marasmarcha lamborni Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Arcoptilia malawica Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Apoxyptilus uzumarus Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Gypsochares murphy Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Crassuncus livingstoni Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Hellinsia namizimu Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Hellinsia сhewa Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Picardia leza Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Picardia raymondi Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov., Picardia tumbuka Kovtunovich & Ustjuzhanin sp. nov. New synonymies are established for 10 species: Deuterocopus deltoptilus Meyrick, 1930 = Deuterocopus socotranus Rebel, 1907 syn. nov.; Deuterocopus henrioti Bigot & Boireau, 2006 = Deuterocopus socotranus Rebel, 1907 syn. nov.; Platyptilia periacta Meyrick, 1910 = Platyptilia farfarella Zeller, 1867 syn. nov.; Platyptilia claripicta Fletcher, 1910 = Platyptilia farfarella Zeller, 1867 syn. nov.; Platyptilia pygmaeana Strand, 1913 = Sphenarches anisodactylus (Walker, 1864) syn. nov.; Exelastis bergeri Bigot, 1969 = Exelastis crudipennis (Meyrick, 1932) syn. nov.; Prichotilus tanzanicus Gielis, 2011 = Prichotilus tara Ustjuzhanin and Kovtunovich, 2011 syn. nov.; Crassuncus chappuisi Gibeaux, 1994 = Crassuncus ecstaticus (Meyrick, 1932) syn. nov.; Paulianilus lolibai Arenberger, 2011 = Hellinsia madecasseus (Bigot, 1964) syn. nov.; Pterophorus purus Meyrick, 1913 = Crassuncus pacifica (Meyrick, 1911) syn. nov. New combinations are established for six species: Marasmarcha bengtssoni (Gielis, 2009) comb. nov.; Marasmarcha locharcha (Meyrick, 1924) comb. nov.; Marasmarcha

  19. The Study Of The Insecticidal Effect Of Nigella Sativa Essential Oil Against Tuta Absoluta Larvae

    Benchouikh Adil; Allam Tarik; Abderrahim Kribii; Khadija Ounine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To contribute to the development of an integrated strategy of pests associated with the tomato crop the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Nigella sativa was evaluated on larvae of Tuta absoluta which is considered the most destructive insect in the production of tomato Solanum lycopersicum and which causes serious damages in invaded areas. Rearing larvae of Tuta absoluta and the testing of toxicity were conducted in laboratory conditions in petri dishes at a temperature ...

  20. Review of the Pterophoridae from New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera)

    Gielis, C.

    2003-01-01

    A review is given of the plume moths (Pterophoridae) from New Guinea with a checklist and notes on the known species. Newly recognized synonyms are: Deuterocopus torridus Meyrick, 1913, is a junior synonym of Deuterocopus planeta Meyrick, 1912; Platyptilia teleacma Meyrick, 1932, is a junior synonym

  1. Lepidoptera. Chapter 11

    Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna, in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries, Madeira and Azores 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. The route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confined to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks and gardens. We highlight four species in particular, Diaphania perspectalis, Cacyreus marshalli, Cameraria ohridella and Paysandisia archon, as the most important current economic threats.

  2. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant: Putative receptor diversity and histopathological effects on Tuta absoluta midgut.

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Boukedi, Hanen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Chaib, Ikbel; Laarif, Asma; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-11-01

    The use of biosurfactant in pest management has received much attention for the control of plant pathogens, but few studies reported their insecticidal activity. The present study describes the insecticidal activity of biosurfactant extracted from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain AG1. This strain produces a lipopeptide biosurfactant exhibiting an LC50 of about 180ng/cm(2) against Tuta absoluta larvae. Accordingly, the histopathologic effect of this biosurfactant on T. absoluta larvae showed serious damages of the midgut tissues including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. By PCR, we showed that this biosurfactant could be formed by several lipopeptides and polyketides including iturin, fengycin, surfactin, bacyllomicin, bacillaene, macrolactin and difficidin. Binding experiment revealed that it recognized five putative receptors located in the BBMV of T. absoluta with sizes of 68, 63, 44, 30 and 19kDa. Therefore, biosurfactant AG1 hold potential for use as an environmentally friendly agent to control the tomato leaf miner. PMID:26299754

  3. Acylsugars in tomato leaflets confer resistance to the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta Meyr

    Resende Juliano Tadeu Vilela de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acylsugars present in the accession 'LA716' of Lycopersicon pennellii play an important role in the resistance to Tuta absoluta. This paper investigates the possible association between the resistance to T. absoluta and the acylsugar contents in F2 and F2BC1 tomato plants derived from the interspecific crossing between L. esculentum 'TOM-584' and L. pennellii 'LA716'. From the F2 population, four high acylsugars and one low acylsugars plants were selected and tested for Tuta absoluta resistance along with parental lines TOM-584 and LA-716, and with the checks TOM-600 (high 2-tridecanone line with resistance to T. absoluta and TOM-556 (low acylsugar line. The genotypes were tested under natural field infestation and were evaluated for overall plant damage, leaflet lesion type and percent of attacked leaflet. Four plants from F2BC1 [=(Lycopersicon esculentum 'TOM-584' F2] were selected for high acylsugars and two for low acylsugars, and tested in greenhouse cages infested with T. absoluta. These genotypes were evaluated with the parental lines and the checks for oviposition ten days after infestation, and for leaflet lesion type and overall plant damage at four different dates. The F2 genotypes BPX-370Bpl#25, BPX-370Bpl#30 and BPX-370Bpl#79, the F2BC1 genotypes BPX-370B pl#30-380 and BPX-370B pl#30-271 and the wild accession LA716 had good levels of resistance to Tuta absoluta. The resistance level increased with longer exposition time to the acylsugars, both in the field and in the cage tests. Acylsugar contents seemed to be highly and negatively correlated with the traits related to the pinworm resistance.

  4. Onderzoek en praktijk nemen Tuta absoluta zeer serieus (interview met o.a. Pierre Ramakers)

    Staalduinen, van, J.; Ramakers, P.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    De mineermot Tuta absoluta bedreigt de tomatenteelt en moet met meerdere wapens worden bestreden. In Spanje verloopt de biologische bestrijding door de sluipwesp Trichogramma achaeae en de roofwants Nesidiocoris tenuis zeer succesvol. Voor laatstgenoemde is Macrolophus in Nederland een goede vervanger. Het onderzoek richt zich op selectieve insecticiden, op middelen met een repellent werking en op betere natuurlijke vijanden

  5. Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.

    Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella

    2012-12-01

    The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis. PMID:23356074

  6. Toxicity, activation process, and histopathological effect of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16 on Tuta absoluta.

    Sellami, Sameh; Cherif, Maroua; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2015-02-01

    Tuta absoluta is a destructive moth of Solanaceae plants and especially tomatoes. Here, we considered the entomopathogenic activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 protein heterologously produced by Escherichia coli against T. absoluta. Purified Vip3Aa16 showed lower lethal concentration 50 % against third instar larvae (Toxin/tomato leaf) (335 ± 17 ng/cm(2)) compared to that of B. thuringiensis kurstaki HD1 δ-endotoxins (955 ± 4 ng/cm(2)) (P absoluta larva midguts consisted on a microvillus damage and an epithelial cell rupture. PMID:25432339

  7. Status of pyrethroid resistance and mechanisms in Brazilian populations of Tuta absoluta.

    Silva, Wellington M; Berger, Madeleine; Bass, Chris; Balbino, Valdir Q; Amaral, Marcelo H P; Campos, Mateus R; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2015-07-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta, is a major pest of tomato crops worldwide. This study surveyed the resistance of T. absoluta populations from four regions in Brazil to pyrethroid insecticides, the frequencies of L1014F, T929I and M918T Na channel mutations, and the role of detoxification metabolism in the resistance. Resistance ratios varied from 1- to 11-times among populations and insecticides, but control failure likelihood assays showed that all pyrethroids assessed exhibited no efficacy at all (and thus, 98-100% control failure likelihood) against all T. absoluta populations. The activity of glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450-mediated N-demethylation in biochemical assays was significantly correlated with the level of resistance to deltamethrin and permethrin suggesting that these enzymes may play a role in resistance. TaqMan assays were used to screen for the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations and revealed that the L1014F kdr mutation was fixed in all populations and associated with two super-kdr mutations, M918T and particularly T929I, at high frequency. Altogether, results suggest that control failures are because of mutations in the domain II of the sodium channel, as a prevailing mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids in populations of T. absoluta in Brazil. But, enhanced cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and GST activities also play an important role in the resistance of some populations, which reinforce that pyrethroids must not be used overall to control T. absoluta. PMID:26071801

  8. Review of the Pterophoridae from New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera)

    Gielis, C.

    2003-01-01

    A review is given of the plume moths (Pterophoridae) from New Guinea with a checklist and notes on the known species. Newly recognized synonyms are: Deuterocopus torridus Meyrick, 1913, is a junior synonym of Deuterocopus planeta Meyrick, 1912; Platyptilia teleacma Meyrick, 1932, is a junior synonym of Lantanophaga pusillidactyla (Walker, 1864), and Aciptilia denticulata Yano, 1963, is a junior synonym of Pterophorus niveus (Snellen, 1903). Eight new species are described: Deuterocopus devosi...

  9. Onderzoek aan de tomatenmineermot Tuta absoluta in 2010: Testen van chemische middelen en inventarisatie van natuurlijke vijanden

    Linden, van der, E.H.; Staaij, van der, M.

    2011-01-01

    Referaat Er zijn ook in 2010 verschillende behandelingen met middelen uitgevoerd tegen de tomatenmineermot Tuta absoluta. Middelen met een snelle werking tegen rupsen zijn flubendiamide (Fame), abamectine (Vertimec), emamectin benzoaat (Proclaim) en spinosad (Tracer). Ook indoxacarb heeft een effect. De rupsen stoppen met eten, maar het duurt langere tijd voordat ze dood zijn. Buiten werden tomatenplanten belegd met eieren van Tuta absoluta bij het natuurgebied van Kinderdijk neergezet, met a...

  10. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramm...

  11. Pobreza relativa y absoluta : el caso de México (1992-2004)

    Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo defiende que aunque la noción de pobreza absoluta aún debe ser un ingrediente esencial en la evaluación de la calidad de vida de los países en desarrollo y en transición, es hora de que la pobreza relativa comience a ser sistemáticamente estimada para esos mismos países. Esta recomendación se aplica a México durante el período 1992-2004, cuando en 2000 el gobierno de Fox determinó oficialmente por primera vez una línea de pobreza absoluta. Como en el Segundo Programa Europeo de ...

  12. Biologie en bestrijding van tomatenmineermot: Tuta absoluta tast bladeren, stengels en vruchten aan

    Linden, van der, E.H.; Staaij, van der, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sinds de tomatenmineermot Tuta absoluta voor het eerst optrad in Spanje heeft de plaag zich in enkele jaren tijd over het hele Middellandse Zeegebied verspreid. In Nederland wordt het motje of de rups soms aangetroffen op tomaten uit Zuid-Europa die hier worden verpakt. Tot op heden is geen sprake van permanente vestiging op teeltbedrijven in Nederland. In dit artikel komt de biologie en bestrijding aan bod.

  13. Mise en place d'une protection biologique contre Tuta absoluta, ravageur envahissant de la tomate

    Buradino, Maurane; Tabone, Elisabeth; Colombel, Etty; Cordier, Juliette; Legendre, Gaspar; Desneux, Nicolas; Trottin, Yannie; Baffert, Véronique; Leyre, Jean-Michel; Seguret, Julien; Giraud, Marion; Lambion, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Amélie; Ginez, Anthony; Terrentroy, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Dans le cadre de la protection contre Tuta absoluta (projet TutaPI), nous présentons les principaux résultats obtenus. L’objectif est d’améliorer les moyens de biocontrôle actuellement commercialisés, par la recherche d’un nouvel auxiliaire endémique, afin d’augmenter l’efficacité et diminuer les coûts de la protection

  14. Resistencia a Tuta absoluta en una entrada de la especie silvestre de tomate Solanum pimpinellifolium

    Escobar, R.; Rodríguez López, M. J.; Alba Cano, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Fonseca, M.E.N.

    2010-01-01

    [EN]: We previously found resistance to pests (twospotted spider mite and whitefly) based on type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production in an accession of the wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium from the germplasm collection at the Experimental Station La Mayora – CSIC. Resistance to the South American tomato pinworm of that accession and plant materials derived from it was investigated in greenhouse conditions at CNPH (Brasilia, Brazil) and, when Tuta absoluta ...

  15. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain. PMID:25421627

  16. The Study Of The Insecticidal Effect Of Nigella Sativa Essential Oil Against Tuta Absoluta Larvae

    Benchouikh Adil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To contribute to the development of an integrated strategy of pests associated with the tomato crop the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Nigella sativa was evaluated on larvae of Tuta absoluta which is considered the most destructive insect in the production of tomato Solanum lycopersicum and which causes serious damages in invaded areas. Rearing larvae of Tuta absoluta and the testing of toxicity were conducted in laboratory conditions in petri dishes at a temperature of 262C with a relative humidity ranging from 60 to 70 and a photoperiod of 16 8. The method of Finney based on probits regression of mortalities according to the logarithms of essential oil doses allowed us to determine the LD50. The results of these tests showed that the essential oil of Nigella sativa has remarkable larvicidal properties. After four hours of exposure they induced 100 of mortality of larvae in the concentration of 0203amp956lcm. The measured LD50 indicated the value of 0105amp956lcm. Field trials are needed to confirm the practical relevance of these results in the development of a natural pesticide against the larvae of Tuta absoluta.

  17. Tracking sex chromosome evolution in Lepidoptera

    Marec, František; Vítková, Magda; Dalíková, Martina; Šíchová, J.; Sýkorová, M.; Nguyen, Petr; Sahara, K.; Traut, W.

    Kolympari, Crete : Orthodox Academy of Crete, 2009 - (Iatrou, K.; Gordon, K.). s. 24-24 [International Workshop on the Molecular Biology and Genetics of the Lepidoptera /8./. 23.08.2009-29.08.2009, Kolympari, Crete] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. 2-tridecanona y su asociación con la resistencia a la polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick) y a la arañuela roja (Tetranychus urticae Koch)

    Pocoví, Mariana; Gilardón, Elsa; Gorustovich, M.; Olsen, Ana; Gray, Liliana; Hernández, Carmen; Petrinich, Catalina; Collavino, Graciela

    1998-01-01

    La polilla del tomate y la arañuela roja constituyen dos plagas importantes del tomate cultivado (Lycopersicon esculentum ) en la Argentina. La accesión PI 134417 de Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum es resistente a ambos artrópodos. La resistencia de las especies silvestres de tomate fue asociada con la presencia de metabolitos secundarios como la 2-tridecanona, 2-undecanona, alfatomatina, etc. En el presente trabajo se cuantificó por colorimetría la concentración de 2-tridecanona y se eval...

  19. Four new species of Epicephala Meyrick, 1880 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae associated with two species of Glochidion (Phyllanthaceae from Hainan Island in China

    Houhun Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new Epicephala species that feed on the seeds of Glochidion sphaerogynum (Phyllanthaceae from Yinggeling Mountain Nature Reserves in Hainan Province of China are described: E. domina sp. n., E. impolliniferens sp. n., E. angustisaccula sp. n. and E. camurella sp. n. The latter two species are also associated with Glochidion wrightii. Photographs of adults and genital structures are provided.

  20. Four new species of Epicephala Meyrick, 1880 ( Lepidoptera , Gracillariidae ) associated with two species of Glochidion ( Phyllanthaceae ) from Hainan Island in China

    Houhun Li; Zhibo Wang; Bingbing Hu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new Epicephala species that feed on the seeds of Glochidion sphaerogynum ( Phyllanthaceae ) from Yinggeling Mountain Nature Reserves in Hainan Province of China are described: Epicephala domina sp. n., Epicephala impolliniferens sp. n., Epicephala angustisaccula sp. n. and Epicephala camurella sp. n. The latter two species are also associated with Glochidion wrightii . Photographs of adults and genital structures are provided.

  1. Hegel frente al dilema moderno, entre la libertad negativa y la libertad absoluta

    Pérez Rodríguez, Berta

    2000-01-01

    La filosofía de Hegel se puede entender como el resultado de su insatisfacción respecto a la forma de libertad realizada en la Modernidad que lo precede. El artículo estudia la crítica de Hegel a la concepción negativa de la libertad propia del contractualismo liberal, por una parte, y a la "libertad absoluta" como la libertad meramente positiva pensada por Rousseau, por otra. Desde aquí se defiende que Hegel logra desvelar una falla común a ambas posturas que determina la esencia misma de la...

  2. Estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e correlação entre componentes de resistência à traça-do-tomateiro em progênies de Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum f. glabratum

    Neves Leonarda G.; Leal Nilton R.; Rodrigues Rosana; Pereira Norma Eliane

    2003-01-01

    Avaliou-se o comportamento de cinco progênies F3 do cruzamento entre Lycopersicon esculentum cv. IPA-6 e L. hirsutum f. glabratum PI 134418, quanto ao ataque da traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), com base na determinação dos parâmetros genéticos e nas correlações entre componentes de resistência. Foi avaliada a área foliar danificada por T. absoluta, em cm²; o número de tricomas tipo VI, por mm², nas faces adaxial e abaxial; e o número de galerias por folí...

  3. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

  4. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    Anaïs Chailleux

    Full Text Available The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.

  5. Tuta absoluta: una nueva plaga para el cultivo del tomate en Europa (Sesión Técnia: Hortalizas)

    Stol, W.; Griepink, F.C.; Deventer, van P.

    2009-01-01

    Tuta absoluta es una polilla originaria de Chile cuyas larvas producen minas en las hojas de las plantas de tomate. En las últimas décadas de este insecto se ha extendido por gran parte del continente sudamericano. Después de su primera observación en Europa (España, Valencia) en 2007, esta polilla

  6. Investigation of larvae digestive β-glucosidase and proteases of the tomato pest Tuta absoluta for inhibiting the insect development.

    Sellami, S; Jamoussi, K

    2016-06-01

    The tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta is one of the most devastating pests for tomato crops. Digestive proteases and β-glucosidase enzymes were investigated using general and specific substrates and inhibitors. Maximal β-glucosidase and proteolytic activities occurred at temperature and pH optima of 30 and 40°C, 5 and 10-11 unit of pH, respectively. Zymogram analysis showed the presence of distinguished β-glucosidase exhibiting a specific activity of about 183 ± 15 µmol min-1 mg-1. In vitro inhibition experiments suggested that serine proteases were the primary gut proteases. Gel based protease inhibition assays demonstrated that the 28 and 73 kDa proteases might be trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like enzymes, respectively. Overall gut trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities were evaluated to be about 27.2 ± 0.84 and 1.68 ± 0.03 µmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that T. absoluta gut serine proteases are responsible for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry insecticidal proteins proteolysis. Additionally, bioassays showed that T. absoluta larvae development was more affected by the β-glucosidases inhibitor (D-glucono-δ-lactone) than the serine proteases inhibitor (soybean trypsin inhibitor). These results are of basic interest since they present interesting data of β-glucosidases and gut serine proteases of T. absoluta larvae. PMID:26898349

  7. Seven species of Olethreutinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae new to Korea

    Jae-Cheon Sohn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Olethreutinae, namely, Bactra venosana (Zeller, Eudemis brevisetosa Oku, Gypsonoma dealbana (Frölich, Hedya iophaea (Meyrick, Lobesia takahirai Bae, Pammene nemorosa Kuznetsov, and Phaecadophora fimbrata Walsingham are reported from Korea for the first time. Photos of adult habitus and genitalia are provided if available.

  8. Metodologia para estudo do volume e densidade absoluta da placenta humana de termo

    Del Nero Ulisses

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar duas metodologias para o cálculo do volume placentário em gestações normais de termo: a do princípio de Arquimedes e a do volume do cilindro, para estimar a densidade absoluta da placenta. Definir a metodologia mais adequada para o cálculo do volume e densidade placentários, que se relacione com o peso e classificação do recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: foram estudadas 50 placentas provenientes de gestações de termo sem complicações e calculados o volume e a densidade absoluta placentários: a pelo princípio de Arquimedes e b na suposição de que a placenta seria uma secção de cilindro com duas alturas diferentes do bolo placentário: com a altura média e com a altura da média aritmética do centro e extremidades. As densidades absolutas placentárias foram calculadas pelo quociente entre o peso ao ar da placenta e os diferentes volumes. RESULTADOS: a maioria das gestantes eram multíparas, idade média de 25,4 anos, volume placentário médio entre 547,8 e 610 cmsuperscript three e densidade média entre 0,94 e 1,14 g/cmsuperscript three, dependendo da metodologia empregada. CONCLUSÕES: a metodologia mais adequada para estimar o volume placentário no termo foi a do princípio de Arquimedes, pela melhor correlação com o peso dos recém-nascidos, o índice placentário e a classificação do peso dos recém-nascidos em relação à idade gestacional.

  9. Diagnóstico de policitemia absoluta como posible causa de episodios convulsivos en un perro

    Sandra Acevedo T.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone el caso de un perro poodle de 3 años de edad, el cual hace un año comenzó a convulsionar esporádicamente, principalmente después de hacer ejercicio y en algunas ocasiones presentó temblor generalizado. Al examen clínico realizado se observó mucosas orales y oculares hiperémicas. Al realizar los exámenes paraclínicos complementarios se encontró en hemogramas seriados un aumento marcado del hematocrito y la hemoglobina con niveles de proteínas plasmáticas en rangos normales, y una eritropoyectina 10 veces por debajo del rango normal. Se realizó ecografía abdominal y evaluación cardiaca. El diagnóstico fue de policitemia absoluta como la causa de las convulsiones.

  10. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Regina da Silva Borba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4 de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%, no entanto, a viabilidade foi semelhante entre as linhagens estudadas, com ciclo evolutivo de 8,7 dias, longevidade de fêmeas de 10,65 dias, temperatura base de 11,35°C e constante térmica de 128,70GD. O número de gerações anuais dessa linhagem em laboratório foi de 47,22 e de 13,59 gerações para as condições da região de Vacaria - RS. O baixo parasitismo de T. bruni e da linhagem L4 de T. pretiosum pode estar ligado à camada de secreção existente sobre as posturas da praga. Embora este parasitismo seja considerado baixo, a utilização destas linhagens não pode ser descartada dentro do sistema de Produção Integrada da Maçã, devendo novos estudos serem realizados em condições de campo.This work was aimed at studyng the biology of Trichogramma in laboratory, in search of its use in integrated management programs to control Bonagota cranaodes in culture of the apple. The biology of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja and of two lineages (L3 and L4 of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of B. cranaodes was done such their thermal demands and annual number of generations. The line L3 presented more parasitism (52.3%, however, the feseability was similar among the lineages studied; with biological cycle of 8.7 days; the longevity of females was 10.65 days; low threshold temperature of 11.35°C and thermal requirement of 128.70 GD, the number of annual generations this line in laboratory was 47.22 and 13.59 for Vacaria-RS climate conditions. The low parasitism of the T. bruni and of the lineage L4 of T. pretiosum can be related to the layer of secretion presented on the laying of the pest. Although this parasitism is considered low, the use of these lineages cannot be discarded the Integrated Apple Production, systens. New studies shal be accomplished in field conditions.

  11. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Regina da Silva Borba; Mauro Silveira Garcia; Adalécio Kovaleski; Andressa Comiotto; Renata Loureiro Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4) de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%), no entan...

  12. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile

    Thomas Guillemaud; Aurélie Blin; Isabelle Le Goff; Nicolas Desneux; Maritza Reyes; Elisabeth Tabone; Anastasia Tsagkarakou; Laura Niño; Eric Lombaert

    2015-01-01

    The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evi...

  13. Short term non-chemical approach to Tuta absoluta and thrips : CATT shows promise against quarantine pests

    M. Arkesteijn; Y. Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Pests such as insects, mites and nematodes don’t just cause damage, in the case of quarantine pests they can also limit exports. In cooperation with the sector, entomologist Yutong Qiu tested the possibility of using Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) in the post harvest phase to control these pests in a non-chemical way. Within the short term this approach is expected to successfully control Tuta absoluta in tomatoes and thrips in chrysanthemums and peppers.

  14. Determination of Tuta absoluta pheromones in water and tomato samples by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    del Carmen Alcudia-León, María; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Tuta absoluta is a tomato pest which is originally from South America. This pest was detected in eastern Spain in 2006 and it rapidly invaded various European countries and spread throughout the Mediterranean basin. The usual detection of this pest is based on the physical evaluation of the crops and in the exhaustive count of potential insects in dedicated traps. The early detection of that pest on the basis of more objective or measurable indicators is desirable. In this case, the combination of headspace and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection is proposed for the identification of Tuta absoluta pest using two of its pheromone components as markers. These components, namely: (3E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate and (3E,8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate, are characteristic of Tuta absoluta and they are not present in other insect pheromones. The developed combination allows the determination of both components in water and tomato samples with limits of detection in the range from 25-32 ng/L to 89-111 ng/kg, respectively. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was better than 4.6% for water samples and better than 7.1% when tomato samples were analyzed. The relative recovery values varied in the interval 94-100 and 83-99% for water and tomato samples. PMID:24928116

  15. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J;

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  16. Initial studies of mating disruption of the tomato moth, .I.Tuta absoluta./I. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) using synthetic sex pheromone

    Filho, M. M.; Vilela, E. F.; Jham, G. N.; Attygalle, A. B.; Svatoš, Aleš; Meinwald, J.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2000), s. 621-628. ISSN 0103-5053 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/93/0102 Grant ostatní: NSF(BR) INT-9202380 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2000

  17. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  18. Living on the edge: interactions between Lepidoptera and parasites

    Hesketh, H.; Roy, H. E.; McCracken, M.; Pywell, R.F.; Hails, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation are key drivers associated with the recent decline of some Lepidoptera species. Insect pathogens also play a, currently undetermined, role. We report on a study assessing the prevalence of Lepidoptera pathogens (and parasitoids) across the UK and their interactions with habitat and climate change.

  19. Resistência por antibiose de Lycopersicon peruvianum à traça do tomateiro Antibiosis resistance of Lycopersicon peruvianum to tomato leafminer

    Fábio Akiyoshi Suinaga

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e objetivou estudar a resistência por antibiose do acesso CNPH 101 de Lycopersicon peruvianum a traça do tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae e as possíveis causas químicas desta resistência. Os tratamentos foram as espécies de tomateiro Lycopersicon esculentum (cvs. IPA-5 e Santa Clara: padrões de suscetibilidade e o acesso de L. peruvianum. As características avaliadas foram: mortalidade larval, peso de pupas e proporção sexual, duração das fases larval e pupal e números de ovos/fêmea de T. absoluta. Realizou-se extração hexânica nas folhas e os extratos obtidos foram submetidos a cromatografia gasosa associada a espectrômetro de massa. O acesso CNPH 101 de L. peruvianum apresentou resistência a T. absoluta afetando a mortalidade larval e duração da fase pupal. Duas substâncias (provavelmente o 4-metil-2,6-di-tert-butilfenol e outra com tempo de retenção 18,8 min. no cromatograma estiveram associadas ao fato de que L. esculentum é mais suscetível a T. absoluta do que L. peruvianum. Foram detectadas duas substâncias associadas a plantas da cultivar Santa Clara (provavelmente o transcarofileno e de L. peruvianum (provavelmente o hexadecano mais suscetíveis a T. absoluta. Foi detectada uma substância (com tempo de retenção 22,796 min. no cromatograma associada a plantas de L. peruvianum mais resistentes a T. absoluta.This work was carried out in a greenhouse in the Federal University of Viçosa, to evaluate the antibiosis of Lycopersicon peruvianum (CNPH 101 to tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and its possible chemical causes. The treatments were represented by the species of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum (cv. Santa Clara and IPA-5: susceptibility patterns to T. absoluta and the introduction CNPH 101 of L. peruvianum. The characteristics assessed were: larval mortality, pupal

  20. Efficiency and midgut histopathological effect of the newly isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KS δ-endotoxins on the emergent pest Tuta absoluta.

    Jamoussi, Kaïs; Sellami, Sameh; Nasfi, Zina; Krichen-Makni, Saloua; Tounsi, Slim

    2013-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Povolny, 1994) is a devastating moth to the Solanaceae plants. It is a challenging pest to control, especially on tomatoes. In this work, we studied the entomopathogenic activity of the Cry-forming δ-endotoxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis strain KS and B. thuringiensis kurstaki reference strain HD1 against T. absoluta. These strains carried the cry2, cry1Ab, cry1Aa / cry1Ac, and cry1I genes, and KS also carried a cry1C gene. The δ-endotoxins of KS were approximately twofold more toxic against the third instar larvae than those of HD1, as they showed lower 50% and 90% lethal concentrations (0.80 and 2.70 μg/cm² (δ-endotoxins/tomato leaf)) compared with those of HD1 (1.70 and 4.50 μg/cm²) (p absoluta control. PMID:23727813

  1. New source of genetic polymorphisms in Lepidoptera?

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Wink, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The variability level of the ISSR (inter-simple sequences repeat) primer (GACA)4 was examined in the three Lepidoptera families Pyralidae, Sphingidae and Pieridae. Our study shows that the tetra-repeat (GACA)n is evidently present in sufficient numbers in these butterflies to provide informative DNA fingerprints. The variability is mostly rather high, but within a comparable range to other ISSR studies. Although less polymorphisms may be encountered in some butterfly families, this study indicates that high variability of this marker may be a common characteristic of Lepidoptera genomes. An appeal for a minimal level of standardization of ISSR-PCR data analysis is formulated to enable an exact comparison between the groups of organisms studied with this fingerprint technique. PMID:16163839

  2. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  3. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Vladimir Lukhtanov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths, as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (synapomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819] and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959 levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution.

  4. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile.

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Blin, Aurélie; Le Goff, Isabelle; Desneux, Nicolas; Reyes, Maritza; Tabone, Elisabeth; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Niño, Laura; Lombaert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule. PMID:25667134

  5. Estudio sociofonético de los tonemas de las interrogativas absolutas en el castellano de Galicia

    Pérez Castillejo, Susana

    2012-01-01

    A partir de un corpus de interrogativas absolutas producidas por 24 hablantes, este trabajo analiza los efectos suprasegmentales del contacto entre castellano y gallego. Adoptando una metodología sociofonética y bajo el marco teórico del sistema métrico autosegmental, se examinan los tonemas interrogativos en función del contexto pragmático, formalidad de la tarea y la exposición al gallego de cada participante. Los resultados revelan variación estilística, indicativa de la estigmatización de...

  6. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  7. Saniba nom. nov. para Sabina Evans (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Saniba nom. nov. for Sabina Evans, 1955 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae. Sabina Evans, 1955 is preoccupied by Williams (1851 (Annelida, Polychaeta; a new replacement name is proposed: Saniba Mielke & Casagrande.

  8. FRAGMENT AGRICULTURAL PESTS OF SOME PARASITOIDS COLLECTED IN SOUTHERN GOIÁS AND SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Carlos H MARCHIORI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different parasitoids of some insect pests in southern Goiás and southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is reported in this article. The egg parasitoids obtained Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae were specimens of Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae, two specimens of Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae, 41 specimens Gryon gallardoi (Brethes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae and six specimens of Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae. The parasitoids obtained Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae were 03 specimens of Leptopilina boulardi Barbotin et al. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and 285 specimens of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae. The occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae were: 21 specimens of Bracon sp., (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, one specimen of Earinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and 13 specimens Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae. In Lonomia sp. were collected: 4 specimens of Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae and three specimens of Aprostocetus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae.

  9. Molecular Analysis of the Muscle Protein Projectin in Lepidoptera

    Ayme-Southgate, A. J.; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as w...

  10. Bioatividade de nanoformulações de nim sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Bioactivity of neem nanoformulations on tomato pinworm

    Fátima Teresinha Rampelotti Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas inseticidas é uma importante ferramenta para o manejo de insetos-praga. Visando ao controle de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, nanoformulações de nim foram avaliadas. Após a estimativa de uma CL50 para uma formulação de óleo comercial de nim, bioensaios de seleção foram realizados com 22 nanoformulações. Para isso, lagartas neonatas foram alimentadas sobre folíolos tratados com soluções das nanoformulações durante 10 dias. Com as duas nanoformulações mais promissoras, NC40 aquoso e NC40 pó (NC 40=nanocápsulas de Poli- β-hidroxibutirato, foi avaliado o efeito sobre o desenvolvimento e a longevidade do inseto. A CL50 para o óleo de nim foi estimada em 0,20% ou 1,31mgL-1 de azadiractina. As nanoformulações NC40 aquoso e NC40 pó afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto.The use of insecticide plants is an important tool in the management of insect pests. Aiming to control Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, neem nanoformulations were evaluated. After estimating the LC50 for a commercial neem oil formulation, selection bioassays were performed with 22 nanoformulations. In order to do that, newly emerged caterpillars were fed on leaflets treated with nanoformulation solutions for 10 days. The effect on the development and longevity of the insect was evaluated with the two most promising nanoformulations, aqueous NC40 and powdered NC40 (NC 40 = Poly-β-hydroxibutirate nanocapsules. The LC50 for neem oil was estimated in 0.20% or 1.31mgL-1 of azadiractin. The nanoformulations aqueous NC40 and powdered NC40 affected the insect development.