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Sample records for abruptio placentae

  1. Placenta abruptio

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000901.htm Placenta abruption - definition To use the sharing features on this page, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Perinatal outcome and near-miss morbidity between placenta previa versus abruptio placentae

    To compare perinatal outcome and near-miss morbidities between placenta previa versus abruptio placentae in patients of antepartum haemorrhage (APH). Patients with APH diagnosed as placenta previa and abruptio placentae who delivered after 24 weeks of regnancy were selected from labour room. Outcome measures were birth weight, neonatal intensive care admission, stillbirth, perinatal mortality rates, near-miss, surgical intensive care admission, postpartum haemorrhage, hysterectomy, massive transfusion, renal failure, coagulopathy and maternal death. Stillbirth was defined as a fetus weighing greater or equal to 500 gm showing no sign of life after birth. Near-miss was defined as severe organ dysfunction which if not treated appropriately, could result in death. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square was applied with significance level < 0.05. Stillbirths and perinatal mortality rates were significantly higher in abruptio placentae, 52.97% versus 18.18% and 534/1000 versus 230/1000 (p < 0.01). Near-miss cases were also significantly higher in abruptio placentae, 22.27%. Verus 11.18% (p < 0.01). Hypovolemic shock and coagulation failure were also significantly higher in abruptio placentae (p < 0.05). (author)

  3. MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE OUTCOME OF ABRUPTIO PLACENTA IN A TERTIARY REFERRAL CENTRE

    Vijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM To analyze the outcome of 135 patients admitted with Abruptio Placenta during a period of 9 months managed at Tertiary Referral Centre, Modern Govt. Maternity Hospital, Petalburz, Hyderabad, Telangana State. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study of 135 cases of Abruptio Placenta over a period of 9 months at a tertiary level referral centre. They were analyzed regarding age, parity, socio economic status, period of gestation, antenatal care, management of Abruption and maternal and fetal outcome, and the measures to improve the condition were analyzed. RESULTS Abruptio placenta is a dreadful threat to maternal and fetal life. In our study unbooked cases were 110(81.48%, Hypertension is the main risk factor almost in 90(66.66% cases, 65% of them were between 28-36 weeks of GA, and 6 were grandmultis, 6 cases ended up with HELLP syndrome with DIC. All these 6 cases were near misses, 5 unbooked cases had eclampsia. One case of unbooked eclampsia had abruption DIC and could not be saved as it was the late referral. Total number of vaginal deliveries were 66(48.88% and total no. of abdominal deliveries were 67(49.62% in this LSCS 66 and one hysterotomy. IUD at the time of admission total were 100(74%. CONCLUSION To improve the outcome in Abruptio Placentae Good antenatal care, Educating the patient, Strengthening the Primary Health Centers in identifying the risk factors like Pre-eclampsia thereby avoiding eclampsia. Regular antenatal checkups timely delivery and availability of blood and blood products with good Neonatal care unit will help in improving the outcome of Abruptio.

  4. Placenta abruptio

    Francois KE, Foley MR. Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 19.

  5. Cesárea prévia como fator de risco para o descolamento prematuro da placenta Previous cesarean section as a risk factor for abruptio placentae

    Fábio Roberto Cabar

    2004-10-01

    relationship between previous cesarean section and abruptio placentae. METHODS: a retrospective study reviewed 6495 deliveries between April 2001 and January 2004. The adopted inclusion criteria were: clinical diagnosis of abruptio placentae confirmed by placental examination after delivery, single pregnancy, birth weight >500 g, gestational age >22 weeks and no history of abdominal trauma. Five controls were selected for each abruptio placentae case and were matched for the following parameters: parity, gestational age ( 30 weeks, maternal arterial hypertension during pregnancy, presence of nonobstetrical uterine scar, premature rupture of membranes and polyhydramnios. Statistical analysis of continuous variables was perfomed by Student's t test. Statistical significance of the comparisons of categorical variables was evaluated by the chi2 test or by the Fisher exact test. p values <0.05 were considered to be significant. RESULTS: thirty-four cases of abruptio placentae were included (incidence 0.52%. The control group included 170 cases that fulfilled the matching criteria. The incidence of previous cesarean section in the abruptio placentae group was 26.5% (9 cases and in the control group it was 21.2% (36 cases. No significant difference was found between the groups (p=0.65, OR=1.34, CI 95%=0.53-3.34. CONCLUSION: the present study was not able to demonstrate association between abruptio placentae and previous cesarean section.

  6. Prospective follow up study of maternal and foetal outcome in abruption placenta

    Poovathi M.; Raji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abruptio placentae (AP) which is a major cause of maternal morbidity, mortality and perinatal mortality. Abruptio placentae are one of the leading causes of perinatal deaths. Abruptio placentae increase the neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is one of the recognized causes of low birth weight. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors for abruptio placentae together with the maternal and fetal outcome in a tertiary care government medical college hospital. Me...

  7. Prospective follow up study of maternal and foetal outcome in abruption placenta

    Poovathi M.

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: We found an increased risk for abruptio placentae associated with maternal diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios. Abruptio placentae were associated with adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1784-1789

  8. Abruptio Placentae in Subsequent Pregnancy after Conservative Management of Hemorrhagic Cesarean Scar Pregnancy by Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    Akihiro Takeda; Sanae Imoto; Hiromi Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare but dangerous type of ectopic pregnancy in which implantation occurs within the fibrous tissue of a cesarean scar defect. Conservative management of cesarean scar pregnancy is challenging, especially when future fertility preservation is a significant concern. Furthermore, reports on significant maternal morbidity in subsequent pregnancies after successful conservative management of cesarean scar pregnancy are limited. Case report A 31-year-old w...

  9. The placenta in preeclampsia

    Roberts, James M.; Escudero, C.

    2012-01-01

    The root cause of preeclampsia is the placenta. Preeclampsia begins to abate with the delivery of the placenta and can occur in the absence of a fetus but with the presence of trophoblast tissue with hydatidiform moles. In view of this, study of the placenta should provide insight into the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. In this presentation we examine placental pathological and pathophysiological changes with preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR). It would seem that this compariso...

  10. Pollutant concentrations in placenta

    Leino, O.; Kiviranta, H.; Karjalainen, A. K.;

    2013-01-01

    Unborn children are exposed to environmental pollutants via the placenta, and there is a causal relationship between maternal intake of pollutants and fetal exposure. Placental examination is an effective way for acquiring data for estimating fetal exposure. We analyzed the concentrations of 104...... congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new...... information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data...

  11. Management of placenta percreta

    Clausen, Caroline; Lönn, Lars; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Publications on abnormally invasive placenta in general report what can be considered a mixture of the conditions true accreta, increta and percreta varieties. The aim of this review was to identify all published cases of the most severe condition, placenta percreta in order to describe complicat...... cases for the local resection technique might in part explain the lower complication rates with that approach. Future prospective data collection activities should include intended as well as actual management, and long-term follow-up of all cases is of vital importance....... management of the conditions. A PubMed search was performed in April 2013 and the final review included 119 published placenta percreta cases. Conservative management, where the placenta is left in situ for resorption, seems to be associated with severe long-term complications of hemorrhage and infections......, including a 58% risk that a hysterectomy will eventually be needed up till nine months after the delivery. Local resection seems to be associated with fewer complications within 24 h postoperatively compared with hysterectomy or leaving the placenta in situ. A selection bias in the direction of less severe...

  12. Placenta praevia with placenta accreta: A true maternal near miss

    Tayade, Surekha; Kumar, Naina; Singh, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Placenta accreta is an uncommon but a potentially life-threatening obstetric condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. The incidence of placenta accreta has increased and seems to parallel the increasing cesarean delivery rate. We present a case of term pregnancy with placenta praevia and placenta accreta referred to a rural tertiary institute of central India in emergency hours with profuse bleeding per-vaginum. This case report is an example of a true near miss as ...

  13. MRI features of placenta accreta

    Objective: To investigate the MRI features of placenta accreta. Methods: From Apr 2009 to Jun 2011, 15 patients with placenta accrete received MRI examination. In them, placenta accreta was diagnosed based on clinical manifestations or postoperative histopathology. The MR features of placenta accreta in them (study group) were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those in 15 pregnant women without placenta accreta (control group) with Fisher exact test. Results: In the 15 patients with placenta accreta,uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge was detected in 14 patients; heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta was detected in 15 patients; dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images was detected in 15 patients; and increased subplacental vascularity was detected in 11 patients on T1- weighted images. In the study group, 14 patients showed at least three of the above four features, and in all of them uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta and dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images were detected; one patient showed heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta, dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images and increased subplacental vascularity. In the control group,none patient had three of the above features.Uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta, dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images and increased subplacental vascularity were detected in 3, 6, 3 and 4 patients (P=0.000, 0.001, 0.000 and 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: The main MRI features of placenta accreta are uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta and dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images Besides, increased subplacental vascularity also could provide useful information for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. (authors)

  14. Placenta accreta and anesthesia: A multidisciplinary approach

    R S Khokhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accreta (an abnormally adherent placenta is one of the two leading causes of peripartum hemorrhage and the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta accreta may be associated with significant maternal hemorrhage at delivery owing to the incomplete placental separation. When placenta accreta is diagnosed before delivery, a multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome.

  15. Placenta accreta: the silent invader

    Seema Dwivedi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Incidence of placenta accrete has increased now a days because of increased incidence of cesarian sections, placenta accreta was seen in primi due to uterine procedures done deliberately in both diagnostic and therapeutic indications. Morbidly adherent placenta is always a nightmare for the obstetrician. Suspicion of a case on history, preoperative confirmation of diagnosis, planned management with bundle of care, with multi-disciplinary approach can save many patients from the clutches of inevitable death. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1501-1505

  16. Placenta accreta: adherent placenta due to Asherman syndrome

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kjer, Jens Jørgen; Istre, Olav

    2015-01-01

    It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery.......It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery....

  17. Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159075.html Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta Researchers find the virus ... research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells. ...

  18. Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159075.html Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta Researchers find the virus ... research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells. ...

  19. Adenomyosis in pregnancy mimicking morbidly adherent placenta

    Tongsong, Theera; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Sirikunalai, Panarat; Jatavan, Thanate

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to illustrate a false-positive diagnosis of adherent placenta due to underlying adenomyosis. A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed for placenta previa totalis with adherent placenta at 33 weeks, based on the findings of loss of clear space or distinguishing outline separating the placenta and uterine wall, presence of intraplacental lacunae and densely atypical vessels in the lesion. Caesarean hysterectomy was performed at 35 weeks. Pathological findings revealed p...

  20. Is there a sex of the placenta?

    Gian Carlo Di Renzo; Elena Picchiassi; Giuliana Coata; Graziano Clerici; Eleonora Brillo

    2015-01-01

    The placenta has traditionally been considered as an asexual organ. Thus, most of the studies focusing on the placenta have not taken the sex of the embryo into account. However, as trophoblast cells originate from the embryo, they reflect fetal sex as either XX or XY, allowing for possible sex differences in placental biochemistry, function, and signaling.The placenta is a temporary organ performing the functions of many adult organs for the growing fetus. The placenta plays a key role in fe...

  1. Toxicological Pathology in the Rat Placenta

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Hayashi, Seigo; Usuda, Koji; Abe, Masayoshi; Hagio, Soichiro; Ogawa, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    The placenta grows rapidly for a short period with high blood flow during pregnancy and has multifaceted functions, such as its barrier function, nutritional transport, drug metabolizing activity and endocrine action. Consequently, the placenta is a highly susceptible target organ for drug- or chemical-induced adverse effects, and many placenta-toxic agents have been reported. However, histopathological examination of the placenta is not generally performed, and the placental toxicity index i...

  2. Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta

    Retained placenta accreta can cause catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. This study aims to determine whether MR imaging can differentiate retained placenta accreta from postpartum hemorrhage caused by other conditions. Fourteen cases suspicious for retained placenta were examined with MR imaging. Signal intensity, the enhancing pattern of uterine contents, and flow voids within the myometrium were retrospectively studied. As hysterectomy was performed in only two cases, final diagnosis was based on clinical outcome and analysis of uterine contents. Final diagnoses were retained placenta accreta in seven cases, retained normally attached placenta in four, hematoma in two, and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in one. All seven cases with placenta accreta had a very hyperintense area on T2-weighted images, showing transient early enhancement. None demonstrated delayed strong enhancement around the hyperintense area. In two cases with retained normally attached placenta and in both with hematomas, there were no hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images. Of these, only one showed transient early enhancement. Flow voids were observed in four cases with placenta accreta, one with normally attached placenta, and the case with PSTT. A markedly hyperintense area on T2-weighted images and transient early enhancement without delayed strong enhancement between the mass and the myometrium can indicate retained placenta accreta. (orig.)

  3. Optimal transport and the placenta

    Morgan, Simon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xia, Qinglan [NON LANL; Salafia, Carolym [NON LANL

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the expected effects of (i) placental size, (ii) placental shape and (iii) the position of insertion of the umbilical cord on the work done by the foetus heart in pumping blood across the placenta. We use optimal transport theory and modeling to quantify the expected effects of these factors . Total transport cost and the shape factor contribution to cost are given by the optimal transport model. Total placental transport cost is highly correlated with birth weight, placenta weight, FPR and the metabolic scaling factor beta. The shape factor is also highly correlated with birth weight, and after adjustment for placental weight, is highly correlated with the metabolic scaling factor beta.

  4. Transthyretin and the human placenta.

    Landers, K A; Mortimer, R H; Richard, K

    2013-07-01

    Since its discovery, transthyretin (TTR) has been regarded as an important hepatically derived protein carrier of thyroid hormones and retinol in blood. However, in more recent years it has been shown that TTR has other important functions. TTR is abundant in cerebrospinal fluid, where it may be involved in transport of thyroid hormones into the brain. TTR derived amyloid is associated with diseases such as senile systemic amyloidosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and familial amyloid cardiomyopathy. Recently, synthesis, secretion and uptake of TTR by human placenta have been reported. TTR appears to play an important role in the delivery of maternal thyroid hormone to the developing fetus. This review explores the various proposed roles of TTR and more recent findings on TTR synthesis and expression in the placenta. PMID:23664144

  5. Bupropion metabolism by human placenta

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Zharikova, Olga L.; PATRIKEEVA, Svetlana L; Hankins, Gary D.V.; AHMED, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is the largest modifiable risk factor for pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. The success of bupropion for smoking cessation warrants its investigation for treatment of pregnant patients. Nevertheless, the use of bupropion for the treatment of pregnant smokers requires additional data on its biodisposition during pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to determine the metabolism of bupropion in placentas obtained from nonsmoking and smoking wom...

  6. Liver Function in Cows with Retained Placenta

    SEMACAN, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the liver function of cows with retained placenta (n = 21) with that of control post-partum cows (n = 12). Liver biopsies of the cows with retained placenta showed that the mean percentage of fat in the liver parenchyma was 32.5%. The serum glucose, albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels of cows with retained placenta were significantly lower th...

  7. Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta

    Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-01-01

    microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base of the...... bulbous protrusions, the fetal venules arise. The blood vessel orientation in the materno-fetal interface of the placentae of collared peccaries suggests a blood flow pattern of the type countercurrent to cross current. The same pattern has been reported in domestic swine demonstrating that, even after 38...

  8. Iron transportation across the placenta

    Claudia M. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the classification of placental types among animals, the transfer of iron through the placenta can occur via: absorption connected to transferin through the outer surface of the trophoblast in direct contact with circulating maternal blood; absorption of the erythrocytes by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with accumulation of blood extravased from haemotophagous areas; absorption by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with iron enriched secretions from the endometrial glands and absorption by extravasations of the blood in the maternal-fetal surface and the subsequent phagocytosis of the erythrocytes by trophoblast cells described in bovine, small ruminants, canine and feline. The function of erythrophagocytosis observed after the extravasation of blood in the maternal-fetal interface is undefined in several species. Possibly, the iron is transferred to the fetus through the trophoblastic erythrophagocytosis in the hemophogous area of the placenta and also in the endometrial glands. In this literature survey, new methods of studies regarding placental transfer involving iron and other nutrients necessary for survival and maintenance of embryonic fetus to birth are proposed.De acordo com a classificação dos tipos de placenta existentes entre os animais e em relação com a passagem de substâncias pela barreira inter-hemática, a transferência de ferro pode ser realizada através da: absorção de ferro ligado a transferrina através da superfície externa do trofoblasto em contato direto com o sangue materno circulante; absorção de eritrócitos pelo epitélio coriônico em contato direto com acúmulos de sangue materno extravasado em áreas hematófagas, absorção de ferro pelo epitélio coriônico em contato direto com secreções ricas em ferro provenientes de glândulas endometriais e fagocitose dos eritrócitos pelas células trofoblásticas, a qual foi descrita em bovinos, pequenos ruminantes, caninos e

  9. Methadone metabolism by human placenta.

    Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Deshmukh, Sujal V; Nekhayeva, Ilona A; Zharikova, Olga L; Hankins, Gary D V; Ahmed, Mahmoud S

    2004-08-01

    Methadone pharmacotherapy is considered the standard for treatment of the pregnant heroin/opioid addict. One of the factors affecting the transfer kinetics of opioids across human placenta and their levels in the fetal circulation is their metabolism by the tissue. The aim of this investigation is to identify the enzyme(s) responsible for the metabolism of methadone, determine the kinetics of the reaction and the metabolites formed utilizing placental tissue obtained from term healthy pregnancies. Microsomal fractions of trophoblast tissue homogenates had the highest activity in catalyzing the metabolism of methadone. The product formed was identified by HPLC-UV as 2-ethylidine-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP). Inhibitors selective for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes were used to identify the enzyme catalyzing the biotransformation of methadone. Aminoglutethimide and 4-hydroxyandrostenedione inhibited EDDP formation by 88 and 70%, respectively, suggesting that CYP19/aromatase is the enzyme catalyzing the reaction. This was confirmed by the effect of monoclonal antibodies raised against CYP19 that caused an 80% inhibition of the reaction. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values for the CYP19 catalyzed metabolism of methadone to EDDP were 424 +/- 92 microM and 420 +/- 89 pmol(mgprotein)(-1)min(-1), respectively. Kinetic analysis of a cDNA-expressed CYP19 for the metabolism of methadone to EDDP was identical to that by placental microsomes. Taken together, these data indicate that CYP19/aromatase is the major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of methadone to EDDP in term human placentas obtained from healthy pregnancies. PMID:15242824

  10. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [3H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [3H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  11. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    Horacio Massotto Chaves; Roy Wong Mc Clure

    2001-01-01

    La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sa...

  12. The Placenta in Toxicology. Part IV: Battery of Toxicological Test Systems Based on Human Placenta

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J. Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, vessels, glands, membranes, and many others. It may be expected that in many cases the relevance of results obtained from human placenta will be higher than those from animal models due to species spe...

  13. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV : Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J. Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R.

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, vessels, glands, membranes, and many others. It may be expected that in many cases the relevance of results obtained from human placenta will be higher than those from animal models due to species spe...

  14. The placenta; a multifaceted, transient organ

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is arguably the most important organ of the body, but paradoxically the most poorly understood. During its transient existence, it performs actions that are later taken on by diverse separate organs, including the lungs, liver, gut, kidneys and endocrine glands. Its principal function is to supply the fetus, and in particular, the fetal brain, with oxygen and nutrients. The placenta is structurally adapted to achieve this, possessing a large surface area for exchange and a thin i...

  15. The Programming Power of the Placenta

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Camm, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimise substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the a...

  16. Obstetric complications of placenta previa percreta

    Sparić Radmila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Placenta previa is related to severe maternal and fetal morbidity. The increasing incidence of cesarean delivery rate causes a marked increase in abnormally invasive placenta over the past decades. The abnormally invasive placenta is becoming the foremost cause of obstetric hemorrhage and postpartum hysterectomy, causing a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and even mortality. Maternal morbidity in such cases also comprise politransfusion, development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, uterine rupture, cystostomy, fistula formation, ureteral stricture, intensive care unit admission, infection, and prolonged hospitalization, adult respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, septicemia and even death. Case report. A 38-year-old gravida 3, para 2, was admitted to our hospital at 27 weeks of gestation as an emergency due to vaginal bleeding, previously diagnosed with an anterior placenta previa. Following tocolytic therapy, bleeding stopped. The patient was informed on the diagnosis and the possibility of lifethreatening hemorrhage necessitating preterm delivery. She was given corticosteroids to enhance fetal lung maturity. At 28 weeks of gestation, she experienced massive vaginal bleeding, and a decision was made to perform emergency cesarean section. We made a corporeal transverse uterine incision well above the uterovesical fold and tortuous vessels, at the same time avoiding the superior edge of the placenta. The placenta was found to be densely adherent to the lower uterine segment, penetrating through it and infiltrating the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. An attempt to remove the placenta resulted in injury to the bladder wall and the uterine rupture at a previous cesarean scar. The decision was made to perform total abdominal hysterectomy with placenta left in situ. At present, both mother and the baby are well. Conclusion. Anticipation and the surgeon's judgment are leading factors for surgery, from the

  17. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    Horacio Massotto Chaves

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sanabria, desde 1994 hasta 1999, y con revisión de la bibliografía.Spontaneous uterine rupture, without a history of trauma or associated infection by placenta percreta is an extremely rare pathology and it's responsible for high maternal morbidity and mortality. The prenatal diagnosis of placenta precreta is important to avoid catastrophic results after the obstetrical disorder and different procedures are used to get to this goal. We present here a case of placenta percreta and a revision of cases with this diagnosis from 1994 to 1999 at the Monseñor Sanabria Hospital, and a review of the literature.

  18. Is there a sex of the placenta?

    Gian Carlo Di Renzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The placenta has traditionally been considered as an asexual organ. Thus, most of the studies focusing on the placenta have not taken the sex of the embryo into account. However, as trophoblast cells originate from the embryo, they reflect fetal sex as either XX or XY, allowing for possible sex differences in placental biochemistry, function, and signaling.The placenta is a temporary organ performing the functions of many adult organs for the growing fetus. The placenta plays a key role in fetal growth and development, it is designed for exchange of oxygen, nutrients, antibodies, hormonal compounds and waste products between the mother and fetus and may carry significant information about the pregnancy. The placenta is considered also a major endocrine organ being responsible for synthesizing vast quantities of hormones and cytokines that have important effects on both maternal and fetal physiology.The investigation of placenta and its functions helps to identify molecular mechanisms that have both early- and long-term effects on health of the fetus.Gender differences were observed in the placenta at multiple levels: epigenetic modifications of DNA, gene expression, protein expression and immune function. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  19. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2005-01-01

    protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse......Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin...... placenta. Our data also suggest that the major portions of both proteins are stored in an inactive form in human term placenta....

  20. Placenta percreta in primigravida, an unsuspected situation

    Bhuvaneshwari Rajkumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta, the most severe form of placenta accreta, is a rare pregnancy disorder in which the placenta penetrates the uterine myometrium and serosa and can invade the surrounding organs. It is a potentially life-threatening condition with risk of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Although recognized obstetric risk factors allow the identification of most cases during the prenatal period, diagnosis is occasionally made at the time of delivery. Both sonography and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Prenatal diagnosis allows management of these patients in specialized tertiary centers, where a multidisciplinary approach will improve the outcome. Even in undiagnosed cases discovered at the time of delivery involving a team of anesthesiologist, obstetrician, urologist, neonatologist, and blood bank officer is needed for successful management of these patients. In this report we present the case of a primigravida with no known risk factors who was diagnosed to have placenta percreta at the time of caesarean delivery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 239-241

  1. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases

    Fan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed.

  2. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    Horacio Massotto Chaves

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sanabria, desde 1994 hasta 1999, y con revisión de la bibliografía.

  3. Toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta

    Wildman, Derek E.

    2011-01-01

    The placenta is fundamentally important for the success of pregnancy. Disruptions outside the normal range for placenta function can result in pregnancy failure and other complications. The anatomy of the placenta varies greatly across mammals, as do key parameters in pregnancy such as neonatal body mass, length of gestation and number of offspring per pregnancy. An accurate understanding of the evolution of the mammalian placenta will require at minimum the integration of anatomical, develop...

  4. The Antiapoptic Effects of Hominis Placenta Extract

    Jung-Chul Seo

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Free radicals are implicated in the pathophysiology of aging, ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disorders. To deform]no whether Hominis Placenta extract prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis, we have performed morphological and biochemical analyses for the detection of apoptotic phenomena in the pineal tumor cell line PGT-beta We have also peformed cytochemical and immunocytochemical analyses for the detection of changes in nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity and estimated the expression . of apoptotic genes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR Methods. PGT-beta cells were pretreated with Hominis Placenta extracts (0,10-2/ug/ml for 2 hours and then exposed to H2O2 (0, 50uM for 3 hours. Appearance of apoptotic characteristics were monitored using 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI staining assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis. NOS activity was measured by NADPH-diaphorase cytochemistry. Expression of inducible NOS (iNOS and nuclear factor kappa B (NF k B was assessed via immunocytochemistry. The expression of apoptotic genes was examined by RT-PCR. Results. After 3 flours of exposure to H2O2, it was shown that PGT-beta cells treated with H2O2(50 uM exhibit classical apoptotic features and increases in NOS activity and caspase-3 expression. Treatment with Hominis Placenta extract resulted in a reduced occurrence of apoptotic features. DAPI staining, TUNEL and flow cytometric assays revealed decreases in the occurrence of nuclear fragmentation and in the sub-Gl fraction in the PGT-beta cells treated with Hominis Placenta extract. Cells treated with Hominis Placenta extract also showed lower activity of NADPH-diaphorase and immunoreactivities of both iNOS and NF k B than those of H2O2-treated cells which were not treated with Hominis Placenta extract. By RT-PCR, it was shown that the level of caspase-3 m

  5. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U-14C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation. (author)

  6. Evolution of the Placenta in Eutherian Mammals

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2007-01-01

    eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a haemochorial one. Research has been stimulated by improved understanding of the relations between the orders of mammals provided by molecular phylogenetics. In part, the uncertainties arise from doubt about how to root the mammalian tree. Resolution...

  7. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  8. Demonstration of nestin in the human placenta

    Jirkovská, M.; Moravcová, M.; Kubínová, Lucie

    Praha, 2006. s. 79-79. [International Congress on Anatomy /43./. 03.09.2006-06.09.2006, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : human placenta * nestin * gestational diabetes Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth

  9. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV: Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta.

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, vessels, glands, membranes, and many others. It may be expected that in many cases the relevance of results obtained from human placenta will be higher than those from animal models due to species specificity of metabolism and placental structure. For practical and economical reasons, we propose to apply a battery of sequential experiments for analysis of potential toxicants. This should start with using cell lines, followed by testing placenta tissue explants and isolated placenta cells, and finally by application of single and dual side ex vivo placenta perfusion. With each of these steps, the relative workload increases while the number of feasible repeats decreases. Simultaneously, the predictive power enhances by increasing similarity with in vivo human conditions. Toxic effects may be detected by performing proliferation, vitality and cell death assays, analysis of protein and hormone expression, immunohistochemistry or testing functionality of signaling pathways, gene expression, transport mechanisms, and so on. When toxic effects appear at any step, the subsequent assays may be cancelled. Such a system may be useful to reduce costs and increase specificity in testing questionable toxicants. Nonetheless, it requires further standardization and end point definitions for better comparability of results from different toxicants and to estimate the respective in vivo translatability and predictive value. PMID:23548605

  10. Fine structural abnormalities of the placenta in diabetic rats.

    Gewolb, I H; Merdian, W; Warshaw, J B; Enders, A C

    1986-11-01

    In the streptozocin-induced diabetic rat, the placenta is larger and the fetus is smaller than normal. To study cellular differences that might contribute to the size and functional disparity between diabetic and control placentas, a light- and electron-microscopic analysis was performed on 14-, 18-, and 22-day (term) control and diabetic placentas. Diabetic placentas, especially later in gestation, were marked by the presence of large numbers of glycogen-distended cells in the basal zone. Within the placental labyrinth, the trophoblastic layers of the interhemal membrane were significantly thicker in the diabetic placentas on days 18 and 22, and large accumulations of liid droplets were present, especially in the inner two trophoblastic layers. In normal placentas there is a marked thinning of the placental barrier in the labyrinth by day 22 of gestation, making the thickness of the labyrinthine layers in age-matched diabetic placentas even more impressive. Finally, the labyrinth of 22-day diabetic placentas contained more glycogen and rough endoplasmic reticulum in the inner trophoblastic layer, a feature that is found in less-mature (18-day) control placentas. Thus, the diabetic placentas have a number of features that are consistent with functional immaturity/dysmaturity. Cytologic evidence confirms the presence of increased glycogen and lipid reserves in both the junctional zone and the cellular area between maternal and fetal blood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3758495

  11. Placenta accreta in a separate uterine horn.

    Baughn, Mariah R; Vaux, Keith; Masliah, Eliezer

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with intrauterine fetal demise of a 17-2/7-week male fetus. The patient failed misoprostol induction and was taken for surgical evaluation. At the time of surgery an ectopic pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn was found. Histologic examination of the excised remnant uterine horn showed there was a placenta accreta. PMID:19642813

  12. REVIEW: GENETIC MANIPULATION OF THE RODENT PLACENTA

    Renaud, Stephen J.; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Soares, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The principal role of the placenta is the maintenance of pregnancy and promotion of fetal growth and viability. The use of transgenic rodents has greatly enhanced our understanding of placental development and function. However, embryonic lethality is often a confounding variable in determining whether a genetic modification adversely affected placental development. In these cases, it is beneficial to specifically manipulate the placental genome. The purpose of this review is to summarize ava...

  13. Expression and Function of PPARs in Placenta

    Satoru Matsuda; Mayumi Kobayashi; Yasuko Kitagishi

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of several tissues including placenta, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. The PPARs also control a variety of target genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Sim...

  14. Notch Signaling Pathway and Human Placenta

    Wei-Xiu Zhao, Jian-Hua Lin

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling was evolutionarily conserved and critical for cell-fate determination, differentiation and many other biological processes. Growing evidences suggested that Notch signaling pathway played an important role in the mammalian placental development. All of the mammalian Notch family proteins had been identified in human placenta except Delta-like 3, which appeared to affect the axial skeletal system. However the molecular mechanisms that regulated the Notch signaling pathway remai...

  15. Transcriptome landscape of the human placenta

    Kim Jinsil; Zhao Keyan; Jiang Peng; Lu Zhi-xiang; Wang Jinkai; Murray Jeffrey C; Xing Yi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The placenta is a key component in understanding the physiological processes involved in pregnancy. Characterizing genes critical for placental function can serve as a basis for identifying mechanisms underlying both normal and pathologic pregnancies. Detailing the placental tissue transcriptome could provide a valuable resource for genomic studies related to placental disease. Results We have conducted a deep RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) study on three tissue components (amni...

  16. Drugs of abuse and human placenta

    Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2010-01-01

    Drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamines, when used by pregnant women, exert deleterious effects on the fetus. These drugs produce their effects through inhibition of the serotonin transporter, norepinephrine transporter, and dopamine transporter. The inhibition can occur in the pregnant mother as well as in the fetus. These events contribute to the detrimental effects of these drugs on the fetus. However, the role of placenta, which serves as the link between the pregnant mother and t...

  17. Impact of placenta praevia on obstetric outcome

    Neelam Meena

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: It was concluded that increased maternal age and parity, history of previous caesarean section are identified risk factors which are same as reported in western literature. Sonographic determination of the placental position where its location be-Neath the uterine incision is very important to predict maternal outcomes in placenta praevia patients, and such cases, close attention should be paid for massive haemorrhage. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 76-80

  18. Automated vasculature extraction from placenta images

    Almoussa, Nizar; Dutra, Brittany; Lampe, Bryce; Getreuer, Pascal; Wittman, Todd; Salafia, Carolyn; Vese, Luminita

    2011-03-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental blood vessels, which supply a fetus with all of its oxygen and nutrition. An essential step in the analysis of the vascular network pattern is the extraction of the blood vessels, which has only been done manually through a costly and time-consuming process. There is no existing method to automatically detect placental blood vessels; in addition, the large variation in the shape, color, and texture of the placenta makes it difficult to apply standard edge-detection algorithms. We describe a method to automatically detect and extract blood vessels from a given image by using image processing techniques and neural networks. We evaluate several local features for every pixel, in addition to a novel modification to an existing road detector. Pixels belonging to blood vessel regions have recognizable responses; hence, we use an artificial neural network to identify the pattern of blood vessels. A set of images where blood vessels are manually highlighted is used to train the network. We then apply the neural network to recognize blood vessels in new images. The network is effective in capturing the most prominent vascular structures of the placenta.

  19. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  2. Morphological changes in human placenta of wet snuff users

    Wet snuff is commonly used by both males and females in different parts of Pakistan. Apart from other ingredients, tobacco is the major component of snuff. Adverse effects of smoking on morphology of human placenta have been shown by some previous studies. But snuff is not considered as dangerous as smoking during pregnancy. This study was designed to see the effects of snuff on morphology of human placenta. In present study total 80 human placentae, 40 from normal and 40 from snuff users were used. This study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy Basic Medical Sciences Institution (BSMI) Karachi. Duration of study was six months. Samples were obtained from Gynaecology and Obstetric unit-I JPMC. Placentae washed well with running tap water to remove blood clots. Umbilical cord and other membranes were removed and placenta gently squeezed to expel the foetal blood. Gross features like weight, diameters, central thickness and attachment of umbilical cord were noted in normal and snuff users' placentae. Then placentae were preserved in 10% formalin for at least five days before the sectioning for micromorphology. Placentae divided in two groups-A and B. 4 macro m thick sections of the tissue were taken on rotary microtome and stained with H and E, Mallorys trichrome and methanamine silver for different histological observations. Mircromorpholgical changes have been observed in placentae of snuff users leading to loss of functional components of placentae. This loss of functional component may have deleterious effects on outcome of pregnancy. No significant gross morphological changes were found in snuff user placentae. Wet snuff effect the micromorphology of placenta leading to loss of functional component and in turn effects the exchange of materials between mother and foetus which may leads to intrauterine growth retardation. Loss of trophoblasts may lead to hormonal imbalance necessary for normal pregnancy and this imbalance can cause premature labour

  3. Ultrastructure of Placenta of Gravidas with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Qian Meng; Li Shao; Xiucui Luo; Yingping Mu; Wen Xu; Chao Gao; Li Gao; Jiayin Liu; Yugui Cui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) leads to an abnormal placental environment which may cause some structural alterations of placenta and affect placental development and function. In this study, the ultrastructural appearances of term placentas from women with GDM and normal pregnancy were meticulously compared. Materials and Methods. The placenta tissues of term birth from 10 women with GDM and 10 women with normal pregnancy were applied with the signed informed consent. The mo...

  4. Evolution of the mammalian placenta revealed by phylogenetic analysis

    Wildman, Derek E.; Chen, Caoyi; Erez, Offer; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Goodman, Morris; Romero, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The placenta is essential for the success of therian mammalian reproduction. Intense selective pressure has shaped changes in placental anatomy and function during mammalian cladogenesis. Here we challenge the view that the hemochorial placenta is a derived feature in haplorhine primates. Using phylogenetic and statistical analyses of molecular and morphological data, we demonstrate that the ancestral eutherian mammalian placenta had the distinctive features of (i) hemochorial placental inter...

  5. Isotope perfusion examinations of the placenta added by external tocometry

    Perfusion examination of the placenta was carried out in 49 pregnant women in the third trimester in whom decreased placental circulation was assumed. Blood flow in the placenta was measured using the chloride of 113In in bolus form with a dose of 18,5 MBq. The circulatory relations of the placenta were characterized by the placenta perfusion index (PPI). It was observed that in decreased placental circulation the PPI value was under 2,0. The authors studied the relationship between the uterine contraction and PPI indicating placental perfusion. (authors)

  6. [CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PLACENTA ACCRETE DURING VAGINAL DELIVERY].

    Dimirov, A; Garnizov, T; Zlatkov, V; Frundeva, B; Masseva, A

    2016-01-01

    Conservative management of placenta accrete consists in leaving the entire placenta accreta in situ after vaginal delivery of the fetus. This behavior requires active monitoring the vital signs of mother, genital status and paraclinical indicators for an extended period after birth. Monitoring is suspended after full absorption of the placenta. The success of the conservative approach depends on: the adopted protocol formanagement of placenta accreta, whether the diagnosis is known before birth, the possible of application techniques, reducing blood flow to the uterus, keeping the placental period and others. The smallest success with vaginal birth, is when the diagnosis of placenta accreta is not know in advance and proceed with aggressive attempts to extract the placenta, followed by profuse bleeding from the uterus. As additional methods of securing conservative management is reported use of Methotrexate, with unproven effectiveness and embolization of a. Iliaca interna and a. uterine, which require a qualified team and have a lot of complications. Complications of conservative management of placenta accreta are: febrility and genital bleeding, which are the cause of late hysterectomy in about 35% of cases. lnfestion may be not always prevent by application of broad spectrum antibiotics. Late bleeding is usually associated with an active inflammatory process. Low-grade and low grade temperature increase of leukocytes and CRP may be due to necrotic changes in the placenta without the infection process. Tracking involution of the placenta is through abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, magnetic resonance, using hysteroscopy through serial monitoring the level of hCG. From literature data the time for resorption of the placenta varies from 4 months to 1 year. It is essential to determine the time when it is safely to extract the placenta move in order to prevent late complications of conservative management. Our experience and some authors suggest that there may

  7. Gross characteristics of placentas from an assisted reproduction program

    Tabs Dunja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Even though placentas from assisted reproduction programs often differ from placentas of women who conceived naturally, they are rarely examined. The aim of our investigation was to determine some gross characteristics of placentas of women who conceived with assisted reproduction. Material and methods. We examined 30 placentas from an assisted reproduction program (20 from in vitro fertilization and 10 from intrauterine insemination and 30 placentas of women who conceived naturally. All women were age matched. All the women were at term. Results. The mean weight of placentas from assisted reproduction program was 573 g and of those after natural conception - 582.67g. The mean length of the umbilical cords was 64.3cm after assisted reproduction and 66.3cm after natural conception. The mean placenta thickness after assisted reproduction was 2,22 cm and after natural conception 2.28 cm. Eight pla­centas of the study group had a marginal insertion of the umbilical cord, which lead to a statistically significant difference when compared to placentas of women who conceived naturally: χ² =7.07; p>0.01. Discussion. Marginal cord insertion into the placenta after assisted reproduction is also often described in the literature (as a possible "consequence " of embryo-transfer. Conclusion. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean weight and dimensions of placentas, length of the umbilical cord, gross pathological features of placentas and cords, mean birth weight of babies and placental/fetal ratios between women from assisted reproduction program and those who conceived naturally. .

  8. Placenta changes in pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    Edu, Antoine; Teodorescu, Cristina; Dobjanschi, Carmen Gabriela; Socol, ZiŢa Zsuzsana; Teodorescu, Valeriu; Matei, Alexandru; Albu, Dinu Florin; Radulian, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Placental damage may be responsible for the fetal complications in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We have analyzed the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD) in a population of 109 pregnant women, the risk factors and the placental changes associated with gestational diabetes. Tests carried out were oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation, using the IADPSG (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups) criteria for gestational diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and, also, there were analyzed macro and microscopic placental fragments from pregnant women with÷without GD. It has been recorded the weight of placenta at birth and there were analyzed the possible pathological changes. The prevalence of GD was 11.9%. We have applied the direct logistic regression to determine the impact of some factors over the probability of association with gestational diabetes. The most powerful predictor was the placental maturity grade, the patients with decreased maturity grade having chances 52.6 times higher than those with an increased placental maturity grade to associate gestational diabetes. Sizes of placentas in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were significantly increased than in patients without this diagnosis (p=0.012) from week 24-28. Pathological changes were discovered in six of the 13 placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, independent of the level of glycated hemoglobin (p=0.72). The level of hyperglycemia is only partially associated with the presence of placental changes, which may be caused by other maternal factors. PMID:27516026

  9. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    Lindegaard, Marie L S; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2005-01-01

    protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse...

  10. Kinetics of silica nanoparticles in the human placenta

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Mose, Tina; Maroun, Lisa Leth;

    2015-01-01

    The potential medical applications of nanoparticles (NPs) warrant their investigation in terms of biodistribution and safety during pregnancy. The transport of silica NPs across the placenta was investigated using two models of maternal-foetal transfer in human placenta, namely, the BeWo b30 chor...

  11. Proposal for standardised ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP)

    Collins, Sally L; Ashcroft, Anna; Braun, Thorsten; Calda, Pavel; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Morel, Olivier; Stefanovic, Vedran; Tutschek, Boris; Chantraine, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) is a clinical term used to describe a placenta that does not separate spontaneous during normal delivery and cannot be removed without causing high blood loss. Maternal outcome in cases with AIP is improved by antenatal diagnosis that currently relies on...

  12. Isotopic location of the placenta. Experience of Lariboisiere Hospital

    All isotopic placenta location techniques make use of the vascularisation difference between the placenta and the neighbouring tissues. The principle is based on the amount of blood in the intervillous space and the maternal blood circulation rate in the placenta area. The techniques, all based on this principle, differ by the nature of the radioelement and the performance of the instruments used. Mention is made of the qualities governing the choice of radioisotope injected, with emphasis on the need to reduce the foetal irradiation. Two kinds of scintigraphic equipment are used, one with a mobile detector moving above the woman's abdomen and the other using a fixed detector, the scintillation camera, which gives the placenta image very rapidly. The practical details of an experiment covering 49 cases of placenta location, using a scintillation camera and sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells, are described in full

  13. Sulprostone reduces the need for the manual removal of the placenta in patients with retained placenta: a randomized controlled trial.

    Beekhuizen, H.J. van; Groot, A.N.J.A. de; Boo, T.M. de; Burger, D.M.; Jansen, N.; Lotgering, F.K.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that the administration of sulprostone reduces the need for manual removal of the placenta in patients with retained placenta. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blinded sequential randomized controlled trial of sulprostone versus placebo was cond

  14. Antioxidative defense enzymes in placenta protect placenta and fetus in inherited thrombophilia from hydrogen peroxide

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov; Ivan Spasojevic; Željko Mikovic; Vesna Mandic; Nikola Cerovic; Mihajlo Spasic

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001) of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects), glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg), and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg). The placenta...

  15. Expression and Function of PPARs in Placenta

    Satoru Matsuda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of several tissues including placenta, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. The PPARs also control a variety of target genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Similar to other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation but also by crosstalk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, several mechanisms underlying negative regulation of gene expression by PPARs have been shown. It is suggested that PPARs are key messengers responsible for the translation of nutritional stimuli into changes in gene expression pathways for placental development.

  16. Placenta paraaortic with bladder invasion: A plea for multidisciplinary approach

    Placenta previa percreta with the urinary bladder invasion is a rare but potentially lethal condition. It has an increasing clinical significance due to its association with previous cesarean sections and uterine curettage. Herein, we report on a patient with placenta percreta and bladder invasion, who presented with hematuria and in whom delivery was delayed to almost full term highlighting the potential catastrophic results and the need for a multidisciplinary approach with the need to involve surgeons who are familiar with vascular and urologic surgery. We also present an elegant MRI of placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder, which shows that MRI is potentially an excellent diagnostic diagnostic modality in this difficult condition. (author)

  17. A Marked Increase in Obstetric Hysterectomy for Placenta Accreta

    Xiao-Yu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen, there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta. An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography, and MRI, and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients' safety and outcome.

  18. Immunoregulatory effects of placenta-derived decidual stromal cells

    Erkers, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) play a pivotal role in feto-maternal tolerance to prevent rejection of the fetus during pregnancy. This provides a rationale for immunomodulatory stromal cells from the placenta being isolated and used as cellular therapy for inflammatory conditions following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The term placenta provides a ready source of cells, since this tissue is normally discarded after delivery. Stromal cells were isolated from different pa...

  19. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    Dzierzak, Elaine; Robin, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother, the placenta has increasingly become a focus of research concerning the ontogeny of the blood system. Here, we describe recent data showing the intrinsic hematopoietic potential and appearance of hematopoietic...

  20. Maternal Tgif is required for vascularization of the embryonic placenta

    Bartholin, Laurent; Melhuish, Tiffany A.; Powers, Shannon E.; Goddard-Léon, Sophie; Treilleux, Isabelle; Sutherland, Ann E.; Wotton, David

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian placenta is the site of exchange of nutrients and waste between mother and embryo. In humans, placental insufficiency can result in intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death and spontaneous abortion. We show that in C57BL/6J mice a null mutation in the gene encoding the transcriptional corepressor, Tgif, causes placental defects. The major defects are decreased vascularization of the placenta, due to a decrease in the fetal blood vessels, and decreased expression of the g...

  1. DNA methylation in the human placenta and fetal growth (Review)

    KOUKOURA, OURANIA; Sifakis, Stavros; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout in utero development, the placenta plays a key role in controlling growth and development. The placenta acts not only as a gatekeeper of nutrient and waste exchange between mother and developing fetus, but also as a regulator of the intrauterine environment. Its functions can be influenced by the environment encountered throughout pregnancy, thereby altering the appropriate genetic programming needed to allow for appropriate fetal growth. Epigenetic alterations related to environme...

  2. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius;

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...... events effectuated throughout gestation. They were associated with transcriptional regulation and vasoregulative pathways, along with a number of hypothetical proteins and gene sequences with unknown functions....

  3. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    Dzierzak, Elaine; Robin, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The placenta is a large, highly vascularized hematopoietic tissue that functions during embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognized as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother, the placenta has increasingly become a focus of research concerning the ontogeny of the blood system. Here, we describe recent data showing the intrinsic hematopoietic potential and appearance of hematopoietic cel...

  4. Maternal diabetes impairs oxidative and inflammatory response in murine placenta

    Mohamed I. Saad; Abdelkhalek, Taha M.; Moustafa M. Saleh; Haiba, Maha M.; Tawfik, Shady H.; Maher A. Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Placenta is the major exchange surface between mother and fetus and plays a pivotal role in fetal development. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which diabetes alters placental function may allow better management of diabetes pregnancies. In this study, we attempt to investigate the effect of diabetic milieu with and without malformation on placental function. In order to investigate the impact of diabetic pregnancy on oxidative stress, endothelial and vascular functions of placenta...

  5. Expression and localization of nestin in human placenta

    Jirkovská, M.; Kubínová, Lucie; Moravcová, M.; Kučera, T.; Koštiřová, M.; Krejčí, V.

    Elsevier. Roč. 26, č. 8-9 (2005), A.22-A.22. ISSN 0143-4004. [European Placenta Group Meeting & ISPA Meeting /11./. 03.09.2005-07.09.2005, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : human placenta * nestin * gestational diabetes Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  6. Molecular characterization of the Neuronatin gene in the porcine placenta.

    Ting Gu

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes play important roles in placental and embryonic development. Neuronatin (NNAT, first identified as an imprinted gene in human and mouse brains, played important roles in neuronal differentiation in the brain and in glucose-mediated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. In the pig, NNAT was reported to be imprinted in eleven tissues. Our previous microarray hybridization study showed that NNAT was differentially expressed in Yorkshire and Meishan pig placentas, but the imprinting status and function of NNAT in the placenta have not been investigated. We demonstrated for the first time that NNAT was monoallelically expressed in the placenta. Immunochemistry analysis showed that NNAT was located in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium in placentas. We also confirmed the differential expression of NNAT in Meishan and Yorkshire pig placentas by qPCR. Using IPA software and the published literature, we created a model network of the possible relationships between NNAT and glucose transporter genes. A dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the crucial promoter region of NNAT contained a CANNTG sequence in the +210 to +215 positions, which corresponded to the E-box. Our findings demonstrated important roles of NNAT in placenta function.

  7. Phthalate monoesters in perfusate from a dual placenta perfusion system, the placenta tissue and umbilical cord blood

    Mose, Tina; Mortensen, Gerda K; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    Fetal exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse reproductive effects, including cryptorchidism and decreased semen quality. Information about human placental transfer is needed to qualify the hypotheses. A dual recirculating placenta perfusion system to monitor concentrations of eight...

  8. Differential expression of placenta growth factors and their receptors in the normal and pregnancy-induced hypertensive human placentas.

    Cho, Gyeong Jae; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kim, Yoon Sook; CHO, Soo Hyun; Choi, Won Jun; Paik, Won Young; Kang, Sang Soo; Choi, Wan Sung

    2003-01-01

    Placental development requires extensive angiogenesis and the invasion of the maternal decidua by the trophoblasts. Adequate and organized interaction of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), placenta growth factors (PlGF), and their receptors are essential for a normal development and function of the placenta. In this study, we evaluated the expressions of PlGFs and their receptors, mRNAs by Northern blotting, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR in the normal and pregnancy-induced hyperte...

  9. Regeneration of ascorbic acid in human placenta

    The free radical scavenging function of ascorbic acid (AA) results in the formation of the oxidized form of the vitamin, dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (DHAA). The enzymatic reduction of DHAA may be an important means of recycling and conserving ascorbic acid in various tissues. The role of the human placenta in the enzymatic reduction of the potentially toxic oxidized form was examined in tissue homogenized in 50 mM MOPs buffer. Assay of DHAA, AA, DKG (diketogulonic acid) were made by HPLC and liquid scintillation counting. Activity of the placental factor in reducing DHAA was dependent on the presence of both NADPH and GSH. Activity was reduced 81% by incubation with 2% trypsin and was unaffected by BSA, glycerol, EtOH, or Na-AZIDE. Inhibition was observed with 10 mM EDTA and 0.2M KCI but not with 1 mM EDTA or 0.1 M KCI or less. Studies are underway to further purify and characterize the enzyme(s) responsible for the observed activity

  10. A RARE CASE OF UNICORNUATE UTERUS WITH PLACENTA PERCRETA CAUSING UTERINE RUPTURE IN SECOND TRIMESTER

    Sudha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Retained placenta postdelivery should raise suspicion of adherent placenta. In such cases immediate decision and quick action can be life saving. Placenta percreta can at times present in second trimester with ruptured uterus. Placenta percreta is an obstetric emergency often associated with massive hemorrhage leading to emergency hysterectomy. We describe a severe case of placenta percreta in which the placenta was left in situ, methotrexate administered and a delayed hysterectomy successfully performed. Delayed hysterectomy may be a reasonable management strategy in the most severe cases.

  11. Differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance

    Ben-Zhou Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance. Methods:Preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue were collected and GPR30 expression levels were detected;human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured and processed with GRP30 inhibitor and GRP30 agonist combined with hypoxia-reoxygenation respectively, and cell apoptosis as well as pro-angiogenesis molecule and apoptosis molecule contents were detected. Results:mRNA content and protein content of GRP30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue were significantly lower than those in normal placenta tissue;apoptosis rate of G15 group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group;apoptosis rate of H/R group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group;apoptosis rate of G1 group was significantly lower than that of H/R group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly higher than those of H/R group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly lower than those of H/R group. Conclusions:Low expression of GPR30 in placenta tissue is closely associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia, enhancing GPR function can reduce endothelial cell apoptosis and increase the contents of pro-angiogenesis factors, and it has endothelial protection effect.

  12. Anesthesia for cesarean section in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa

    Objective was to evaluate the factors affecting the choice of anesthetic technique for cesarean section in women with placenta previa. In this retrospective study, the records of the labor Ward Theatre of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria were examined from January 2000 to December 2004 to identify all the women who had cesarean section for placenta previa. The patient's socio-demographic characteristics, type of placenta previa, anesthesia technique, estimated blood loss, maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded. One hundred and twenty-six patients had cesarean section for placenta previa, however, only 81 patients 64.3% were available for analysis. General anesthesia was administered to 52/81 patients 64.2% and 29/81 patients 35.8% received spinal anesthesia. A history of antepartum bleeding was recorded in 61.7% n=50. Of 31 patients without antepartum hemorrhage APH, 15/31 had general anesthesia and 16/31 had spinal anesthesia. The patients who had APH, 37/50 had general anesthesia and 1/50 had spinal anesthesia. There was an increased chance of using general anesthesia and if APH were present p=0.03, odds ratio=3.1, 95% confidence interval=1.2-7.7. Spinal anesthesia may useful in patients with placenta previa. The presence of APH may encourage the use of general anesthesia for cesarean delivery. (author)

  13. DNA methylation profiles in preeclampsia and healthy control placentas.

    Yeung, Kristen R; Chiu, Christine L; Pidsley, Ruth; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2016-05-15

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that affects 3-5% of all pregnancies. There is evidence to suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, play a role in placental development and function. This study compared DNA methylation profiles of placentas from preeclampsia-affected pregnancies with placentas from healthy pregnancies to identify gene-specific changes in DNA methylation that may contribute to the development of preeclampsia. The methylation status of eight placental biopsies taken from preeclampsia-affected and 16 healthy pregnancies was analyzed using the Illumina Infinium Methylation 450 BeadChip array. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to confirm regions found to be differentially methylated between preeclampsia and healthy placentas. A total of 303 differentially methylated regions, 214 hypermethylated and 89 hypomethylated, between preeclampsia cases and controls were identified, after adjusting for gestational age (adjusted P Functional annotation found cell adhesion, wingless type MMTV Integration Site family member 2 (Wnt) signaling pathway, and regulation of transcription were significantly enriched in these gene regions. Hypermethylation of WNT2, sperm equatorial segment protein (SPESP1), NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5), and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) in preeclampsia placentas was confirmed with pyrosequencing. This study found differences in methylation in gene regions involved in cell signaling (WNT2), fertilization and implantation (SPESP1), reactive oxygen species signaling (NOX5), and cell adhesion (ALCAM). These results build on recently published studies that have reported significant differences in DNA methylation in preeclampsia placentas. PMID:26968548

  14. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B;

    2004-01-01

    Supply of lipids from the mother is essential for fetal growth and development. In mice, disruption of yolk sac cell secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins results in embryonic lethality. In humans, the yolk sac is vestigial. Nutritional functions are instead established very...... early during pregnancy in the placenta. To examine whether the human placenta produces lipoproteins, we examined apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in placental biopsies. ApoB and MTP are mandatory for assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Both...... lipoproteins secreted from placental tissue showed spherical particles with a diameter of 47 +/- 10 nm. These results demonstrate that human placenta expresses both apoB and MTP and consequently synthesize and secrete apoB-100-containing lipoproteins. Placental lipoprotein formation constitutes a novel pathway...

  15. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted the...... Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting for...

  16. A Case of Placenta Increta Mimicking Submucous Leiomyoma

    Ali Ekiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years with the increase in cesarean section rates, the frequency of placenta accreta cases rises. It causes 33–50% of all emergency peripartum hysterectomies. We present a 42-year-old case who was caught with early postpartum hemorrhage due to retained placental products. The ultrasonography showed a 65 × 84 mm mass in the uterine cavity after the delivery. Due to presence of early postpartum hemorrhage which needs transfusion, an intervention decision was made. The patient underwent curettage but the mass could not be removed so that placental retention was ruled out. Submucous leiomyoma was made as first-prediagnosis. Hysterectomy operation was performed as a curative treatment. Placenta increta diagnosis was made as a final diagnosis with pathological examination. As a result, placental attachment disorders may be overlooked if it is not a placenta previa case.

  17. More Than Clinical Waste? Placenta Rituals Among Australian Home-Birthing Women

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the “afterbirth.” In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a “special” and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant ...

  18. Comparative Proteome Profile of Human Placenta from Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    Wang, Fuqiang; Shi, Zhonghua; Ping WANG; You, Wei; Liang, Gaolin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in pathological development of placenta in preeclampsia, we used LC-MS/MS to construct a large-scale comparative proteome profile of human placentas from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. A total of 2636 proteins were detected in human placentas, and 171 different proteins were definitively identified between control and preeclamptic placentas. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins corre...

  19. Oxygen diffusive conductance in placentae from control and diabetic women

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G;

    1993-01-01

    Random tissue sections of placentae from control and diabetic deliveries were analysed stereologically. The aim was to test whether or not adaptations in oxygen diffusive conductances occur to help compensate for fetal hypoxic stress in utero. Organs were from 34 control and 55 diabetic deliveries......, F/R). However, both the ABC and DFR groups of diabetic placentae had higher total diffusive conductances than control organs. The increase was in the order of 7-25% and persisted even when adjustments were made for apparent differences in birthweights. The principal contributors to these changes...

  20. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 deg. C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields. (note)

  1. TonEBP and SMIT expression in human placenta

    Shin, Jung-A; Kwon, Hyug-Moo; Han, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Hwa-Young

    2012-01-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a signal transcription factor of transporters such as sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), aldose reductase. TonEBP has a variety of functions such as control of intracellular osmolytes and immunomodulating. It is known that TonEBP is abundant in the placenta, but location and function aren't known. The aim of this study is to describe the localization of TonEBP in the placenta. We assayed the immunohistochemistry of TonEBP and per...

  2. OBSERVATIONS ON VASCULAR PATTERN OF CHORIONIC BLOOD VESSELS OF PLACENTA

    Yousuf Sarwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Placenta is a choriodecidual structure develops during pregnancy implanted on the uterine wall and car ries vital functions. It is connected to the foetus through umbilical cord. The branches of umbilical vessels that traverse along foetal surface of placenta are referred as chorionic vessels. There are two different patterns of chorionic vessels – Dispersa l and Magistral. In the dispersal type, the umbilical vessels undergo successive divisions with gradually diminishing caliber towards periphery while in magistral pattern the vessels traverse to the edge of placenta without appreciable decrease in diameter of vessels. The present study has been done for visualization of the pattern of chorionic vessels in placenta obtained from labour room of a tertiary care hospital in eastern Bihar, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of one hundred and fifty (150 fres h and intact placenta of full term pregnancies collected from Obstetrics & Gynaecology department were included in the study. After washing with distilled water, removal of blood clots were done with slight digital pressure applied over arteries and vein a nd later on by irrigation with saline. The cut end of the umbilical cord was carefully visualized to identify the umbilical arteries and vein. Dye was injected into umbilical vessels under normal physiological pressure and diameter of chorionic blood vesse ls were taken at the center and periphery. Ultimately each vessel was followed and examined to observe the dispersal and magistral pattern of chorionic blood vessels of placenta. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Out of the total of one hundred and fifty (150 full term placenta obtained and examined in the Anatomy department during the study period, 64% Dispersal type & 36 % of Magistral type of arterial pattern of branching of chorionic vessels were observed. Vein and its tributaries presented Dispersal pattern in 60% and Magistral pattern in 40%. There is a significant

  3. Comparison Between Monochorionic and Dichorionic Placentas With Special Attention to Vascular Anastomoses and Placental Share.

    Zhao, Depeng; Lipa, Michal; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Cohen, Danielle; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    Placental vascular anastomoses in twins lead to a shared circulation and may subsequently enable the development of severe complications such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS). The presence of vascular anastomoses has frequently and systematically been studied in monochorionic (MC) placentas, but only rarely in dichorionic (DC) placentas. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of vascular anastomoses and evaluate the sharing discordance in MC and DC placentas. All consecutive placentas of MC and DC twins delivered at the Leiden University Medical Center (the Netherlands) and Medical University of Warsaw (Poland) from 2012 to 2015 were routinely injected with colored dye and included in the study. We excluded twin pregnancies treated with fetoscopic laser surgery. A total of 258 placentas were analyzed in this study, including 134 MC placentas and 124 DC placentas. Vascular anastomoses were present in 99% (133/134) of MC placentas and 0% of DC placentas (p < .01). Placental share discordance between MC twins was significantly larger compared to DC twins, 19.8 (interquartile range [IQR] 8.1-33.3) and 10.8 (IQR 6.2-19.0), respectively (p < .01). Vascular anastomoses associated complications occurred in 16% (22/134) MC twins. Our findings show that vascular anastomoses are almost ubiquitous in MC placentas, but non-existent in DC placentas. In addition, unequal placental sharing appears to be more common in MC than in DC placentas. PMID:27068823

  4. Placenta accreta: spectrum of US and MR imaging findings.

    Baughman, W Christopher; Corteville, Jane E; Shah, Rajiv R

    2008-01-01

    Placenta accreta (PA) encompasses various types of abnormal placentation in which chorionic villi attach directly to or invade the myometrium. PA is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and is now the most common reason for emergent postpartum hysterectomy. Its prevalence has risen tenfold in the United States over the past 50 years, primarily due to the increasing percentage of pregnant patients undergoing primary and repeat cesarean sections. Placenta previa and previous cesarean section are the two most important known risk factors for PA. Accurate prenatal identification of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Ultrasonography (US) remains the diagnostic standard, and routine US examination at 18-20 weeks gestation affords an ideal opportunity to screen for the disorder. Placental lacunae and abnormal color Doppler imaging patterns are the most helpful US markers for PA. In recent years, there has been increased interest in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the evaluation of PA, since it can provide information on depth of invasion and more clearly depict posterior placentas. The most reliable MR imaging findings are uterine bulging, heterogeneous placenta, and placental bands. Focal interruptions in the hypointense myometrial border may also be helpful. PA is a clinical and diagnostic challenge that is being encountered with increasing frequency. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical issues, risk factors, and imaging findings associated with PA to facilitate optimal case management. PMID:19001647

  5. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    Müller, Robert, E-mail: robert.mueller@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany); Gläser, Marcus [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany); University of Applied Sciences, Jena (Germany); Göhner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jena University Hospital (Germany); Hofmann, Andreas [HTS Systeme GmbH, Wallenfels (Germany); Fritzsche, Wolfgang [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ≈10{sup −8} Am{sup 2}) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100–150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  6. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); C. Robin (Catherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother,

  7. Function of survivin in trophoblastic cells of the placenta.

    Cornelia Muschol-Steinmetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide and its pathogenesis is not totally understood. As a member of the chromosomal passenger complex and an inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin is a well-characterized oncoprotein. Its roles in trophoblastic cells remain to be defined. METHODS: The placental samples from 16 preeclampsia patients and 16 well-matched controls were included in this study. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were carried out with placental tissues. Primary trophoblastic cells from term placentas were isolated for Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed in trophoblastic cell lines BeWo, JAR and HTR-8/SVneo. RESULTS: The survivin gene is reduced but the protein amount is hardly changed in preeclamptic placentas, compared to control placentas. Upon stress, survivin in trophoblastic cells is phosphorylated on its residue serine 20 by protein kinase A and becomes stabilized, accompanied by increased heat shock protein 90. Depletion of survivin induces chromosome misalignment, abnormal centrosome integrity, and reduced localization and activity of Aurora B at the centromeres/kinetochores in trophoblastic metaphase cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that survivin plays pivotal roles in cell survival and proliferation of trophoblastic cells. Further investigations are required to define the function of survivin in each cell type of the placenta in the context of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion.

  8. Pervasive polymorphic imprinted methylation in the human placenta.

    Hanna, Courtney W; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Saadeh, Heba; Andrews, Simon; McFadden, Deborah E; Kelsey, Gavin; Robinson, Wendy P

    2016-06-01

    The maternal and paternal copies of the genome are both required for mammalian development, and this is primarily due to imprinted genes, those that are monoallelically expressed based on parent-of-origin. Typically, this pattern of expression is regulated by differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that are established in the germline and maintained after fertilization. There are a large number of germline DMRs that have not yet been associated with imprinting, and their function in development is unknown. In this study, we developed a genome-wide approach to identify novel imprinted DMRs in the human placenta and investigated the dynamics of these imprinted DMRs during development in somatic and extraembryonic tissues. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in 134 human tissue samples, publicly available reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in the human embryo and germ cells, and targeted bisulfite sequencing in term placentas. Forty-three known and 101 novel imprinted DMRs were identified in the human placenta by comparing methylation between diandric and digynic triploid conceptions in addition to female and male gametes. Seventy-two novel DMRs showed a pattern consistent with placental-specific imprinting, and this monoallelic methylation was entirely maternal in origin. Strikingly, these DMRs exhibited polymorphic imprinted methylation between placental samples. These data suggest that imprinting in human development is far more extensive and dynamic than previously reported and that the placenta preferentially maintains maternal germline-derived DNA methylation. PMID:26769960

  9. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  10. Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women

    Przemysław Krzysztof Wirstlein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry staining
    of inhibitors of the complement cascade, DAF and MCP proteins, in the placentas of thrombophilic women.
    Placentas were collected from eight women with inherited thrombophilia and ten with acquired thrombophilia.
    The levels of DAF and MCP transcripts were evaluated by qPCR, the protein level was evaluated by Western
    blot. We observed a higher transcript (p < 0.05 and protein (p < 0.001 levels of DAF and MCP in the placentas
    of thrombophilic women than in the control group. DAF and MCP were localized on villous syncytiotrophoblast
    membranes, but the assessment of staining in all groups did not differ. The observed higher expression level of
    proteins that control activation of complement control proteins is only seemingly contradictory to the changes
    observed for example in the antiphospholipid syndrome. However, given the hitherto known biochemical changes
    associated with thrombophilia, a mechanism in which increased expression of DAF and MCP in the placentas is
    an effect of proinflammatory cytokines, which accompanies thrombophilia, is probable.Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry

  11. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  12. Pregnancy complicated by morbidly adherent placenta in a patient with bilateral ovarian agenesis: a case report

    Wong HS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hong Soo WongAustralian Women's Ultrasound Centre, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: The author presents a case of in vitro fertilization pregnancy complicated by morbidly adherent placenta in a patient with congenital bilateral ovarian agenesis. A 31-year-old woman with congenital bilateral ovarian agenesis who had undergone two previous dilatation and curettage procedures conceived following in vitro fertilization with a donor egg. Spontaneous labor occurred at 38 weeks and 5 days' gestation. The labor was augmented in the active phase and resulted in instrumental vaginal delivery. The third stage was complicated by hemorrhage and retained placenta. Morbidly adherent placenta was diagnosed on attempt at manual removal of the placenta, and the adherent part of the placenta was left in situ. This was removed uneventfully at 5 weeks following childbirth when there was no blood flow observed between the placenta and the myometrium on Doppler ultrasound examination. In conclusion, successful parturition is possible in patients with congenital bilateral ovarian agenesis. When morbidly adherent placenta is managed conservatively, the placenta may be safely removed if there is no vascularity between the placenta and the myometrium.Keywords: IVF, placenta accreta, parturition, myometrium

  13. Evolution of the interhaemal barrier in the placenta of rodents

    Mess, A M; Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    cytotrophoblast elsewhere. Next we used character mapping on the recent tree to determine the pattern of evolution of the placenta with respect to principal type (e.g. haemochorial) and the trophoblast found within the interhaemal barrier. This indicated that the common ancestor of living rodents had a......A recent phylogenetic analysis achieved good resolution between the 5 suborders of rodent. As a novel finding it suggested a basal split that gave rise to a monophyletic group comprising Hystricomorpha and Sciuromorpha. We asked whether the new tree could cast light on the evolution of the...... interhaemal barrier in rodents where at least seven variants have been described. To supplement existing data we first examined the placenta of the common gundi, Ctenodactylus gundi. It was shown to be haemochorial with a single layer of syncytiotrophoblast in the interhaemal membrane but with nests of...

  14. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius;

    2010-01-01

    expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000) were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre......-eclampsia as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of......Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...

  15. Trophoblast cells of ruminant placentas - A mini review

    Understanding of ruminant placental structure and function is essential for veterinarians and researchers. The ruminant placenta is classified as cotyledonary and synepitheliochorial on the bases of its gross anatomical features and histological characteristics respectively. The richly vascularized embryonic chorioallantois is lined on its outer surface by cells of the trophectodermal epithelium. These cells which assume specialized functions are referred to as trophoblast cells. Two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types have been recognized in the trophectoderm of the placenta of ruminant animals. These are the mononucleate trophoblast cells and the binucleate trophoblast cells. The occurrence, morphological characteristics, and specialized functions of these trophoblast cells, in relation to conceptus nutrition and survival in utero are discussed in this review. (author)

  16. The human placenta--an alternative for studying foetal exposure

    Myren, Maja; Mose, Tina; Mathiesen, Line;

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women are daily exposed to a wide selection of foreign substances. Sources are as different as lifestyle factors (smoking, daily care products, alcohol consumption, etc.), maternal medication or occupational/environmental exposures. The placenta provides the link between mother and foetus......, and though its main task is to act as a barrier and transport nutrients and oxygen to the foetus, many foreign compounds are transported across the placenta to some degree and may therefore influence the unborn child. Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products may have impact on the...... growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of the foetal organs (e.g. methylmercury and thalidomide). The scope of this review is to give insight to the placental anatomy, development and function. Furthermore, the compounds physical properties and the transfer mechanism across the...

  17. Infectious lesions of placenta as cause of miscarriage

    A. V. Kolobov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the literature demonstratesimportant role played of infections in causes of miscarriage. The paper is based upon retrospective analysis of 12371 screening results of histological and selective immunohistochemical studies of placentas in 2009-12. Preterm births were in 706 cases (5.71%. Infection of the placenta was noted in early preterm labor in all cases (100%, and in premature labor at 28-36 weeks of gestation – in 97.35% of natural delivery cases and in 92.09% when cesarean delivery. Are described the typical structural changes that allow to suspect infections caused by Treponema pallidum, herpes viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus with following verification by immunohistochemical study. 

  18. Characterization and partial purification of phospholipase D from human placenta

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    We report the existence in the human placenta of a phosphatidylcholine- hydrolyzing phospholipase D (PLD) activity, which has been characterized and partially purified. Triton X-100 effectively solubilized PLD from the particulate fraction of human placenta in a dose-dependent manner. However......, but not phosphatidylethanolamine, to the substrate mixture gave rise to a pronounced dose-dependent increase in PLD activity (EC = 0.3 mol%), suggesting a regulatory role of this phospholipid in PLD action. The enzyme was inhibited by sodium oleate when partly or fully substituting for octylglucoside...... in the substrate mixture. The PLD activity was enriched 15-fold by solubilization and purification on a DEAE-Sepharose column. N-Ethylmaleimide (10 mM) markedly inhibited the purified enzyme, indicating the presence of free thiol groups on PLD. Sphingosine (20) µM) and (±) propranolol (53 µM) had no...

  19. Expression of RhoA in Placenta of Preeclampsia

    2006-01-01

    In order to detect the expression of RhoA in placenta from normal pregnancy and preeclampsia and evaluate the role of RhoA in preeclampsia, the expression of RhoA in placenta collected from 40 preeclampsia patientsand 20 normotensive controls was determined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. RhoA was found in syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts. The mean density of RhoA protein in placental tissues of mild and severe preeclampsia groups was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy. The expression level of RhoA mRNA in mild and severe preeclampsia groups was significantly higher than that of normal pregnancy. Increased expression of RhoA in placental tissues might play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  20. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    ... itinerary if not accustomed to planned activities Postpone travel if risks outweigh benefits Box 8-02. Contraindications for travel during pregnancy Absolute Contraindications Abruptio placentae Active labor ...

  1. Molecular mechanism of regulation of iron transport across placenta

    Hanif, R.

    2012-01-01

    During the third trimester of pregnancy, iron transport from mother to the foetus against a concentration gradient determines the iron endowment in foetal and neonatal life. Hfe functions as an upstream regulator of liver hepcidin which has been demonstrated to be a negative regulator of intestinal absorption of dietary iron and macrophage efflux of recycled iron. Hepcidin has also been proposed to be a negative regulator of iron efflux from the placenta, however it is not k...

  2. A Marked Increase in Obstetric Hysterectomy for Placenta Accreta

    Xiao-Yu Pan; Yu-Ping Wang; Zheng Zheng; Yan Tian; Ying-Ying Hu; Su-Hui Han

    2015-01-01

    Background:Obstetric hysterectomy (OH) as a lifesaving measure to manage uncontrolled uterine hemorrhage appears to be increasing recently.The objective of this study was to determine the etiology and changing trends of OH and to identify those at particular risk of OH to enhance the early involvement of multidisciplinary intensive care.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out in patients who had OH in China-Japan Friendship Hospital from 2004 to 2014.Maternal characteristics,preoperative evaluation,operative reports,and prenatal outcomes were studied in detail.Results:There were 19 cases of OH among a total of 18,838 deliveries.Comparing the study periods between 2004-2010 and 2011-2014,OH increased from 0.8/1000 (10/12,890) to 1.5/1000 (9/5948).Indications for OH have changed significantly during this study period with uterine atony decreasing from 50.0% (5/10) to 11.1% (1/9) (P < 0.05),and placenta accreta as the indication for OH has increased significantly from 20.0% (2/10) to 77.8% (7/9) (P < 0.05).Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to make an exact antepartum diagnosis of placenta accreta.A multidisciplinary management led to improved outcomes for patients with placenta accreta.Conclusion:As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen,there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta.An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography,and MRI,and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients' safety and outcome.

  3. Molecular Characterization of the Neuronatin Gene in the Porcine Placenta

    Gu, Ting; Su, Xi; Zhou, Quanyong; Li, Xinyun; Yu, Mei; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Changchun

    2012-01-01

    Imprinted genes play important roles in placental and embryonic development. Neuronatin (NNAT), first identified as an imprinted gene in human and mouse brains, played important roles in neuronal differentiation in the brain and in glucose-mediated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. In the pig, NNAT was reported to be imprinted in eleven tissues. Our previous microarray hybridization study showed that NNAT was differentially expressed in Yorkshire and Meishan pig placentas, but the impr...

  4. The Importance of Imprinting in the Human Placenta

    Frost, J. M.; Moore, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    As a field of study, genomic imprinting has grown rapidly in the last 20 years, with a growing figure of around 100 imprinted genes known in the mouse and approximately 50 in the human. The imprinted expression of genes may be transient and highly tissue-specific, and there are potentially hundreds of other, as yet undiscovered, imprinted transcripts. The placenta is notable amongst mammalian organs for its high and prolific expression of imprinted genes. This review discusses the development...

  5. Downregulation of Mitofusin 2 in Placenta Is Related to Preeclampsia

    Jun Yu; Xijiao Guo; Ruibao Chen; Ling Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a novel mitochondrial protein that is implicated in cellular proliferation and metabolism; however, the role of Mfn2 in preeclampsia (PE) remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the relationship between Mfn2 and PE. Method. Preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were enrolled in a comparative study. The expression of Mfn2 in placenta was detected by qRT-PCR. And the mitochondrial function was detected by ATP assay. Then TEV-1 cells were cultured in hypoxic ...

  6. BCRP/ ABCG2 in the Placenta: Expression, Function and Regulation

    MAO, QINGCHENG

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge concerning transport of maternally administered drugs across the placental barrier is essential for determining potential toxicity of drugs to the fetus and the value of drug therapy during pregnancy. An important determinant for fetal drug exposure is the expression of efflux transporters in the placenta. Among human tissues, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter BCRP (gene symbol ABCG2) is most abundantly expressed in the apical membrane of placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Al...

  7. The importance of imprinting in the human placenta.

    Frost, Jennifer M.; Moore, Gudrun E.

    2010-01-01

    As a field of study, genomic imprinting has grown rapidly in the last 20 years, with a growing figure of around 100 imprinted genes known in the mouse and approximately 50 in the human. The imprinted expression of genes may be transient and highly tissue-specific, and there are potentially hundreds of other, as yet undiscovered, imprinted transcripts. The placenta is notable amongst mammalian organs for its high and prolific expression of imprinted genes. This review discusses the development...

  8. Functional MRI of the placenta – From rodents to humans

    Avni, R.; Neeman, M; Garbow, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta performs a wide range of physiological functions; insufficiencies in these functions may result in a variety of severe prenatal and postnatal syndromes with long-term negative impacts on human adult health. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of placental function, in both animal models and humans, have contributed significantly to our understanding of placental structure, blood flow, oxygenation status, and metabolic profile, and have provided important i...

  9. Multipotent properties of myofibroblast cells derived from human placenta

    Strakova, Zuzana; Livak, Mark; Krezalek, Monika; Ihnatovych, Ivanna

    2008-01-01

    Human uterine fibroblasts (HuF) isolated from the maternal part (decidua parietalis) of a term placenta provide a useful model of in vitro cell differentiation into decidual cells (decidualization), critical for successful pregnancy. After isolation, the cells adhere to plastic and have either a small round or spindle-shaped morphology which later changes into a flattened pattern in culture. HuF robustly proliferate in culture until passage 20 and form colonies when plated at low densities. T...

  10. Expression of natural antimicrobials by human placenta and fetal membranes.

    King, A E; Paltoo, A; Kelly, R W; Sallenave, J-M; Bocking, A D; Challis, J R G

    2007-01-01

    Preterm birth associated with infection is a major clinical problem. We hypothesized that this condition is associated with altered expression of natural antimicrobial molecules (beta-defensins (HBD), elafin). Therefore, we examined expression of these molecules and their regulation by proinflammatory cytokines in placentae and fetal membranes from term pregnancy. HBD1-3 and elafin were localized by immunohistochemistry in fetal membranes and placenta. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine mRNA expression in primary trophoblast cells treated with inflammatory molecules. HBD1-3 and elafin were immunolocalized to placental and chorion trophoblast layers of fetal membranes and placenta. Immunoreactivity was also observed in amnion epithelium and decidua. No differences were noted between samples from women who were not in labour compared to those in active labour. In in vitro cultures of primary trophoblast cells, HBD2 and elafin mRNA expression was upregulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1beta. These results suggest that the chorion and placental trophoblast layers may be key barriers to the progression of infection in the pregnant uterus. Natural antimicrobial expression may be altered in response to inflammatory mediator expression associated with the onset of labour and/or uterine infection, providing increased protection when the uterus may be particularly susceptible to infection. PMID:16513165

  11. Stress state and strain rate dependence of the human placenta.

    Weed, Benjamin C; Borazjani, Ali; Patnaik, Sourav S; Prabhu, R; Horstemeyer, M F; Ryan, Peter L; Franz, Thomas; Williams, Lakiesha N; Liao, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Maternal trauma (MT) in automotive collisions is a source of injury, morbidity, and mortality for both mothers and fetuses. The primary associated pathology is placental abruption in which the placenta detaches from the uterus leading to hemorrhaging and termination of pregnancy. In this study, we focused on the differences in placental tissue response to different stress states (tension, compression, and shear) and different strain rates. Human placentas were obtained (n = 11) for mechanical testing and microstructure analysis. Specimens (n = 4+) were tested in compression, tension, and shear, each at three strain rates (nine testing protocols). Microstructure analysis included scanning electron microscopy, histology, and interrupted mechanical tests to observe tissue response to various loading states. Our data showed the greatest stiffness in tension, followed by compression, and then by shear. The study concludes that mechanical behavior of human placenta tissue (i) has a strong stress state dependence and (ii) behaves in a rate dependent manner in all three stress states, which had previously only been shown in tension. Interrupted mechanical tests revealed differences in the morphological microstructure evolution that was driven by the kinematic constraints from the different loading states. Furthermore, these structure-property data can be used to develop high fidelity constitutive models for MT simulations. PMID:22581478

  12. Comprehensive Imaging Review of Abnormalities of the Placenta.

    Zaidi, Sadaf F; Moshiri, Mariam; Osman, Sherif; Robinson, Tracy J; Siebert, Joseph R; Bhargava, Puneet; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-03-01

    The placenta has a fundamental role in fetal health and functions as an important bridge to normal fetal development throughout pregnancy. A complete fetal ultrasound (US) survey should include full assessment of the placenta for any possible abnormalities. Placental diseases range from abnormal morphology, size, location, extent, and degree of placentation, to abruption and the presence of rare placental neoplasms of benign or malignant nature. Some of these conditions are associated with other diseases including aneuploidies, and their discovery should alert the radiologist to perform a very thorough fetal US examination. At times, a fetal karyotype may be needed to provide additional information. Timely detection of placental abnormalities can alert the clinician regarding the need to make important management decisions to reduce fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Familiarity with the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the placenta is therefore necessary for the radiologist. Ultrasound with Doppler is the initial imaging modality of choice for placental assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging serves as a problem-solving examination in instances where the US findings are equivocal or where additional information is needed. Computed tomography has a limited role in the evaluation of placental disease because of its relatively limited tissue characterization and in particular because of the resultant direct radiation exposure of the fetus. However, in specific instances, particularly after trauma, computed tomography can provide invaluable information for patient management. PMID:26938032

  13. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  14. Caesium transfer to placenta, urine and human milk

    After the Chernobyl accident few measurements on radioactive contamination of maternal milk, placenta and urine of nursing mothers were carried out. Two previous studies on breast milk contamination were conducted in different Italian areas by the Physics Department of the National Institute of Health (Laboratorio di Fisica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita). In the first study conducted in collaboration with the Epidemiological Unit of the Lazio District, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations were measured in mixed breast milk samples pooled from 5-10 women in the first week after delivery, from May 1986 to December 1987, in the Rome area. The second research was conducted, in collaboration with the Lecco Hospital, in 1989 on a group of women living in the Como Lake area (Lombardia), which was one of the areas of Northern Italy most heavily affected by Chernobyl fallout, because of intensive rainfall in the first few days after the accident. The specific diet and caesium content in maternal milk were studied recruiting pregnant women at the ''respiratory autogen training'' course. In this case, Cs-l37, Cs-134 and K-40 concentration in placenta and urine of the mothers under study had also been measured. Aim of this paper is to discuss these data and investigate the relationship between Cs-137 contamination of maternal milk, placenta and urine as a contribution to a better understanding of caesium metabolism in pregnant and nursing women

  15. Artificial placenta: Recent advances and potential clinical applications.

    Metelo-Coimbra, Catarina; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Lung immaturity remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in extremely premature infants. Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation, the method of choice for respiratory support in premature infants, frequently promotes by itself lung injury and a negative impact in the circulatory function. Extracorporeal lung support has been proposed for more than 50 years as a potential alternative to mechanical ventilation in the treatment of severe respiratory failure of extremely premature infants. Recent advances in this field included the development of miniaturized centrifugal pumps and polymethylpentene oxygenators, as well as the successful use of pump-assisted veno-venous extracorporeal gas exchange systems in experimental artificial placenta models. This review, which includes studies published from 1958 to 2015, presents an update on the artificial placenta concept and its potential clinical applications. Special focus will be devoted to the milestones achieved so far and to the limitations that must be overcome before its clinical application. Notwithstanding, the artificial placenta stands as a promising alternative to mechanical ventilation in extremely premature infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:643-649. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26915478

  16. SUCCENTURIATE PLACENTA: AN INCIDENTAL FINDING DURING CESAREAN SECTION

    Unmesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years, 4th Gravida with 3 abortions with history of 8 months amenorrhea was admitted to the hospital with chief complaints of leaking per vagina since 4 hours and was not associated with pain abdomen or bleeding per vaginum. Perceiving decreased fetal movements since 6 hours. She had 3 previous missed abortions followed by D and E. In the present pregnancy, gestational age was 32 weeks at the time of admission. Patient’s general condition was stable, all other investigation were found to be normal her pulse was 100 beats/min, tachycardia present, BP -100/70mmHg. On obstetric examination, uterus was 30 weeks size, 1-2 contraction lasting for 15- 20 seconds, Breech presentation, FHR was 124 per minute, regular, decreased liquor clinically. On vulvovaginal examination- Frank leaking per vagina present. Ultrasound showed single live intrauterine pregnancy of 29 weeks 3 days with breech presentation with oligohydramnios, Placenta was at fundal region, Biophysical profile was 6/8, FHR 124 bpm. After taking high risk consent in view of fetal prematurity, patient was posted for Emergency LSCS. And extracted a single live preterm female baby of weight of 1.45 kg by breech. During the cesarean section, on opening abdomen lower segment was found to be congested with torturous vessels. So we suspected missed diagnosis of placenta previa. After delivery of the baby, we found succenturiate lobe of the placenta occupying lower uterine segment with vessels running across the membrane.

  17. Prominent Expression of Xenobiotic Efflux Transporters in Mouse Extraembryonic Fetal Membranes Compared to Placenta

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Cui, Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal exposure to xenobiotics can be restricted by transporters at the interface between maternal and fetal circulation. Previous work identified transporters in the placenta, however, less is known about the presence of these transporters in the fetal membranes (i.e., yolk sac and amniotic membranes). The purpose of this study was to quantify mRNA and protein expression of xenobiotic transporters in mouse placenta and fetal membranes during mid- to late-gestation. Concepti (placenta and feta...

  18. Real increasing incidence of hysterectomy for placenta accreta following previous caesarean section.

    Higgins, Mary F

    2013-11-01

    Placenta accreta, morbid adherence to the uterus to the myometrium, is commonest in association with placenta previa in women previously delivered by caesarean section (CS). It has become proportionally a greater cause of major maternal morbidity and mortality as the frequency of other serious obstetric complications has declined. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of placenta accreta in the context of a rising caesarean delivery rate.

  19. Fatty acid uptake, transport and storage in placenta in normal and dyslipidemic pregnancies

    2010-01-01

    Transport of fatty acids across the placenta is vital for growth and development of the fetus. The placenta also plays an essential role in the development of preeclampsia, a disease associated with dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. This thesis investigates the role of trophoblasts and placenta in lipid transport and storage in general, and in dyslipidemic pregnancies specifically. The transport and uptake of fatty acids across trophoblast cells were studied in a placental...

  20. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Toky...

  1. The Clinical report of Asthmatic Patients with CVA by treatment of Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    Eun­Gon Kim; Sung-Kyun Kim; Jong-Hyun Han; Shim Yun­Sueb; Lee Jung­Hee

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays Asthma is considered to be an inflamatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, degenerative change ...

  2. Ingested placenta blocks the effect of morphine on gut transit in Long–Evans rats

    Corpening, Dr. James W.; Doerr, Dr. Jean C.; Kristal, Dr. Mark B.

    2004-01-01

    Opioids produce antinociception, and ingested placenta or amniotic fluid modifies that antinociception. More specifically, ingested placenta enhances the antinociception produced by selective activation of central n-opioid or y-opioid receptors but attenuates that produced by activation of central A-opioid receptors. Opioids also slow gut transit by acting on central or peripheral A-opioid receptors. Therefore, we hypothesized that ingested placenta would reverse the slowing of gut transit th...

  3. Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery

    Silvia Canonico; Maurizio Arduini; Giorgio Epicoco; Giuseppe Luzi; Saverio Arena; Graziano Clerici; Giuseppe Affronti

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is one of the most serious complications of placenta previa and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually necessitating hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta previa percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, in which we accomplished conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage. The management we propose includes the following steps: preventive catheterization of the descending aorta via transhumeral access; S...

  4. The effects of Hominis Placenta extract on Melanin synthesis of B16 melanoma cells

    Hyung-Sik Seo

    2006-01-01

    Objective : This research was carried out for the development of medicine for vitiligo treatment and focused on the effect of Hominis Placenta extract on Melanin synthesis of B16 melanoma cells. Methods : Acitivity of tyrosinase playing a vital role in synthesis of Melanin and the quantity of Melanin, which is the final product in cultured B16 melanoma cells, effects of Hominis Placenta extract were measured. Results : The results indicated that Hominis Placenta extract increased both t...

  5. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Pankaj Saini; Jai Prakash Pankaj; Anjali Jain; Gyan Chand Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to...

  6. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E;

    2012-01-01

    between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels of these...... chemicals and reproductive hormone levels in boys at 3 months were studied. Placentas were collected in a Danish-Finnish joint prospective cohort study on cryptorchidism (1997-2001). The boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth and at 3 months. Altogether, 280 placentas [112 Finnish (56 cases, 56...

  7. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF 50 PLACENTAE WITH UMBILICAL CORDS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL RELEVANCE

    Asra Anjum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, pathologists and obstetricians. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 50 placentae which were collected from the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in collaboration with the department of Anatomy, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally, Nalgonda, Telangana, during the period of 2 years. The morphological variations of placenta, the size, shape, weight and attachment of umbilical cord with its blood vessels were observed, recorded and photographed. The prime objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the morphological alterations of placenta and umbilical cord in pregnancy. Results and Conclusion: In the current study, the majority of the placentae showed round shape, few placentae with oval and irregular and with an accessory lobe in single placenta. The current study also includes variations in insertion of umbilical cords was eccentric in majority, central, marginal and velamentous in a few. Pregnancy induced hypertension significantly affects the placenta by reducing weight and it does not have any significant effect on the shape of placenta, umbilical cord insertion and number of cotyledons on maternal surface. The placenta is the most accurate record of the infants prenatal experience.

  8. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Pankaj Saini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies. Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan. Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test. Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion. Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.

  9. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  10. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    Cleys, Ellane R; Halleran, Jennifer L; Enriquez, Vanessa A; da Silveira, Juliano C; West, Rachel C; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V; Bruemmer, Jason E; Clay, Colin M; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  11. Rudimentary horn pregnancy mimicking as a case of placenta accreta

    Aruna Nigam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare condition and it generally culminates in rupture, in second trimester with torrential haemorrhage. The accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing rudimentary horn pregnancy at an advanced gestation still remains elusive. We report a case of unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy which progressed to 38 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis was missed at 24, 30 and 38 weeks of gestation on obstetric sonogram. The diagnosis was made at laparotomy when the patient was planned for caesarean section in view of placenta accreta.

  12. Influence of placental position on obstetric morbidity in placenta previa

    Shripad S. Hebbar

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: It is difficult to assign a maternal or perinatal morbidity risk to a particular type of placental location. The need for specialized surgical intervention such as uterine / internal iliac artery ligation, peripartum hysterectomy can arise irrespective of placental location, whether underneath the surgical incision (anterior, proximity to main uterine trunks (lateral or encountered after the delivery of the baby (posterior. Pregnancies complicated by placenta previa must be delivered in the hospitals having expertise of senior and skilled surgeons and well equipped blood bank and good neonatal intensive care unit. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 585-591

  13. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  14. Purification and characterization of a soluble calnexin from human placenta

    Olsen, Dorthe T; Peng, Li; Træholt, Sofie D;

    2013-01-01

    Calreticulin (Crt) and calnexin (Cnx) are homologous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones involved in protein folding and quality control. Crt is a soluble ER luminal Mr 46 kDa protein and Cnx is a Mr 67kDa ER membrane protein. During purification of Crt from human placenta a soluble form of Cnx...... extraction and initial purification steps were carried out in the presence of protease inhibitors, thus ruling out that the cleavage was an artefact of the isolation procedure. This indicates that sCnx may have a physiological chaperone function similar to that of Crt....

  15. Anatomy and physiology of the embryo, fetus and placenta

    Complexities of fetal and placental development introduce unique problems in quantitating a fetal radiation dose from internal radionuclide contamination. The paper briefly describes the many transitory stages in the development of the fetal organs and placenta from the time of the union of the egg and sperm. Descriptions of migration, differentiation and functional changes of cell lines will illustrate the difficulties in establishing a radiation history. The development of the cells responsible for hematopoiesis are reviewed, along with the thyroid gland and blood brain barrier, because of the importance of these tissues in radiation protection. (author)

  16. Antenatal diagnosis of chorioangioma of the placenta: MR features

    Mochizuki, Takao; Imai, Michiko; Isoda, Haruo [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    We report a case of chorioangioma of the placenta, in which MR findings were useful in establishing the antenatal diagnosis. Polyhydramnios and a placental tumor that was 5 cm in size were visualized. The tumor had relatively high signal intensities on proton density imaging and T2-weighted imaging and showed partially high intensity signal rims on T1-weighted imaging, especially when using a breath-holding technique. Magnetic resonance imaging has an important role in detection and diagnosis of these lesions, particularly the larger tumors, so that appropriate steps can be taken to deal with the complications that may accompany this tumor. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Obesity in pregnancy stimulates macrophage accumulation and inflammation in the placenta

    Challier, JC; Basu, S.; Bintein, T; Hotmire, K.; Minium, J; Catalano, PM; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity and pregnancy are associated with a combination of insulin resistance and inflammatory changes which exacerbate in combination. Based on the similarity between the inflammatory transcriptomes of adipose tissue and placenta, we hypothesized that the placenta develops exaggerated inflammation in response to obesity. The aim of this study was to characterize placental inflammatory mediators and macrophage accumulation in relation to peripheral inflammation in obesity.

  18. Heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta in Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle

    Benedictus, L.; Koets, A.P.; Kuijpers, F.H.J.; Joosten, I.; Eldik, van P.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Failure of the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes, called retained placenta, leads to reduced fertility, increased veterinary costs and reduced milk yields. The objectives of this study were to concurrently look at the heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta and test th

  19. Tumorigenic Factor CRIPTO-1 Is Immunolocalized in Extravillous Cytotrophoblast in Placenta Creta

    Carla Letícia Bandeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CRIPTO-(CR1 is a protein associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here we demonstrate that CR-1 expression in normal and creta placentas is associated with various degrees of uterine invasion. Cytokeratin (CK and CR-1 protein expression was visualized by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded placental specimens (control placentas, n=9; accreta, n=6; increta, n=10; percreta, n=15. The pattern of extravillous trophoblast (EVT cell morphology was distinctive in creta placentas: densely-compacted cell columns and large star-shaped cells with a typically migratory phenotype, not common among third trimester control placentas. Quantification revealed higher CR-1 immunoreactivities in accreta (P=0.001, increta (P=0.0002, and percreta placentas (P=0.001 than in controls. In contrast to controls, there was a significant positive relationship between CR-1 and CK reactivity in all creta placentas (accreta, P=0.02; increta, P=0.0001, and percreta, P=0.025. This study demonstrated CR-1 expression in the placental bed, its increased expression in creta placentas, and EVT cells as the main CR-1-producing cell type. Morphological examination revealed an immature and invasive trophoblast profile in creta placentas, suggesting impairment of the trophoblast differentiation pathway. These findings provide important new insights into the pathophysiology of abnormal creta placentation and its gestational consequences.

  20. Comparative study of transperineal and transvaginal sonography for localization of placenta in antepartum haermorrhage

    Pushpa Dahiya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: So, to conclude transperineal sonography is easy to perform, well tolerated accurate diagnostic tool with high sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values for localisation of placenta cases of APH. TVS can be replaced by TPS in cases of APH for localisation of placenta. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 48-52

  1. Stem villous arteries from the placentas of heavy smokers: functional and mechanical properties

    Clausen, Helle Vibeke; Jorgensen, J C; Ottesen, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the mechanical and functional properties of isolated small stem villous arteries from the placentas of women who smoked heavily (>/=15 cigarettes/d) during pregnancy with those from the placentas of nonsmokers. STUDY DESIGN: Isolated stem villous...

  2. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible.

  3. The Case Report of Trigger Finger Improved with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture Treatment

    Jeong-Won Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The Purpose of this study is to investigate and report the effectiveness of Hominis Placenta using Pharmacopuncture treatment for trigger finger. Methods : 3 Patients are admitted at Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation, Bu-Chun Jaseng Oriental Medicine Hospital, diagnosed as Trigger finger and treated with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture. Each cases are measured and assessed by Quinnell's classification of triggering and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale scores. Results : 3 Patients of trigger finger have a different kind of cause and fingers lesion they have, but nodules are not significantly found up, so we could classify all of 3 patients to diffuse type. After treatment of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture, spontaneous pain and tenderness, grades of triggering are decreased significantly. We would expect that Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture has a effect on degenerative diseases of diffuse type's tendon sheath. Conclusions : Trigger finger is generally divided into two stages, inflammatory and degenerative stage, and when degenerative stage, Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture appears to be effective.

  4. [MRI evaluation of placenta accreta treated by embolization. Apropos of a case. Review of the literature].

    Lemercier, E; Genevois, A; Descargue, G; Clavier, E; Benozio, M

    1999-04-01

    Placenta accreta results from an abnormal attachment of the placenta to the uterine myometrium. The reported incidence in literature is variable, with an average of 1/7000 pregnancies. This condition is associated with a significant risk of bleeding at the time of delivery, usually requiring hysterectomy. Sonography associated with color Doppler is useful for diagnosis, but MRI can be used successfully to evaluate the degree of placental tissue invading into the myometrium, the serosa, and for follow-up after conservative management. To our knowledge, only two cases of placenta accreta evaluated with MR and six cases of placenta accreta treated by embolization have been reported in the literature. The authors report one case of placenta accreta treated successfully by embolization, and followed-up by MRI. PMID:10337578

  5. Suspected invasive placenta: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging

    Bour, Laurence; Place, Vinciane; Bendavid, Sandra; Fargeaudou, Yann [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris cedex 10 (France); Portal, Jean-Jacques [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Paris cedex 10 (France); Ricbourg, Aude [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Paris cedex 10 (France); Sebbag, Delphine; Dohan, Anthony; Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris cedex 10 (France); Diderot-Paris 7 University-Sorbonne Paris-Cite, Paris (France); Vicaut, Eric [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Paris cedex 10 (France); Diderot-Paris 7 University-Sorbonne Paris-Cite, Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    To determine the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing invasive placenta (IP). MRI findings in 32 women with suspected IP were evaluated independently by four readers. Interobserver agreement was calculated with kappa (κ) statistics. Associations between MRI findings and IP were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of IP were estimated. Sixteen women (16/32; 50 %) had confirmed IP. Interobserver correlation for the diagnosis of IP was fair (κ = 0.40). Univariate analysis revealed that thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface (P < 0.0001) was the most discriminating MRI variable in the differentiation between normal and IP. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI for the diagnosis of IP were 84 % [95 % CI: 75-94 %] and 80 % [95 % CI: 66-93 %], respectively. Thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface was the most accurate finding (88 %) in the diagnosis of IP. Multivariate analysis revealed that thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface was the single independent predictor of IP (P = 0.0006; OR = 64.99). MR imaging has 84 % sensitivity [95 % CI: 75-94 %] and 80 % specificity [95 % CI: 66-93 %] for the diagnosis of IP. Thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface is the most discriminating independent MR variable in differentiating between normal placenta and IP. (orig.)

  6. The placenta: the forgotten essential organ of iron transport.

    Cao, Chang; Fleming, Mark D

    2016-07-01

    Optimal iron nutrition in utero is essential for development of the fetus and helps establish birth iron stores adequate to sustain growth in early infancy. In species with hemochorial placentas, such as humans and rodents, iron in the maternal circulation is transferred to the fetus by directly contacting placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Early kinetic studies provided valuable data on the initial uptake of maternal transferrin, an iron-binding protein, by the placenta. However, the remaining steps of iron trafficking across syncytiotrophoblasts and through the fetal endothelium into the fetal blood remain poorly characterized. Over the last 20 years, identification of transmembrane iron transporters and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin has greatly expanded the knowledge of cellular iron transport and its regulation by systemic iron status. In addition, emerging human and animal data demonstrating comprised fetal iron stores in severe maternal iron deficiency challenge the classic dogma of exclusive fetal control over the transfer process and indicate that maternal and local signals may play a role in regulating this process. This review compiles current data on the kinetic, molecular, and regulatory aspects of placental iron transport and considers new questions and knowledge gaps raised by these advances. PMID:27261274

  7. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  8. DNA flow cytometric analysis in variable types of hydropic placentas

    Fatemeh Atabaki pasdar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differential diagnosis between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion, known as hydropic placentas is still a challenge for pathologists but it is very important for patient management. Objective: We analyzed the nuclear DNA content of various types of hydropic placentas by flowcytometry. Materials and Methods: DNA ploidy analysis was performed in 20 non-molar (hydropic and non-hydropic spontaneous abortions and 20 molar (complete and partial moles, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by flow cytometry. The criteria for selection were based on the histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Of 10 cases histologically diagnosed as complete hydatiform mole, 9 cases yielded diploid histograms, and 1 case was tetraploid. Of 10 partial hydatidiform moles, 8 were triploid and 2 were diploid. All of 20 cases diagnosed as spontaneous abortions (hydropic and non-hydropic yielded diploid histograms. Conclusion: These findings signify the importance of the combined use of conventional histology and ploidy analysis in the differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion.

  9. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  10. An immunohistochemical assay to detect trophoblasts in frozen feline placenta.

    Scott, Veronica L; Wallace, Kedra; Mays, Stephany; Ryan, Peter; Coats, Karen S

    2011-03-01

    The placenta, a fetal endocrine organ, is composed of subpopulations of trophoblasts, including cytotrophoblasts, and syncytiotrophoblasts. Trophoblastic populations can be distinguished based upon their expression of cytokeratin. The purpose of the current study was to develop an immunohistochemistry (IHC) method to identify trophoblasts selectively in frozen feline placental tissue using antibodies specific for cytokeratin. The mouse monoclonal antibody anti-human pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and a commercial detection system were used. Nonspecific immunoreactivity was encountered that could not be eliminated with altered blocking methods. The nonspecific reactivity was attributed to the goat anti-mouse/rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) peroxidase polymer included in the commercial kit. Alternatively, a polyclonal rabbit anti-cow cytokeratin wide spectrum screening antibody with goat anti-rabbit IgG polyclonal secondary antibody was used to detect cytokeratin in feline placental tissue. The IHC procedure eliminated nonspecific immunoreactivity while specifically labeling cytokeratin. This new approach provides an IHC method to identify trophoblasts specifically in feline placenta. PMID:21398447

  11. Barrier function of the placenta and microdistribution of 238Pu in the feto-placental complex of the rat

    Investigation materials, methods and results are presented. The aim of the investigation was to determine mechanisms of 238Pu transfer through pregnant rats depending on pregnancy time and to determine peculiarities of 238Pu microdistribution in feature tissues and placenta structures. 238Pu distribution in amnious, fetal placenta labyrinthine part and maternal placenta is shown

  12. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in placenta and umbilical cord blood and dietary intake for women in Beijing, China

    Placenta and umbilical cord blood are important media for investigating maternal–fetal exposure to environmental pollutants. Historically hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were once widely-used in China. In this study, residues of HCHs were measured in placenta and umbilical cord blood samples for 40 women from Beijing. The measured median values of HCHs were 62.0 and 68.8 ng/g fat in placenta and umbilical cord blood, respectively. Concentrations of HCHs in placenta and umbilical cord blood of urban cohort were higher than those of rural group due to enhanced consumption of fish, meat, and milk. Residues of HCHs in placenta were significantly correlated with total food consumption, dietary intake, and maternal age, and could be predicted using the parameters dependent upon ingestion of meat and milk. The transplacental exposure of fetuses to HCHs was revealed by a close association between the residual levels in the paired placenta and the paired umbilical cord blood samples. -- Highlights: •Medians of HCH in placenta and umbilical cord blood of 40 puerperal women from Beijing were 62.0 and 68.8 ng/g⋅fat. •HCHs in placenta and umbilical cord blood of urban cohort were higher than those of rural one. •HCH residues in placenta were significantly correlated with total food consumption, daily dietary intake, and maternal age. •The transplacental exposure of fetus to HCHs was revealed. -- HCHs in placenta of women in Beijing were significantly correlated with total food consumption, dietary intake, and maternal age

  13. Morbidly Adherent Placenta: Ultrasound Assessment and Supplemental Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Shetty, Mahesh K; Dryden, Damla K

    2015-08-01

    Morbidly adherent placenta or placenta accreta is being increasingly encountered in obstetrical practice mainly owing to the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. This condition is associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality resulting from postpartum hemorrhage. When unsuspected, outcomes can be catastrophic to the pregnant woman. Timely diagnosis during the antenatal period, on the contrary, allows for optimal planning of a multidisciplinary management approach and delivery at a tertiary care institution. A higher index of suspicion in those at greatest risk such as in women with placenta previa and with history of some prior cesarean deliveries should lead to diligent antenatal evaluation for possible placenta accreta. Management of invasive placenta implantation often involves cesarean delivery hysterectomies; uterus-sparing alternatives to manage this condition can be an option in selected cases. Ultrasound imaging remains the modality of choice for the diagnosis. This review article discusses the ultrasound image findings in placenta accreta, its limitations and pitfalls, and the supplemental role of magnetic resonance imaging in the imaging evaluation of placenta accreta. PMID:26296483

  14. Kinetic assessment of manganese using magnetic resonance imaging in the dually perfused human placenta in vitro

    The transfer and distribution of paramagnetic manganese was investigated in the dually perfused human placenta in vitro (using 10, 20, 100 μM Mn with and without 54Mn) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional radiochemical techniques. The human placenta concentrated 54Mn rapidly during the first 15 min of perfusion and by 4 hr was four times greater than the concentrations of Mn in the maternal perfusate, while the concentration of Mn in the fetal perfusate was 25% of the maternal perfusate levels. Within placentae, 45% of the 54Mn was free in the 100,000g supernatant, with 45% in the 1000g pellet. The magnetic field dependence of proton nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) in placental tissue supports this Mn binding. Mn primarily affected the MRI partial saturation rather than spin-echo images of the human placenta, which provided for the separation of perfusate contributions from those produced by Mn. The washout of the Mn from the placenta was slow compared with its uptake, as determined by MRI. Thus, Mn was concentrated by the human placenta, but transfer of Mn across the placenta was limited in either direction. These studies also illustrate the opportunity for studies of human placental function using magnetic resonance imaging as a noninvasive biomarker

  15. Inhibition of placenta growth factor with TB-403

    Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    targeting angiogenesis. AREAS COVERED: The data are obtained by searching in the PubMed database. The search terms used included antiangiogenic therapy, TB-403 (RO5323441), placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFR-1 (Flt-1). We review preclinical data concerning the function and inhibition of PlGF and...... summarize data on expression of PlGF in cancer patients. Data from early-phase clinical trials of TB-403 (RO5323441), a monoclonal antibody inhibiting PlGF, are discussed. Future development strategies, therapeutic potentials and limitations of TB-403 are further evaluated. EXPERT OPINION: There are some...... conflicting data on the function of PlGF and the importance of its role in primary tumor growth. Data from some preclinical models of PlGF inhibition and early-phase clinical trials with TB-403 are, however, promising, although the true potential of the drug is yet to be determined. Further clinical...

  16. Placenta-based therapies for the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa.

    Nevala-Plagemann, Christopher; Lee, Catherine; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe blistering skin disease caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene. These mutations lead to decreased or absent levels of collagen VII at the dermal-epidermal junction. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the treatment of RDEB, including the use of hematopoietic cell transplantation, but a cure has been elusive. Patients still experience life-limiting and life-threatening complications as a result of painful and debilitating wounds. The continued suffering of these patients drives the need to improve existing therapies and develop new ones. In this Review, we will discuss how recent advances in placenta-based, umbilical cord blood-based and amniotic membrane-based therapies may play a role in the both the current and future treatment of RDEB. PMID:25795271

  17. Zika virus productively infects primary human placenta-specific macrophages

    Jurado, Kellie Ann; Simoni, Michael K.; Tang, Zhonghua; Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Householder, Sarah; Wu, Mingjie; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Guller, Seth; Fikrig, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The strong association of Zika virus infection with congenital defects has led to questions of how a flavivirus is capable of crossing the placental barrier to reach the fetal brain. Here, we demonstrate permissive Zika virus infection of primary human placental macrophages, commonly referred to as Hofbauer cells, and placental villous fibroblasts. We also demonstrate Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells within the context of the tissue ex vivo using term placental villous explants. In addition to amplifying infectious virus within a usually inaccessible area, the putative migratory activities of Hofbauer cells may aid in dissemination of Zika virus to the fetal brain. Understanding the susceptibility of placenta-specific cell types will aid future work around and understanding of Zika virus–associated pregnancy complications.

  18. High temporal resolution dynamic contrast MRI in a high risk group for placenta accreta.

    Tanaka, Y O; Sohda, S; Shigemitsu, S; Niitsu, M; Itai, Y

    2001-06-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta with MR is not easy even now because T2-weighted images (T2WI) cannot differentiate chorionic villi from decidua basalis. We performed dynamic contrast MRI to study whether trophoblastic villi could be separately demonstrated from the decidua basalis, and whether the contrast resolution between the placenta and myometrium could improve compared to T2WI. Six pregnant women with prior cesarean section were examined at 34-38 gestational weeks. Sagittal T2-weighted images with fast spin echo sequences and dynamic contrast studies with fast field echo sequence every 10-14 s after contrast injection were performed. We analyzed the enhancing pattern of the placenta and compared the contrast between placenta and myometrium. We reviewed medical records to identify complications during the placental delivery and the complications of their newborns. In the early phase after contrast enhancement, multiple foci of the strong lobular enhancement were observed in all cases. Other parts of placenta were slowly but strongly enhanced following them. We speculated that the former corresponded to intervillous space and the latter decidua basalis. The contrast between placenta and myometrium tended to be distinct near the inner cervical os on both T2WI and dynamic contrast study. On the other hand, it was indistinct in the upper part of the uterine body on T2WI despite it was clearly demonstrated on dynamic contrast study. The placentae were delivered without any complication in all cases. Although two neonates showed fetal distress, none of the infant remained any sequelae at the time of the discharge. The other four were well although one of them complicated with meconium staining. As dynamic contrast MRI can differentiate chorionic villi and decidua basalis, and can provide excellent contrast between placenta and myometrium at anywhere within the uterus, it may be a promising technique for antepartum diagnosis of the placenta accreta. PMID

  19. Human placenta processed for encapsulation contains modest concentrations of 14 trace minerals and elements.

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; David, Winnie B; Teng, Yuanxin; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal placentophagy has recently emerged as a rare but increasingly popular practice among women in industrialized countries who often ingest the placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement, seeking its many purported postpartum health benefits. Little scientific research, however, has evaluated these claims, and concentrations of trace micronutrients/elements in encapsulated placenta have never been examined. Because the placenta retains beneficial micronutrients and potentially harmful toxic elements at parturition, we hypothesized that dehydrated placenta would contain detectable concentrations of these elements. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation to evaluate the concentration of 14 trace minerals/elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed detectable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Based on one recommended daily intake of placenta capsules (3300 mg/d), a daily dose of placenta supplements contains approximately 0.018 ± 0.004 mg copper, 2.19 ± 0.533 mg iron, 0.005 ± 0.000 mg selenium, and 0.180 ± 0.018 mg zinc. Based on the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for lactating women, the recommended daily intake of placenta capsules would provide, on average, 24% RDA for iron, 7.1% RDA for selenium, 1.5% RDA for zinc, and 1.4% RDA for copper. The mean concentrations of potentially harmful elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium) were well below established toxicity thresholds. These results indicate that the recommended daily intake of encapsulated placenta may provide only a modest source of some trace micronutrients and a minimal source of toxic elements. PMID:27440542

  20. Hysterectomy as a Management Option for Morbidly Adherent Placenta

    Objective: To determine the outcome of interval (delayed) hysterectomy as compared to cesarean (immediate) hysterectomy in cases of placental invasion in previous cesarean sections. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Unit II, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2008 to June 2011. Methodology: The study subjects included 28 women with history of previous cesarean section who had low lying as well as morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) of variable degree. Patients were classified into two groups (group A and B) according to whether cesarean or interval hysterectomy was needed at time of delivery. Demographic data, obstetrical risk factors such as parity and number of previous cesarean sections were compared as well as radiological and histopathological findings, and details of the management. Chi-square, Fisher's exact and t-tests were used to compare proportions and mean values. Results: The frequency of MAP in previous cesarean sections turned out to be 1.83/1000 (28/15,340) deliveries. Mean maternal age (26.54 vs. 29.13 years, p=0.05), mean gestational age (33.8 vs. 36 weeks, p=0.05), estimated blood loss (2615.38 vs. 1506.6 mL, p=0.001), volume of blood transfused (9.76 vs. 2.9 pints, p=0.001) and the duration of hospital stay (10.69 vs. 32.86 days, p=0.001) differed significantly between group A and group B. One maternal death occurred in each group. Eight patients had other complications in group A compared to 3 patients in group B. Three neonatal deaths occurred in group A compared to nil in group B. Conclusion: The frequency of morbidly adherent placenta was 1.83/1000 deliveries. The management and outcome differed markedly according to emergency and scheduled antenatal diagnosis. Counselling and antenatal radiological screening can reduce the high morbidity and mortality associated with it. (author)

  1. Presence and concentration of 17 hormones in human placenta processed for encapsulation and consumption.

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; Zava, David; Kimball, David W; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-07-01

    Human maternal placentophagy is a rare but growing practice in several industrialized countries among postpartum mothers seeking a variety of purported health benefits attributed to the practice. These postpartum mothers typically consume their placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement. To determine whether free (unconjugated) steroid hormones and melatonin in placenta can survive the encapsulation process (namely steaming and dehydration), we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to evaluate the concentration of 17 hormones. The results revealed detectable concentrations for 16 of the hormones analyzed, some in concentrations that could conceivably yield physiological effects. PMID:27324105

  2. Expression and protein localisation of IGF2 in the marsupial placenta

    Shaw Geoff; Pask Andrew J; Ager Eleanor I; Renfree Marilyn B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In eutherian mammals, genomic imprinting is critical for normal placentation and embryo survival. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is imprinted in the placenta of both eutherians and marsupials, but its function, or that of any imprinted gene, has not been investigated in any marsupial. This study examines the role of IGF2 in the yolk sac placenta of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Results IGF2 mRNA and protein were produced in the marsupial placenta. Both IGF2 re...

  3. Expression and protein localisation of IGF2 in the marsupial placenta

    Ager, Eleanor I; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoff; Marilyn B Renfree

    2008-01-01

    Background In eutherian mammals, genomic imprinting is critical for normal placentation and embryo survival. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is imprinted in the placenta of both eutherians and marsupials, but its function, or that of any imprinted gene, has not been investigated in any marsupial. This study examines the role of IGF2 in the yolk sac placenta of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Results IGF2 mRNA and protein were produced in the marsupial placenta. Both IGF2 receptors w...

  4. Primary cesarean delivery results in emergency hysterectomy due to placenta accreta: a case study.

    Humphrey, Jaclyn

    2015-02-01

    Placenta accreta is a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage, a situation that remains the most significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is generally recognized that a previous cesarean delivery increases the risk of placenta accreta. However, the risk also increases with previous intrauterine procedures. In 2010, The Joint Commission released a sentinel event alert regarding the prevention of maternal death, which recommended the adoption of protocols to treat postpartum hemorrhage. This case study demonstrates the success of quickly initiating protocol interventions necessary to prevent disseminated intravascular coagulation and maternal mortality, while reviewing current literature on risk identification, management, and treatment of obstetric hemorrhage resulting from placenta accreta. PMID:25842631

  5. Immunohistologic detection of antigen related to primate type C retrovirus p30 in normal human placentas.

    Maeda, S.; Mellors, R C; Mellors, J. W.; Jerabek, L. B.; Zervoudakis, I. A.

    1983-01-01

    This study reports the immunohistologic detection of SSAV/GaLV type C retrovirus p30-related antigen in unfixed cryostat sections of normal human term placentas by the indirect immunofluorescence method. Goat anti-SSAV p28 serum reacted specifically with 10 of 10 anatomic specimens of human placenta. Goat anti-GaLV p29 serum reacted similarly with 8 of 10 specimens. Goat anti-BaEV p28, anti-RD-114 p28, anti-FeLV p27, anti-R-MuLV p30, and anti-MPMV p27 gave no specific reaction with placenta. ...

  6. Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Marques, Ernesto T A; Cartus, Abigail; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis. PMID:26952548

  7. The evolving placenta: Convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship

    Enders, A C; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2012-01-01

    of maternal endothelium, interstitial lamina, trophoblast, individual or conjoint basal laminas, and fetal endothelium. We commonly think of such placentas as having hypertrophied maternal endothelium with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and as having hemophagous regions. Considering them...

  8. Integrative transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulation of canonical cancer molecular pathways in placenta leading to preeclampsia

    Moslehi, Roxana; Mills, James L; Signore, Caroline; Kumar, Anil; Ambroggio, Xavier; Dzutsev, Amiran

    2013-01-01

    We previously suggested links between specific XPD mutations in the fetal genome and the risk of placental maldevelopment and preeclampsia, possibly due to impairment of Transcription Factor (TF)IIH-mediated functions in placenta. To identify the underlying mechanisms, we conducted the current integrative analysis of several relevant transcriptome data sources. Our meta-analysis revealed downregulation of TFIIH subunits in preeclamptic placentas. Our overall integrative analysis suggested tha...

  9. Environmental Levels of para-Nonylphenol Are Able to Affect Cytokine Secretion in Human Placenta

    Bechi, Nicoletta; Ietta, Francesca; Romagnoli, Roberta; Jantra, Silke; Cencini, Marco; Galassi, Gianmichele; Serchi, Tommaso; Corsi, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Paulesu, Luana

    2009-01-01

    Background para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) is a metabolite of alkylphenols widely used in the chemical industry and manufacturing. It accumulates in the environment, where it acts with estrogen-like activity. We previously showed that p-NP acts on human placenta by inducing trophoblast differentiation and apoptosis. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of p-NP on cytokine secretion in human placenta. Methods In vitro cultures of chorionic villous explants from human pl...

  10. Clearance of α-aminoisobutyric acid during in-situ perfusion of the guinea pig placenta

    Extensive investigation of the transport of α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; a nonmetabolized amino acid) has shown that AIB is actively transported from mother to fetus across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig. As a step towards clarifying the relative rolls of active and passive movements of amino acids across the placenta, it would be useful to obtain concurrent measurements of transplacental movements of a substance which crosses the placenta rapidly by simple diffusion (water) and of a substance which is actively transported across the placenta (AIB). In our study, placentas from guinea pigs between 59 and 61 days of gestation were perfused in situ through cannulated umbilical vessels with the maternal circulation left intact. Tritiated water and 14C-AIB were injected into a maternal jugular vein and maternal blood samples were obtained at 1 to 10 minute intervals; perfusate samples were collected sequentially after one pass through the placenta. Clearance of 14C-AIB from mother to fetus (AIB/sub MF/) and AIB concentrations in placental tissue, maternal plasma, and perfusate were consistent in magnitude with data obtained by other invetigators who have clearly shown an active transport of AIB in the placenta. On the other hand, in this study AIB/sub MF/ ranged from approximately 50% to 96% of the clearance of 3H-labeled water from mother to fetus (T/sub MF/) and that changes in AIB/sub MF/ correlated closely with changes in T/sub MF/ in all perfusions. Thus, it appears that AIB/sub MF/ closely paralleled T/sub MF/ and these data suggest that a relatively large component of AIB/sub MF/ is of passive origin in the in situ placenta

  11. Extrafetal findings at fetal MR: evaluation of the normal placenta and correlation with ultrasound.

    Victoria, Teresa; Johnson, Ann M; Kramer, Sandra S; Coleman, Beverly; Bebbington, Michael; Epelman, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of magnetic resonance (MR) for fetal imaging, few studies have addressed the MR appearance of the normal placenta. The goal of this paper is to describe the MR features and thickness of the normal placenta during the second and early third trimester of gestation, based on a retrospective study comparing MR with the reference standard of obstetric imaging, ultrasound. PMID:21872127

  12. Pathologic examination of the placenta: recommended versus observed practice in a university hospital

    Sills A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amber Sills,1 Carmen Steigman,2 Songthip T Ounpraseuth,3 Imelda Odibo,1 Adam T Sandlin,1 Everett F Magann11Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 3Department of Biostatistics, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USAIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of appropriate placental examinations in a university hospital.Methods: A retrospective review of all deliveries and all placentas submitted for pathologic examination from live births. Placentas were reviewed by a perinatal pathologist to determine whether they met the College of American Pathologists (CAP-recommended guidelines for examination.Results: We used 1346 deliveries between July 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010 as the basis of this review. According to CAP guidelines, 703 placentas (52.2% should have been sent for pathologic examination; 575/703 (81.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 78.9–84.7 were actually sent for examination. Of the 643 placentas that did not need to be examined per CAP guidelines, 568 (88.3%; 95% CI = 85.9–90.8 were appropriately not sent. In comparing the three categories of indications for examination (maternal, fetal/neonatal, placental, the only significant association was that women with fetal/neonatal indications were more likely to have their placenta sent than women with maternal indications (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% CI = 1.81–3.80.Conclusion: In this university hospital, more than 80% of the time, placentas were appropriately sent to pathology, and more than 85% of the time, placentas that should not have been sent for evaluation were not sent.Keywords: placenta, pathologic examination, clinical guidelines, birth

  13. Mother's lifetime nutrition and the size, shape and efficiency of the placenta

    Winder, N.R.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.C.; Karat, C.L.S.; Thornburg, K. L.; Fall, C H D; Barker, D. J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that the shape and size of the placenta at birth predict blood pressure in later life. The influences that determine placental morphology are largely unknown. We have examined the role of mother’s body size. Methods We studied 522 neonates who were born in a maternity hospital in Mysore, South India. The weight of the placenta and the length and breadth of its surface, were measured after delivery. Results Higher maternal fat mass predicted ...

  14. A STUDY OF MIGRATION OF LOW LYING PLACENTA IN A TER TIARY INDIAN HOSPITAL

    Sharmistha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Context of the study: Low lying placenta alarms obstetrician about antepar tum haemorrhage which is a major cause of maternal mort ality and morbidity in India. The incidence is increasing with availability of antena tal scan, elderly mothers, repeated usage of dilatation and curettage and high rate of Caesarean sections in tertiary hospitals. AIM OF THIS STUDY was to find out the incidence of placental migratio n in the present study and factors influencing the same. SETTING AND DESIGN: The study was done in Kolkata Medical College during July 2007 to June 2008. It was a prospective l ongitudinal study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 726 antenatal mother was attended in this stu dy at Kolkata Medical College. Sixty mothers had low lying placenta by transabdomin al scan confirmed by transvaginal scan. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were put on Microsoft excel chart. Percentage and p value were calculated using statistics software Epi info. RESULTS: The incidence of low lying placenta in our study was 8.26%.Subsequent sonography at four we eks interval showed placenta was moving more than three centimeter from internal os among 41 mothers. The rate of placental migration was 68.3% in the present study. The preval ence of placenta praevia at term was 2.61%. Age had no relationship but increasing parity of mother and increasing number of abdominal deliveries had direct relationship with lo w lying placental incidence. When the distance between leading edge of placenta and intern al os was less than 1.5 centimeter, placental migration was not seen. About 88.23% cases placental migration was seen when the distance was more than 2 centimeter. Posterior place nta had more rate of migration (81.81% than anterior. CONCLUSION: Migration of low lying placenta was influenced by ma ternal age, parity, mode of delivery and position of the placenta

  15. Morphological study of human heart and placenta in the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis

    Abdul-Ogly L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Probability of abnormal development is high in certain periods when the increased sensitiveness of embryo and fetus takes place. Influence of damaging factors as maternal infection and, consequently, fetal infection is a reason of abnormal development. Morphological characteristics of heart and placenta were studied during the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis. 17 embryos, fetuses and placenta of 4-12 weeks were used. Abortions were made according to medical statements or mate...

  16. Paraoxonase 2 protein is spatially expressed in the human placenta and selectively reduced in labour

    Alwarfaly, Samy; Abdulsid, Akrem; Hanretty, Kevin; Lyall, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Humans parturition involves interaction of hormonal, neurological, mechanical stretch and inflammatory pathways and the placenta plays a crucial role. The paraoxonases (PONs 1–3) protect against oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulation of apoptosis. Nothing is known about the role of PON2 in the placenta and labour. Since PON2 plays a role in oxidative stress and inflammation, both features of labour, we hypothesised that placental PON...

  17. A STUDY OF HISTO PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF PLACENTA I N SEVERE ANAEMIA

    Adil; Nausheen Rumana

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Maternal disorders will influence the placenta, as it forms a functional unit between the mother and the fetus. S evere anaemia has many effects on important organs. In pregnancy it is associated with late abortions, prematurity, low birth weight and stillbirths 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Microscopic abnormalities of placenta may provide cru cial information. Hence, the present study was under take n to analyse, the spectrum of histopatholog...

  18. Differences in Gene Expression between First and Third Trimester Human Placenta: A Microarray Study

    Sitras, Vasilis; Fenton, Christopher Graham; Paulssen, Ruth H.; Vårtun, Åse; Acharya, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Background The human placenta is a rapidly developing organ that undergoes structural and functional changes throughout the pregnancy. Our objectives were to investigate the differences in global gene expression profile, the expression of imprinted genes and the effect of smoking in first and third trimester normal human placentas. Materials and Methods Placental samples were collected from 21 women with uncomplicated pregnancies delivered at term and 16 healthy women undergoing termination o...

  19. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species and Functional Adaptation of the Placenta

    Myatt, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The placenta regulates fetal growth and development via transport of nutrients and gases, and synthesis and secretion of steroid and peptide hormones. These functions are determined by vascular development and blood flow and by growth and differentiation of the trophoblast, which contains receptors, transporters and enzymes. The placenta generates reactive oxygen species which may contribute to the oxidative stress seen even in normal pregnancy but this is increased in pregnancies complicated...

  20. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF 50 PLACENTAE WITH UMBILICAL CORDS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL RELEVANCE

    Asra Anjum; D.Suseelamma; S. Saritha; T.V. Ramani; D. Nagajyothi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, patholog...

  1. The Human Placenta Project: Placental Structure, Development, and Function in Real Time

    Guttmacher, Alan E.; Maddox, Yvonne T.; Spong, Catherine Y.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its crucial role in the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman, the placenta is the least understood human organ. Since a growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental development in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring, this lack of knowledge about placental structure and function is particularly concerning. Given modern approaches and technologies and the ability to develop new methods, we propose a coordinated “Human Placenta Project,” w...

  2. Infant growth restriction is associated with distinct patterns of DNA methylation in human placentas

    Banister, Carolyn E.; Koestler, Devin C; Maccani, Matthew A; Padbury, James F.; Houseman, E. Andres; Marsit, Carmen J.

    2011-01-01

    The placenta acts not only as a conduit of nutrient and waste exchange between mother and developing fetus, but also functions as a regulator of the intrauterine environment. Recent work has identified changes in the expression of candidate genes, often through epigenetic alteration, which alter the placenta's function and impact fetal growth. In this study, we used the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip array to examine genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in 206 term human placen...

  3. Phosphorus metabolites in the human placenta estimated in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Weindling, A M; Griffiths, R. D.; Garden, A S; P. A. Martin; Edwards, R H

    1991-01-01

    Normal human placental metabolism has been studied in vivo by image localised 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 13 women with anterior placentas; five, however, were too fat for useful spectral signals to be obtained. Magnetic resonance spectra of good quality which were considered to have arisen from the placenta were obtained from seven women with uncomplicated pregnancies (median gestational age 35 weeks, range 28-39). One other woman had a twin pregnancy in which one fetus had died a...

  4. COW PLACENTA EXTRACT PROMOTES MURINE HAIR GROWTH THROUGH ENHANCING THE INSULIN - LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1

    Dongliang Zhang; Lijuan Gu; Jingjie Li; Zheng Li; Chunyan Wang; Zhen Wang; Lei Liu; Mira Li; Changkeun Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE), water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice fo...

  5. Uterine Rupture with Massive Late Postpartum Hemorrhage due to Placenta Percreta Left Partially In Situ

    Mehmet Coskun Salman; Pinar Calis; Ozgur Deren

    2013-01-01

    Placental adhesive disorders involve the growth of placental tissue into or through the uterine wall. Among these disorders, placenta percreta is the rarest one. However, it may cause significant complications. This report aimed to report a neglected patient with placenta percreta who developed uterine rupture with life-threatening late postpartum intra-abdominal hemorrhage. On admission, the patient had acute abdomen with moderate abdominal distention and was subjected to emergency laparotom...

  6. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages.

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas. PMID:27136536

  7. The placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the Mammalian placenta.

    Ferner, Kirsten; Siniza, Swetlana; Zeller, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    Placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. In this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. The morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of Marsupialia, have already been reconstructed. To contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of Placentalia, a histological and ultrastructural investigation of the placenta in three representatives of Eulipotyphla, that is, core insectivores, has been carried out in this study. We studied the Musk shrew (Suncus murinus), the four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). As a result, a eulipotyphlan placental morphotype consisting of a compact and invasive placenta was reconstructed. This supports the widely accepted hypothesis that the stem lineage of Placentalia is characterized by an invasive, either endothelio- or hemochorial placenta. Evolutionary transformations toward a diffuse, noninvasive placenta occurred in the stem lineages of lower primates and cetartiodactyles and were associated with prolonged gestation and the production of few and highly precocial neonates. Compared to the choriovitelline placenta of Marsupialia, the chorioallantoic placenta of Placentalia allows for a more intimate contact and is associated with more advanced neonates. PMID:24797275

  8. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas. PMID:27136536

  9. Placenta Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes Confer Plasticity on Fibroblasts.

    Tooi, Masayuki; Komaki, Motohiro; Morioka, Chikako; Honda, Izumi; Iwasaki, Kengo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Ayame, Hirohito; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) has been reported to enhance wound healing. Exosomes contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, and function as an intercellular communication vehicle for mediating some paracrine effects. However, the function of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-exo) remains elusive. In this study, we isolated human placenta MSC (PlaMSC)-derived exosomes (PlaMSC-exo) and examined their function in vitro. PlaMSCs were isolated from human term placenta using enzymatic digestion. PlaMSC-exo were prepared from the conditioned medium of PlaMSC (PlaMSC-CM) by ultracentrifugation. The expression of stemness-related genes, such as OCT4 and NANOG, in normal adult human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) after incubation with PlaMSC-exo was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analysis (real-time PCR). The effect of PlaMSC-exo on OCT4 transcription activity was assessed using Oct4-EGFP reporter mice-derived dermal fibroblasts. The stimulating effects of PlaMSC-exo on osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation of NHDF were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Alizarin red S- and oil red O-staining, respectively. The expression of osteoblast- and adipocyte-related genes was also assessed by real-time PCR. The treatment of NHDF with PlaMSC-exo significantly upregulated OCT4 and NANOG mRNA expression. PlaMSC-exo also enhanced OCT4 transcription. The NHDF treated with PlaMSC-exo exhibited osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation in osteogenic and adipogenic induction media. PlaMSC-exo increase the expression of OCT4 and NANOG mRNA in fibroblasts. As a result, PlaMSC-exo influence the differentiation competence of fibroblasts to both osteoblastic and adipocyte-differentiation. It shows a new feature of MSCs and the possibility of clinical application of MSC-exo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1658-1670, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26640165

  10. mRNA related to insulin family in human placenta

    The authors have previously reported that human term placenta contains mRNA displaying sequence homology to a rat preproinsulin I cDNA clone (p119). When placental poly(A+) RNA was analyzed for homology to p119 by RNA/DNA blot hybridization, prominent hybridization was observed which was found by densitometric analysis to be three-fold higher than control. To further characterize this insulin-like message, a cDNA library was generated (approx.7000 transformants) using normal term cesarean-sectioned tissue to prepare placental poly(A+) RNA templates. Five hundred transformants were initially screened by colony hybridization using a 32P-labeled rat preproinsulin I cDNA as probe. Of the ten initial positives obtained, three were found to be true positives based on Southern hybridization analyses of the recombinant plasmids. Using Taq I digested pBr322 as a size marker, the cDNAs were found to be approximately 300 bp in length. Preliminary DNA sequencing using the Sanger dideoxy chain termination method has revealed that one of these clones displays significant homology to the 5' region of human insulin-like growth factors I and II

  11. Characterization of a cocaine binding protein in human placenta

    [3H]-Cocaine binding sites are identified in human placental villus tissue plasma membranes. These binding sites are associated with a protein and show saturable and specific binding of [3H]-cocaine with a high affinity site of 170 fmole/mg protein. The binding is lost with pretreatment with trypsin or heat. The membrane bound protein is solubilized with the detergent 3-(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethyl-ammonio-1-propane sulphonate (CHAPS) with retention of its saturable and specific binding of [3H]-cocaine. The detergent-protein complex migrates on a sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography column as a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 75,900. The protein has an S20,w value of 5.1. The binding of this protein to norcocaine, pseudococaine, nomifensine, imipramine, desipramine, amphetamine and dopamine indicates that it shares some, but not all, the properties of the brain cocaine receptor. The physiologic significance of this protein in human placenta is currently unclear

  12. Ultrastructural study on human placenta from intrauterine growth retardation cases.

    Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Pomini, Francesco; Scavo, Maria; Caruso, Alessandro; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2004-10-01

    A morphological study was performed on 27 human placentas from normal gestations (Group 1) and compared with those from eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (Group 2). Semithin section light microscopy, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on trophoblastic terminal villi, carefully identified under the stereomicroscope. In growth retardation cases, villi appear longer, thinner, and less vascularized, compared to the normal condition. Fibrinoid, an extracellular material of hematic origin, frequently fills villar stroma. The density of apical microvilli appears considerably reduced and occasional microvilli-free areas are observed in growth retardation cases. Moreover, the underlying basal membrane appears significantly thicker than that of normal syncytiotrophoblast. Recently, particular attention has been paid to apoptosis as a possible cell deletion mechanism in growth restriction. In our study, a majority of typical apoptotic features appear indifferently in both IUGR and normal pregnancy. Our data hints that growth retardation might be correlated with a complex of structural changes, suggestive of maternofetal traffic downregulation, but further studies are required to understand the underlying functional mechanisms. PMID:15605416

  13. Mathematical modeling of folate-related processes in human placenta

    Dotsenko V. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Description the folate-related processes in the human placenta using the stoichiometric model and investigation the system’s behavior under various conditions. Methods. The model is based on the stoichiometry of the reactions of the folate-related processes at steady state conditions and constructed using CellNetAnalyzer. Behavior of the system is described by elementary flux modes and control-effective fluxes depending on the activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase and input methionine flux. Results. Change in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity causes a decrease in fluxes through the main routes of homocysteine elimination and increases the need for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Methionine synthase inactivation reduces 5-methyltetrahydrofolate consumption and increases the flux through the taurine syn-thesis. Lack of methionine leads to increased 5-methyltetrahydrofolate consumption, reduced homocysteine concentration and reduces the fluxes through the methionine cycle. Conclusions. Analysis of model functioning has shown the compliance of system’s functioning changes with the clinic parameters. There is evidence that the homocysteine level as a marker of folate-related processes functioning of is not sufficient to justify the therapy.

  14. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production

  15. Morphometric Evaluation of Preeclamptic Placenta Using Light Microscopic Images

    Rashmi Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficient trophoblast invasion and anomalies in placental development generally lead to preeclampsia (PE but the inter-relationship between placental function and morphology in PE still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometric features of placental villi and capillaries in preeclamptic and normal placentae. The study included light microscopic images of placental tissue sections of 40 preeclamptic and 35 normotensive pregnant women. Preprocessing and segmentation of these images were performed to characterize the villi and capillaries. Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (FLDA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to identify the most significant placental (morphometric features from microscopic images. A total of 10 morphometric features were extracted, of which the villous parameters were significantly altered in PE. FLDA identified 5 highly significant morphometric features (>90% overall discrimination accuracy. Two large subclusters were clearly visible in HCA based dendrogram. PCA returned three most significant principal components cumulatively explaining 98.4% of the total variance based on these 5 significant features. Hence, quantitative microscopic evaluation revealed that placental morphometry plays an important role in characterizing PE, where the villous is the major component that is affected.

  16. Poor agreement between operators on grading of the placenta.

    Moran, M

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal placental grading is associated with poor pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to measure intra- and interobserver variability in placental grading. Five expert sonographers independently graded 90 images on two occasions, each viewing separated by 1 week. A number of measures were employed to standardise assessment and minimise potential for variation: prior agreement was established between observers on the classifications for placental grading; a controlled viewing laboratory was used for all viewings; ambient lighting was optimal and monitors were calibrated to the GSDF standard. Kappa (κ) analysis was used to measure observer agreement. Substantial variations between individuals\\' scores were observed. A mean κ-value of 0.34 (range from 0.19 to 0.50) indicated fair interobserver agreement over the two occasions and only nine of the 90 images were graded the same by all five observers. Intraobserver agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.52, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.45 to 0.66. This study demonstrates that, despite standardised viewing conditions, Grannum grading of the placenta is not a reliable technique even among expert observers. The need for new methods to assess placental health is required and work is ongoing to develop 2D and 3D software-based methods.

  17. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2 expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta

    Handschuh Karen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT. During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies.

  18. Stemness Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Placentas According to Developmental Stage: Comparison to Those from Adult Bone Marrow

    Sung, Hwa Jung; Hong, Soon Cheol; Yoo, Ji Hyun; Oh, Jee Hyun; Shin, Hye Jin; Choi, In Young; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Kim, Sun Haeng; Park, Yong; Kim, Byung Soo

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from placenta according to the development stage and to compare the results to those from adult bone marrow (BM). Based on the source of hMSCs, three groups were defined: group I included term placentas, group II included first-trimester placentas, and group III included adult BM samples. The stemness was evaluated by the proliferation capacity, immunophenotypic expression, mesoderm differentiation, e...

  19. The Oncoplacental Gene Placenta-Specific Protein 1 Is Highly Expressed in Endometrial Tumors and Cell Lines

    Devor, Eric J.; Leslie, Kimberly K.

    2013-01-01

    Placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is a small secreted protein expressed exclusively in trophoblast cells in the mammalian placenta. PLAC1 is expressed early in gestation and is maintained throughout. It is thought to function in trophoblast invasion of the uterine epithelium and, subsequently, to anchor the placenta to the epithelium. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that PLAC1 is also expressed in a variety of human solid tumors, notably in breast cancers. We demonstrate for the f...

  20. Differences in gene expression between first and third trimester human placenta: a microarray study.

    Vasilis Sitras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human placenta is a rapidly developing organ that undergoes structural and functional changes throughout the pregnancy. Our objectives were to investigate the differences in global gene expression profile, the expression of imprinted genes and the effect of smoking in first and third trimester normal human placentas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Placental samples were collected from 21 women with uncomplicated pregnancies delivered at term and 16 healthy women undergoing termination of pregnancy at 9-12 weeks gestation. Placental gene expression profile was evaluated by Human Genome Survey Microarray v.2.0 (Applied Biosystems and real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Almost 25% of the genes spotted on the array (n = 7519 were differentially expressed between first and third trimester placentas. Genes regulating biological processes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and angiogenesis were up-regulated in the first trimester; whereas cell surface receptor mediated signal transduction, G-protein mediated signalling, ion transport, neuronal activities and chemosensory perception were up-regulated in the third trimester. Pathway analysis showed that brain and placenta might share common developmental routes. Principal component analysis based on the expression of 17 imprinted genes showed a clear separation of first and third trimester placentas, indicating that epigenetic modifications occur throughout pregnancy. In smokers, a set of genes encoding oxidoreductases were differentially expressed in both trimesters. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in global gene expression profile between first and third trimester human placenta reflect temporal changes in placental structure and function. Epigenetic rearrangements in the human placenta seem to occur across gestation, indicating the importance of environmental influence in the developing feto-placental unit.

  1. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Size Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ technique. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. Results: The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711. The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  2. Stereological Changes of Human Placenta in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Compared with Healthy Controls

    Zahra Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease that can cause changes in the placenta. In this study, quantitative changes of placenta were investigated using stereological methods.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 10 placentas from systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancy (antinuclear antibody>10, and 10 placentas from normal uncomplicated pregnancy were obtained from Imam Ali Hospital. Volume of placentas was estimated using Cavalieri's principle. 3 full-thickness columns of each placenta were taken using systematic uniform random sampling (SURS. After fixation in modified Lillie's solution, they were cut into 5 mm slices. 5-7 sections selected from each slice using SURS and stained by Masson’s trichrome. Then stereological analyses were done on 8-10 SURS fields of each section. Placental volume, absolute volume and volume density of chorionic villi, intervillous space, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and blood vessels in chorionic villi were estimated in both groups. The Mann Whitney-U test was employed to determine statistically significant differences between the means. Significant level was set at p<0.05.Results: Total volume and volume density of fibrin and total volume and volume density of blood vessels significantly increased in SLE group in comparison with control group (p<0.01. Volume density of syncytiotrophoblast increased 50% in SLE group in comparison with control group, this increase was statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: Results showed that systemic lupus erythematosus disease can cause significant changes in the structure of placenta that may be influential on the evolution and survival of fetus.

  3. Concentration of plutonium in placentas from the Nenetz autonomous district close to the Novaya Zemlaye nuclear weapons test site

    The level of alpha radiation from 239,240Pu was measured in placentas from the Nenetz district south of the nuclear weapons test site at the Novaya Zemlaye archipelago in Russia. A sample of ten placentas was collected consecutively in 1993 from a maternity ward in Narjan Mar and analysed using standard chemical alpha spectrometry. The highest concentration was close to one mBq per kilo fresh placenta or an order of ten higher than previously reported from England. The study indicates that placentas could be used for biological monitoring of external pollution by plutonium. (Author)

  4. Placenta Increta after First-Trimester Dilatation and Curettage Manifesting as an Unusual Uterine Mass: Magnetic Resonance Findings

    Ju, W.; Kim, S.C. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Medical Research Inst., School of Medicine, Ewha Womens Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Placenta increta during the first trimester of pregnancy is extremely rare. Only a few cases of placenta accreta during the latter half of pregnancy manifesting as a uterine mass have been published. This report describes a case of placenta increta that caused prolonged bleeding after a first-trimester abortion, and was identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a heterogeneous mass in the myometrium. This is the first report of a placenta increta detected as a uterine mass after first-trimester dilatation and curettage, and its MRI findings.

  5. The Clinical Study on a Case of Transverse Myelitis With Bee Venom and Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture

    Park Min-ho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was performed to evaluate the treatment of acupuncture therapy including Bee Venom and Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture on the patient with Transverse myelitis. Methods : We treated the patient with Transverse myelitis by Bee Venom herbal acupuncture at beginning, since then we treated him adding to Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture. Conclusions : The patient was effectively reduced symptoms with Bee Venom herbal acupuncture, since then he get more effective improvement of symptoms by adding Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture. Therefore we are able to expect Bee venom and Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture will be more effective than simply acupuncture on the patient with Transverse myelitis.

  6. Calcium-phospholipid enhanced protein phosphorylation in human placenta

    Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein phosphorylation has not been studied in placenta. Human placental cytosol was subjected to an endogenous protein phosphorylation assay using [γ-32P]ATP in the presence of calcium and phosphatidylserine. Protein phosphorylation was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. When compared to basal levels, calcium (10-6 M) in combination with phosphatidylserine (50 μg/ml) significantly enhanced (P 32P incorporation into phosphoproteins having mol wt 47,000, 43,000, and 37,000. Half-maximal 22P incorporation was observed with 3.5 x 10-7 M Ca2+ in the presence of phosphatidylserine (50 μg/ml). The effect of phosphatidylserine was biphasic. In the presence of Ca 10-6 M, 32P incorporation increased to a maximum at 70 +g/ml of phosphatidylserine. The increase was suppressed at 150 μg/ml. Tetracaine caused a dose-dependent inhibition of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent enhancement of the three phosphoproteins. Calcium in the absence of phospholipid enhanced the phosphorylation of a protein of 98,000 mol wt. Phosphatidylserine suppressed this enhancement. Calmodulin (10-6 M) had no detectable effect upon phosphorylation beyond that of calcium alone, but the calmodulin inhibitor R-24571 specifically inhibited the calcium-stimulated 98,000 mol wt phosphoprotein. Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent phospholipid-dependent phosphoproteins are present in human placental cytosol; whether calcium-activated, calmodulin-dependent phosphoproteins also are present remains a question

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF RAT PLACENTA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF PREGNANCY UNDER MODELED PREECLAMPSIA.

    Sharashenidze, A; Kikalishvili, L; Turmanidze, T; Sanikidze, T

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the morphological changes of rat placenta in II, III week of pregnancy under modeled preeclampsia. Modeling of preeclampsia was performed in the rats, as follows: lumen of the abdominal aorta below the renal artery was narrowed by the silk tread on the third of its diameter (0.2 mm). The placenta tissue was studied by histological and immunohistochemical methods (AE1/AE3, CD133, Ki-67). The study has shown that in the experimental model of preeclampsia at the end of II, III week of pregnancy the number of glycogen cells in the placenta trophyspongium layer is reduced compared with the control. There was shown sharp dilatation of the blood sinuses and lacuna, sometimes along the events of stasis. The volume of nucleated erythrocytes in fetal capillaries of the labyrinth layer is reduced compared with the control, especially in IIIweek of pregnancy. In the preparations marked by the CD133 marker, unlike to the norm of III week of pregnancy, the visualization of positive endothelial cells is complicated. The study of the preparations marked by Ki-67 marker reveals that the proliferated activity in the hypoxic placenta tissue is sharply reduced. The exception is those blood tubes, to which umbilical blood vessels are finally formed. It can be concluded that due to hypoxia placenta proliferation of placental blood vessels is disturbed that contributes to the disorder of placental blood circulation, reduce its metabolism in complications of pregnancy. PMID:27249447

  8. Sparse PrPSc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie

    Yan Huijan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic goats (Capra hircus are a natural and experimental host of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE of sheep and cattle. Goats are also susceptible to experimental infection with the agents of TSEs of deer and elk (chronic wasting disease and humans (Creutzfeldt Jakob disease. Distribution of PrPSc, the abnormal prion protein, is similar in the tissues of scrapie-infected sheep and goats but no data are available on the potential shedding of the agent through the placenta, the presumed route of transmission of ovine scrapie. We describe the sparse accumulation of PrPSc in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired classical scrapie in comparison to field cases of classical ovine scrapie. Results PrPSc was detected in the shed placentas from a sample of U.S. goats with naturally occurring scrapie, diagnosed by antemortem lymphoid tissue biopsy or identified as high risk progeny of infected dams. PrPSc accumulation patterns in the intact placentome and western blot banding was similar in the caprine and ovine samples. However, levels of PrPSc estimated from ELISA and immunohistochemistry assays were generally lower in goats than in sheep, although wide variation was noted in both species. Conclusions PrPSc accumulates in the shed placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie. Although these levels were low in most caprine samples, the caprine placenta may contribute to prion contamination of kidding facilities and transmission to co-housed sheep or goats.

  9. Intracellular and extracellular pH dynamics in the human placenta from diabetes mellitus.

    Araos, Joaquín; Silva, Luis; Salsoso, Rocío; Sáez, Tamara; Barros, Eric; Toledo, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sanhueza, Carlos; Sobrevia, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The placenta is a vital organ whose function in diseases of pregnancy is altered, resulting in an abnormal supply of nutrients to the foetus. The lack of placental vasculature homeostasis regulation causes endothelial dysfunction and altered vascular reactivity. The proper distribution of acid- (protons (H(+))) and base-equivalents through the placenta is essential to achieve physiological homeostasis. Several membrane transport mechanisms that control H(+) distribution between the extracellular and intracellular spaces are expressed in the human placenta vascular endothelium and syncytiotrophoblast, including sodium (Na(+))/H(+) exchangers (NHEs). One member of the NHEs family is NHE isoform 1 (NHE1), whose activity results in an alkaline intracellular pH (high intracellular pH (pHi)) and an acidic extracellular pH (pHo). Increased NHE1 expression, maximal transport activity, and turnover are reported in human syncytiotrophoblasts and lymphocytes from patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DMT1), and a positive correlation between NHEs activity and plasma factors, such as that between thrombin and platelet factor 3, has been reported in diabetes mellitus type II (DMT2). However, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could result in a higher sensitivity of the human placenta to acidic pHo. We summarized the findings on pHi and pHo modulation in the human placenta with an emphasis on pregnancies in which the mother diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A potential role of NHEs, particularly NHE1, is proposed regarding placental dysfunction in DMT1, DMT2, and GDM. PMID:27324099

  10. Shear Wave Elastography in the Living, Perfused, Post-Delivery Placenta.

    McAleavey, Stephen A; Parker, Kevin J; Ormachea, Juvenal; Wood, Ronald W; Stodgell, Christopher J; Katzman, Philip J; Pressman, Eva K; Miller, Richard K

    2016-06-01

    The placenta is the critical interface between the mother and the developing fetus and is essential for survival and growth. Despite the widespread use of ultrasound imaging and Doppler in obstetrics and gynecology and the recent growth of elastographic technologies, little is known about the biomechanical (elastic shear wave) properties of the placenta and the range of normal and pathologic parameters that are present. This study uses a well-developed protocol for perfusing whole placentas, post-delivery, to maintain tissue integrity and function for hours. In this model, the placenta is living, whole and maintained within normal physiologic parameters such as flow, arterial pressure and oxygen, throughout examination by ultrasound, Doppler and shear wave elastography. The preliminary results indicate that normal placental tissue on the fetal side has shear wave speeds on the order of 2 m/s, in a range similar to those of animal livers. Some abnormalities are found outside this range, and thus, elastographic measures of the placenta may provide useful assessments related to the state of the tissue. PMID:27006269

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  12. Uterine artery embolization for the management of secondary postpartum haemorrhage associated with placenta accreta

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of uterine artery embolization for the management of secondary postpartum haemorrhage associated with placenta accreta. Materials and methods: Between January 2005 and August 2011, 45 women with placenta accreta, which was discovered during delivery, were managed conservatively in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. They did not experience severe bleeding during delivery. Ten patients (mean age 31 ± 6.4 years) developed secondary postpartum haemorrhage and underwent uterine artery embolization. The complications, control of haemorrhage, and outcome of the placenta left inside the uterus were retrospectively reviewed. Results: All patients underwent transcatheter embolization of bilateral uterine arteries. The median time between delivery and uterine artery embolization was 11 days (range 3–76 days). The technical success rate of embolization was 100%. Bleeding was controlled in all patients during follow-up (11 ± 6.9 months; range 3–24 months), and no further bleeding occurred. One patient developed lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis after uterine artery embolization, and no other major complications occurred. The placentae that were left inside the uteri gradually decreased in size during follow-up, except in one case. Nine patients resumed normal menstruation. One patient subsequently became pregnant and had an uneventful intrauterine pregnancy carried to term. Conclusion: Uterine artery embolization is safe and effective for the management of secondary postpartum haemorrhage associated with placenta accreta.

  13. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) induces apoptosis and alters metabolic enzyme activity in human placenta

    The anti-HIV drug 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is the drug of choice for preventing maternal-fetal HIV transmission during pregnancy. Our aim was to assess the cytotoxic effects of AZT on human placenta in vitro. The mechanisms of AZT-induced effects were investigated using JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells and primary explant cultures from term and first-trimester human placentas. Cytotoxicity measures included trypan blue exclusion, MTT, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Apoptosis was measured with an antibody specific to cleaved caspase-3 and by rescue of cells by the general caspase inhibitor Boc-D-FMK. The effect of AZT on the activities of glutathione-S-transferase, β-glucuronidase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, and CYP reductase (CYPR) in the placenta was assessed using biochemical assays and immunoblotting. AZT increased ROS levels, decreased cellular proliferation rates, was toxic to mitochondria, and initiated cell death by a caspase-dependent mechanism in the human placenta in vitro. In the absence of serum, the effects of AZT were amplified in all the models used. AZT also increased the amounts of activity of GST, β-glucuronidase, and CYP1A, whereas UGT and CYPR were decreased. We conclude that AZT causes apoptosis in the placenta and alters metabolizing enzymes in human placental cells. These findings have implications for the safe administration of AZT in pregnancy with respect to the maintenance of integrity of the maternal-fetal barrier

  14. Rising frequency of placenta previa and associated morbidity in women with previous casearean section

    To determine rising frequency of placenta previa and its associated morbidity in women with previous caesarean section. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at CMH Kohat from Jul 2010 to Jun 2011. Patients and Methods: This study included all pregnant women undergoing repeat caesarean sections. Of these, total 74 patients were admitted with placenta previa. The frequency and associated morbidity were determined. Results: In our study 74 patients with placenta previa were included. 71.62% were less than 35 yrs of age, while 28.38% were equal to or more than 35 years. The gestational age at presentation was 24-36 weeks in 74.3% and 37 + weeks in 5.7% at presentation, 89% patients were symptomatic and 11% were asympyomatic. The morbidities observed were placenta accrete 47%, urinary tract trauma in 63.51%, caesarean hysterectomy in 62.16%, post operative febrile morbidity in 77.03%, maternal mortality was nil, paralytic ileus in 28.38%, PPH in 82.43%, surgical site infection in 16.21%. Conclusion: Frequency of placenta previa and its associated morbidity was raised due to repeated caesarean section rate which must be reduced to decrease maternal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  15. Barrier Effect of Placenta Membrane of Pregnant Rat on Mixed Rare Earth Changle

    周莉; 陈辉; 黄可欣; 李树蕾; 聂毓秀

    2003-01-01

    To assess the potential health risks of mixed rare earths Changle for human embryo, whether it crosses placenta membrane or placenta barrier should be determined. In order to arrive at the aim placenta tissue was observed after contamination with optical and electron microscope to show distribution and destiny of mixed rare earth Changle in placenta tissue. Meanwhile the amount of rare earths in serum of pregnant rat, amniotic fluid and extract of embryo tissue were measured by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The rats were administered to 0.3, 2, 5 and 20 mg*kg-1 mixed rare earths Changle every day, respectively by oral from the 6th to 18th day after pregnancy. The results show that many particles are found in syncytiotrophoblast around capillaries of placental villi in contaminated groups under light microscope, and there are more particles following increased dose. It also was observed that some dense bodies with the envelope in placenta membrane and to difference extent damages the mitochondria crista within syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm in contaminated groups under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results of ICP-MS assay indicate that the level of Ce increases with contamination dose in the serum of pregnant rats, and the level of total rare earth element remarkably rises in amniotic fluid and serum of pregnant rats for 20 mg*kg-1 group as compared with the control without change for the other groups.

  16. [Influence of betamethasone on the vascular resistance in human placenta perfused in vitro].

    Kraczkowski, J; Grudzień, M; Zrubek, H; Oleszczuk, J; Samberger, M; Bednarek, W; Billewicz-Kraczkowska, A

    1989-03-01

    The study was carried out on 48 human placentas perfused in vitro. Betamethasone was administered into the arterial system in the following single doses: 0.4 mg, 2 mg, 10 mg. It was found that betamethasone decreases the pressure of perfusion in different ways depending on the dose. A statistically significant decrease in perfusion pressure was observed in 30th minute of the experiment after administering 2 mg while a dose of 10 mg induced a significant perfusion pressure in 30th and 60th minute of the experiment. The relaxation of the blood vessels of the placenta under the influence of betamethasone was attributed to the action of dopamine on the dopaminergic receptors of the vessels and glucocorticoids modifying this action. The results of the experiments point to a positive action of betamethasone on the blood vessels of human placenta. PMID:2806971

  17. Conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine in human placenta and fetal membranes.

    Banovac, K; Bzik, L; Tislarić, D; Sekso, M

    1980-01-01

    Conversion of thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) was measured in vitro in human placenta and fetal membranes. T4 (5 micrograms/ml) was incubated in 0.15 mol/l phosphate buffer with tissue homogenates for 2 h at 37 degrees C, and the T3 and rT3 generated were determined in ethanol extract using RIA methods. The placenta and chorion homogenates converted more T4 to T3 than to rT3; the placenta was more active than the chorion. In both tissues the highest converting activity was found in microsomal fractions. PMID:7399397

  18. Shear wave elastography of the placenta in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Kilic, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Alici Davutoglu, Ebru; Imamoglu, Metehan; Bakan, Selim; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kantarci, Fatih; Madazli, Riza

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate placental elasticty in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and non-diabetic controls. Thirty-three pregnant women with GDM according to the current criteria of the American Diabetes Association and 43 healthy pregnant women who were admitted to the antenatal clinic were recruited for this case-control study. Elasticity values of both the peripheral and the central parts of the placentas of the patients in both groups were determined by shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging. Mean elasticity values of both the central and the peripheral part of the placentas were significantly higher in GDM pregnancies (p  0.05). SWE imaging technology might provide a quantitative assessment of the morphological pathologies of placentas in pregnant women with GDM. PMID:27012734

  19. Impact of antenatal diagnosis and management strategies in morbidly adherent placenta

    Objectives: To study the pattern, demography and management options in placenta accreta in a tertiary care centre. Duration and settings: January 1, 2004 to August 15, 2008 at Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and between Sep 1, 2008 to Oct 30, 2009 at Combined Military Hospital, Multan. Patients and Methods All cases of placenta accreta seen during the study period were included in the study. Placenta accreta was defined as placenta being adherent to uterine wall without easy separation. Patient's demography, presence or absence of prenatal diagnosis and the management strategy i.e. conservative or otherwise was documented on a proforma. Success or failure of surgical approach used was noted. Assessment of maternal morbidity in the form of amount of blood/blood product transfused and early and late complications was made and compared with other cases that were antenatally diagnosed or were undiagnosed. Results: A total of 28 cases were analyzed during study period. The incidence of placenta accreta was 6.3/10000. Mean maternal age was 30.7 years. Placenta praevia obstetrical hysterectomy was performed in 17(61%) cases and had to be backed up by internal iliac artery ligation in 7(25%) Requirement for blood transfusion in antenatally diagnosed cases was almost 50% less than those of undiagnosed cases and the same was true for fresh frozen plasma (3.75 +- 4.18 versus 6.75 +- 5.41), platelet transfusion (P=0.04), stay in intensive care unit (1.56 +- 1.82 versus 3.41 +- 3.28)and use of mechanical ventilation (7% versus 11%). There was no mortality in this series. Conclusions: Intra-operative internal iliac artery ligation reduces blood loss before and after hysterectomy and should be done in cases with placents accreta to reduce morbidity and mortality. (author)

  20. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia

    Melisa Lelic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined.In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm0, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm0 and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm0, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm0 and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers' placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05, volume density (p <0.01 and absolute volume (p<0.0001 of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05.In anemic mothers’ placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group. 

  1. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia.

    Lelić, Melisa; Ramić, Suada; Žigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Marković, Sergije

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x) and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x) were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined.In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a) terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm0, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm0 and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a) terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm0, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm0 and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers' placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05), volume density (p <0.01) and absolute volume (p<0.0001) of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05).In anemic mothers' placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group.  PMID:25172972

  2. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    Masoomeh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers.Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells.Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05. Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups.Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed.

  3. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Hee Young Cho

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation.We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL.Sixty-four patients (46.7% required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1% had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64 for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05. The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20-1200 mL in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5-500 mL in the balloon success group (p<0.01.Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  4. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2004-01-01

    Large White×Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n=57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval

  5. Validation of the Ultra Micro Elisa for certification of human placenta as a source of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics

    The Viral Control Laboratory of the Placenta Derivatives Production Plant certifies the human placenta as pharmaceutical and cosmetic raw material by means of the microultra analytic system. To validate the Ultra Micro System for determination of hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus, and Immunodeficiency Human Virus Type 1 and 2 in umbilical cord serum samples

  6. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    background information but no follow up. METHODS: Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. RESULTS: The interviewed participants are generally in favour......, but trust is something which needs to be created through "trust-work". Face-to-face interaction, written information material and informed consent forms play important parts in creating trusting relationships in medical research. CONCLUSION: Medical research ethics do not only amount to specific types...

  7. Morphological study of human heart and placenta in the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis

    Abdul-Ogly L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Probability of abnormal development is high in certain periods when the increased sensitiveness of embryo and fetus takes place. Influence of damaging factors as maternal infection and, consequently, fetal infection is a reason of abnormal development. Morphological characteristics of heart and placenta were studied during the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis. 17 embryos, fetuses and placenta of 4-12 weeks were used. Abortions were made according to medical statements or maternal willing. The abnormal development of primary leaflets of atrioventricular valves, retardation of fetus growth, abnormal position of organs including ectopic heart, and abnormal limbs development were observed.

  8. Evolution of the placenta during the early radiation of placental mammals

    Mess, Andrea; Carter, Anthony M

    2007-01-01

    The chorioallantoic placenta is an organ of gaseous exchange that exhibits a high degree of structural diversity. One factor determining oxygen transfer across the placenta, the diffusion distance, is in part dependent on the number of cell layers separating maternal from fetal blood. This...... placental mammals, derived from molecular phylogenetics. We show that epitheliochorial placentation, the least invasive type, is a derived state and discuss factors that may have determined its evolution with reference to conflict theory, as applied to the allocation of resources between mother and fetus...

  9. Trace element analysis of placentas of alcoholics and controls with external beam PIXE

    External beam PIXE analysis with a proton beam of 2.4 MeV was used to study trace element concentrations in human placentas. The aim was to check the suitability of PIXE analysis regarding soft tissue samples. The elements of interest (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and Sr) were easily detected. A comparison was made with placental samples of alcoholics and controls to determine whether trace element concentrations in the placenta play a role in the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol syndrome. (author)

  10. La Placenta Humana Nuevo Sustrato Proteico Empleado para la Obtención de Bases Nutritivas.

    Diana Rosa Viera Oramas; Mileydis Grillo Díaz; Claudio Rodríguez Martínez; Raisa Zhurbenko

    2005-01-01

    El hidrolizado de placenta humana es una nueva base nutritiva con un elevado contenido de nutrientes y constituyen un paso importante en el desarrollo de una metodología para su obtención a partir de residuos de placenta. Además de ser un nuevo producto en la gama de BIOCEN y brindar la posibilidad de utilizar en sustitución de bases nutritivas importadas. Con el objetivo de desarrollar y evaluar la funcionalidad de dicha base se realizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio, se estu...