WorldWideScience

Sample records for aboveground biomass production

  1. Aboveground Biomass Production of Rhizophora apiculata Blume in Sarawak Mangrove Forest

    I. A. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mangrove forests are found in tropical and subtropical coastal tidal regions. Rhizophora apiculata Blume is one of the most important species in mangrove forest. It is also one of the commercial mangrove timber species in Asia-Pacific region which dominates large areas of mangrove in this region. In order to understand forest ecosystem characteristics and to establish the proper management system, a precise estimation of biomass is necessary. The objective of this study is to quantify the aboveground biomass production and stem volume of R. apiculata in Awat-Awat mangrove forest, Sarawak. Approach: Seven representative trees were used in this study for sampling from February 2011 to March 2011. Allometric relationships were examined using either independent variable Diameter (D or combination of quadratic of D and Height (D2H. Results: The best fit of allometric equations were developed from the combination of quadratic of D and H (y = 0.055×0.948, R2 = 0.98 which is more recommended to estimate biomass and stem volume of R. apiculata in Awat-Awat mangrove forest, Sarawak. Total aboveground biomass and stem volume of R. apiculata were 116.79 t h-1 and 65.55 m3 h-1, respectively. Conclusion: Aboveground biomass and stem volume is closely related with tree diameter and height which indicates that aboveground biomass and stem volume will increase with increasing diameter and height of R. apiculata.

  2. The biomass and aboveground net primary productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in east China

    2010-01-01

    The biomass and productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,were determined using overlapping quadrants and stem analyses.The total community biomass was(225.3±30.1) t hm-2,of which the aboveground parts accounted for 72.0% and the underground parts accounted for 28.0%.About 87.2% of biomass existed in the tree layer.The resprouting biomass was small,of which over 95.0% occurred in the shrub layer.The productivity of the aboveground parts of the community was(386.8±98.9) g m-2a-1,in which more than 96.0% was present at the tree level.The trunk’s contribution to productivity was the greatest,while that of leaves was the smallest.In China,the community biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests differs significantly with the age of the forest.The community biomass of the 52-year-old S.superba-C.carlesii forests in this study was lower than the average biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests in China,and was lower than the biomass of other subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests elsewhere in the world.Moreover,its productivity was lower than the model estimate,indicating that without disturbance,this community has great developmental potential in terms of community biomass and productivity.

  3. Above-ground Woody Biomass Production of Short-rotation Populus Plantations on Agricultural Land in Sweden

    Karacic, Almir; Verwijst, Theo; Weih, Martin [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    2003-09-01

    Although poplars are widely grown in short-rotation forestry in many countries, little is known about poplar growth performance in Sweden. In this study, above-ground biomass production was estimated for several hybrid aspen and poplar clones planted at different initial density at five locations across Sweden. Biomass assessments were based on allometric relationships between total above-ground woody dry weight and the diameter at breast height. According to a common harvest practice, tree biomass was partitioned into pulpwood and biomass for energy purposes. The percentage of pulpwood was strongly determined by clone for DBH >10 cm. The mean annual increment ranged from 3.3 /ha/yr for balsam poplar in the north to 9.2 Mg/ha/yr for 9-yr-old 'Boelare' in southern Sweden. At the same age, hybrid aspen reached 7.9 Mg/ha/yr. The results suggest that poplars and hybrid aspen are superior as biomass producers compared with tree species commonly grown on agricultural land at these latitudes. The results are discussed in the light of future wood supply for pulpwood and energy purposes in Sweden.

  4. Remote Sensing Estimates of Grassland Aboveground Biomass Based on MODIS Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in the Xilingol Grassland of Northern China

    Fen Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The precise and rapid estimation of grassland biomass is an important scientific issue in grassland ecosystem research. In this study, based on a field survey of 1205 sites together with biomass data of the Xilingol grassland for the years 2005–2012 and the “accumulated” MODIS productivity starting from the beginning of growing season, we built regression models to estimate the aboveground biomass of the Xilingol grassland during the growing season, then further analyzed the overall condition of the grassland and the spatial and temporal distribution of the aboveground biomass. The results are summarized as follows: (1 The unitary linear model based on the field survey data and “accumulated” MODIS productivity data is the optimum model for estimating the aboveground biomass of the Xilingol grassland during the growing period, with the model accuracy reaching 69%; (2 The average aboveground biomass in the Xilingol grassland for the years 2005–2012 was estimated to be 14.35 Tg, and the average aboveground biomass density was estimated to be 71.32 g∙m−2; (3 The overall variation in the aboveground biomass showed a decreasing trend from the eastern meadow grassland to the western desert grassland; (4 There were obvious fluctuations in the aboveground biomass of the Xilingol grassland for the years 2005–2012, ranging from 10.56–17.54 Tg. Additionally, several differences in the interannual changes in aboveground biomass were observed among the various types of grassland. Large variations occurred in the temperate meadow-steppe and the typical grassland; whereas there was little change in the temperate desert-steppe and temperate steppe-desert.

  5. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (Wc; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (Wa) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha-1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha-1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  6. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Vogel, J.G.; Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S., III

    2008-01-01

    Plant biomass accumulation and productivity are important determinants of ecosystem carbon (C) balance during post-fire succession. In boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, we quantified aboveground plant biomass and net primary productivity (ANPP) for 4 years after a 1999 wildfire in a well-drained (dry) site, and also across a dry and a moderately well-drained (mesic) chronosequence of sites that varied in time since fire (2 to ???116 years). Four years after fire, total biomass at the 1999 burn site had increased exponentially to 160 ?? 21 g m-2 (mean ?? 1SE) and vascular ANPP had recovered to 138 ?? 32 g m-2 y -1, which was not different than that of a nearby unburned stand (160 ?? 48 g m-2 y-1) that had similar pre-fire stand structure and understory composition. Production in the young site was dominated by re-sprouting graminoids, whereas production in the unburned site was dominated by black spruce. On the dry and mesic chronosequences, total biomass pools, including overstory and understory vascular and non-vascular plants, and lichens, increased logarithmically (dry) or linearly (mesic) with increasing site age, reaching a maximum of 2469 ?? 180 (dry) and 4008 ?? 233 g m-2 (mesic) in mature stands. Biomass differences were primarily due to higher tree density in the mesic sites because mass per tree was similar between sites. ANPP of vascular and non-vascular plants increased linearly over time in the mesic chronosequence to 335 ?? 68 g m-2 y -1 in the mature site, but in the dry chronosequence it peaked at 410 ?? 43 g m-2 y-1 in a 15-year-old stand dominated by deciduous trees and shrubs. Key factors regulating biomass accumulation and production in these ecosystems appear to be the abundance and composition of re-sprouting species early in succession, the abundance of deciduous trees and shrubs in intermediate aged stands, and the density of black spruce across all stand ages. A better understanding of the controls

  7. Lasting effects of climate disturbance on perennial grassland above-ground biomass production under two cutting frequencies.

    Zwicke, Marine; Alessio, Giorgio A; Thiery, Lionel; Falcimagne, Robert; Baumont, René; Rossignol, Nicolas; Soussana, Jean-François; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Climate extremes can ultimately reshape grassland services such as forage production and change plant functional type composition. This 3-year field research studied resistance to dehydration and recovery after rehydration of plant community and plant functional types in an upland perennial grassland subjected to climate and cutting frequency (Cut+, Cut-) disturbances by measuring green tissue percentage and above-ground biomass production (ANPP). In year 1, a climate disturbance gradient was applied by co-manipulating temperature and precipitation. Four treatments were considered: control and warming-drought climatic treatment, with or without extreme summer event. In year 2, control and warming-drought treatments were maintained without extreme. In year 3, all treatments received ambient climatic conditions. We found that the grassland community was very sensitive to dehydration during the summer extreme: aerial senescence reached 80% when cumulated climatic water balance fell to -156 mm and biomass declined by 78% at the end of summer. In autumn, canopy greenness and biomass totally recovered in control but not in the warming-drought treatment. However ANPP decreased under both climatic treatments, but the effect was stronger on Cut+ (-24%) than Cut- (-15%). This decline was not compensated by the presence of three functional types because they were negatively affected by the climatic treatments, suggesting an absence of buffering effect on grassland production. In the following 2 years, lasting effects of climate disturbance on ANPP were observable. The unexpected stressful conditions of year 3 induced a decline in grassland production in the Cut+ control treatment. The fact that this treatment cumulated higher (45%) N export over the 3 years suggests that N plays a key role in ANPP stability. As ANPP in this mesic perennial grassland did not show engineering resilience, long-term experimental manipulation is needed. Infrequent mowing appears more

  8. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  9. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China

    Guodong Yin; Yuan Zhang; Yan Sun; Tao Wang; Zhenzhong Zeng; Shilong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level gr...

  10. Aboveground biomass equations for sustainable production of fuelwood in a native dry tropical afro-montane forest of Ethiopia

    Tesfaye, Mehari Alebachew; Bravo Oviedo, Andrés; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe; Ruiz Peinado, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Biomass equations are needed to correctly quantify harvestable stock and biomass for sustainability efforts in forest management, but this kind of information is scarce in Ethiopia. This study sought to develop biomass models for five of the most common native tree species in the Chilimo dry afro-montane mixed forest in the central highlands of Ethiopia: Allophyllus abyssinicus, Olea europaea ssp.cuspidata, Olinia rochetiana, Rhus glutinosa and Scolopia theifolia. Comparison with generaliz...

  11. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  12. Above-ground biomass functions for Scots pine in Lithuania

    Miksys, Virgilijus; Varnagiryte-Kabasinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepu 1, Girionys, LT-53101 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Stupak, Inge [Forest and Landscape Denmark, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Kukkola, Mikko [The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, Vantaa Unit, PL 18, 01301 Vantaa (Finland); Wojcik, Josef [Forest Research Institute, Sekocin-Las, 05-090 Raszyn (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    This study presents biomass functions applicable to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Arenosols in Lithuania, and exemplifies the potential biomass removal from Scots pine stands during thinnings. Scots pine is the most common tree species on Arenosols in Lithuania. Stands of ages 10, 20, 40, 50 and 65 years were chosen for the biomass study. We sampled 5 Scots pine trees per plot (in total 25 trees) that were stratified according to the basal area. The sampling was performed in April 2003, before the vegetative period. The following components of each tree were sampled for the above-ground biomass measurements: (1) 5 stem discs, (2) 1 branch with needles from each whorl and (3) 1 dead branch per tree. Observed biomasses of above-ground components were examined using a non-linear regression model, using stem diameter (D), tree height (H) and D{sup 2}H as independent variables. For stemwood biomass, the best approximation was D{sup 2}H. However, D{sup 2}H was not the best parameter for crown biomass because it does not allow evaluation of the opposite effects of diameter and height on crown biomass. The calculations at stand level showed that crown biomass changed insignificantly with the increase in stand age. However, the total stand biomass increased with age due to the growth of the stem. The removal of all logging residues from the Scots pine stand over a 100-year rotation could increase extraction of forest fuel by 15-20% compared with conventional harvesting. (author)

  13. Uncertainty Analysis in Large Area Aboveground Biomass Mapping

    Baccini, A.; Carvalho, L.; Dubayah, R.; Goetz, S. J.; Friedl, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite and aircraft-based remote sensing observations are being more frequently used to generate spatially explicit estimates of aboveground carbon stock of forest ecosystems. Because deforestation and forest degradation account for circa 10% of anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere, policy mechanisms are increasingly recognized as a low-cost mitigation option to reduce carbon emission. They are, however, contingent upon the capacity to accurately measures carbon stored in the forests. Here we examine the sources of uncertainty and error propagation in generating maps of aboveground biomass. We focus on characterizing uncertainties associated with maps at the pixel and spatially aggregated national scales. We pursue three strategies to describe the error and uncertainty properties of aboveground biomass maps, including: (1) model-based assessment using confidence intervals derived from linear regression methods; (2) data-mining algorithms such as regression trees and ensembles of these; (3) empirical assessments using independently collected data sets.. The latter effort explores error propagation using field data acquired within satellite-based lidar (GLAS) acquisitions versus alternative in situ methods that rely upon field measurements that have not been systematically collected for this purpose (e.g. from forest inventory data sets). A key goal of our effort is to provide multi-level characterizations that provide both pixel and biome-level estimates of uncertainties at different scales.

  14. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  15. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  16. Potential for post-closure radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: aboveground biomass, litter production rates, and the distribution of root mass with depth at material disposal area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    French, Sean B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christensen, Candace [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jennings, Terry L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jaros, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wykoff, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowell, Kelly J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [URS

    2008-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at LANL's Technical Area (T A) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste during current and post-closure operations is evaluated as part of the facility's ongoing performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). Due to the potential for uptake and incorporation of radio nuclides into aboveground plant material, the PA and CA project that plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The potential amount ofcontamination deposited on the ground surface due to plant intrusion into buried waste is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plant's roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, surveys are being conducted to assess aboveground biomass, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees). The collection of aboveground biomass for grasses and forbs began in 2007. Additional sampling was conducted in October 2008 to measure root mass with depth and to collect additional aboveground biomass data for the types of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees that may become established at MDA G after the facility undergoes final closure, Biomass data will be used to estimate the future potential mass of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G and ultimately aid in the assessment and

  17. Potential for post-closure radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: aboveground biomass, litter production rates, and the distribution of root mass with depth at material disposal area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at LANL's Technical Area (T A) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste during current and post-closure operations is evaluated as part of the facility's ongoing performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). Due to the potential for uptake and incorporation of radio nuclides into aboveground plant material, the PA and CA project that plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The potential amount ofcontamination deposited on the ground surface due to plant intrusion into buried waste is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plant's roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, surveys are being conducted to assess aboveground biomass, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees). The collection of aboveground biomass for grasses and forbs began in 2007. Additional sampling was conducted in October 2008 to measure root mass with depth and to collect additional aboveground biomass data for the types of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees that may become established at MDA G after the facility undergoes final closure, Biomass data will be used to estimate the future potential mass of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G and ultimately aid in the assessment and subsequent

  18. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient

    Kumordzi, Bright B.; Gundale, Michael J.; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems. PMID:27270445

  19. Aboveground biomass investments and light interception of tropical forest trees early in succession

    Selaya, N.G.; Anten, N.P.R.; Mathies, M.; Oomen, R.J.; Werger, M.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims: Crown structure and above-ground biomass investment was studied in relation to light interception of trees and lianas growing in a 6-month-old regenerating forest. Methods: The vertical distribution of total above-ground biomass, height, diameter, stem density, leaf angles and c

  20. Stratified aboveground forest biomass estimation by remote sensing data

    Latifi, Hooman; Fassnacht, Fabian E.; Hartig, Florian; Berger, Christian; Hernández, Jaime; Corvalán, Patricio; Koch, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing-assisted estimates of aboveground forest biomass are essential for modeling carbon budgets. It has been suggested that estimates can be improved by building species- or strata-specific biomass models. However, few studies have attempted a systematic analysis of the benefits of such stratification, especially in combination with other factors such as sensor type, statistical prediction method and sampling design of the reference inventory data. We addressed this topic by analyzing the impact of stratifying forest data into three classes (broadleaved, coniferous and mixed forest). We compare predictive accuracy (a) between the strata (b) to a case without stratification for a set of pre-selected predictors from airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data obtained in a managed mixed forest site in southwestern Germany. We used 5 commonly applied algorithms for biomass predictions on bootstrapped subsamples of the data to obtain cross validated RMSE and r2 diagnostics. Those values were analyzed in a factorial design by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to rank the relative importance of each factor. Selected models were used for wall-to-wall mapping of biomass estimates and their associated uncertainty. The results revealed marginal advantages for the strata-specific prediction models over the unstratified ones, which were more obvious on the wall-to-wall mapped area-based predictions. Yet further tests are necessary to establish the generality of these results. Input data type and statistical prediction method are concluded to remain the two most crucial factors for the quality of remote sensing-assisted biomass models.

  1. Estimating Above-Ground Carbon Biomass in a Newly Restored Coastal Plain Wetland Using Remote Sensing

    Riegel, Joseph B.; Emily Bernhardt; Jennifer Swenson

    2013-01-01

    Developing accurate but inexpensive methods for estimating above-ground carbon biomass is an important technical challenge that must be overcome before a carbon offset market can be successfully implemented in the United States. Previous studies have shown that LiDAR (light detection and ranging) is well-suited for modeling above-ground biomass in mature forests; however, there has been little previous research on the ability of LiDAR to model above-ground biomass in areas with young, aggradi...

  2. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  3. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  4. Aboveground biomass investments and light interception of tropical forest trees early in succession.

    Selaya, N. G.; Anten, N. P. R.; Mathies, M.; Oomen, R. J.; Werger, M.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims: Crown structure and above-ground biomass investment was studied in relation to light interception of trees and lianas growing in a 6-month-old regenerating forest. Methods: The vertical distribution of total above-ground biomass, height, diameter, stem density, leaf angles and crown depth were measured for individual plants of three short-lived pioneers (SLPs), four long-lived pioneers (LLPs) and three lianas. Daily light interception per individual Fd was calculated with...

  5. Developing a generalized allometric equation for aboveground biomass estimation

    Xu, Q.; Balamuta, J. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A key potential uncertainty in estimating carbon stocks across multiple scales stems from the use of empirically calibrated allometric equations, which estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) from plant characteristics such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or height (H). The equations themselves contain significant and, at times, poorly characterized errors. Species-specific equations may be missing. Plant responses to their local biophysical environment may lead to spatially varying allometric relationships. The structural predictor may be difficult or impossible to measure accurately, particularly when derived from remote sensing data. All of these issues may lead to significant and spatially varying uncertainties in the estimation of AGB that are unexplored in the literature. We sought to quantify the errors in predicting AGB at the tree and plot level for vegetation plots in California. To accomplish this, we derived a generalized allometric equation (GAE) which we used to model the AGB on a full set of tree information such as DBH, H, taxonomy, and biophysical environment. The GAE was derived using published allometric equations in the GlobAllomeTree database. The equations were sparse in details about the error since authors provide the coefficient of determination (R2) and the sample size. A more realistic simulation of tree AGB should also contain the noise that was not captured by the allometric equation. We derived an empirically corrected variance estimate for the amount of noise to represent the errors in the real biomass. Also, we accounted for the hierarchical relationship between different species by treating each taxonomic level as a covariate nested within a higher taxonomic level (e.g. species < genus). This approach provides estimation under incomplete tree information (e.g. missing species) or blurred information (e.g. conjecture of species), plus the biophysical environment. The GAE allowed us to quantify contribution of each different

  6. Mapping aboveground forest biomass combining dendrometric data and spectral signature of forest species

    Avocat, H.; Tourneux, F.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measures and explicit spatial representations of forest biomass compose an important aspect to model the forest productivity and crops, and to implement sustainable forest management. Several methods have been developed to estimate and to map forest biomass, combining point-sources measurements of biophysical variables such as diameter-at-breast height (DBH), tree height, crown size, crown length, crown volume and remote sensing data (spectral vegetation index values). In this study, we propose a new method for aboveground biomass (AGB) mapping of forests and isolated trees. This method is tested on a 1100 km2 area located in the eastern France. In contrast to most of studies, our model is not calibrated using field plot measurements or point-source inventory data. The primary goal of this model is to propose an accessible and reproducible method for AGB mapping of temperate forests, by combining standard biomass values coming from bibliography and remotely sensed data. This method relies on three steps. (1) The first step consists of produce a map of wooded areas including small woods and isolated trees, and to identify the major forest stands. To do this, we use an unsupervised classification of a Landsat 7 ETM+ image. Results are compared and improved with various land cover data. (2) The second step consists of extract the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values of main forest stands. (3) Finally, these values are combined with standard AGB values provided by bibliography, to calibrate four AGB estimation models of different forest types (broadleaves, coniferous, coppices, and mixed stands). This method provides a map of aboveground biomass for forests and isolated trees with a 30 meters spatial resolution. Results demonstrate that 71 % of AGB values for hardwoods vary between 143 and 363 t.ha-1, i.e. × 1 standard deviation around the average. For coniferous stands, most of values of AGB range from 167 to 256 t.ha-1.

  7. Modeling compatible single-tree aboveground biomass equations for masson pine (Pinus massoniana) in southern China

    ZENG Wei-sheng; TANG Shou-zheng

    2012-01-01

    Because of global climate change,it is necessary to add forest biomass estimation to national forest resource monitoring.The biomass equations developed for forest biomass estimation should be compatible with volume equations.Based on the tree volume and aboveground biomass data of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) in southern China,we constructed one-,two-and three-variable aboveground biomass equations and biomass conversion functions compatible with tree volume equations by using error-in-variable simultaneous equations.The prediction precision of aboveground biomass estimates from one variable equation exceeded 95%.The regressions of aboveground biomass equations were improved slightly when tree height and crown width were used together with diameter on breast height,although the contributions to regressions were statistically insignificant.For the biomass conversion function on one variable,the conversion factor decreased with increasing diameter,but for the conversion function on two variables,the conversion factor increased with increasing diameter but decreased with increasing tree height.

  8. Relationships among the Stem,Aboveground and Total Biomass across Chinese Forests

    2007-01-01

    Forest biomass plays a key role in the global carbon cycle.In the present study,a general allometric model was derived to predict the relationships among the stem biomass Ms,aboveground biomass MA and total biomass Mr.based on previously developed scaling relationships for leaf,stem and root standing biomass.The model predicted complex scaling exponents for MT and/or MA with respect to MS.Because annual biomass accumulation in the stem,root and branch far exceeded the annual increase in standing leaf biomass,we can predict that MT∝MA∝Ms as a simple result of the model.Although slight variations existed in different phyletic affiliations(I.e.conifers versus angiosperms),empirical results using Model Type Ⅱ (reduced major axis) regression supported the model's predictions.The predictive formulas among stem,aboveground and total biomass were obtained using Model Type Ⅰ(ordinary least squares) regression to estimate forest biomass.Given the low mean percentage prediction errors for aboveground(and total biomass) based on the stem biomass.the results provided a reasonable method to estimate the biomass of forests at the individual level.which was insensitive to the variation in local environmental conditions (e.g.precipitation,tempereture,etc.).

  9. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  10. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat

    Lefsky, Michael A; Harding, David J.; Keller, Michael; Cohen, Warren B.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Espirito-Santo, Fernando Del Bom; Hunter, Maria O.; de Oliveira, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage. While the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) has collected an unparalleled dataset of lidar waveforms over terrestrial targets, processing of IC...

  11. Aboveground biomass of three conifers in the Qianyanzhou plantation, Jiangxi Province, China

    Xuanran LI; Qijing LIU; Yongrui CHEN; Lile HU; Fengting YANG

    2008-01-01

    Regressive models of the aboveground bio-mass for three conifers in subtropical China-slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Masson pine (P. massoniana) andChinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)-were established. Regression analysis of leaf biomass and total biomass of each branch against branch diameter (d), branch length (L), d3 and d2L was conducted with functions of linear, power and exponent. A power law equation with a single parameter (d) was proved to be better than the rest for Masson pine and Chinese fir, and a linear equation with parameter (d3) is better for slash pine. The canopy biomass was derived by adopting the regression equa-tions to all branches of each individual tree. These kinds of equations were also used to fit the relationship between total tree biomass, branch biomass, foliage biomass and tree diameter at breast height (D), tree height (H), D3 and D2H, respectively. D2H was found to be the best parameter for estimating total biomass. However, for foliage biomass and branch biomass, both parameters and equation forms showed some differences among species. Correlations were highly significant (P<0.001) for foliage biomass, branch biomass and total biomass, among which the equation of the total biomass was the highest. With these equations, the aboveground biomass of Masson pine forest, slash pine forest and Chinese fir forest were estimated, in addition to the allocation of aboveground biomass. The above-ground biomass of Masson pine forest, slash pine forest and Chinese fir forest was 83.6, 72.1 and 59 t/hm2 respectively, and the stem biomass was more than the foliage biomass and the branch biomass. The under-ground biomass of these three forests which estimated with others' research were 10.44, 9.42 and 11.48 t/hm2, and the amount of carbon-fixed were 47.94, 45.14 and 37.52 t/hm2, respectively.

  12. Estimating Aboveground Biomass of Oil Palm Trees by Using the Destructive Method

    Sunaryathy, Putri Ida; Suhasman; Kanniah, Kasturi Devi; Tan, Kian Pang

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the important commodities in Indonesia. Estimating the aboveground biomass of oil palms is one of the most important oil palm carbon studies. The objective of this study was to estimate the aboveground biomass of oil palm trees at plot scale for three age classes namely, class 1 (1 to 3 years), class 2 (4 to 10 years) and class 3 (11 to 20 years) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia using destructive method. The AGB for each age class: class 1, class 2, and class 3 they are 5.84 kg...

  13. Estimating above-ground carbon biomass in a newly restored coastal plain wetland using remote sensing.

    Joseph B Riegel

    Full Text Available Developing accurate but inexpensive methods for estimating above-ground carbon biomass is an important technical challenge that must be overcome before a carbon offset market can be successfully implemented in the United States. Previous studies have shown that LiDAR (light detection and ranging is well-suited for modeling above-ground biomass in mature forests; however, there has been little previous research on the ability of LiDAR to model above-ground biomass in areas with young, aggrading vegetation. This study compared the abilities of discrete-return LiDAR and high resolution optical imagery to model above-ground carbon biomass at a young restored forested wetland site in eastern North Carolina. We found that the optical imagery model explained more of the observed variation in carbon biomass than the LiDAR model (adj-R(2 values of 0.34 and 0.18 respectively; root mean squared errors of 0.14 Mg C/ha and 0.17 Mg C/ha respectively. Optical imagery was also better able to predict high and low biomass extremes than the LiDAR model. Combining both the optical and LiDAR improved upon the optical model but only marginally (adj-R(2 of 0.37. These results suggest that the ability of discrete-return LiDAR to model above-ground biomass may be rather limited in areas with young, small trees and that high spatial resolution optical imagery may be the better tool in such areas.

  14. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    content of metals in forest biomass fuel ash was relatively small to compare with their total removals. The findings of this study have an important implications for future practice, i.e. the recommended maximum forest biomass fuel ash dose for the compensating fertilising could be increased with respect...

  15. Above-ground biomass investments and light interception of tropical forest trees and lianas early in succession

    Selaya, N.G.; Anten, N.P.R.; Oomen, R.J.; Matthies, M.; Werger, M.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crown structure and above-ground biomass investment was studied in relation to light interception of trees and lianas growing in a 6-month-old regenerating forest. Methods The vertical distribution of total above-ground biomass, height, diameter, stem density, leaf angles and cro

  16. Capabilities and limitations of Landsat and land cover data for aboveground woody biomass estimation of Uganda

    Avitabile, V.; Baccini, A.; Friedl, M.A.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground woody biomass for circa-2000 is mapped at national scale in Uganda at 30-m spatial resolution on the basis of Landsat ETM + images, a National land cover dataset and field data using an object-oriented approach. A regression tree-based model (Random Forest) produces good results (cross-v

  17. Aboveground biomass estimation with airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data in Tesinske Beskydy Mountains

    Brovkina, Olga; Zemek, František; Fabiánek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2015), s. 35-46. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk OC09001 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest aboveground biomass * hyperspectral data * airborne LiDAR * Beskydy Mountains Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Nondestructive estimates of above-ground biomass using terrestrial laser scanning

    Calders, K.; Newnham, G.; Burt, A.; Murphy, S.; Raumonen, P.; Herold, M.; Culvenor, D.; Avitabile, V.; Disney, M.; Armston, J.; Kaasalainen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Allometric equations are currently used to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) based on the indirect relationship with tree parameters. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can measure the canopy structure in 3D with high detail. In this study, we develop an approach to estimate AGB from TLS data, which

  19. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass Using Manual Stereo Viewing of Digital Aerial Photographs in Tropical Seasonal Forest

    Katsuto Shimizu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to: (1 evaluate accuracy of tree height measurements of manual stereo viewing on a computer display using digital aerial photographs compared with airborne LiDAR height measurements; and (2 develop an empirical model to estimate stand-level aboveground biomass with variables derived from manual stereo viewing on the computer display in a Cambodian tropical seasonal forest. We evaluate observation error of tree height measured from the manual stereo viewing, based on field measurements. RMSEs of tree height measurement with manual stereo viewing and LiDAR were 1.96 m and 1.72 m, respectively. Then, stand-level aboveground biomass is regressed against tree height indices derived from the manual stereo viewing. We determined the best model to estimate aboveground biomass in terms of the Akaike’s information criterion. This was a model of mean tree height of the tallest five trees in each plot (R2 = 0.78; RMSE = 58.18 Mg/ha. In conclusion, manual stereo viewing on the computer display can measure tree height accurately and is useful to estimate aboveground stand biomass.

  20. Allometric equations for aboveground and belowground biomass estimations in an evergreen forest in Vietnam

    Nam, Vu Thanh; Kuijk, Van Marijke; Anten, Niels P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations fo

  1. Grass allometry and estimation of above-ground biomass in tropical alpine tussock grasslands

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Eynden, van der M.; Malhi, Y.; Cahuana, N.; Menor, C.; Zamora, F.; Haugaasen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The puna/páramo grasslands span across the highest altitudes of the tropical Andes, and their ecosystem dynamics are still poorly understood. In this study we examined the above-ground biomass and developed species specific and multispecies power-law allometric equations for four tussock grass speci

  2. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  3. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    Vu Thanh Nam

    Full Text Available Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB and root biomass (RB based on 300 (of 45 species and 40 (of 25 species sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH and tree height (H, wood density (WD was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

  4. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam. PMID:27309718

  5. Estimates of Aboveground Biomass from Texture Analysis of Landsat Imagery

    Katharine C. Kelsey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maps of forest biomass are important tools for managing natural resources and reporting terrestrial carbon stocks. Using the San Juan National Forest in Southwest Colorado as a case study, we evaluate regional biomass maps created using physical variables, spectral vegetation indices, and image textural analysis on Landsat TM imagery. We investigate eight gray level co-occurrence matrix based texture measures (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation on four window sizes (3 × 3, 5 × 5, 7 × 7, 9 × 9 at four offsets ([1,0], [1,1], [0,1], [1,−1] on four Landsat TM bands (2, 3, 4, and 5. The map with the highest prediction quality was created using three texture metrics calculated from Landsat Band 2 on a 3 × 3 window and an offset of [0,1]: entropy, mean and correlation; and one physical variable: slope. The correlation of predicted versus observed biomass values for our texture-based biomass map is r = 0.86, the Root Mean Square Error is 45.6 Mg∙ha−1, and the Coefficient of Variation of the Root Mean Square Error is 0.31. We find that models including image texture variables are more strongly correlated with biomass than models using only physical and spectral variables. Additionally, we suggest that the use of texture appears to better capture the magnitude and direction of biomass change following disturbance compared to spectral approaches. The biomass mapping methods we present here are widely applicable throughout the US, as they are based on publically available datasets and utilize relatively simple analytical routines.

  6. The variable effects of soil nitrogen availability and insect herbivory on aboveground and belowground plant biomass in an old-field ecosystem

    Blue, Jarrod D.; Souza, Lara; Classen, Aimée T.;

    2011-01-01

    N may not be limiting primary production in this ecosystem. Insects reduced the aboveground biomass of subdominant plant species and decreased coarse root production. We found no statistical interactions between N availability and insect herbivory for any response variable. Overall, the results of 6...

  7. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Dunmei Lin

    Full Text Available The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5] and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0] in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8] in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  8. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  9. Effect of stand structure on models for volume and aboveground biomass assessment (Castelfusano pinewood, Roma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to analyse the effects of stand structure on biomass allocation and on the accurancy of estimation models for volume and aboveground biomass of Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.. Although the species is widely distributed on Mediterranean coasts, few studies on forest biomass estimation have focused on pinewoods. The research was carried out in the Castelfusano’s pinewood (Rome and concerned the two most common structural types: (a 50 years-old pinewood originated by broadcast seeding; and (b 62 years-old pinewood originated by partial seeding alternating worked strips to firm strips. Some 83 sample trees were selected for stem volume estimation and a subset of 32 trees used to quantify the total epigeous biomass, the wooden biomass compartment, including stem and big branches (diameter > 3 cm and the photosynthetic biomass, including thin branches (diameter < 3 cm and needles. Collected data were used to elaborate allometric relations for stem volume, total biomass and specific relations for both compartments, based on one (d2 or two (d2h indipendent variables, for both structural types. Furthermore, pinewood specific biomass expansion factors (BEF - indexes used to estimate carbon stocks starting from stem biomass data - were obtained. The achieved estimation models were subjected to both parallelism and coincidence tests, showing significant effects of stand structure on the accurancy of the allometric relations. The effects of stand structure and reliability of tree height curves on the accurancy of estimation models for volume and aboveground biomass and on biomass allocation in different compartments are analysed and discussed.

  10. Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield

    Acciaresi, Horacio A.; M. S. Zuluaga

    2006-01-01

    The use of narrow plant spacing in corn (Zea mays) has been suggested as a technological alternative to obtain grain yield increases, due to a better use of resources. The regular pattern could diminish intraspecific competition while favoring interspecific competition with weeds. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of corn row spacing on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. Three corn...

  11. Temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass decreases as spatial variability increases.

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Hovick, Torre J; Elmore, R Dwayne; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Winter, Stephen L; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Ecological theory predicts that diversity decreases variability in ecosystem function. We predict that, at the landscape scale, spatial variability created by a mosaic of contrasting patches that differ in time since disturbance will decrease temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. Using data from a multi-year study of seven grazed tallgrass prairie landscapes, each experimentally managed for one to eight patches, we show that increased spatial variability driven by spatially patchy fire and herbivory reduces temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. This pattern is associated with statistical evidence for the portfolio effect and a positive relationship between temporal variability and functional group synchrony as predicted by metacommunity variability theory. As disturbance from fire and grazing interact to create a shifting mosaic of spatially heterogeneous patches within a landscape, temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass can be dampened. These results suggest that spatially heterogeneous disturbance regimes contribute to a portfolio of ecosystem functions provided by biodiversity, including wildlife habitat, fuel, and forage. We discuss how spatial patterns of disturbance drive variability within and among patches. PMID:27197382

  12. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping. PMID:25930205

  13. Estimating aboveground biomass of broadleaved woody plants in the understory of Florida Keys pine forests

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Koptur, S.; Snyder, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Species-specific allometric equations that provide estimates of biomass from measured plant attributes are currently unavailable for shrubs common to South Florida pine rocklands, where fire plays an important part in shaping the structure and function of ecosystems. We developed equations to estimate total aboveground biomass and fine fuel of 10 common hardwood species in the shrub layer of pine forests of the lower Florida Keys. Many equations that related biomass categories to crown area and height were significant (p Estimates based on species-specific equations indicated clearly that total aboveground shrub biomass and shrub fine fuel increased with time since last fire, but the relationships were non-linear. The relative proportion of biomass constituted by the major species also varied with stand age. Estimates based on mixed-species regressions differed slightly from estimates based on species-specific models, but the former could provide useful approximations in similar forests where species-specific regressions are not yet available. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on forest above-ground biomass synergy inversion from GLAS and HJ-1 data

    Fang, Zhou; Cao, Chunxiang; Ji, Wei; Xu, Min; Chen, Wei

    2012-10-01

    The need exists to develop a systematic approach to inventory and monitor global forests, both for carbon stock evaluation and for land use change analysis. The use of freely available satellite-based data for carbon stock estimation mitigates both the cost and the spatial limitations of field-based techniques. Spaceborne lidar data have been demonstrated as useful for forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation over a wide range of biomass values and forest types. However, the application of these data is limited because of their spatially discrete nature. Spaceborne multispectral sensors have been used extensively to estimate AGB, but these methods have been demonstrated as inappropriate for forest structure characterization in high-biomass mature forests. This study uses an integration of ICESat Geospatial Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) lidar and HJ-1 satellites data to develop methods to estimate AGB in an area of Qilian Mountains, Northwest China. Considering the study area belongs to mountainous terrain, the difficulties of this article are how to extract canopy height from GLAS waveform metrics. Combining with HJ-1 data and ground survey data of the study area, we establish forest biomass estimation model for the GLAS data based on BP neural network model. In order to estimate AGB, the training sample data includes the canopy height extracted from GLAS, LAI, vegetation coverage and several kinds of vegetation indices from HJ-1 data. The results of forest aboveground biomass are very close to the fields measured results, and are consistent with land cover data in the spatial distribution.

  15. Mapping Aboveground Biomass in the Amazon Basin: Exploring Sensors, Scales, and Strategies for Optimal Data Linkage

    Walker, W. S.; Baccini, A.

    2013-05-01

    Information on the distribution and density of carbon in tropical forests is critical to decision-making on a host of globally significant issues ranging from climate stabilization and biodiversity conservation to poverty reduction and human health. Encouraged by recent progress at both the international and jurisdictional levels on the design of incentive-based policy mechanisms to compensate tropical nations for maintaining their forests intact, governments throughout the tropics are moving with urgency to implement robust national and sub-national forest monitoring systems for operationally tracking and reporting on changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks. Monitoring systems will be required to produce results that are accurate, consistent, complete, transparent, and comparable at sub-national to pantropical scales, and satellite-based remote sensing supported by field observations is widely-accepted as the most objective and cost-effective solution. The effectiveness of any system for large-area forest monitoring will necessarily depend on the capacity of current and near-future Earth observation satellites to provide information that meets the requirements of developing monitoring protocols. However, important questions remain regarding the role that spatially explicit maps of aboveground biomass and carbon can play in IPCC-compliant forest monitoring systems, with the majority of these questions stemming from doubts about the inherit sensitivity of satellite data to aboveground forest biomass, confusion about the relationship between accuracy and resolution, and a general lack of guidance on optimal strategies for linking field reference and remote sensing data sources. Here we demonstrate the ability of a state-of-the-art satellite radar sensor, the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR, and a venerable optical platform, Landsat 5, to support large-area mapping of aboveground tropical woody biomass across a 153,000-km2 region in the southwestern Amazon

  16. Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Total Aboveground Biomass in Forest Stands: Site-scale Test of Model

    CHOI, S.; Shi, Y.; Ni, X.; Simard, M.; Myneni, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Sparseness in in-situ observations has precluded the spatially explicit and accurate mapping of forest biomass. The need for large-scale maps has raised various approaches implementing conjugations between forest biomass and geospatial predictors such as climate, forest type, soil property, and topography. Despite the improved modeling techniques (e.g., machine learning and spatial statistics), a common limitation is that biophysical mechanisms governing tree growth are neglected in these black-box type models. The absence of a priori knowledge may lead to false interpretation of modeled results or unexplainable shifts in outputs due to the inconsistent training samples or study sites. Here, we present a gray-box approach combining known biophysical processes and geospatial predictors through parametric optimizations (inversion of reference measures). Total aboveground biomass in forest stands is estimated by incorporating the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Two main premises of this research are: (a) The Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations (ASRL) theory can provide a relationship between tree geometry and local resource availability constrained by environmental conditions; and (b) The zeroth order theory (size-frequency distribution) can expand individual tree allometry into total aboveground biomass at the forest stand level. In addition to the FIA estimates, two reference maps from the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) were produced to evaluate the model. This research focuses on a site-scale test of the biomass model to explore the robustness of predictors, and to potentially improve models using additional geospatial predictors such as climatic variables, vegetation indices, soil properties, and lidar-/radar-derived altimetry products (or existing forest canopy height maps). As results, the optimized ASRL estimates satisfactorily

  17. Above-ground biomass estimation of tuberous bulrush ( Bolboschoenus planiculmis) in mudflats using remotely sensed multispectral image

    Kim, Ji Yoon; Im, Ran-Young; Do, Yuno; Kim, Gu-Yeon; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2016-03-01

    We present a multivariate regression approach for mapping the spatial distribution of above-ground biomass (AGB) of B. planiculmis using field data and coincident moderate spatial resolution satellite imagery. A total of 232 ground sample plots were used to estimate the biomass distribution in the Nakdong River estuary. Field data were overlain and correlated with digital values from an atmospherically corrected multispectral image (Landsat 8). The AGB distribution was derived using empirical models trained with field-measured AGB data. The final regression model for AGB estimation was composed using the OLI3, OLI4, and OLI7 spectral bands. The Pearson correlation between the observed and predicted biomass was significant (R = 0.84, p coefficient value: 53.4%) and revealed a negative relationship with the AGB biomass. The total distribution area of B. planiculmis was 1,922,979 m2. Based on the model estimation, the total AGB had a dry weight (DW) of approximately 298.2 tons. The distribution of high biomass stands (> 200 kg DW/900 m2) constituted approximately 23.91% of the total vegetated area. Our findings suggest the expandability of remotely sensed products to understand the distribution pattern of estuarine plant productivity at the landscape level.

  18. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models

    Johnson, Michelle; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; De Deaurwaerder, Hannes; Guimberteau, Mattieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kristin; Verbeeck, Hans; von Randow, Celso; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez Gonzales, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine above-ground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody productivity [woody net primary productivity (NPP)] and the rate at which carbon is lost through tree mortality. Here, we test whether two direct metrics of tree mortality (the absolute rate of woody biom...

  19. Statewide Mapping of Aboveground Biomass by Integrating Airborne Lidar Data and National Forestry Inventory Plots

    Chen, Q.; McRoberts, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The freely available airborne lidar data at the sub-national level in the United States provide unprecedented opportunities for mapping large-area yet accurate information about vegetation structure, biomass, and carbon. However, the challenge of processing massive lidar data and extracting useful information is huge. This study is to conduct a statewide mapping study of aboveground biomass (AGB) by integrating airborne lidar data and FIA (Forest Inventory and Analysis) plot data for the whole state of Minnesota. We will share our experience and lessons in issues including 1) automatic generation of Digital Terrain Model from point cloud, 2) classification of vegetation returns, 3) calculation of AGB from FIA plots using different allometric models, 4) statistical modeling of AGB by integrating with FIA plots, and 5) assessing the uncertainty of mapped AGB.

  20. A first map of tropical Africa's above-ground biomass derived from satellite imagery

    Observations from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used in combination with a large data set of field measurements to map woody above-ground biomass (AGB) across tropical Africa. We generated a best-quality cloud-free mosaic of MODIS satellite reflectance observations for the period 2000-2003 and used a regression tree model to predict AGB at 1 km resolution. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model explained 82% of the variance in AGB, with a root mean square error of 50.5 Mg ha-1 for a range of biomass between 0 and 454 Mg ha-1. Analysis of lidar metrics from the Geoscience Laser Altimetry System (GLAS), which are sensitive to vegetation structure, indicate that the model successfully captured the regional distribution of AGB. The results showed a strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.90) between the GLAS height metrics and predicted AGB.

  1. National Forest Aboveground Biomass Mapping from ICESat/GLAS Data and MODIS Imagery in China

    Hong Chi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest aboveground biomass (AGB was mapped throughout China using large footprint LiDAR waveform data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS onboard NASA’s Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS imagery and forest inventory data. The entire land of China was divided into seven zones according to the geographic characteristics of the forests. The forest AGB prediction models were separately developed for different forest types in each of the seven forest zones at GLAS footprint level from GLAS waveform parameters and biomass derived from height and diameter at breast height (DBH field observation. Some waveform parameters used in the prediction models were able to reduce the effects of slope on biomass estimation. The models of GLAS-based biomass estimates were developed by using GLAS footprints with slopes less than 20° and slopes ≥ 20°, respectively. Then, all GLAS footprint biomass and MODIS data were used to establish Random Forest regression models for extrapolating footprint AGB to a nationwide scale. The total amount of estimated AGB in Chinese forests around 2006 was about 12,622 Mt vs. 12,617 Mt derived from the seventh national forest resource inventory data. Nearly half of all provinces showed a relative error (% of less than 20%, and 80% of total provinces had relative errors less than 50%.

  2. Dynamics, aboveground biomass and composition on permanent plots, Tambopata National Reserve. Madre de Dios, Peru

    Nadir C. Pallqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the floristic composition and changes in stored biomass and dynamics over time in 9 permanent plots monitored by RAINFOR (Amazon Forest Inventory Network and located in the lowland Amazon rainforest of the Tambopata National Reserve. Data were acquired in the field using the standardized methodology of RAINFOR. The biomass was estimated using the equation for tropical moist forests of Chave et al. (2005. Biomass dynamics were analyzed, in three separated periods from 2003 to 2011. 64 families, 219 genera and 531 species were recorded. The tree floristic composition is very similar in all plots except for one swamp plot, although but it is also evident that two slightly different forest communities exist in the rest of landscape, apparently related to the age of the ancient river terraces in the area. Mortality and recruitment of individuals averaged 2.12 ± 0.52% and 1.92 ± 0.49%, respectively. The turnover rate is 2.02% per year. Aboveground biomass stored in these forests averages 296.2 ± 33.9 t ha-1. The biomass dynamics show a total net gain of 1.96, 1.69 and –1.23 t ha-1 for period respectively. Prior to the drought of 2010 a change in biomass was found 1.88 t ha-1 yr-1 and post drought was -0.18 t ha-1 yr-1 on average, though the difference is not significant. Demographic analysis suggests a dynamic equilibrium in the plots. The negative balance of biomass observed for the period 2008 – 2011 may be due to the drought of 2010, in which half of the monitored plots experienced negative net biomass change due to mortality of individuals selectively affecting the floristic composition.

  3. Estimating aboveground biomass using Landsat TM imagery: A case study of Anatolian Crimean pine forests in Turkey

    A. Günlü

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in carbon circulation, and the productivity of forest ecosystems can be evaluated by evaluating its biomass. Evaluation of biomass aids the determination and understanding of changes in forest ecosystems. Because of the limitations of ground measurements of biomass, in recent times, satellite images have been broadly applied to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB. The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between AGB and individual band reflectance values and ten Vegetation Indices (VIs obtained from a Landsat TM satellite image for an Anatolian pine forests in northwestern Turkey. Multiple regression analysis is utilized to predict the AGB. The AGB model using TM 1 and TM 2 had an adjusted R2 of 0.465. Another AGB model using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Normalized Difference 57 (ND57 had an adjusted R2 of 0.606. Our results reveal that VIs present better estimation of AGB in Anatolian pine forests as compared to individual band reflectance values.

  4. Mapping Global Forest Aboveground Biomass with Spaceborne LiDAR, Optical Imagery, and Forest Inventory Data

    Tianyu Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a large carbon pool, global forest ecosystems are a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Accurate estimations of global forest aboveground biomass (AGB can improve the understanding of global carbon dynamics and help to quantify anthropogenic carbon emissions. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR techniques have been proven that can accurately capture both horizontal and vertical forest structures and increase the accuracy of forest AGB estimation. In this study, we mapped the global forest AGB density at a 1-km resolution through the integration of ground inventory data, optical imagery, Geoscience Laser Altimeter System/Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite data, climate surfaces, and topographic data. Over 4000 ground inventory records were collected from published literatures to train the forest AGB estimation model and validate the resulting global forest AGB product. Our wall-to-wall global forest AGB map showed that the global forest AGB density was 210.09 Mg/ha on average, with a standard deviation of 109.31 Mg/ha. At the continental level, Africa (333.34 ± 63.80 Mg/ha and South America (301.68 ± 67.43 Mg/ha had higher AGB density. The AGB density in Asia, North America and Europe were 172.28 ± 94.75, 166.48 ± 84.97, and 132.97 ± 50.70 Mg/ha, respectively. The wall-to-wall forest AGB map was evaluated at plot level using independent plot measurements. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE between our predicted results and the validation plots were 0.56 and 87.53 Mg/ha, respectively. At the ecological zone level, the R2 and RMSE between our map and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested values were 0.56 and 101.21 Mg/ha, respectively. Moreover, a comprehensive comparison was also conducted between our forest AGB map and other published regional AGB products. Overall, our forest AGB map showed good agreements with these regional AGB products, but some of the regional

  5. Landscape Patterns of Wood Density and Aboveground Biomass Along a Tropical Elevation Gradient in Costa Rica

    Robinson, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    This research sought to understand how tree wood density and taxonomic diversity relate to topography and three-dimensional vegetation structure in the tropical montane forest of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. The study utilized forest inventory and botanical data from twenty 1-ha plots ranging from 55 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from an airborne lidar sensor (NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor [LVIS]) to quantify variations in forest structure. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure may help to control the functional variations across landscapes. This study relates patterns of tree functional wood density and alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure using remote sensing observations of forest structure. We were able to test the effect of the gradient on wood density measured from collected tree cores and on the subsequent aboveground biomass estimations. We sought to determine if there was a significant pattern of wood density across the altitudinal gradient, which has implications for conservation of both ecosystem services and biodiversity. We also wanted to determine how many random individuals could be sampled to accurately estimate aboveground biomass in a one-hectare plot. Our results indicate that there is a strong relationship between LVIS-derived forest 3D-structure and alpha diversity, likely controlled by variations in abiotic factors and topography along the elevation. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we found patterns along the environmental gradients defining species composition and forest structure. Wood density values were found to vary significantly from database values for the same species. This variation in tree growth has repercussions on overall forest structure, and subsequent carbon estimates extrapolated from field measurements. Because these wood density values are directly tied to biomass estimates, it is possible that carbon storage has been

  6. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  7. Allometric Models Based on Bayesian Frameworks Give Better Estimates of Aboveground Biomass in the Miombo Woodlands

    Shem Kuyah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The miombo woodland is the most extensive dry forest in the world, with the potential to store substantial amounts of biomass carbon. Efforts to obtain accurate estimates of carbon stocks in the miombo woodlands are limited by a general lack of biomass estimation models (BEMs. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of most commonly employed allometric models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB in miombo woodlands, and to develop new models that enable more accurate estimation of biomass in the miombo woodlands. A generalizable mixed-species allometric model was developed from 88 trees belonging to 33 species ranging in diameter at breast height (DBH from 5 to 105 cm using Bayesian estimation. A power law model with DBH alone performed better than both a polynomial model with DBH and the square of DBH, and models including height and crown area as additional variables along with DBH. The accuracy of estimates from published models varied across different sites and trees of different diameter classes, and was lower than estimates from our model. The model developed in this study can be used to establish conservative carbon stocks required to determine avoided emissions in performance-based payment schemes, for example in afforestation and reforestation activities.

  8. Modeling aboveground tree woody biomass using national-scale allometric methods and airborne lidar

    Chen, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Estimating tree aboveground biomass (AGB) and carbon (C) stocks using remote sensing is a critical component for understanding the global C cycle and mitigating climate change. However, the importance of allometry for remote sensing of AGB has not been recognized until recently. The overarching goals of this study are to understand the differences and relationships among three national-scale allometric methods (CRM, Jenkins, and the regional models) of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program in the U.S. and to examine the impacts of using alternative allometry on the fitting statistics of remote sensing-based woody AGB models. Airborne lidar data from three study sites in the Pacific Northwest, USA were used to predict woody AGB estimated from the different allometric methods. It was found that the CRM and Jenkins estimates of woody AGB are related via the CRM adjustment factor. In terms of lidar-biomass modeling, CRM had the smallest model errors, while the Jenkins method had the largest ones and the regional method was between. The best model fitting from CRM is attributed to its inclusion of tree height in calculating merchantable stem volume and the strong dependence of non-merchantable stem biomass on merchantable stem biomass. This study also argues that it is important to characterize the allometric model errors for gaining a complete understanding of the remotely-sensed AGB prediction errors.

  9. Estimating forest aboveground biomass using HJ-1 Satellite CCD and ICESat GLAS waveform data

    2010-01-01

    The ecosystem in northeastern China and the Russian Far East is a hotspot of scientific research into the global carbon balance.Forest aboveground biomass(AGB) is an important component in the land surface carbon cycle.In this study,using forest inventory data and forest distribution data,the AGB was estimated for forest in Daxinganlin in northeastern China by combining charge-coupled device(CCD) data from the Small Satellite for Disaster and Environment Monitoring and Forecast(HJ-1) and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System(GLAS) waveform data from the Ice,Cloud and land Elevation Satellite(ICESat).The forest AGB prediction models were separately developed for different forest types in the research area at GLAS footprint level from GLAS waveform parameters and field survey plot biomass in the Changqing(CQ) Forest Center,which was calculated from forest inventory data.The resulted statistical regression models have a R2=0.68 for conifer and R2=0.71 for broadleaf forests.These models were used to estimate biomass for all GLAS footprints of forest located in the study area.All GLAS footprint biomass coupled with various spectral reflectivity parameters and vegetation indices derived from HJ-1 satellite CCD data were used in multiple regression analyses to establish biomass prediction models(R2=0.55 and R2=0.52 for needle and broadleaf respectively).Then the models were used to produce a forest AGB map for the whole study area using the HJ-1 data.Biomass data obtained from forest inventory data of the Zhuanglin(ZL) Forest Center were used as independent field measurements to validate the AGB estimated from HJ-1 CCD data(R2=0.71).About 80% of biomass samples had an error less than 20 t ha-1,and the mean error of all validation samples is 5.74 t ha-1.The pixel-level biomass map was then stratified into different biomass levels to illustrate the AGB spatial distribution pattern in this area.It was found that HJ-1 wide-swath data and GLAS waveform data can be combined to

  10. Estimating aboveground biomass of oil palm : allometric equations for estimating frond biomass

    Aholoukpe, H.; Dubos, B.; Flori, A.; Deleporte, P.; Amadji, G.; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blavet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Allometric equations were developed to estimate the biomass of oil palm frond with nontree-lethal methods. The study was conducted in oil palm plantations belonging to the Oil Palm Research Center of the Institut National de Recherches Agricoles du Benin (INRAB) and to neighboring smallholders oil palm plantations. Complete measurements of individual fronds biomass and measurements of predictor variables were made by two methods: (1) a tree-lethal (destructive) method and (2) a nontree-lethal...

  11. Estimating aboveground biomass in the boreal forests of the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Ji, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Nossov, D.; Peterson, B.; Waldrop, M. P.; McFarland, J.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Rover, J. A.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alaska's boreal forests is essential to accurately evaluate terrestrial carbon stocks and dynamics in northern high-latitude ecosystems. However, regional AGB datasets with spatially detailed information (DBH) or basal diameter (BD) for live and dead trees and shrubs (>1 m tall), which were converted to plot-level AGB using allometric equations. We acquired Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images from the Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) that provides multi-date composites of top-of-atmosphere reflectance and brightness temperature for Alaska. From the WELD images, we generated a three-year (2008 - 2010) image composite for the Yukon River Basin using a series of compositing criteria including non-saturation, non-cloudiness, maximal normalize difference vegetation index (NDVI), and maximal brightness temperature. Airborne lidar datasets were acquired for two sub-regions in the central basin in 2009, which were converted to vegetation height datasets using the bare-earth digital surface model (DSM) and the first-return DSM. We created a multiple regression model in which the response variable was the field-observed AGB and the predictor variables were Landsat-derived reflectance, brightness temperature, and spectral vegetation indices including NDVI, soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized difference infrared index (NDII), and normalized difference water index (NDWI). Principal component analysis was incorporated in the regression model to remedy the multicollinearity problems caused by high correlations between predictor variables. The model fitted the observed data well with an R-square of 0.62, mean absolute error of 29.1 Mg/ha, and mean bias error of 3.9 Mg/ha. By applying this model to the Landsat mosaic, we generated a 30-m AGB map for the boreal forests in the Yukon River Basin. Validation of the Landsat-derived AGB using the lidar dataset indicated a

  12. Estimating aboveground biomass in interior Alaska with Landsat data and field measurements

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Nossov, Dana R.; Peterson, Birgit; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Rover, Jennifer; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial plant biomass is a key biophysical parameter required for understanding ecological systems in Alaska. An accurate estimation of biomass at a regional scale provides an important data input for ecological modeling in this region. In this study, we created an aboveground biomass (AGB) map at 30-m resolution for the Yukon Flats ecoregion of interior Alaska using Landsat data and field measurements. Tree, shrub, and herbaceous AGB data in both live and dead forms were collected in summers and autumns of 2009 and 2010. Using the Landsat-derived spectral variables and the field AGB data, we generated a regression model and applied this model to map AGB for the ecoregion. A 3-fold cross-validation indicated that the AGB estimates had a mean absolute error of 21.8 Mg/ha and a mean bias error of 5.2 Mg/ha. Additionally, we validated the mapping results using an airborne lidar dataset acquired for a portion of the ecoregion. We found a significant relationship between the lidar-derived canopy height and the Landsat-derived AGB (R2 = 0.40). The AGB map showed that 90% of the ecoregion had AGB values ranging from 10 Mg/ha to 134 Mg/ha. Vegetation types and fires were the primary factors controlling the spatial AGB patterns in this ecoregion.

  13. Mapping Aboveground Biomass using Texture Indices from Aerial Photos in a Temperate Forest of Northeastern China

    Shili Meng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical remote sensing data have been considered to display signal saturation phenomena in regions of high aboveground biomass (AGB and multi-storied forest canopies. However, some recent studies using texture indices derived from optical remote sensing data via the Fourier-based textural ordination (FOTO approach have provided promising results without saturation problems for some tropical forests, which tend to underestimate AGB predictions. This study was applied to the temperate mixed forest of the Liangshui National Nature Reserve in Northeastern China and demonstrated the capability of FOTO texture indices to obtain a higher prediction quality of forest AGB. Based on high spatial resolution aerial photos (1.0 m spatial resolution acquired in September 2009, the relationship between FOTO texture indices and field-derived biomass measurements was calibrated using a support vector regression (SVR algorithm. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to construct a robust prediction model, which avoided the over-fitting problem. By further comparison the performance of the model estimates for greater coverage, the predicted results were compared with a reference biomass map derived from LiDAR metrics. This study showed that the FOTO indices accounted for 88.3% of the variance in ground-based AGB; the root mean square error (RMSE was 34.35 t/ha, and RMSE normalized by the mean value of the estimates was 22.31%. This novel texture-based method has great potential for forest AGB estimation in other temperate regions.

  14. Estimating Stand Volume and Above-Ground Biomass of Urban Forests Using LiDAR

    Vincenzo Giannico

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest stand conditions in urban and peri-urban areas is essential to support ecosystem service planning and management, as most of the ecosystem services provided are a consequence of forest stand characteristics. However, collecting data for assessing forest stand conditions is time consuming and labor intensive. A plausible approach for addressing this issue is to establish a relationship between in situ measurements of stand characteristics and data from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR. In this study we assessed forest stand volume and above-ground biomass (AGB in a broadleaved urban forest, using a combination of LiDAR-derived metrics, which takes the form of a forest allometric model. We tested various methods for extracting proxies of basal area (BA and mean stand height (H from the LiDAR point-cloud distribution and evaluated the performance of different models in estimating forest stand volume and AGB. The best predictors for both models were the scale parameters of the Weibull distribution of all returns (except the first (proxy of BA and the 95th percentile of the distribution of all first returns (proxy of H. The R2 were 0.81 (p < 0.01 for the stand volume model and 0.77 (p < 0.01 for the AGB model with a RMSE of 23.66 m3·ha−1 (23.3% and 19.59 Mg·ha−1 (23.9%, respectively. We found that a combination of two LiDAR-derived variables (i.e., proxy of BA and proxy of H, which take the form of a forest allometric model, can be used to estimate stand volume and above-ground biomass in broadleaved urban forest areas. Our results can be compared to other studies conducted using LiDAR in broadleaved forests with similar methods.

  15. The effect of cassava-based bioethanol production on above-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Southern Mali

    Increasing energy use and the need to mitigate climate change make production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests and grassland into biofuel crops, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to biofuel crops. This paper reports the results of a study on cassava-based bioethanol production undertaken in the Sikasso region in Southern Mali. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase cassava production. The results show that expansion of cassava production for bioethanol will most likely lead to the conversion of fallow areas to cassava. A land use change from fallow to cassava creates a reduction in the above-ground carbon stocks in the order of 4–13 Mg C ha−1, depending on (a) the age of the fallow, (b) the allometric equation used and (c) whether all trees are removed or the larger, useful trees are preserved. This ‘carbon debt’ associated with the above-ground biomass loss would take 8–25 years to repay if fossil fuels are replaced with cassava-based bioethanol. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of cassava-based bioethanol a priority. ► Farmers in Southern Mali are likely to convert fallow areas to cassava production. ► Converting fallow to cassava creates reductions in above-ground carbon stocks. ► Estimates of carbon stock reductions include that farmers preserve useful trees. ► The carbon debt associated with above-ground biomass loss takes 8–25 years to repay.

  16. Effect of nitrogen addition and drought on above-ground biomass of expanding tall grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2011), s. 275-281. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : nitrogen * drought * above-ground biomass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2011

  17. L-Band SAR Backscatter Related to Forest Cover, Height and Aboveground Biomass at Multiple Spatial Scales across Denmark

    Joshi, Neha P.; Mitchard, Edward T A; Schumacher, Johannes;

    2015-01-01

    Mapping forest aboveground biomass (AGB) using satellite data is an important task, particularly for reporting of carbon stocks and changes under climate change legislation. It is known that AGB can be mapped using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), but relationships between AGB and radar backscatter...

  18. Carbon sequestration potential in aboveground biomass of Thong Pha Phum National Forest, Thailand

    Terakunpisut, J. [Kasetsart Univ. Kamphaeng Saen, Nakornpratom (Thailand). Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science; Gajaseni, N.; Ruankawe, N. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Biology Dept.

    2007-07-01

    Increasingly convincing evidence shows that the Earth is getting warmer and in the future warming could have serious effects on humans. Atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the primary and best studied greenhouse gas, has increased by about 30% from the start of the industrial revolution to 1992 due to fossil fuel combustion and changes in land use. The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework, in which Thailand is a member, is to stabilize the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will not cause dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The emission reduction of greenhouse gases from members of industrialized countries is called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Thailand ratified the Kyoto Protocol August 28, 2002, and therefore will voluntarily participate in CO{sub 2} reduction. There are two alternatives to reduce CO{sub 2}: decreasing carbon source and increasing carbon sink. The world's forests are prominent sites to study climate change, not only in terms of total net carbon emissions but also in terms of global storage capacity, important for climatic regulation. This study assessed the potential of carbon sequestration on aboveground biomass in the different forest ecosystems in Thong Pha Phum National Forest, Thailand. The assessment was based on a total inventory for woody stem at {>=}4.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equation and aboveground carbon stock was calculated by multiplying the 0.5 conversion factor to the biomass. As the results, carbon sequestration showed varied in different types of forests. Tropical rain forest (Ton Mai Yak station) higher carbon stock than dry evergreen forest (KP 27 station) and mixed deciduous forest (Pong Phu Ron station) as 137.73 {+-} 48.07, 70.29 {+-} 7.38 and 48.14 {+-} 16.72 tonne C/ha, respectively. Habitat variability caused differences of biomass accumulation, species composition and the

  19. A comparison of two above-ground biomass estimation techniques integrating satellite-based remotely sensed data and ground data for tropical and semiarid forests in Puerto Rico

    Iiames, J. S.; Riegel, J.; Lunetta, R.

    2013-12-01

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated above-ground forest biomass implementing methodology first posited by the Woods Hole Research Center developed for conterminous United States (National Biomass and Carbon Dataset [NBCD2000]). For EPA's effort, spatial predictor layers for above-ground biomass estimation included derived products from the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (NLCD) (landcover and canopy density), the USGS Gap Analysis Program (forest type classification), the USGS National Elevation Dataset, and the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (tree heights). In contrast, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) biomass product integrated FIA ground-based data with a suite of geospatial predictor variables including: (1) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-derived image composites and percent tree cover; (2) NLCD land cover proportions; (3) topographic variables; (4) monthly and annual climate parameters; and (5) other ancillary variables. Correlations between both data sets were made at variable watershed scales to test level of agreement. Notice: This work is done in support of EPA's Sustainable Healthy Communities Research Program. The U.S EPA funded and conducted the research described in this paper. Although this work was reviewed by the EPA and has been approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of any trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  20. Vegetation stands structure and aboveground biomass after the shifting cultivation practices of Karo People in Leuser Ecosystem, North Sumatra

    T. ALIEF ATHTHORICK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available T. ALIEF ATHTHORICK1,2,, DEDE SETIADI3, YOHANES PURWANTO4, EDI GUHARDJA31 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, North Sumatra University (USU, Medan 20155, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Jl. Bioteknologi No.1 Kampus USU Medan, Tel.: 061-8223564, Fax.: 061-8214290, email: talief@lycos.comAththorick TA, Setiadi D, Purwanto Y, Guhardja E. 2012. Vegetation stands structure and aboveground biomass after the shifting cultivation practices of Karo People in Leuser Ecosystem, North Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 92-97. Vegetation stands structure and aboveground biomass after the shifting cultivation practices of Karo People in Leuser Ecosystem, North Sumatra. Shifting cultivation has been practiced by Karo People in Leuser Ecosystem for a very long time and caused a mosaic of patches that shift over time between traditional agriculture and secondary forest. The objectives of this study were to investigated the recovery of vegetation stands structure and aboveground biomass in four age classes of secondary forest, i.e. 5-years old, 10-years old, 20-years old, 30-years old and primary forest as a control. In total, 496 subplots were surveyed. Saplings contributed 62.82% of basal area in 5-years forest and still important in 10 and 20-years forest, but density decreased in 30-years and primer forest whereas tree stands dominated in 30-years and primary forest and shared basal area of 96.36% and 97.03%, respectively. Aboveground biomass of trees achieved its highest values in primary forest, i.e. 659.22 t/ha and contributed to total aboveground biomass of 99.38%.

  1. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Aboveground Biomass of Hybrid Eucalyptus Plantation Forest

    Siti Latifah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. Forests sequester carbon by conducting photosynthesis, which is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar. Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.  The present investigation was carried out to determine carbon sequestration potential of hybrid Eucalyptus. This study was conducted primarily to develop a prediction model of carbon storage capacity for plantation forest of hybrid Eucalyptus in Aek Nauli, Simalungun District, North Sumatera. Models were tested and assessed for statistical validity and accuracy in predicting biomass and carbon, based on determination coefficient (R and correlation coefficient (r, aggregative deviation percentage (AgD, and the average deviation percentage (AvD. The best general model to estimate the biomass of hybrid Eucalyptus was Y = 1351,09x^0,876. e^(0,094.  Results showed that hybrid Eucalyptus had an average above-ground biomass in year 0 (the land without the eucalyptus trees up to year 3 as large as 1.36, 11.56, 43.18, and 63.84 t ha. The carbon content of hybrid Eucalyptus were 0.61, 5.2, 19.43 t^(-1, and 28,73  t^(-1 C ha while the carbon sequestration potential were 2.23, 19.08, 71.31, and 105.43 t^(-1 CO  ha^(-1 respectively.Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, model, hybrid Eucalyptus, plantation forest

  2. Biomassas de partes aéreas em plantas da caatinga Aboveground biomass of caatinga plants

    Grécia Cavalcanti Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas de partes aéreas de nove espécies da caatinga foram determinadas e relacionadas com as medidas das plantas, cortando-se 30 plantas de cada espécie e separando-as em caule, galhos, ramos e folhas. As espécies foram divididas em dois grupos: seis espécies com plantas grandes e três com plantas menores. Cada grupo foi separado em classes de diâmetro do caule (DAP. As alturas totais (HT dobraram (3,8 a 8,5 m da classe de menor para a de maior diâmetro (Biomass of aboveground parts of nine caatinga species were determined and related to plant measurements. Thirty plants of each species were collected and separated into stems, branches, twigs and leaves. The species were divided in two groups: six species of large plants and three species of smaller plants. Each group was divided into classes of stem diameter (DBH. Plant height (H doubled (3.8 to 8.5 m from the smallest-diameter class to the largest diameter ( 5 cm diameter, 20% of branches from 1 to 5 cm, 5% of twigs < 1 cm and 5% of leaves. DBH was the single variable that best predicted biomass of parts, in both species groups, according to a power equation (B = a DBH b. H and CPA were also significantly related to biomass for some parts and group, but with R² lower than DBH. Combining DBH and H improved estimation but not enough to justify the extra field effort in determining H. Therefore, plant part biomass can be estimated from measurements of stem diameter, in a non-destructive process.

  3. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB) estimation using IFSAR: speckle noise effect on TAGB in tropical forest

    Total Aboveground Biomass (TAGB) estimation is critically important to enhance understanding of dynamics of carbon fluxes between atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. For humid tropical forest, it is a challenging task for researchers due to complex canopy structure and predominant cloud cover. Optical sensors are only able to sense canopy crown. In contrast, radar technology is able to sense sub-canopy structure of the forest with penetration ability through the cloud for precise biomass estimation with validation from field data including diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees. This study is concerned about estimation of TAGB through the utilization of Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR). Based on this study, it is found that the stand parameters such as DBH and backscattered on IFSAR image has high correlation, R2=0.6411. The most suitable model for TAGB estimation on IFSAR is Chave Model with R2=0.9139. This study analyzes the impact brought by speckle noises on IFSAR image. It is found that filtering process has improves TAGB estimation about +30% using several filtering schemes especially Gamma filter for 11×11 window size. Using field data obtained from a primary tropical forest at Gerik, Perak, TAGBestimation can be validated and the assessment has been carried out

  4. Combination of SPOT-5 and ALOS PALSAR images in estimating aboveground biomass of lowland Dipterocarp forest

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) of forests is the one of the key parameters for carbon accounting. However, estimating AGB by using remote sensing approach has been challenging as it is constrained by various limitations, especially in a complex tropical forest ecosystem. Optical or radar system has its potential in retrieving AGB but issues such as cloud cover, complex forest ecosystem and saturation at certain biomass levels remain unanswered and are continuously being studied. The study was conducted to investigate the possibility of combining both optical and radar to improve the accuracy of AGB estimation in lowland dipterocarp forest. SPOT-5 and ALOS PALSAR data were used and regression models were developed between the measured AGB and variables derived from both satellite images. The study found that the best performing model was from the multivariate regression from incorporating both normalized difference fraction index (NDFI) with HV-polarized backscatter with R2 of 0.803 and RMSE of 32.6 Mg ha−1. The study found that the combination of optical and radar images can counter limitations of each other and has improved slightly the estimate

  5. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB) estimation using IFSAR: speckle noise effect on TAGB in tropical forest

    Misbari, S.; Hashim, M.

    2014-02-01

    Total Aboveground Biomass (TAGB) estimation is critically important to enhance understanding of dynamics of carbon fluxes between atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. For humid tropical forest, it is a challenging task for researchers due to complex canopy structure and predominant cloud cover. Optical sensors are only able to sense canopy crown. In contrast, radar technology is able to sense sub-canopy structure of the forest with penetration ability through the cloud for precise biomass estimation with validation from field data including diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees. This study is concerned about estimation of TAGB through the utilization of Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR). Based on this study, it is found that the stand parameters such as DBH and backscattered on IFSAR image has high correlation, R2=0.6411. The most suitable model for TAGB estimation on IFSAR is Chave Model with R2=0.9139. This study analyzes the impact brought by speckle noises on IFSAR image. It is found that filtering process has improves TAGB estimation about +30% using several filtering schemes especially Gamma filter for 11×11 window size. Using field data obtained from a primary tropical forest at Gerik, Perak, TAGBestimation can be validated and the assessment has been carried out.

  6. Drought and biomass production in natural grassland ecosystems

    Holub, Petr

    Volume 1. 1. Brno: Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2015 - (Urban, O.; Klem, K.), s. 113-122 ISBN 978-80-87902-14-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : altitude * biomass partitioning * production of above-ground biomass * below-ground biomass * precipitation * climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. A RAPID NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SALT MARSH GRASSES

    Understanding the primary productivity of salt marshes requires accurate estimates of biomass. Unfortunately, these estimates vary enough within and among salt marshes to require large numbers of replicates if the averages are to be statistically meaningful. Large numbers of repl...

  8. Allometric models for aboveground biomass of ten tree species in northeast China

    Shuo Cai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China contains 119 million hectares of natural forest, much of which is secondary forest. An accurate estimation of the biomass of these forests is imperative because many studies conducted in northeast China have only used primary forest and this may have resulted in biased estimates. This study analyzed secondary forest in the area using information from a forest inventory to develop allometric models of the aboveground biomass (AGB. The parameter values of the diameter at breast height (DBH, tree height (H, and crown length (CL were derived from a forest inventory of 2,733 trees in a 3.5 ha plot. The wood-specific gravity (WSG was determined for 109 trees belonging to ten species. A partial sampling method was also used to determine the biomass of branches (including stem, bark and foliage in 120 trees, which substantially easy the field works. The mean AGB was 110,729 kg ha–1. We developed four allometric models from the investigation and evaluated the utility of other 19 published ones for AGB in the ten tree species. Incorporation of full range of variables with WSG-DBH-H-CL, significantly improved the precision of the models. Some of models were chosen that best fitted each tree species with high precision (R2 = 0.939, SEE 0.167. At the latitude level, the estimated AGBof secondary forest was lower than that in mature primary forests, but higher than that in primary broadleaf forest and the average level in other types of forest likewise. 

  9. Impacts of Sample Design on Estimation of Aboveground Biomass: Implications for the Assimilation of Lidar and Forest Inventory Data

    Duffy, P.; Keller, M. M.; Morton, D. C.; Schimel, D.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of lidar data that can be used to characterize forest structure and estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) is rapidly increasing. When lidar data are considered in conjunction with forest inventory data to estimate AGB, the order of acquisition for these data products may impact the quality of the resulting estimates. In this work, we address this question in the context of uncertainty reduction with respect to estimation of AGB in a degraded forest in Paragominas, Brazil. We have developed a simulation framework that quantitatively assesses the uncertainty associated with estimation of AGB for different sampling strategies that combine forest inventory and lidar data. We utilize a Bayesian hierarchical modeling (BHM) data assimilation framework to combine information from the forest inventory and lidar data products into a higher order data product of AGB. Spatially explicit realizations of AGB are generated under different sampling strategies. Sampling strategies are assessed using the distributional properties of the assimilated higher order data product in the context of uncertainty reduction. We consider both spatially explicit maps of uncertainty as well as the standard deviation of the posterior predictive distributions of AGB as endpoints for the quantification of uncertainty. This framework allows for the explicit characterization of important sources of uncertainty. Our results show that a significant reduction in the uncertainty associated with estimation of AGB can be realized when design optimization is utilized in this context.

  10. Carbon dynamics in aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    J. Schöngart

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first estimation on carbon dynamics in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in Central Southern America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, DBH have been performed and converted to predictions of AGWB by five different allometric models using two or three predicting parameters (DBH, tree height, wood density. Best prediction has been achieved using allometric equations with three independent variables. Carbon stocks (50% of AGWB vary from 7.4 to 100.9 Mg C ha−1 between the four stands. Carbon sequestration differs 0.50–4.24 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 estimated by two growth models derived from tree-ring analysis describing the relationships between age and DBH for V. divergens and other tree species. We find a close correlation between estimated tree age and C-stock, C-sequestration and C-turnover (mean residence of C in AGWB.

  11. Sparse Density, Leaf-Off Airborne Laser Scanning Data in Aboveground Biomass Component Prediction

    Ville Kankare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cost-efficient forest aboveground biomass (AGB prediction methods is growing worldwide. The National Land Survey of Finland (NLS began collecting airborne laser scanning (ALS data throughout Finland in 2008 to provide a new high-detailed terrain elevation model. Similar data sets are being collected in an increasing number of countries worldwide. These data sets offer great potential in forest mapping related applications. The objectives of our study were (i to evaluate the AGB component prediction accuracy at a resolution of 300 m2 using sparse density, leaf-off ALS data (collected by NLS derived metrics as predictor variables; (ii to compare prediction accuracies with existing large-scale forest mapping techniques (Multi-source National Forest Inventory, MS-NFI based on Landsat TM satellite imagery; and (iii to evaluate the accuracy and effect of canopy height model (CHM derived metrics on AGB component prediction when ALS data were acquired with multiple sensors and varying scanning parameters. Results showed that ALS point metrics can be used to predict component AGBs with an accuracy of 29.7%–48.3%. AGB prediction accuracy was slightly improved using CHM-derived metrics but CHM metrics had a more clear effect on the estimated bias. Compared to the MS-NFI, the prediction accuracy was considerably higher, which was caused by differences in the remote sensing data utilized.

  12. Aboveground biomass and carbon stocks modelling using non-linear regression model

    Ain Mohd Zaki, Nurul; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Nazip Suratman, Mohd; Zainee Zainal, Mohd

    2016-06-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important source of uncertainty in the carbon estimation for the tropical forest due to the variation biodiversity of species and the complex structure of tropical rain forest. Nevertheless, the tropical rainforest holds the most extensive forest in the world with the vast diversity of tree with layered canopies. With the usage of optical sensor integrate with empirical models is a common way to assess the AGB. Using the regression, the linkage between remote sensing and a biophysical parameter of the forest may be made. Therefore, this paper exemplifies the accuracy of non-linear regression equation of quadratic function to estimate the AGB and carbon stocks for the tropical lowland Dipterocarp forest of Ayer Hitam forest reserve, Selangor. The main aim of this investigation is to obtain the relationship between biophysical parameter field plots with the remotely-sensed data using nonlinear regression model. The result showed that there is a good relationship between crown projection area (CPA) and carbon stocks (CS) with Pearson Correlation (p order to quantify the AGB and carbon stocks for a larger sample area of the lowland Dipterocarp forest.

  13. Impacts of Tree Height-Dbh Allometry on Lidar-Based Tree Aboveground Biomass Modeling

    Fang, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar has been widely used in tree aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation at plot or stand levels. Lidar-based AGB models are usually constructed with the ground AGB reference as the response variable and lidar canopy indices as predictor variables. Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is the major variable of most allometric models for estimating reference AGB. However, lidar measurements are mainly related to tree vertical structure. Therefore, tree height-dbh allometric model residuals are expected to have a large impact on lidar-based AGB model performance. This study attempts to investigate sensitivity of lidar-based AGB model to the decreasing strength of height-dbh relationship using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Striking decrease in R2 and increase in relative RMSE were found in lidar-based AGB model, as the variance of height-dbh model residuals grew. I, therefore, concluded that individual tree height-dbh model residuals fundamentally introduce errors to lidar-AGB models.

  14. Aboveground Biomass Estimation Using Structure from Motion Approach with Aerial Photographs in a Seasonal Tropical Forest

    Tetsuji Ota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the capabilities of a canopy height model (CHM derived from aerial photographs using the Structure from Motion (SfM approach to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB in a tropical forest. Aerial photographs and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data were simultaneously acquired under leaf-on canopy conditions. A 3D point cloud was generated from aerial photographs using the SfM approach and converted to a digital surface model (DSMP. We also created a DSM from airborne LiDAR data (DSML. From each of DSMP and DSML, we constructed digital terrain models (DTM, which are DTMP and DTML, respectively. We created four CHMs, which were calculated from (1 DSMP and DTMP (CHMPP; (2 DSMP and DTML (CHMPL; (3 DSML and DTMP (CHMLP; and (4 DSML and DTML (CHMLL. Then, we estimated AGB using these CHMs. The model using CHMLL yielded the highest accuracy in four CHMs (R2 = 0.94 and was comparable to the model using CHMPL (R2 = 0.93. The model using CHMPP yielded the lowest accuracy (R2 = 0.79. In conclusion, AGB can be estimated from CHM derived from aerial photographs using the SfM approach in the tropics. However, to accurately estimate AGB, we need a more accurate DTM than the DTM derived from aerial photographs using the SfM approach.

  15. Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of warming and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.

    Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of environmental change, including climate warming and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of warming on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and warming, and, in concert, warming (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground warming over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground warming effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of warming-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of warming-induced environmental conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with warming in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity warming had no detectable effect. This may be because warming increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative warming × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of warming on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that warming and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both

  16. Development of Allometric Equations for Estimating Above-Ground Liana Biomass in Tropical Primary and Secondary Forests, Malaysia

    Patrick Addo-Fordjour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study developed allometric equations for estimating liana stem and total above-ground biomass in primary and secondary forests in the Penang National Park, Penang, Malaysia. Using biomass-diameter-length data of 60 liana individuals representing 15 species, allometric equations were developed for liana stem biomass and total above-ground biomass (TAGB. Three types of allometric equations were developed: models fitted to untransformed, weighted, and log-transformed (log10 data. There was a significant linear relationship between biomass and the predictors (diameter, length, and/or their combinations. The same set of models was developed for primary and secondary forests due to absence of differences in regression line slopes of the forests (ANCOVA: . The coefficients of determination values of the models were high (stem: 0.861 to 0.990; TAGB: 0.900 to 0.992. Generally, log-transformed models showed better fit (Furnival's index, FI 0.5. A comparison of the best TAGB model in this study (based on FI with previously published equations indicated that most of the equations significantly ( overestimated TAGB of lianas. However, a previous equation from Southeast Asia estimated TAGB similar to that of the current equation (. Therefore, regional or intracontinental equations should be preferred to intercontinental equations when estimating liana biomass.

  17. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  18. Vegetation stands structure and aboveground biomass after the shifting cultivation practices of Karo People in Leuser Ecosystem, North Sumatra

    T. Alief Aththorick; DEDE SETIADI; YOHANES PURWANTO; EDI GUHARDJA

    2012-01-01

    T. ALIEF ATHTHORICK1,2,, DEDE SETIADI3, YOHANES PURWANTO4, EDI GUHARDJA31 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, North Sumatra University (USU), Medan 20155, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Jl. Bioteknologi No.1 Kampus USU Medan, Tel.: 061-8223564, Fax.: 061-8214290, email: ick TA, Setiadi D, Purwanto Y, Guhardja E. 2012. Vegetation stands structure and aboveground biomass after the shifting cultivation practices of Karo People in Leuser Ec...

  19. Aboveground biomass in Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) H. B. K. ecosystems using Landsat 7 ETM+ images

    Padrón, Eva; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2007-01-01

    The significance of field work in remote sensing studies when applied to large areas has often been underestimated. The combination of specific forest inventories for the estimation of aboveground biomass in large dry tropical forest areas with remote sensor data has scarcely been explored to date. In this work, a systematic, stratified forest inventory involving 100 × 100 m square plots in an area of Peruvian Prosopis pallida dry forest, roughly one million hectares in size in th...

  20. Using multi-frequency radar and discrete-return LiDAR measurements to estimate above-ground biomass and biomass components in a coastal temperate forest

    Tsui, Olivier W.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Wulder, Michael A.; Marshall, Peter L.; McCardle, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Height measurements from small-footprint discrete-return LiDAR and backscatter coefficients from C- and L-band radar were used independently and in combination to estimate above-ground component and total biomass for a coniferous temperate forest, located on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Reference biomass data were obtained from plot-level data and used for comparison against the LiDAR and radar-based biomass models. For the LiDAR-only model, height metrics such as mean first return height and percentiles (e.g., 10th and 90th) of first returns correlated best to total above-ground and stem biomass. While percent of first returns above 2 m and percentiles (75th and 90th) of first returns height metrics correlated best to crown biomass. A comparison between above-ground components and total biomass indicate that stem biomass displayed the highest relationship with the LiDAR measurements while crown biomass showed the lowest relationship with relative root mean squared error ranging from 16% to 22%, respectively. Alternatively, the radar-only models indicated that for C-band radar, a combination of HH and VV backscatter demonstrated the most significant correlation with forest biomass compared to coherence based models with a relative root mean squared error of 53%. For L-band radar, a combination of HH and HV backscatter showed the most significant correlation compared to coherence based models with a relative root mean squared error of 44%. Exploring a mixture of C- and L-band backscatter and coherence based models revealed that a combination of C-HV and L-HV coherence magnitudes provided the best radar relationship with forest biomass with a relative root mean squared error of 35%. Also for all radar-based models, L- and C-band backscatter and coherence magnitudes were poorly correlated with individual biomass components when compared to total above-ground biomass. The addition of C- and L-band backscatter and coherence variables to the Li

  1. Modelling Growth and Partitioning of Annual Above-Ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Grapevine

    Meggio, Franco; Vendrame, Nadia; Maniero, Giovanni; Pitacco, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In the current climate change scenarios, both agriculture and forestry inherently may act as carbon sinks and consequently can play a key role in limiting global warming. An urgent need exists to understand which land uses and land resource types have the greatest potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global change. A common believe is that agricultural fields cannot be net carbon sinks due to many technical inputs and repeated disturbances of upper soil layers that all contribute to a substantial loss both of the old and newly-synthesized organic matter. Perennial tree crops (vineyards and orchards), however, can behave differently: they grow a permanent woody structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate a woody pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. In this context, reliable methods for quantifying and modelling emissions and carbon sequestration are required. Carbon stock changes are calculated by multiplying the difference in oven dry weight of biomass increments and losses with the appropriate carbon fraction. These data are relatively scant, and more information is needed on vineyard management practices and how they impact vineyard C sequestration and GHG emissions in order to generate an accurate vineyard GHG footprint. During the last decades, research efforts have been made for estimating the vineyard carbon budget and its allocation pattern since it is crucial to better understand how grapevines control the distribution of acquired resources in response to variation in environmental growth conditions and agronomic practices. The objective of the present study was to model and compare the dynamics of current year's above-ground biomass among four grapevine varieties. Trials were carried out over three growing seasons in field conditions. The non-linear extra-sums-of-squares method demonstrated to be a feasible way of growth models comparison to statistically assess significant differences among

  2. Plot-level aboveground woody biomass modeling using canopy height and auxiliary remote sensing data in a heterogeneous savanna

    Gwenzi, David; Lefsky, Michael Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing studies aiming at assessing woody biomass have demonstrated a strong relationship between canopy height and plot-level aboveground biomass, but most of these studies focused on closed canopy forests. To date, a few studies have examined the strength and reliability of this relationship using large footprint lidar in savannas. Furthermore, there have been few studies of appropriate methods for the comparison of models that relate aboveground biomass to canopy height metrics without consideration of variation in species composition (generic models) to models developed for individual species composition or vegetation types. We developed generic models using the classical least-squares regression modeling approach to relate selected canopy height metrics to aboveground woody biomass in a savanna landscape. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis (HBA) was then used to explore the implications of using generic or composition-specific models. Our study used the estimates of aboveground biomass from field data, canopy height estimates from airborne discrete return lidar, and a proxy for canopy cover (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data, collected from the oak savannas of Tejon Ranch Conservancy in Kern County, California. Models were developed and analyzed using estimates of canopy height and aboveground biomass calculated at the level of 50-m diameter plots, comparable with footprint diameter of existing large footprint spaceborne lidar data. The two generic models that incorporated canopy cover proxies performed better than one model that did not use canopy cover information. From the HBA, we found out that for all models both the intercept and slope had interspecific variability. The valley oak dominated plots consistently had higher slopes and intercepts, whereas the plots dominated by blue oaks had the lowest. However, the intercept and slope values of the composition-specific models did not differ much from the

  3. Linking Carbon Fluxes with Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Indices for Leaf Area and Aboveground Biomass Through Footprint Climatology

    Wayson, C.; Clark, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Skowronski, N.; Schmid, H. E.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge of bottom-up scaling is that in-situ flux observations are spatially limited. Thus, to achieve valid regional exchange rates, models are used to interpolate and extrapolate to the vegetational/spatial domain covered by these observations. To parameterize these models from flux data, efforts must be made to select data that best represents the region being modeled as well as linking the fluxes to remotely-sensed data products that can be produced from site to regional scales. Because most long-term flux stations are not in spatially extensive, homogeneous locations, this requirement is often a challenge. However, this requirement can be met by selecting observation periods whose flux footprints are statistically representative of the type of ecosystem identified in the model. The flux footprint function indicates the time-varying surface “field-of-view” (or spatial sampling window) of an eddy-flux sensor, oriented mostly in upwind direction. For each observation period, the modeled flux footprint window is overlain with a high-resolution vegetation index map to determine a footprint-weighted vegetation index for which the observation is representative. Using flux-footprint analysis to link fluxes to models using just an enhanced vegetation index (EVI) map shows a positive trend between EVI and eddy covariance measured fluxes, but the link is not strong. Leaf area is linked with carbon (C) uptake, but forests tend to maximize leaf area, as determined through remote sensing, early on with forests having similar leaf areas across a wide range of ages. Adding another remotely-sensed dataset, aboveground biomass map (AGB), helps capture the processes of lower productivity rates (as biomass increases per unit of leaf area there is a decline, due to the forest ageing) and the C losses due to respiration, both heterotrophic and autotrophic (linked to live and detrital biomass pools). Adding biomass from LIDAR and a combined EVI-biomass layer to examine

  4. Sensitivity of L-Band SAR Backscatter to Aboveground Biomass of Global Forests

    Yifan Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR backscatter measurements are sensitive to forest aboveground biomass (AGB, and the observations from space can be used for mapping AGB globally. However, the radar sensitivity saturates at higher AGB values depending on the wavelength and geometry of radar measurements, and is influenced by the structure of the forest and environmental conditions. Here, we examine the sensitivity of SAR at the L-band frequency (~25 cm wavelength to AGB in order to examine the performance of future joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Indian Space Research Organisation NASA-ISRO SAR mission in mapping the AGB of global forests. For SAR data, we use the Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR backscatter from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS aggregated at a 100-m spatial resolution; and for AGB data, we use more than three million AGB values derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS LiDAR height metrics at about 0.16–0.25 ha footprints across eleven different forest types globally. The results from statistical analysis show that, over all eleven forest types, saturation level of L-band radar at HV polarization on average remains ≥100 Mg·ha−1. Fresh water swamp forests have the lowest saturation with AGB at ~80 Mg·ha−1, while needleleaf forests have the highest saturation at ~250 Mg·ha−1. Swamp forests show a strong backscatter from the vegetation-surface specular reflection due to inundation that requires to be treated separately from those on terra firme. Our results demonstrate that L-Band backscatter relations to AGB can be significantly different depending on forest types and environmental effects, requiring multiple algorithms to map AGB from time series of satellite radar observations globally.

  5. Allometric Equations for Estimating Tree Aboveground Biomass in Tropical Dipterocarp Forests of Vietnam

    Bao Huy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There are few allometric equations available for dipterocarp forests, despite the fact that this forest type covers extensive areas in tropical Southeast Asia. This study aims to develop a set of equations to estimate tree aboveground biomass (AGB in dipterocarp forests in Vietnam and to validate and compare their predictive performance with allometric equations used for dipterocarps in Indonesia and pantropical areas. Diameter at breast height (DBH, total tree height (H, and wood density (WD were used as input variables of the nonlinear weighted least square models. Akaike information criterion (AIC and residual plots were used to select the best models; while percent bias, root mean square percentage error, and mean absolute percent error were used to compare their performance to published models. For mixed-species, the best equation was AGB = 0.06203 × DBH 2.26430 × H 0.51415 × WD 0.79456 . When applied to a random independent validation dataset, the predicted values from the generic equations and the dipterocarp equations in Indonesia overestimated the AGB for different sites, indicating the need for region-specific equations. At the genus level, the selected equations were AGB = 0.03713 × DBH 2.73813 and AGB = 0.07483 × DBH 2.54496 for two genera, Dipterocarpus and Shorea, respectively, in Vietnam. Compared to the mixed-species equations, the genus-specific equations improved the accuracy of the AGB estimates. Additionally, the genus-specific equations showed no significant differences in predictive performance in different regions (e.g., Indonesia, Vietnam of Southeast Asia.

  6. Quantification of uncertainty in aboveground biomass estimates derived from small-footprint LiDAR data

    Xu, Q.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Ramirez, C.; Balamuta, J. J.; Evans, K.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A promising approach to determining aboveground biomass (AGB) in forests comes through the use of individual tree crown delineation (ITCD) techniques applied to small-footprint LiDAR data. These techniques, when combined with allometric equations, can produce per-tree estimates of AGB. At this scale, AGB estimates can be quantified in a manner similar to how ground-based forest inventories are produced. However, these approaches have significant uncertainties that are rarely described in full. Allometric equations are often based on species-specific diameter-at-breast height (DBH) relationships, but neither DBH nor species can be reliably determined using remote sensing analysis. Furthermore, many approaches to ITCD only delineate trees appearing in the upper canopy so subcanopy trees are often missing from the inventories. In this research, we performed a propagation-of-error analysis to determine the spatially varying uncertainties in AGB estimates at the individual plant and stand level for a large collection of LiDAR acquisitions covering a large portion of California. Furthermore, we determined the relative contribution of various aspects of the analysis towards the uncertainty, including errors in the ITCD results, the allometric equations, the taxonomic designation, and the local biophysical environment. Watershed segmentation was used to obtain the preliminary crown segments. Lidar points within the preliminary segments were extracted to form profiling data of the segments, and then mode detection algorithms were applied to identify the tree number and tree heights within each segment. As part of this analysis, we derived novel "remote sensing aware" allometric equations and their uncertainties based on three-dimensional morphological metrics that can be accurately derived from LiDAR data.

  7. Mapping 2002-2012 Aboveground Biomass Carbon from LiDAR and Landsat Time Series across Northern Idaho, USA

    Hudak, A. T.; Fekety, P.; Falkowski, M. J.; Kennedy, R. E.; Crookston, N.; Smith, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The heavy investment by public and private land management entities in commercial off-the-shelf airborne lidar provides an optimum basis for a Carbon Monitoring System due to the known sensitivity of lidar to vegetation canopy structure. The ability to accurately map aboveground carbon pools from lidar and collocated field plot data has been demonstrated in many studies. Our goal is to upscale this biomass information, mapped at 30 m resolution, to the regional level using wall-to-wall, multi-temporal Landsat imagery. We use the LandTrendr approach to transform Landsat time series into annual maps of Brightness, Greenness, and Wetness along with annual change estimates of these same tasseled cap indices. These, along with ancillary layers of canopy height (e.g., GLAS-derived), topography (e.g., insolation), and climate (e.g., mean annual precipitation) are used to predict 2002-2012 aboveground carbon annually across the northern half of Idaho, USA. Ecoregion-specific models are developed to impute aboveground biomass and forest type beneath a forest/non-forest mask. Annual maps are then summarized at the county-level and compared to publically available Forest Inventory and Analysis estimates for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification.

  8. Examining Spectral Reflectance Saturation in Landsat Imagery and Corresponding Solutions to Improve Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation

    Panpan Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data saturation problem in Landsat imagery is well recognized and is regarded as an important factor resulting in inaccurate forest aboveground biomass (AGB estimation. However, no study has examined the saturation values for different vegetation types such as coniferous and broadleaf forests. The objective of this study is to estimate the saturation values in Landsat imagery for different vegetation types in a subtropical region and to explore approaches to improving forest AGB estimation. Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, digital elevation model data, and field measurements in Zhejiang province of Eastern China were used. Correlation analysis and scatterplots were first used to examine specific spectral bands and their relationships with AGB. A spherical model was then used to quantitatively estimate the saturation value of AGB for each vegetation type. A stratification of vegetation types and/or slope aspects was used to determine the potential to improve AGB estimation performance by developing a specific AGB estimation model for each category. Stepwise regression analysis based on Landsat spectral signatures and textures using grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM was used to develop AGB estimation models for different scenarios: non-stratification, stratification based on either vegetation types, slope aspects, or the combination of vegetation types and slope aspects. The results indicate that pine forest and mixed forest have the highest AGB saturation values (159 and 152 Mg/ha, respectively, Chinese fir and broadleaf forest have lower saturation values (143 and 123 Mg/ha, respectively, and bamboo forest and shrub have the lowest saturation values (75 and 55 Mg/ha, respectively. The stratification based on either vegetation types or slope aspects provided smaller root mean squared errors (RMSEs than non-stratification. The AGB estimation models based on stratification of both vegetation types and slope aspects provided the most

  9. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  10. Developing Aboveground Biomass Equations Both Compatible with Tree Volume Equations and Additive Systems for Single-Trees in Poplar Plantations in Jiangsu Province, China

    Chao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed aboveground biomass equations for poplar plantations in Jiangsu Province, China, both compatible with tree volume equations and additive systems. Biomass equations were fitted with 80 selected and previously harvested sample trees. Additivity property was assured by applying a “controlling directly under total biomass proportion function” approach. Weighted regression was used to correct heteroscedasticity. Parameters were estimated using a nonlinear error-in-variable model. The results indicated that (1, on average, stems constituted the largest proportion (71.5% of total aboveground biomass; (2 the aboveground biomass equations, both compatible with tree volume equations and additive systems, obtained good model fitting and prediction, of which the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.903 to 0.987, and the total relative error and the mean prediction error were less than 2.0% and 10.0%, respectively; (3 adding H and CW into the additive system of biomass equations did not improve model fitting and performance as expected, especially for branches and foliage biomass; and (4 the additive systems of biomass equations presented here provided more reliable and accurate biomass predictions than the independent biomass equations fitted by ordinary least square regression. This system of additive biomass equations will prove to be applicable for estimating biomass of poplar plantations in Jiangsu Province of China.

  11. [Estimating individual tree aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest using airborne LiDAR technology].

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Lei, Pi-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Wugang forest farm in Xuefeng Mountain as the research object, using the airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data under leaf-on condition and field data of concomitant plots, this paper assessed the ability of using LiDAR technology to estimate aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest. A semi-automated individual tree LiDAR cloud point segmentation was obtained by using condition random fields and optimization methods. Spatial structure, waveform characteristics and topography were calculated as LiDAR metrics from the segmented objects. Then statistical models between aboveground biomass from field data and these LiDAR metrics were built. The individual tree recognition rates were 93%, 86% and 60% for coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R(2)adj) and the root mean squared errors (RMSE) for the three types of forest were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.74, and 28.22, 29.79 and 32.31 t · hm(-2), respectively. The estimation capability of model based on canopy geometric volume, tree percentile height, slope and waveform characteristics was much better than that of traditional regression model based on tree height. Therefore, LiDAR metrics from individual tree could facilitate better performance in biomass estimation. PMID:25898621

  12. Simulation results of aboveground woody biomass and leaf litterfall for African tropical forest with a global terrestrial model

    De Weirdt, Marjolein; Maignan, Fabienne; Peylin, Philippe; Poulter, Benjamin; Moreau, Inès; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Steppe, Kathy; Verbeeck, Hans

    2014-05-01

    The response of tropical forest vegetation to global climate change could be central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tropical forests are believed to annually process approximately six times as much carbon via photosynthesis and respiration as humans emit from fossil fuel use. Of all tropical forests worldwide, the role of African tropical forest is not very well known and both the quantity as well as the dynamics of tropical forest carbon stocks and fluxes are very poorly quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Furthermore, African tropical forest spatial carbon stocks patterns as measured in the field are not as well represented by the global biogeochemical models as they are for temperate forests. In this study, a first simulation for the African tropical forest with the process based global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE was done. In this work, ORCHIDEE included deep soils, seasonal leaf litterfall and phosphorus availability mechanisms for tropical evergreen forests included. The ORCHIDEE model run outputs are evaluated against reported field inventories, investigating seasonal variations in leaf litterfall and spatial variation in aboveground woody biomass. A comparison between modeled and measured leaf litterfall was made at a semi-deciduous Equatorial rainforest site in the Republic of Congo at the Biosphere reserve Dimonika south of Gabon. Also, simulated woody aboveground biomass was compared against site-level field inventories and satellite-based estimates based on a combination of MODIS imagery with field inventory data from Uganda, DRC and Cameroon. First comparison results seem promising and show that the radiation driven leaf litterfall model results correspond well with the field inventories and that the mean of the modelled aboveground woody biomass matches the available field inventory observations but there is still a need for more ground data to evaluate the model outcome over a large region like

  13. Aboveground and belowground biomass allocation in native Prosopis caldenia Burkart secondaries woodlands in the semi-arid Argentinean pampas

    The woodlands in the south-west of the Argentinean pampas are dominated by Prosopis Caldenia Burkart (calden). The current deforestation rate of this woodlands is 0.82% per year. Different compensation initiatives have begun that recognize the role of forests as environmental service providers. The financial incentives they offer make it necessary to quantify the amount of carbon stored in the forest biomass. A model for estimating calden biomass was developed. Thirty-eight trees were selected, felled and divided into sections. An equation system was fitted using joint generalized regression to ensure the additivity property. A weighted regression was used to avoid heteroscedasticity. In these woodlands fire is the main disturbance and it can modify tree allometry, due this all models included the area of the base of the stem and tree height as independent variables since it indirectly collects this variability. Total biomass and the stem fraction had the highest R2Adj. values (0.75), while branches with a diameter less than 7 cm had the lowest (0.58). Tree biomass was also analyzed by partitioning into the basic fractions of stem, crown, roots, and the root/shoot ratio. Biomass allocation was greatest in the crown fraction and the mean root/shoot ratio was 0.58. The carbon stock of the caldenales considering only calden tree biomass is 20.2 Mg ha−1. While the overall carbon balance of the region is negative (deforestation and biomass burning, the remnant forested area has increased their calden density and in an indirect way his carbon sequestration capacity could also be increased. - Highlights: • A model for estimating aboveground and belowground Prosopis caldenia biomass was developed. • Biomass allocation into the tree and the root/shoot ratio were analyzed. • The equation systems presented had made it possible to more accurately estimate the biomass stored in calden woodlands

  14. Dynamics associated with total aboveground biomass, C, nutrient pools, and biomass burning of primary forest and pasture in Rondo‸nia, Brazil during SCAR-B

    Guild, Liane S.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Ellingson, Lisa J.; Cummings, Dian L.; Castro, Elmar A.; Babbitt, Ron E.; Ward, Darold E.

    1998-12-01

    Burning of slashed tropical forests and pastures is among the most significant global sources of atmospheric emissions, yet the composition of the fuels and fires that creates these emissions is not well characterized. As part of the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment, we measured total aboveground biomass (TAGB) as well as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur pools in one cattle pasture and two slashed primary forests in Rondônia, Brazil. These pools were measured before and immediately after fires. From these data, we calculated the quantities of biomass and elements lost to the atmosphere during biomass burning. Prefire biomass in the pasture was 66 Mg ha-1; fire consumed 31% of this mass. Woody debris from the forest that occupied this site 12 years previously comprised 81% of the pasture prefire TAGB. Elemental inputs into the atmosphere (site losses) from the pasture fire were 9 Mg C ha-1, 88 kg N ha-1, and 5 kg S ha-1. Combining previous studies with this one, we calculate that the mean TAGB of Amazonian pastures is 74 Mg ha-1 with a mean combustion factor of 46%. Mean nutrient losses from pasture fires in Amazonia are 14 Mg C ha-1, 199 kg N ha-1, and 16 kg S ha-1. The TAGB of the two slashed primary forests before fire was 355 and 399 Mg ha-1 and following fire was 188 and 185 Mg ha-1 (i.e., a combustion factor of 47 and 54%), respectively. Combining this study with other studies of Amazon slashed primary forests, we calculate that the mean TAGB is 349 Mg ha-1 and the mean combustion factor is 48%. Total elemental losses arising from the primary forest slash fires in this study were notably higher than losses from the pasture site: 79 and 102 Mg C ha-1; 1019 and 1196 kg N ha-1; and 87 and 96 kg S ha-1. From this study combined with previous research in Rondônia and Pará, we calculate that mean nutrient losses from primary forest slash fires are 88 Mg C ha-1, 1181 kg N ha-1, and 107 kg S ha-1. As rates of deforestation are remaining high in

  15. Aboveground forest biomass estimation using ICESat GLAS in Yunnan, China%基于ICESat GLAS的云南省森林地上生物量反演

    黄克标; 庞勇; 舒清态; 付甜

    2013-01-01

    结合机载、星载激光雷达对GLAS(地球科学激光测高系统)光斑范围内的森林地上生物量进行估测,并利用MODIS植被产品以及MERIS土地覆盖产品进行了云南省森林地上生物量的连续制图.机载LiDAR扫描的260个训练样本用于构建星载GLAS的森林地上生物量估测模型,模型的决定系数(R2)为0.52,均方根误差(RMSE)为31 Mg/ha.研究结果显示,云南省总森林地上生物量为12.72亿t,平均森林地上生物量为94 Mg/ha.估测的森林地上生物量空间分布情况与实际情况相符,森林地上生物量总量与基于森林资源清查数据的估测结果相符,表明了利用机载LiDAR与星载ICESatGLAS结合进行大区域森林地上生物量估测的可靠性.%Accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) could reduce uncertainties in the characterization of terrestrial carbon fluxes. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) provides an accurate measure of canopy height and vertical structure and information for the estimation of aboveground biomass of vegetation. Spaceborne large footprint LiDAR (ICESat GLAS) acquires over 250 million observations over forest regions globally and has been used successfully for forest height and biomass estimation in various sites. In this paper, airborne LiDAR and ICESat GLAS data were used to estimate aboveground biomass of forest at footprint level in Yunnan, China. Vegetation products from EOS MODIS and ENVISAT MERIS were used to expand these discrete estimations from GLAS data to a wall-to-wall map. The R2 between ICESat GLAS waveform parameters and airborne LiDAR estimated forest AGB is 0.52 after training with 260 footprints. Results showed that the total forest AGB in Yunnan Province was 1272 million ton and the average was 94 Mg/ha. The amount and distribution of predicted aboveground biomass were in good agreement with the reference data. The results showed that the predict model using GLAS data could be used to estimate

  16. Aboveground to root biomass ratios in pea and vetch after treatment with organic fertilizer

    V. Vasileva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Some growth parameters of pea (cv. Pleven 4 and vetch (cv. Obrazets 666 after treatment with organic fertilizer were studied in a field trial carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. Humustim as organic fertilizer was applied through presowing treatment of seeds, treatment during vegetation and combination between both, at different doses. Ratios of aboveground weight to root system weight, aboveground height to root system length, as well as specific root length were determined. It was found that the growth variables of plants were positively influenced by organic fertilizer. The aboveground weight to root system weight ratios of pea ranged from 4.80 to 6.29 and was higher than vetch. Aboveground height to root system length ratio in pea ranged from 6.95 to 7.93, and in vetch from 5.30 to 7.39. The use of organic fertilizer at the dose of 1.2 L/t and treatment during vegetation resulted in better performance of root system and specific root length was 78.6 for pea and 84.3 for vetch.

  17. A first map of tropical Africa's above-ground biomass derived from satellite imagery

    Baccini, A; Laporte, N; Goetz, S J; Sun, M [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States); Dong, H [Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: abaccini@whrc.org

    2008-10-15

    Observations from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used in combination with a large data set of field measurements to map woody above-ground biomass (AGB) across tropical Africa. We generated a best-quality cloud-free mosaic of MODIS satellite reflectance observations for the period 2000-2003 and used a regression tree model to predict AGB at 1 km resolution. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model explained 82% of the variance in AGB, with a root mean square error of 50.5 Mg ha{sup -1} for a range of biomass between 0 and 454 Mg ha{sup -1}. Analysis of lidar metrics from the Geoscience Laser Altimetry System (GLAS), which are sensitive to vegetation structure, indicate that the model successfully captured the regional distribution of AGB. The results showed a strong positive correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.90) between the GLAS height metrics and predicted AGB.

  18. Spectroscopic Determination of Aboveground Biomass in Grasslands Using Spectral Transformations, Support Vector Machine and Partial Least Squares Regression

    Miguel Marabel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground biomass (AGB is one of the strategic biophysical variables of interest in vegetation studies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the Support Vector Machine (SVM and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR for estimating the AGB of grasslands from field spectrometer data and to find out which data pre-processing approach was the most suitable. The most accurate model to predict the total AGB involved PLSR and the Maximum Band Depth index derived from the continuum removed reflectance in the absorption features between 916–1,120 nm and 1,079–1,297 nm (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 7.120 g/m2. Regarding the green fraction of the AGB, the Area Over the Minimum index derived from the continuum removed spectra provided the most accurate model overall (R2 = 0.939, RMSE = 3.172 g/m2. Identifying the appropriate absorption features was proved to be crucial to improve the performance of PLSR to estimate the total and green aboveground biomass, by using the indices derived from those spectral regions. Ordinary Least Square Regression could be used as a surrogate for the PLSR approach with the Area Over the Minimum index as the independent variable, although the resulting model would not be as accurate.

  19. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  20. Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics

    Slik, J.W.F.; Paoli, G.; McGuire, K.; Amaral, I.; Barroso, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim - Large trees (d.b.h.¿=¿70¿cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, potentially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore

  1. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were plant functional types. Development of new species-specific models is only warranted when gains in accuracy of stand-based predictions are relatively high (e.g. high-value monocultures). PMID:26683241

  2. QUANTIFYING FOREST ABOVEGROUND CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LIDAR A report on field monitoring, remote sensing MMV, GIS integration, and modeling results for forestry field validation test to quantify aboveground tree biomass and carbon

    Lee Spangler; Lee A. Vierling; Eva K. Stand; Andrew T. Hudak; Jan U.H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Sound policy recommendations relating to the role of forest management in mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) depend upon establishing accurate methodologies for quantifying forest carbon pools for large tracts of land that can be dynamically updated over time. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing is a promising technology for achieving accurate estimates of aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, not much is known about the accuracy of estimating biomass change and carbon flux from repeat LiDAR acquisitions containing different data sampling characteristics. In this study, discrete return airborne LiDAR data was collected in 2003 and 2009 across {approx}20,000 hectares (ha) of an actively managed, mixed conifer forest landscape in northern Idaho, USA. Forest inventory plots, established via a random stratified sampling design, were established and sampled in 2003 and 2009. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm was used to establish statistical relationships between inventory data and forest structural metrics derived from the LiDAR acquisitions. Aboveground biomass maps were created for the study area based on statistical relationships developed at the plot level. Over this 6-year period, we found that the mean increase in biomass due to forest growth across the non-harvested portions of the study area was 4.8 metric ton/hectare (Mg/ha). In these non-harvested areas, we found a significant difference in biomass increase among forest successional stages, with a higher biomass increase in mature and old forest compared to stand initiation and young forest. Approximately 20% of the landscape had been disturbed by harvest activities during the six-year time period, representing a biomass loss of >70 Mg/ha in these areas. During the study period, these harvest activities outweighed growth at the landscape scale, resulting in an overall loss in aboveground carbon at this site. The 30-fold increase in sampling density

  3. Spatial effects of aboveground biomass on soil ecological parameters and trace gas fluxes in a savannah ecosystem of Mount Kilimanjaro

    Becker, Joscha; Gütlein, Adrian; Sierra Cornejo, Natalia; Kiese, Ralf; Hertel, Dietrich; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The savannah biome is a hotspot for biodiversity and wildlife conservation in Africa and recently got in the focus of research on carbon sequestration. Savannah ecosystems are under strong pressure from climate and land-use change, especially around populous areas like the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. Savannah vegetation in this area consists of grassland with isolated trees and is therefore characterized by high spatial variation of canopy cover, aboveground biomass and root structure. Canopy structure is known to affect microclimate, throughfall and evapotranspiration and thereby controls soil moisture conditions. Consequently, the canopy structure is a major regulator for soil ecological parameters and soil-atmospheric trace gas exchange (CO2, N2O, CH4) in water limited environments. The spatial distribution of these parameters and the connection between above and belowground processes are important to understand and predict ecosystem changes and estimate its vulnerability. Our objective was to determine trends and changes of soil parameters and relate their spatial variability to the vegetation structure. We chose three trees from each of the two most dominant species (Acacia nilotica and Balanites aegyptiaca) in our research area. For each tree, we selected transects with nine sampling points of the same relative distances to the stem. Distances were calculated in relation to the crown radius. At these each sampling point a soil core was taken and separated in 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth. We measured soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage, microbial biomass carbon C and N, soil respiration as well as root biomass and -density, soil temperature and soil water content. Each tree was characterized by crown spread, leaf area index and basal area. Preliminary results show that C and N stocks decreased about 50% with depth independently of distance to the tree. Soil water content under the tree crown increased with depth while it decreased under grass cover. Microbial

  4. Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics

    Slik, J.W.Ferry; Paoli, Gary; McGuire, Krista;

    2013-01-01

    Aim Large trees (d.b.h. ≥ 70 cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, potentially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore...... in the warmest month (negative) and rainfall in the wettest month (positive), but results were not always consistent among continents. Main conclusions Density of large trees and AGB were significantly associated with climatic variables, indicating that climate change will affect tropical forest biomass storage....... Species trait composition will interact with these future biomass changes as they are also affected by a warmer climate. Given the importance of large trees for variation in AGB across the tropics, and their sensitivity to climate change, we emphasize the need for in-depth analyses of the community...

  5. Characterizing uncertainties of the national-scale forest gross aboveground biomass (AGB) loss estimate: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern remote sensing techniques enable the mapping and monitoring of aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where a national forest inventory (NFI) has yet to be established due to a lack of infrastructure and political instability. We demonstrate a method for producing national-scale gross AGB loss estimates and quantifying uncertainty of the estimates using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Forest cover type and loss were characterized using published Landsat-based data sets and related to LIDAR-derived biomass data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). We produced two gross AGB loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a conservative estimate accounting for classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a maximal estimate that also took into consideration omitted change at the 30m spatial resolution. Omitted disturbances were largely related to smallholder agriculture, the detection of which is scale-dependent. The use of LIDAR data as a substitute for NFI data to estimate AGB loss based on Landsat-derived activity data was demonstrated. Comparisons of our forest cover loss and AGB estimates with published studies raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and its impact on carbon stock change estimation using remotely sensed data.

  6. Evaluating land use and aboveground biomass dynamics in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Borneo using optical remote sensing

    Singh, Minerva; Malhi, Yadvinder; Bhagwat, Shonil

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to assess the efficacy of using optical remote sensing (RS) in evaluating disparities in forest composition and aboveground biomass (AGB). The research was carried out in the East Sabah region, Malaysia, which constitutes a disturbance gradient ranging from pristine old growth forests to forests that have experienced varying levels of disturbances. Additionally, a significant proportion of the area consists of oil palm plantations. In accordance with local laws, riparian forest (RF) zones have been retained within oil palm plantations and other forest types. The RS imagery was used to assess forest stand structure and AGB. Band reflectance, vegetation indicators, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) consistency features were used as predictor variables in regression analysis. Results indicate that the spectral variables were limited in their effectiveness in differentiating between forest types and in calculating biomass. However, GLCM based variables illustrated strong correlations with the forest stand structures as well as with the biomass of the various forest types in the study area. The present study provides new insights into the efficacy of texture examination methods in differentiating between various land-use types (including small, isolated forest zones such as RFs) as well as their AGB stocks.

  7. Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining Optical and SAR Data: A Case Study in Genhe, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Linjing

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of forest aboveground biomass is critical for regional carbon policies and sustainable forest management. Passive optical remote sensing and active microwave remote sensing both play an important role in the monitoring of forest biomass. However, optical spectral reflectance is saturated in relatively dense vegetation areas, and microwave backscattering is significantly influenced by the underlying soil when the vegetation coverage is low. Both of these conditions decrease the estimation accuracy of forest biomass. A new optical and microwave integrated vegetation index (VI) was proposed based on observations from both field experiments and satellite (Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RADARSAT-2) data. According to the difference in interaction between the multispectral reflectance and microwave backscattering signatures with biomass, the combined VI (COVI) was designed using the weighted optical optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) and microwave horizontally transmitted and vertically received signal (HV) to overcome the disadvantages of both data types. The performance of the COVI was evaluated by comparison with those of the sole optical data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, and the simple combination of independent optical and SAR variables. The most accurate performance was obtained by the models based on the COVI and optical and microwave optimal variables excluding OSAVI and HV, in combination with a random forest algorithm and the largest number of reference samples. The results also revealed that the predictive accuracy depended highly on the statistical method and the number of sample units. The validation indicated that this integrated method of determining the new VI is a good synergistic way to combine both optical and microwave information for the accurate estimation of forest biomass. PMID:27338378

  8. EU-wide maps of growing stock and above-ground biomass in forests based on remote sensing and field measurements

    Gallaun, H.; Zanchi, G.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Schardt, M.; Verkerk, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to combine national forest inventory data and remotely sensed data to produce pan-European maps on growing stock and above-ground woody biomass for the two species groups " broadleaves" and " conifers" An automatic up-scaling approach making use of satellite r

  9. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; Bloem, J;

    2008-01-01

    parameters, such as microbial basal respiration and nitrogen mineralization, showed an opposite pattern, suggesting that soil carbon in the conventional system (CONFYM) was more easily accessible to microorganisms than in organic systems. Bacterivorous nematodes and earthworms were most abundant in systems...... Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological...... (CONFYM) or without manure (CONMIN) and herbicide application within a long-term agricultural experiment (DOK trial, Switzerland). Soil carbon content was significantly higher in systems receiving farmyard manure and concomitantly microbial biomass (fungi and bacteria) was increased. Microbial activity...

  10. Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species.

    Liu, Daijun; Ogaya, Romà; Barbeta, Adrià; Yang, Xiaohong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition

  11. Effect of growth regulator Kelpak SL on the formation of aboveground biomass of Festulolium braunii (K. Richt. A. Camus

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the cultivation of Festulolium braunii cv. 'Felopa' was carried out using polyurethane rings with a diameter of 36 cm and a height of 40 cm, which were sunk into the ground to a depth of 30 cm and filled with soil material. In this experiment, Kelpak SL was used as a bioregulator. It consists of natural plant hormones such as auxins (11 mg in dm3 and cytokinins (0.03 mg in dm3. The experimental factors were as follows: A1-control; A2 – 20% solution of the growth regulator; A3 – 40% solution; and A4 – 60% solution. The preparation was applied to all three regrowths in the form of spray, at a rate of 3 cm3 ring-1, at the stem elongation stage. The full period of this experiment was in the years 2010–2011. During this time, detailed investigations were carried out on aboveground biomass yield (g DM ring-1, number of shoots (pcs ring-1, leaf blade length (cm, width of the leaf blade base (mm, leaf greenness index (SPAD. The study showed a significant effect of the growth regulator on the formation of Festulolium braunii biomass. However, its highest effectiveness was observed when the 60% solution was applied.

  12. Aboveground Biomass Estimation in a Tidal Brackish Marsh Using Simulated Thematic Mapper Spectral Data

    Hardisky, M.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual Thematic Mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. No attempt was made to distinguish individual plant species within brackish marsh plant associations. Rather, it was decided to lump plant species with similar canopy morphologies and then estimate from spectral radiance data the biomass of the group. The rationale for such an approach is that plants with a similar morphology will produce a similar reflecting or absorping surface (i.e., canopy) for incoming electromagnetic radiation. Variations in observed reflectance from different plant communities with a similar canopy morphology are more likely to be a result of biomass differences than a result of differences in canopy architecture. If the hypothesis that plants with a similar morphology exhibit similar reflectance characteristics is true, then biomass can be estimated based on a model for the dominant plant morphology within a plant association and the need for species discrimination has effectively been eliminated.

  13. The Interpolation Method for Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Using Terrestrial-Based Inventory

    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined several methods for interpolating biomass on logged-over dry land forest using terrestrial-based forest inventory in Labanan, East Kalimantan and Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat, Central Kalimantan. The plot-distances examined was 1,000−1,050 m for Labanan and 1,000−899m for Lawanda. The main objective of this study was to obtain the best interpolation method having the most accurate prediction on spatial distribution of forest biomass for dry land forest. Two main interpolation methods were examined: (1 deterministic approach using the IDW method and (2 geo-statistics approach using Kriging with spherical, circular, linear, exponential, and Gaussian models. The study results at both sites consistently showed that the IDW method was better than the Kriging method for estimating the spatial distribution of biomass. The validation results using chi-square test showed that the IDW interpolation provided accurate biomass estimation. Using the percentage of mean deviation value (MD(%, it was also recognized that the IDWs with power parameter (p of 2 provided relatively low value , i.e., only 15% for Labanan, East Kalimantan Province and 17% for Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat Central Kalimantan Province. In general, IDW interpolation method provided better results than the Kriging, where the Kriging method provided MD(% of about 27% and 21% for Lamandau and Labanan sites, respectively.

  14. Allometric equations for estimating the above-ground biomass in tropical lowland Dipterocarp forests

    Basuki, T.M.; Laake, van P.E.; Skidmore, A.K.; Hussin, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    Allometric equations can be used to estimate the biomass and carbon stock of forests. However, so far the equations for Dipterocarp forests have not been developed in sufficient detail. In this research, allometric equations are presented based on the genera of commercial species and mixed species.

  15. The Interpolation Method for Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Using Terrestrial-Based Inventory

    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined several methods for interpolating biomass on logged-over dry land forest using terrestrial-based forest inventory in Labanan, East Kalimantan and Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat, Central Kalimantan.  The plot-distances examined was 1,000−1,050 m for Labanan and 1,000−899m for Lawanda.  The main objective of this study was to obtain the best interpolation method having the most accurate prediction on spatial distribution of forest biomass for dry land forest. Two main interpolation methods were examined: (1 deterministic approach using the IDW method and (2 geo-statistics approach  using Kriging with spherical, circular, linear, exponential, and Gaussian models.   The study results at both sites consistently showed that the IDW method was better than the Kriging method for estimating the spatial distribution of biomass.  The validation results using chi-square test showed that the IDW interpolation provided accurate biomass estimation.   Using the percentage of mean deviation value (MD(%, it was also recognized that the IDWs with power parameter (p of 2 provided relatively low value , i.e., only 15% for Labanan, East Kalimantan Province and 17% for Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat Central Kalimantan Province. In general, IDW interpolation method provided better results than the Kriging, where the Kriging method provided MD(% of about 27% and 21% for Lamandau and Labanan sites, respectively.Keywords:  deterministic, geostatistics, IDW, Kriging, above-groung biomass

  16. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture. PMID:25254294

  17. Stem volume and above-ground biomass estimation of individual pine trees from LiDAR data : contribution of full-waveform signals

    Allouis, T.; Durrieu, S.; Vega, C.; Couteron, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The diameter at breast height (DBH) is the most extensively measured parameter in the field for estimating stem volume and aboveground biomass of individual trees. However, DBH can not be measured from airborne or spaceborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Consequently, volume and biomass must be estimated from LiDAR data using other tree metrics. The objective of this paper is to examine whether full-waveform (FW) LiDAR data can improve volume and biomass estimation of individual p...

  18. Improving estimation of tree carbon stocks by harvesting aboveground woody biomass within airborne LiDAR flight areas

    Colgan, M.; Asner, G. P.; Swemmer, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    The accurate estimation of carbon stored in a tree is essential to accounting for the carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been successful in estimating aboveground carbon density (ACD) by correlating airborne metrics, such as canopy height, to field-estimated biomass. This latter step is reliant on field allometry which is applied to forest inventory quantities, such as stem diameter and height, to predict the biomass of a given tree stem. Constructing such allometry is expensive, time consuming, and requires destructive sampling. Consequently, the sample sizes used to construct such allometry are often small, and the largest tree sampled is often much smaller than the largest in the forest population. The uncertainty resulting from these sampling errors can lead to severe biases when the allometry is applied to stems larger than those harvested to construct the allometry, which is then subsequently propagated to airborne ACD estimates. The Kruger National Park (KNP) mission of maintaining biodiversity coincides with preserving ecosystem carbon stocks. However, one hurdle to accurately quantifying carbon density in savannas is that small stems are typically harvested to construct woody biomass allometry, yet they are not representative of Kruger's distribution of biomass. Consequently, these equations inadequately capture large tree variation in sapwood/hardwood composition, root/shoot/leaf allocation, branch fall, and stem rot. This study eliminates the "middleman" of field allometry by directly measuring, or harvesting, tree biomass within the extent of airborne LiDAR. This enables comparisons of field and airborne ACD estimates, and also enables creation of new airborne algorithms to estimate biomass at the scale of individual trees. A field campaign was conducted at Pompey Silica Mine 5km outside Kruger National Park, South Africa, in Mar-Aug 2010 to harvest and weigh tree mass. Since

  19. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Qiang Wang

    Full Text Available Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the

  20. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass in a Tropical Forest in Cambodia Using Canopy Textures Derived from Google Earth

    Minerva Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a modelling framework for utilizing very high-resolution (VHR aerial imagery for monitoring stocks of above-ground biomass (AGB in a tropical forest in Southeast Asia. Three different texture-based methods (grey level co-occurrence metric (GLCM, Gabor wavelets and Fourier-based textural ordination (FOTO were used in conjunction with two different machine learning (ML-based regression techniques (support vector regression (SVR and random forest (RF regression. These methods were implemented on both 50-cm resolution Digital Globe data extracted from Google Earth™ (GE and 8-cm commercially obtained VHR imagery. This study further examines the role of forest biophysical parameters, such as ground-measured canopy cover and vertical canopy height, in explaining AGB distribution. Three models were developed using: (i horizontal canopy variables (i.e., canopy cover and texture variables plus vertical canopy height; (ii horizontal variables only; and (iii texture variables only. AGB was variable across the site, ranging from 51.02 Mg/ha to 356.34 Mg/ha. GE-based AGB estimates were comparable to those derived from commercial aerial imagery. The findings demonstrate that novel use of this array of texture-based techniques with GE imagery can help promote the wider use of freely available imagery for low-cost, fine-resolution monitoring of forests parameters at the landscape scale.

  1. Using LiDAR to Estimate Total Aboveground Biomass of Redwood Stands in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California

    Rao, M.; Vuong, H.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this study is to develop a method for estimating total aboveground biomass of redwood stands in Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California using airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR data owing to its vertical and horizontal accuracy are increasingly being used to characterize landscape features including ground surface elevation and canopy height. These LiDAR-derived metrics involving structural signatures at higher precision and accuracy can help better understand ecological processes at various spatial scales. Our study is focused on two major species of the forest: redwood (Sequoia semperirens [D.Don] Engl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensiezii [Mirb.] Franco). Specifically, the objectives included linear regression models fitting tree diameter at breast height (dbh) to LiDAR derived height for each species. From 23 random points on the study area, field measurement (dbh and tree coordinate) were collected for more than 500 trees of Redwood and Douglas-fir over 0.2 ha- plots. The USFS-FUSION application software along with its LiDAR Data Viewer (LDV) were used to to extract Canopy Height Model (CHM) from which tree heights would be derived. Based on the LiDAR derived height and ground based dbh, a linear regression model was developed to predict dbh. The predicted dbh was used to estimate the biomass at the single tree level using Jenkin's formula (Jenkin et al 2003). The linear regression models were able to explain 65% of the variability associated with Redwood's dbh and 80% of that associated with Douglas-fir's dbh.

  2. Evaluation of Radiometric and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for Aboveground Forest Biomass Estimation Using Landsat 5 TM Data

    Pablito M. López-Serrano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is affected by absorption and emission phenomena during its downward trajectory from the Sun to the Earth’s surface and during the upward trajectory detected by satellite sensors. This leads to distortion of the ground radiometric properties (reflectance recorded by satellite images, used in this study to estimate aboveground forest biomass (AGB. Atmospherically-corrected remote sensing data can be used to estimate AGB on a global scale and with moderate effort. The objective of this study was to evaluate four atmospheric correction algorithms (for surface reflectance, ATCOR2 (Atmospheric Correction for Flat Terrain, COST (Cosine of the Sun Zenith Angle, FLAASH (Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes and 6S (Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar, and one radiometric correction algorithm (for reflectance at the sensor ToA (Apparent Reflectance at the Top of Atmosphere to estimate AGB in temperate forest in the northeast of the state of Durango, Mexico. The AGB was estimated from Landsat 5 TM imagery and ancillary information from a digital elevation model (DEM using the non-parametric multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. Field reference data for the model training were collected by systematic sampling of 99 permanent forest growth and soil research sites (SPIFyS established during the winter of 2011. The following predictor variables were identified in the MARS model: Band 7, Band 5, slope (β, Wetness Index (WI, NDVI and MSAVI2. After cross-validation, 6S was found to be the optimal model for estimating AGB (R2 = 0.71 and RMSE = 33.5 Mg·ha−1; 37.61% of the average stand biomass. We conclude that atmospheric and radiometric correction of satellite images can be used along with non-parametric techniques to estimate AGB with acceptable accuracy.

  3. Biomass production of different grassland communities under artificially modified amount of rainfall

    Holub, Petr; Tůma, I.; Záhora, J.; Fiala, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2015), s. 320-332. ISSN 1505-2249 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1220007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : production of above-ground * biomass * below-ground biomass * root production * variability Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 0.567, year: 2014

  4. Adjusting Lidar-Derived Digital Terrain Models in Coastal Marshes Based on Estimated Aboveground Biomass Density

    Stephen Medeiros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red, an interferometric SAR (IfSAR digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three- class scheme (high, medium and low and a two-class scheme (high and low. Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer to true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.

  5. Photoinduced Biohydrogen Production from Biomass

    Yutaka Amao

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoinduced biohydrogen production systems, coupling saccharaides biomass such as sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, cellulose, or saccharides mixture hydrolysis by enzymes and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH, and hydrogen production with platinum colloid as a catalyst using the visible light-induced photosensitization of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a from higher green plant or artificial chlorophyll analog, zinc porphyrin, are introduced.

  6. Photoinduced Biohydrogen Production from Biomass

    Yutaka Amao

    2008-01-01

    Photoinduced biohydrogen production systems, coupling saccharaides biomass such as sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, cellulose, or saccharides mixture hydrolysis by enzymes and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), and hydrogen production with platinum colloid as a catalyst using the visible light-induced photosensitization of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a) from higher green plant or artificial chlorophyll analog, zinc porphyrin, are introduced.

  7. Spatial distribution of forest aboveground biomass in China: estimation through combination of spaceborne lidar, optical imagery, and forest inventory data

    Xue, B. L.; Su, Y.; Guo, Q.; Hu, T.; Alvarez, O.; Tao, S.; Fang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global forest ecosystem, which acts as a large carbon sink, plays an important role in modeling the global carbon balance. An accurate estimation of the total forest carbon stock in the aboveground biomass (AGB) is therefore necessary to improve our understanding of carbon dynamics, especially against the background of global climate change. The forest area of China is among the top five globally. However, because of limitations in forest AGB mapping methods and the availability of ground inventory data, there is still a lack in nationwide wall-to-wall forest AGB estimation map for China. In this study, we collected over 8000 ground inventory data from the literature, and developed an AGB mapping method using a combination of these ground inventory data, Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)/Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data, optical imagery, climate surfaces, and topographic data. An uncertainty field model was introduced into the forest AGB mapping model to minimize the influence of plot locality uncertainty. Our nationwide wall-to-wall forest AGB mapping results show that the forest AGB density in China is 120 Mg/ha on average, with a standard deviation of 61 Mg/ha. Evaluation with an independent ground inventory dataset showed that our proposed method can accurately map wall-to-wall forest AGB across a large landscape. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root-mean-square error between our predicted results and the validation dataset were 0.75 and 42.39 Mg/ha, respectively. This new method and the resulting nationwide wall-to-wall AGB map will help to improve the accuracy of carbon dynamic predictions in China.

  8. Sensitivity of Above-Ground Biomass Estimates to Height-Diameter Modelling in Mixed-Species West African Woodlands.

    Valbuena, Rubén; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekulu, Ermias; Pitkänen, Sari; Packalen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that above-ground biomass (AGB) inventories should include tree height (H), in addition to diameter (D). As H is a difficult variable to measure, H-D models are commonly used to predict H. We tested a number of approaches for H-D modelling, including additive terms which increased the complexity of the model, and observed how differences in tree-level predictions of H propagated to plot-level AGB estimations. We were especially interested in detecting whether the choice of method can lead to bias. The compared approaches listed in the order of increasing complexity were: (B0) AGB estimations from D-only; (B1) involving also H obtained from a fixed-effects H-D model; (B2) involving also species; (B3) including also between-plot variability as random effects; and (B4) involving multilevel nested random effects for grouping plots in clusters. In light of the results, the modelling approach affected the AGB estimation significantly in some cases, although differences were negligible for some of the alternatives. The most important differences were found between including H or not in the AGB estimation. We observed that AGB predictions without H information were very sensitive to the environmental stress parameter (E), which can induce a critical bias. Regarding the H-D modelling, the most relevant effect was found when species was included as an additive term. We presented a two-step methodology, which succeeded in identifying the species for which the general H-D relation was relevant to modify. Based on the results, our final choice was the single-level mixed-effects model (B3), which accounts for the species but also for the plot random effects reflecting site-specific factors such as soil properties and degree of disturbance. PMID:27367857

  9. Detection of large above-ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    J. Jubanski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of tropical forest above-ground biomass (AGB over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia through correlating airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed, and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52. Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square metre of about 4 resulted in the best cost / benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site-specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC showed an overestimation of 43%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong greenhouse gas (GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  10. Assessment of Above-Ground Biomass of Borneo Forests through a New Data-Fusion Approach Combining Two Pan-Tropical Biomass Maps

    Andreas Langner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how two existing pan-tropical above-ground biomass (AGB maps (Saatchi 2011, Baccini 2012 can be combined to derive forest ecosystem specific carbon estimates. Several data-fusion models which combine these AGB maps according to their local correlations with independent datasets such as the spectral bands of SPOT VEGETATION imagery are analyzed. Indeed these spectral bands convey information about vegetation type and structure which can be related to biomass values. Our study area is the island of Borneo. The data-fusion models are evaluated against a reference AGB map available for two forest concessions in Sabah. The highest accuracy was achieved by a model which combines the AGB maps according to the mean of the local correlation coefficients calculated over different kernel sizes. Combining the resulting AGB map with a new Borneo land cover map (whose overall accuracy has been estimated at 86.5% leads to average AGB estimates of 279.8 t/ha and 233.1 t/ha for forests and degraded forests respectively. Lowland dipterocarp and mangrove forests have the highest and lowest AGB values (305.8 t/ha and 136.5 t/ha respectively. The AGB of all natural forests amounts to 10.8 Gt mainly stemming from lowland dipterocarp (66.4%, upper dipterocarp (10.9% and peat swamp forests (10.2%. Degraded forests account for another 2.1 Gt of AGB. One main advantage of our approach is that, once the best fitting data-fusion model is selected, no further AGB reference dataset is required for implementing the data-fusion process. Furthermore, the local harmonization of AGB datasets leads to more spatially precise maps. This approach can easily be extended to other areas in Southeast Asia which are dominated by lowland dipterocarp forest, and can be repeated when newer or more accurate AGB maps become available.

  11. Biomass production efficiency controlled by management in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Campioli, M.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bilcke, J.; Ceschia, E.; Chapin, F. S., III; Ciais, P.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Malhi, Y.; Obersteiner, M.; Olefeldt, D.; Papale, D.; Piao, S. L.; Peñuelas, J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Wang, X.; Zenone, T.; Janssens, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Plants acquire carbon through photosynthesis to sustain biomass production, autotrophic respiration and production of non-structural compounds for multiple purposes. The fraction of photosynthetic production used for biomass production, the biomass production efficiency, is a key determinant of the conversion of solar energy to biomass. In forest ecosystems, biomass production efficiency was suggested to be related to site fertility. Here we present a database of biomass production efficiency from 131 sites compiled from individual studies using harvest, biometric, eddy covariance, or process-based model estimates of production. The database is global, but dominated by data from Europe and North America. We show that instead of site fertility, ecosystem management is the key factor that controls biomass production efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, in natural forests, grasslands, tundra, boreal peatlands and marshes, biomass production efficiency is independent of vegetation, environmental and climatic drivers. This similarity of biomass production efficiency across natural ecosystem types suggests that the ratio of biomass production to gross primary productivity is constant across natural ecosystems. We suggest that plant adaptation results in similar growth efficiency in high- and low-fertility natural systems, but that nutrient influxes under managed conditions favour a shift to carbon investment from the belowground flux of non-structural compounds to aboveground biomass.

  12. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass...... and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and...... determined species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this...

  13. Hydrogen production processes from biomass

    Shah, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Global warming, climate change and energy security have been gaining more attention worldwide. Hydrogen production from biomass offers an effective solution leaving minimal environmental footprint. This thesis identifies and reviews the most potential bio-hydrogen production pathways, identifies and designs the most promising process, and then conducts a rough feasibility study to check its economic potential for commercial production after simulation (experimental part). Finally, it also tes...

  14. Effect of seven years of experimental drought on the aboveground biomass storage of an eastern Amazonian rainforest

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Galbraith, David; Almeida, Samuel; Fisher, Rosie; Phillips, Oliver; Metcalfe, Daniel; Levy, Peter; Portela, Bruno; da Costa, Mauricio; Meir, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    At least one climate model predicts severe reductions of rainfall over Amazonia during this century. Long-term throughfall exclusion (TFE) experiments represent the best available means to investigate the resilience of the Amazon rainforest to such droughts. Results are presented from a 7-year TFE study at Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazonia. We focus on the impacts of the drought on tree mortality, wood production and aboveground carbon storage. Tree mortality in the TFE plot over the experimental period was 2.5% yr-1, compared to 1.25% yr-1 in a nearby Control plot experiencing normal rainfall. Differences in stem mortality between plots were greatest in the largest (> 40 cm dbh) size class (4.1% yr-1 in the TFE and 1.4% yr-1 in the Control). Wood production in the TFE plot was approximately 30% lower than in the Control plot. Together, these changes resulted in a loss of 37.8 ± 2.0 Mg C ha-1 (~ 20%) in the TFE plot (2002-2008), whereas the Control plot was essentially carbon neutral(change of - 0.2 ± 1.0 Mg C ha-1). These results are remarkably consistent with those from another TFE (at Tapajós National Forest), suggesting that Amazonian forests may respond to prolonged drought in a predictable manner.

  15. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements. PMID:24206564

  16. Biomass production in an age series of Bambusa bambos plantations

    Shanmughavel, P.; Muthukumar, T. [Bharathiar Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Botany; Peddappaiah, R.S. [Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore (India)

    2001-07-01

    The biomass production in an age series of Bambusa bambos plantations was estimated, and compared with its interspecies natural stands and between genera of natural and plantation stands. There was a linear increase of the total biomass of all compartments with the age of the plantation. In the above-ground biomass, the percentage contribution of culms (81%), branches (14%) and leaves (1%) was 96%, whereas in the below-ground rhizome contribution was 4%. The total biomass ranged from 2.3 tDM ha{sup -1} (I year) to 297.9 tDM ha{sup -1} (6 year). The mean annual biomass production was 49.6 tDM ha{sup -1}, over the 6 year period. The mean periodic increment and net primary production was highest in the 5th year, during which a peak of 124.1 t DM ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in net primary production was obtained. (Author)

  17. The influences of CO2 fertilization and land use change on the total aboveground biomass in Amazonian tropical forest

    Castanho, A. D.; Zhang, K.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations from undisturbed old-growth Amazonian forest plots have recently reported on the temporal variation of many of the physical and chemical characteristics such as: physiological properties of leaves, above ground live biomass, above ground productivity, mortality and turnover rates. However, although this variation has been measured, it is still not well understood what mechanisms control the observed temporal variability. The observed changes in time are believed to be a result of a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, recovery from natural disturbance (drought, wind blow, flood), and increase of nutrient availability. The time and spatial variability of the fertilization effect of CO2 on above ground biomass will be explored in more detail in this work. A precise understanding of the CO2 effect on the vegetation is essential for an accurate prediction of the future response of the forest to climate change. To address this issue we simultaneously explore the effects of climate variability, historical CO2 and land-use change on total biomass and productivity using two different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM). We use the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1 (ED2.1). Using land use changes database from 1700 - 2008 we reconstruct the total carbon balance in the Amazonian forest in space and time and present how the models predict the forest as carbon sink or source and explore why the model and field data diverge from each other. From 1970 to 2005 the Amazonian forest has been exposed to an increase of approximately 50 ppm in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Preliminary analyses with the IBIS and ED2.1 dynamic vegetation model shows the CO2 fertilization effect could account for an increase in above ground biomass of 0.03 and 0.04 kg-C/m2/yr on average for the Amazon basin, respectively. The annual biomass change varies temporally and spatially from about 0

  18. Estimation of Regional Forest Aboveground Biomass Combining Icesat-Glas Waveforms and HJ-1A/HSI Hyperspectral Imageries

    Xing, Yanqiu; Qiu, Sai; Ding, Jianhua; Tian, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Estimation of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is a critical challenge for understanding the global carbon cycle because it dominates the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system has a unique capability for estimating accurately forest canopy height, which has a direct relationship and can provide better understanding to the forest AGB. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is the first polarorbiting LiDAR instrument for global observations of Earth, and it has been widely used for extracting forest AGB with footprints of nominally 70 m in diameter on the earth's surface. However, the GLAS footprints are discrete geographically, and thus it has been restricted to produce the regional full coverage of forest AGB. To overcome the limit of discontinuity, the Hyper Spectral Imager (HSI) of HJ-1A with 115 bands was combined with GLAS waveforms to predict the regional forest AGB in the study. Corresponding with the field investigation in Wangqing of Changbai Mountain, China, the GLAS waveform metrics were derived and employed to establish the AGB model, which was used further for estimating the AGB within GLAS footprints. For HSI imagery, the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) method was used to decrease noise and reduce the dimensionality of spectral bands, and consequently the first three of MNF were able to offer almost 98% spectral information and qualified to regress with the GLAS estimated AGB. Afterwards, the support vector regression (SVR) method was employed in the study to establish the relationship between GLAS estimated AGB and three of HSI MNF (i.e. MNF1, MNF2 and MNF3), and accordingly the full covered regional forest AGB map was produced. The results showed that the adj.R2 and RMSE of SVR-AGB models were 0.75 and 4.68 t hm-2 for broadleaf forests, 0.73 and 5.39 t hm-2 for coniferous forests and 0.71 and 6.15 t hm-2 for mixed forests respectively. The

  19. Estimating above-ground biomass by fusion of LiDAR and multispectral data in subtropical woody plant communities in topographically complex terrain in North-eastern Australia

    Sisira Ediriweera; Sumith Pathirana; Tim Danaher; Doland Nichols

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a strategy to improve predicting capacity of plot-scale above-ground biomass (AGB) by fusion of LiDAR and Land-sat5 TM derived biophysical variables for subtropical rainforest and eucalypts dominated forest in topographically complex landscapes in North-eastern Australia. Investigation was carried out in two study areas separately and in combination. From each plot of both study areas, LiDAR derived structural parameters of vegetation and reflectance of all Landsat bands, vegetation indices were employed. The regression analysis was carried out separately for LiDAR and Landsat derived variables indi-vidually and in combination. Strong relationships were found with LiDAR alone for eucalypts dominated forest and combined sites compared to the accuracy of AGB estimates by Landsat data. Fusing LiDAR with Landsat5 TM derived variables increased overall performance for the eucalypt forest and combined sites data by describing extra variation (3% for eucalypt forest and 2% combined sites) of field estimated plot-scale above-ground biomass. In contrast, separate LiDAR and imagery data, and fusion of LiDAR and Landsat data performed poorly across structurally complex closed canopy subtropical rainforest. These findings reinforced that obtaining accurate estimates of above ground biomass using remotely sensed data is a function of the complexity of horizontal and vertical structural diversity of vegetation.

  20. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  1. Above-ground biomass and carbon estimates of Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis forests using QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR data

    Behera, M. D.; Tripathi, P.; Mishra, B.; Kumar, Shashi; Chitale, V. S.; Behera, Soumit K.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to mitigate climate change in tropical countries such as India require information on forest structural components i.e., biomass and carbon for conservation steps to be implemented successfully. The present study focuses on investigating the potential use of a one time, QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR L-band 25 m data to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) using a water cloud model (WCM) in a wildlife sanctuary in India. A significant correlation was obtained between the SAR-derived backscatter coefficient (σ°) and the field measured AGB, with the maximum coefficient of determination for cross-polarized (HV) σ° for Shorea robusta, and the weakest correlation was observed with co-polarized (HH) σ° for Tectona grandis forests. The biomass of S. robusta and that of T. grandis were estimated on the basis of field-measured data at 444.7 ± 170.4 Mg/ha and 451 ± 179.4 Mg/ha respectively. The mean biomass values estimated using the WCM varied between 562 and 660 Mg/ha for S. robusta; between 590 and 710 Mg/ha for T. grandis using various polarized data. Our results highlighted the efficacy of one time, fully polarized PALSAR data for biomass and carbon estimate in a dense forest.

  2. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Bezemer, TM; . Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S; Dubois, David; Ekelund , F; Fließbach, Andreas; Gunst, Lucie; K. Hedlund; Mäder, Paul; Mikola, J.; Robin, C.; Setälä, Heikki; Tatin-Froux , F

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses identified management related differences ...

  3. Long-term organic farming fosters below- and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; . Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S; Dubois, D; Ekelund , F; Fließbach, A.; Gunst , L; K. Hedlund; Mäder, P.; Mikola, J.; Robin, C.; Setälä , H; Tatin-Froux , F

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses identified management related differenc...

  4. Long-term organic farming fosters below- and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control, and productivity

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Bloem, Jaap; Bonkowski, Michael; Christensen, Søren; Dubois, David; Ekelund, Fleming; Fließbach, Andreas; Gunst, Lucie; Hedlund, Katarina; Mäder, Paul; Mikola, Juha; Robin, Christophe; Setälä, Heikki; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses identified management related differences ...

  5. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  6. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  7. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology

    Melissa Koontz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008–2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m−2·year−1, the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m−2·year−1·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m−2·year−1. The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  8. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology.

    Koontz, Melissa; Lundberg, Christopher; Lane, Robert; Day, John; Pezeshki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008-2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m(-2)·year(-1)), the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m(-2)·year(-1)·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m(-2)·year(-1). The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River. PMID:26861409

  9. Inventory-based estimation of aboveground net primary production in Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005

    Y. Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on remote sensing and carbon process models have revealed that terrestrial net primary production (NPP in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has increased significantly; this is crucial for explaining the increased terrestrial carbon sink in the past several decades. Regional NPP estimation based on significant field data, however, has been rare. In this study, we estimated the long-term changes in aboveground NPP (ANPP for Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005, using forest inventory data, direct field measurements, and an allometric method. The overall ANPP for all forest types averaged 10.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, with a range of 9.6 to 11.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, and ANPP for the whole country totaled 249.1 Tg yr−1 (range: 230.0 to 271.4 Tg yr−1 during the study period. Over the 25 years, the net effect of increased ANPP in needle-leaf forests and decreased ANPP in broadleaf forests has led to an increase of 1.9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 (i.e., 0.79% yr−1. This increase may be mainly due to the establishment of plantations and the rapid early growth of these planted forests.

  10. Inventory-based estimation of aboveground net primary production in Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005

    Y. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on remote sensing and carbon process models have revealed that terrestrial net primary production (NPP in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has increased significantly; this is crucial for explaining the increased terrestrial carbon sink in the past several decades. Regional NPP estimation based on significant field data, however, has been rare. In this study, we estimated the long-term changes in aboveground NPP (ANPP for Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005 using forest inventory data, direct field measurements, and an allometric method. The overall ANPP for all forest types averaged 10.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, with a range of 9.6 to 11.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, and ANPP for the whole country totaled 249.1 Tg yr−1 (range: 230.0 to 271.4 Tg yr−1 during the study period. Over the 25 years, the net effect of increased ANPP in needle-leaf forests and decreased ANPP in broadleaf forests has led to an increase of 1.9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 (i.e., 0.79 % yr−1. This increase may be mainly due to the establishment of plantations and the rapid early growth of these planted forests.

  11. Mapping aboveground biomass by integrating geospatial and forest inventory data through a k-nearest neighbor strategy in North Central Mexico

    Carlos A AGUIRRE-SALADO; Liliana MIRANDA-ARAGÓN; Eduardo J TREVIÑO-GARZA; Oscar A AGUIRRE-CALDERÓN; Javier JIMÉNEZ-PÉREZ; Marco A GONZÁLEZ-TAGLE; José R VALDÉZ-LAZALDE; Guillermo SÁNCHEZ-DÍAZ; Reija HAAPANEN; Alejandro I AGUIRRE-SALADO

    2014-01-01

    As climate change negotiations progress, monitoring biomass and carbon stocks is becoming an im-portant part of the current forest research. Therefore, national governments are interested in developing for-est-monitoring strategies using geospatial technology. Among statistical methods for mapping biomass, there is a nonparametric approach called k-nearest neighbor (kNN). We compared four variations of distance metrics of the kNN for the spatially-explicit estimation of aboveground biomass in a portion of the Mexican north border of the intertropical zone. Satellite derived, climatic, and topographic predictor variables were combined with the Mexican National Forest Inventory (NFI) data to accomplish the purpose. Performance of distance metrics applied into the kNN algorithm was evaluated using a cross validation leave-one-out technique. The results indicate that the Most Similar Neighbor (MSN) approach maximizes the correlation between predictor and response variables (r=0.9). Our results are in agreement with those reported in the literature. These findings confirm the predictive potential of the MSN approach for mapping forest variables at pixel level under the policy of Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+).

  12. Evaluating Generic Pantropical Allometric Models for the Estimation of Above-Ground Biomass in the Teak Plantations of Southern Western Ghats, India

    S. Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of suitable tree biomass allometric equations is crucial for making precise and non- destructive estimation of carbon storage and biomass energy values. The aim of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used pantropical allometric models and site-specific models to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB in different aged teak plantations of Southern Western Ghats of India. For this purpose, the AGB data measured for 70 trees with diameter >10 cm from different aged teak plantations in Kerala part of Southern Western Ghats following destructive procedure was used. The results show that site specific models based on a single predictor variable diameter at breast height (dbh, though simple, may grossly increase the uncertainty across sites. Hence, a generic model encompassing dbh, height and wood specific gravity with sufficient calibration taking into account different forest types is advised for the tropical forest systems. The study also suggests that the commonly used pantropical models should be evaluated for different ecosystems prior to their application at national or regional scales.

  13. Mapping aboveground biomass by integrating geospatial and forest inventory data through a k-nearest neighbor strategy in North Central Mexico

    Carlos; A; AGUIRRE-SALADO; Eduardo; J; TREVIO-GARZA; Oscar; A; AGUIRRE-CALDERóN; Javier; JIMNEZ-PREZ; Marco; A; GONZLEZ-TAGLE; José; R; VALDZ-LAZALDE; Guillermo; SNCHEZ-DíAZ; Reija; HAAPANEN; Alejandro; I; AGUIRRE-SALADO; Liliana; MIRANDA-ARAGóN

    2014-01-01

    As climate change negotiations progress,monitoring biomass and carbon stocks is becoming an important part of the current forest research.Therefore,national governments are interested in developing forest-monitoring strategies using geospatial technology.Among statistical methods for mapping biomass,there is a nonparametric approach called k-nearest neighbor(kNN).We compared four variations of distance metrics of the kNN for the spatially-explicit estimation of aboveground biomass in a portion of the Mexican north border of the intertropical zone.Satellite derived,climatic,and topographic predictor variables were combined with the Mexican National Forest Inventory(NFI)data to accomplish the purpose.Performance of distance metrics applied into the kNN algorithm was evaluated using a cross validation leave-one-out technique.The results indicate that the Most Similar Neighbor(MSN)approach maximizes the correlation between predictor and response variables(r=0.9).Our results are in agreement with those reported in the literature.These findings confirm the predictive potential of the MSN approach for mapping forest variables at pixel level under the policy of Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation(REDD+).

  14. Above-ground biomass models for Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia) in Mustang District, Nepal

    Rajchal, Rajesh; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    fresh weight of fruit and oven-dry weight of wood (stem and branches) and leaves were measured and used as a basis for developing biomass models. Diameters of the trees were measured at 30 cm above ground whereas the heights were measured in terms of the total tree height (m). Among several models...... tested, the models suggested for local use were: ln(woody biomass, oven-dry, kg) = -3.083 + 2.436 ln(diameter, cm), ln (fruit biomass, fresh, kg) = -3.237 + 1.346 ln(diameter, cm) and ln(leaf biomass, oven-dry, kg) = -4.013 + 1.403 ln(Diameter, cm) with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99, 0.......73 and 0.91 for wood, fruit, and leaves, respectively. The models suggested for a slightly broader range of environmental conditions were: ln (woody biomass, oven-dry, kg) = -3.277 + 0.924 ln(diameter2 × height), ln(Fruit biomass, fresh, kg) = -3.146 + 0.485 ln(diameter2 × height) and ln(leaf biomass...

  15. Feasibility of bioethanol production from microalgal biomass

    Anjos, Mariana; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.; Dragone, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production has attracted great attention in recent years. Bioethanol from microalgae can be produced through two distinct pathways: direct dark fermentation or fermentation of saccharified biomass by yeast. The main objective of this work was to assess the influence of increasing glucose concentration derived from hydrolysed microalgal biomass on bioethanol production. The green microalga C. vulgaris (strain P12) was cultiv...

  16. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus;

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifi...

  17. Increasing precipitation event size increases aboveground net primary productivity in a semi-arid grassland.

    Heisler-White, Jana L; Knapp, Alan K; Kelly, Eugene F

    2008-11-01

    Water availability is the primary constraint to aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in many terrestrial biomes, and it is an ecosystem driver that will be strongly altered by future climate change. Global circulation models predict a shift in precipitation patterns to growing season rainfall events that are larger in size but fewer in number. This "repackaging" of rainfall into large events with long intervening dry intervals could be particularly important in semi-arid grasslands because it is in marked contrast to the frequent but small events that have historically defined this ecosystem. We investigated the effect of more extreme rainfall patterns on ANPP via the use of rainout shelters and paired this experimental manipulation with an investigation of long-term data for ANPP and precipitation. Experimental plots (n = 15) received the long-term (30-year) mean growing season precipitation quantity; however, this amount was distributed as 12, six, or four events applied manually according to seasonal patterns for May-September. The long-term mean (1940-2005) number of rain events in this shortgrass steppe was 14 events, with a minimum of nine events in years of average precipitation. Thus, our experimental treatments pushed this system beyond its recent historical range of variability. Plots receiving fewer, but larger rain events had the highest rates of ANPP (184 +/- 38 g m(-2)), compared to plots receiving more frequent rainfall (105 +/- 24 g m(-2)). ANPP in all experimental plots was greater than long-term mean ANPP for this system (97 g m(-2)), which may be explained in part by the more even distribution of applied rain events. Soil moisture data indicated that larger events led to greater soil water content and likely permitted moisture penetration to deeper in the soil profile. These results indicate that semi-arid grasslands are capable of responding immediately and substantially to forecast shifts to more extreme precipitation patterns. PMID

  18. Engineering verification of the biomass production chamber

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M., III; Sager, J. C.; Jones, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for life support systems, both biological and physical-chemical, for long-term human attended space missions are under serious study throughout NASA. The KSC 'breadboard' project has focused on biomass production using higher plants for atmospheric regeneration and food production in a special biomass production chamber. This chamber is designed to provide information on food crop growth rate, contaminants in the chamber that alter plant growth requirements for atmospheric regeneration, carbon dioxide consumption, oxygen production, and water utilization. The shape and size, mass, and energy requirements in relation to the overall integrity of the biomass production chamber are under constant study.

  19. Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining ALOS PALSAR and WorldView-2 Data: A Case Study at Purple Mountain National Park, Nanjing, China

    Songqiu Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced methods are required for mapping the forest aboveground biomass (AGB over a large area in Chinese forests. This study attempted to develop an improved approach to retrieving biomass by combining PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar and WorldView-2 data. A total of 33 variables with potential correlations with forest biomass were extracted from the above data. However, these parameters had poor fits to the observed biomass. Accordingly, the synergies of several variables were explored to identify improved relationships with the AGB. Using principal component analysis and multivariate linear regression (MLR, the accuracies of the biomass estimates obtained using PALSAR and WorldView-2 data were improved to approximately 65% to 71%. In addition, using the additional dataset developed from the fusion of FBD (fine beam dual-polarization and WorldView-2 data improved the performance to 79% with an RMSE (root mean square error of 35.13 Mg/ha when using the MLR method. Moreover, a further improvement (R2 = 0.89, relative RMSE = 17.08% was obtained by combining all the variables mentioned above. For the purpose of comparison with MLR, a neural network approach was also used to estimate the biomass. However, this approach did not produce significant improvements in the AGB estimates. Consequently, the final MLR model was recommended to map the AGB of the study area. Finally, analyses of estimated error in distinguishing forest types and vertical structures suggested that the RMSE decreases gradually from broad-leaved to coniferous to mixed forest. In terms of different vertical structures (VS, VS3 has a high error because the forest lacks undergrowth trees, while VS4 forest, which has approximately the same amounts of stems in each of the three DBH (diameter at breast height classes (DBH > 20, 10 ≤ DBH ≤ 20, and DBH < 10 cm, has the lowest RMSE. This study demonstrates that the combination of PALSAR and WorldView-2 data

  20. Forest aboveground biomass estimates in a tropical rainforest in Madagascar:new insights from the use of wood specific gravity data

    Tahiana Ramananantoandro; Herimanitra P. Rafidimanantsoa; Miora F. Ramanakoto

    2015-01-01

    To generate carbon credits under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation program (REDD+), accurate estimates of forest carbon stocks are needed. Carbon accounting efforts have focused on carbon stocks in aboveground biomass (AGB). Although wood specific gravity (WSG) is known to be an important variable in AGB estimates, there is currently a lack of data on WSG for Malagasy tree species. This study aimed to determine whether estimates of carbon stocks calculated from literature-based WSG values differed from those based on WSG values measured on wood core samples. Carbon stocks in forest biomass were assessed using two WSG data sets: (i) values measured from 303 wood core samples extracted in the study area, (ii) values derived from international databases. Results suggested that there is difference between the field and literature-based WSG at the 0.05 level. The latter data set was on average 16% higher than the former. However, carbon stocks calculated from the two data sets did not differ significantly at the 0.05 level. Such findings could be attributed to the form of the allometric equation used which gives more weight to tree diameter and tree height than to WSG. The choice of dataset should depend on the level of accuracy (Tier II or III) desired by REDD+. As higher levels of accuracy are rewarded by higher prices, species-specific WSG data would be highly desirable.

  1. Uncertainty analysis for regional-level above-ground biomass estimates based on individual tree biomass model%单木生物量模型估计区域尺度生物量的不确定性

    傅煜; 雷渊才; 曾伟生

    2015-01-01

    采用系统抽样体系江西省固定样地杉木连续观测数据和生物量数据,通过Monte Carlo法反复模拟由单木生物量模型推算区域尺度地上生物量的过程,估计了江西省杉木地上总生物量。基于不同水平建模样本量n及不同决定系数R2的设计,分别研究了单木生物量模型参数变异性及模型残差变异性对区域尺度生物量估计不确定性的影响。研究结果表明:2009年江西省杉木地上生物量估计值为(19.84±1.27) t/hm2,不确定性占生物量估计值约6.41%。生物量估计值和不确定性值达到平稳状态所需的运算时间随建模样本量及决定系数R2的增大而减小;相对于模型参数变异性,残差变异性对不确定性的影响更小。%Above-ground forest biomass at regional-level is typically estimated by adding model predictions of biomass from individual trees in a plot, and subsequently aggregating predictions from plots to large areas. There are multiple sources of uncertainties in model predictions during this aggregated process. These uncertainties always affect the precision of large area biomass estimates, and the effects are generally overlooked; however, failure to account for these uncertainties will cause erroneously optimistic precision estimates. Monte Carlo simulation is an effective method for estimating large-scale biomass and assessing the uncertainty associated with multiple sources of errors and complex models. In this paper, we applied the Monte Carlo approach to simulate regional-level above-ground biomass and to assess uncertainties related to the variability from model residuals and parameters separately. A nonlinear model form was used. Data were obtained from permanent sample plots and biomass observation of Cunninghamia lanceolata in JiangXi Province, China. Overall, 70 individual trees were destructively sampled for biomass estimation from June to September, 2009. Based on the commonly used allometric model

  2. Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production. PMID:22939593

  3. PRODUCTION OF XYLITOL FROM AGRICULTURAL HEMICELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    The production of value-added co-products from agricultural biomass is an important economic driver for the success of a biorefinery approach to the production of ethanol and other fuels. During most ethanol production methods, significant amounts of hemicellulose by-products are produced which are...

  4. Influence of water level fluctuation on the mortality and aboveground biomass of the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis interstincta (VAHL roemer et schults

    Santos Anderson Medeiros dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to study the biometric alterations of Eleocharis interstincta in response to water level fluctuations in Cabiúnas Lagoon, located on the northern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, in the municipality of Macaé. Three quadrats of 0.0625 m² were harvested every two weeks from June/1997 to June/1998; samples were separated into stems, dead stems (detritus and rhizome; lenghted, dried and weighted. The water level fluctuated seasonally in the macrophyte stand with two periods of drawdown. The first period occurred naturally at the end of winter and beginning of spring, when rainfall in the area was normally lowest. The second period of drawdown was the result of an artificial breaching of the sandbar that isolate the lagoon from the sea. The breach was made in the summer, at the time of highest rainfall, when the water level in the lagoon reached the maximum value recorded during the study (1.35 m. There was a strongly positive correlation of the water level with stems mean height and aboveground biomass, indicating that water level played an important role in the determination of these parameters. There was a significant difference between stem height (ANOVA; p < 0.001 and biomass (ANOVA; p < 0.001 in each sampling period, ranging from 143.9 cm and 338.8 g dry wt.m-2, before the sandbar opening, to 16.3 cm and 20.2 g dry wt.m-2 respectively after the sandbar breaching. The drastic variation of the water level, leading mass mortality of the stems, together with the lowest mean biomass/stem (0.057 g dry wt.individual-1, recorded after the sandbar breaching, did not represent a strong disturbance for E. interstincta, since the resilience time estimated for this population was about 30 days.

  5. Structural, physiognomic and above-ground biomass variation in savanna–forest transition zones on three continents – how different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    E. M. Veenendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related to tree canopy cover in a similar way for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the relative contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation. Herbaceous layer cover declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs progressively replaced by shrubs as the canopy closes over was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna–forest-species discontinuum is observed compared to that inferred when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1 m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy-cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater amount of above-ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much above-ground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna–forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, consistent across all three

  6. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  7. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  8. Determining aboveground biomass of the forest successional chronosequence in a test-site of Brazilian Amazon through X- and L-band data analysis

    Santos, João. R.; Silva, Camila V. d. J.; Galvão, Lênio S.; Treuhaft, Robert; Mura, José C.; Madsen, Soren; Gonçalves, Fábio G.; Keller, Michael M.

    2014-08-01

    Secondary succession is an important process in the Amazonian region with implications for the global carbon cycle and for the sustainable regional agricultural and pasture activities. In order to better discriminate the secondary succession and to characterize and estimate the aboveground biomass (AGB), backscatter and interferometric SAR data generally have been analyzed through empirical-based statistical modeling. The objective of this study is to verify the capability of the full polarimetric PALSAR/ALOS (L-band) attributes, when combined with the interferometric (InSAR) coherence from the TanDEM-X (X-band), to improve the AGB estimates of the succession chronosequence located in the Brazilian Tapajós region. In order to perform this study, we carried out multivariate regression using radar attributes and biophysical parameters acquired during a field inventory. A previous floristic-structural analysis was performed to establish the chronosequence in three stages: initial vegetation regrowth, intermediate, and advanced regrowth. The relationship between PALSAR data and AGB was significant (pstands.

  9. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  10. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in Alpine Forests: A Semi-Empirical Approach Considering Canopy Transparency Derived from Airborne LiDAR Data

    Martin Rutzinger

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model that was originally developed for stem volume estimation is used for aboveground biomass (AGB estimation of a spruce dominated alpine forest. The reference AGB of the available sample plots is calculated from forest inventory data by means of biomass expansion factors. Furthermore, the semi-empirical model is extended by three different canopy transparency parameters derived from airborne LiDAR data. These parameters have not been considered for stem volume estimation until now and are introduced in order to investigate the behavior of the model concerning AGB estimation. The developed additional input parameters are based on the assumption that transparency of vegetation can be measured by determining the penetration of the laser beams through the canopy. These parameters are calculated for every single point within the 3D point cloud in order to consider the varying properties of the vegetation in an appropriate way. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA is performed to evaluate the influence of the additional LiDAR derived canopy transparency parameters for AGB estimation. The study is carried out in a 560 km2 alpine area in Austria, where reference forest inventory data and LiDAR data are available. The investigations show that the introduction of the canopy transparency parameters does not change the results significantly according to R2 (R2 = 0.70 to R2 = 0.71 in comparison to the results derived from, the semi-empirical model, which was originally developed for stem volume estimation.

  11. Assessment of variations in taxonomic diversity, forest structure, and aboveground biomass using remote sensing along an altitudinal gradient in tropical montane forest of Costa Rica

    Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D.; Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J.; Gillespie, T. W.; Rovzar, C. M.; Andelman, S.

    2012-12-01

    This research sought to understand how alpha and beta diversity of plants vary and relate to the three-dimensional vegetation structure and aboveground biomass along environmental gradients in the tropical montane forests of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure plays an important role in defining patterns of species diversity and along with abiotic factors (climate and edaphic) control the phenotypic and functional variations across landscapes. It is well documented that strong subdivisions at local and regional scales are found mainly on geologic or climate gradients. These general determinants of biodiversity are best demonstrated in regions with natural gradients such as tropical montane forests. Altitudinal gradients provide a landscape scale changes through variations in topography, climate, and edaphic conditions on which we tested several theoretical and biological hypotheses regarding drivers of biodiversity. The study was performed by using forest inventory and botanical data from nine 1-ha plots ranging from 100 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from airborne lidar and radar sensors to quantify variations in forest structure. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree taxonomic alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using lidar and radar observations of forest structure and biomass. We assessed alpha and beta diversity at the species, genus, and family levels utilizing datasets provided by the Terrestrial Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network. Through the comparison to active remote sensing imagery, our results show that there is a strong relationship between forest 3D-structure, and alpha and beta diversity controlled by variations in abiotic factors along the altitudinal gradient. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we find distinct patterns along the environmental gradients

  12. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  13. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  14. NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN THE ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS, IN THE LITTER LAYER AND PHYLLODIES DECOMPOSITION OF Acacia mangium Willd.

    Dieter Liebsch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient concentrations and contents in the shoot (leaves, branches, bark and wood in a five-years-old stand of Acacia mangium Willd. (mangium, decomposition rate of mangium phyllodies (modified leaves and nutrient efficiency use were evaluated in a forest stand in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The species presented a high nutrient use efficency and accumulated 135 t.ha-1 of above ground biomass, containing: 544.9 kg.ha-1 of N, 281.7 kg.ha-1 of Ca, 242.9 kg.ha-1 of K, 47 kg.ha-1 of Mg and 35.2 kg. ha-1 of P. There was an accumulation of 12.7 t.ha-1 of litter and this layer contained 251.0, 5.7, 14.6, 102.7 and 22.7 kg.ha-1, respectively, of N, P, K, Ca and Mg.  The decomposition constant (k estimated for the phyllodies decomposition was 0,00165 g.g-1.day-1 and the half-live was 421 days. The accumulation of litter on the ground may represent an advantage as nutrient supply for succeeding crops or disadvantage as fuel in areas subject to frequent fire.

  15. Estimating aboveground forest biomass carbon and fire consumption in the U.S. Utah High Plateaus using data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program, Landsat, and LANDFIRE

    Chen, X.; Liu, S.; Zhu, Z.; Vogelmann, J.; Li, Z.; Ohlen, D.

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and greatly affecting global climate and socio-economic systems. Actively growing forests are generally considered to be a major carbon sink, but forest wildfires lead to large releases of biomass carbon into the atmosphere. Aboveground forest biomass carbon (AFBC), an important ecological indicator, and fireinduced carbon emissions at regional scales are highly relevant to forest sustainable management and climate change. It is challenging to accurately estimate the spatial distribution of AFBC across large areas because of the spatial heterogeneity of forest cover types and canopy structure. In this study, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, Landsat, and Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project (LANDFIRE) data were integrated in a regression tree model for estimating AFBC at a 30-m resolution in the Utah High Plateaus. AFBC were calculated from 225 FIA field plots and used as the dependent variable in the model. Of these plots, 10% were held out for model evaluation with stratified random sampling, and the other 90% were used as training data to develop the regression tree model. Independent variable layers included Landsat imagery and the derived spectral indicators, digital elevation model (DEM) data and derivatives, biophysical gradient data, existing vegetation cover type and vegetation structure. The cross-validation correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.81 for the training model. Independent validation using withheld plot data was similar with r value of 0.82. This validated regression tree model was applied to map AFBC in the Utah High Plateaus and then combined with burn severity information to estimate loss of AFBC in the Longston fire of Zion National Park in 2001. The final dataset represented 24 forest cover types for a 4 million ha forested area. We estimated a total of 353 Tg AFBC with an average of 87 MgC/ha in the Utah High

  16. Influence of tree size, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions on heart rot in mixed-dipterocarp Bornean rainforests: implications for aboveground biomass estimates

    K. D. Heineman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungal decay of heartwood creates hollows and areas of reduced wood density within the stems of living trees known as heart rot. Although heart rot is acknowledged as a source of error in forest aboveground biomass estimates, there are few datasets available to evaluate the environmental controls over heart rot infection and severity in tropical forests. Using legacy and recent data from drilled, felled, and cored stems in mixed dipterocarp forests in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we quantified the frequency and severity of heart rot, and used generalized linear mixed effect models to characterize the association of heart rot with tree size, wood density, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions. Heart rot was detected in 55% of felled stems > 30 cm DBH, while the detection frequency was lower for stems of the same size evaluated by non-destructive drilling (45% and coring (23% methods. Heart rot severity, defined as the percent stem volume lost in infected stems, ranged widely from 0.1–82.8%. Tree taxonomy explained the greatest proportion of variance in heart rot frequency and severity among the fixed and random effects evaluated in our models. Heart rot frequency, but not severity, increased sharply with tree diameter, ranging from 56% infection across all datasets in stems > 50 cm DBH to 11% in trees 10–30 cm DBH. The frequency and severity of heart rot increased significantly in soils with low pH and cation concentrations in topsoil, and heart rot was more common in tree species associated with dystrophic sandy soils than with nutrient-rich clays. When scaled to forest stands, the percent of stem biomass lost to heart rot varied significantly with soil properties, and we estimate that 7% of the forest biomass is in some stage of heart rot decay. This study demonstrates not only that heart rot is a significant source of error in forest carbon estimates, but also that it strongly covaries with soil resources, underscoring the need to account for

  17. Influence of tree size, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions on heart rot in mixed-dipterocarp Bornean rainforests: implications for aboveground biomass estimates

    Heineman, K. D.; Russo, S. E.; Baillie, I. C.; Mamit, J. D.; Chai, P. P.-K.; Chai, L.; Hindley, E. W.; Lau, B.-T.; Tan, S.; Ashton, P. S.

    2015-05-01

    Fungal decay of heartwood creates hollows and areas of reduced wood density within the stems of living trees known as heart rot. Although heart rot is acknowledged as a source of error in forest aboveground biomass estimates, there are few datasets available to evaluate the environmental controls over heart rot infection and severity in tropical forests. Using legacy and recent data from drilled, felled, and cored stems in mixed dipterocarp forests in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we quantified the frequency and severity of heart rot, and used generalized linear mixed effect models to characterize the association of heart rot with tree size, wood density, taxonomy, and edaphic conditions. Heart rot was detected in 55% of felled stems > 30 cm DBH, while the detection frequency was lower for stems of the same size evaluated by non-destructive drilling (45%) and coring (23%) methods. Heart rot severity, defined as the percent stem volume lost in infected stems, ranged widely from 0.1-82.8%. Tree taxonomy explained the greatest proportion of variance in heart rot frequency and severity among the fixed and random effects evaluated in our models. Heart rot frequency, but not severity, increased sharply with tree diameter, ranging from 56% infection across all datasets in stems > 50 cm DBH to 11% in trees 10-30 cm DBH. The frequency and severity of heart rot increased significantly in soils with low pH and cation concentrations in topsoil, and heart rot was more common in tree species associated with dystrophic sandy soils than with nutrient-rich clays. When scaled to forest stands, the percent of stem biomass lost to heart rot varied significantly with soil properties, and we estimate that 7% of the forest biomass is in some stage of heart rot decay. This study demonstrates not only that heart rot is a significant source of error in forest carbon estimates, but also that it strongly covaries with soil resources, underscoring the need to account for edaphic variation in

  18. Archaebacterial Fuel Production: Methane from Biomass.

    Lennox, John E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses microbial production of methane from biomass. Topics include methogens (bacteria producing methane), ecology of methanogenesis, methanogenesis in ruminant/nonruminant and other environments, role of methanogenesis in nature, and methane production in sewage treatment plants. Also discusses construction of methane digesters (and related…

  19. Biomass production, water use and photosynthesis of Salix clones grown in a wastewater purification system

    An objective of the study was to identify leaf morphophysiological characteristics indicative of high aboveground woody biomass production of Salix clones growing in the vegetation filter of a wastewater purification system. It was hypothesized, that in these extra irrigated stands, the characteristics of photosynthesis are stronger determinants of the production than the characteristics of leaf water relations. The biomass production of the clones was correlated with numerous characteristics of leaf water relations and photosynthesis. Significant correlation was found between the biomass production and the following characteristics of top foliage leaves: daily decrease in water potential, stomatal conductance, stomatal sensitivity to increase in light intensity, and hydraulic conductance (positive); daily minimum and maximum water potentials, instantaneous water use efficiency, and stomatal sensitivity to decrease in leaf water potential (negative); maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, chlorophyll content, and the partitioning coefficient for leaf nitrogen into bioenergetics associated with electron transport (positive). In the most productive clones, the vertical gradient (through foliage) of values of almost all the characteristics was the smallest. The biomass correlated more strongly with the characteristics of photosynthesis light stage than with the characteristics of water relations. We conclude that the characteristics of photosynthesis light stage - high maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, high chlorophyll content, and also flat vertical gradient (through foliage) in values of the characteristics could be the strongest indicators of high biomass production of Salix clones growing in vegetation filter.

  20. Fine root longevity and carbon input into soil from below- and aboveground litter in climatically contrasting forests

    Leppalammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Aro, Lasse; Salemaa, Maija; Hansson, Karna; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Helmisaari, Helja-Sisko

    2014-01-01

    The major part of carbon (C) flow into forest soil consists of continually renewed fine roots and aboveground litterfall. We studied the belowground C input from the fine root litter of trees and understorey vegetation in relation to their aboveground litterfall in two Norway spruce (Picea abies L) stands located in northern and southern Finland. The production of fine roots was estimated by using turnover and biomass data from minirhizotrons and soil cores. The foliage litter production of t...

  1. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    P. Köhler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91% if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60% between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a

  2. Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass in Miombo Savanna Woodlands (Mozambique, East Africa Using L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Maria J. Vasconcelos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of forest above-ground biomass (AGB is important for such broader applications as decision making, forest management, carbon (C stock change assessment and scientific applications, such as C cycle modeling. However, there is a great uncertainty related to the estimation of forest AGB, especially in the tropics. The main goal of this study was to test a combination of field data and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR backscatter intensity data to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of forest AGB in the Miombo savanna woodlands of Mozambique (East Africa. A machine learning algorithm, based on bagging stochastic gradient boosting (BagSGB, was used to model forest AGB as a function of ALOS PALSAR Fine Beam Dual (FBD backscatter intensity metrics. The application of this method resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R between observed and predicted (10-fold cross-validation forest AGB values of 0.95 and a root mean square error of 5.03 Mg·ha−1. However, as a consequence of using bootstrap samples in combination with a cross validation procedure, some bias may have been introduced, and the reported cross validation statistics could be overoptimistic. Therefore and as a consequence of the BagSGB model, a measure of prediction variability (coefficient of variation on a pixel-by-pixel basis was also produced, with values ranging from 10 to 119% (mean = 25% across the study area. It provides additional and complementary information regarding the spatial distribution of the error resulting from the application of the fitted model to new observations.

  3. Optimizing the number of training areas for modeling above-ground biomass with ALS and multispectral remote sensing in subtropical Nepal

    Rana, Parvez; Gautam, Basanta; Tokola, Timo

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing-based inventories of above-ground forest biomass (AGB) require a set of training plots representative of the area to be studied, the collection of which is the most expensive part of the analysis. These are time-consuming and costly because the large variety in forest conditions requires more plots to adequately capture this variability. A field campaign in general is challenging and is hampered by the complex topographic conditions, limited accessibility, steep mountainous terrains which increase labor efforts and costs. In addition it is also depend on the ratio between size of study area and number of training plots. In this study, we evaluate the number of training areas (sample size) required to estimate AGB for an area in the southern part of Nepal using airborne laser scanning (ALS), RapidEye and Landsat data. Three experiments were conducted: (i) AGB model performance, based on all the field training plots; (ii) reduction of the sample size, based on the ALS metrics and the AGB distribution; and (iii) prediction of the optimal number of training plots, based on the correlation between the remote sensing and field data. The AGB model was fitted using the sparse Bayesian method. AGB model performance was validated using an independent validation dataset. The effect of the strategies for reducing the sample size was readily apparent for the ALS-based AGB prediction, but the RapidEye and Landsat sensor data failed to capture any such effect. The results indicate that adequate coverage of the variability in tree height and density was an important condition for selecting the training plots. In addition, the ALS-based AGB prediction required the smallest number of training plots and was also quite stable with a small number of field plots.

  4. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    J. Schöngart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ. We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha−1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  5. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  6. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Birk Henriksen, U.; Muenster-Swendsen, J.; Fink, A.; Roengaard Clausen, L.; Munkholt Christensen, J.; Qin, K.; Lin, W.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier types have been investigated in this project: 1) The Two-Stage Gasifier (Viking Gasifier), designed to produce a very clean gas to be used in a gas engine, has been connected to a lab-scale methanol plant, to prove that the gas from the gasifier could be used for methanol production with a minimum of gas cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). 2) A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 65-71% (LHV). Different routes to produce liquid transport fuels from biomass are possible. They include production of RME (rapeseed oil

  7. Sensitivity of Backscatter Intensity of ALOS/PALSAR to Above-ground Biomass and Other Biophysical Parameters of Boreal Forests in Alaska and Japan

    Suzuki, R.; Hayashi, M.; Kim, Y.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Shoyama, K.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, A.; Saigusa, N.; Ito, A.

    2012-12-01

    For the better understanding of the carbon cycle in the global environment, investigations on the spatio-temporal variation of the carbon stock which is stored as vegetation biomass is important. The backscatter intensity of "Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR)" onboard the satellite "Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)" provides us the information which is applicable to estimate the forest above-ground biomass (AGB). This study examines the sensitivity of the backscatter intensity of ALOS/PALSAR to the forest AGB and other biophysical parameters (tree height, tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and tree stand density) for boreal forests in two geographical regions of Alaska and Kushiro, northern Japan, and compares the sensitivities in two regions. In Alaska, a forest survey was executed in the south-north transect (about 300 km long) along a trans-Alaska pipeline which profiles the ecotone from the boreal forest to tundra in 2007. Forest AGBs and other biophysical parameters at 29 forests along the transect were measured by Bitterlich method. In Kushiro, a forest survey was carried out at 42 forests in 2011 and those parameters were similarly obtained by Bitterlich method. 20 and 2 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR FBD Level 1.5 data that cover the regions in Alaska and Kushiro, respectively, were collected and mosaicked. Backscatter intensities of ALOS/PALSAR in HH (horizontally polarized transmitted and horizontally polarized received) and HV (horizontally polarized transmitted and vertically polarized received) modes were compared with the forest AGB and other biophysical parameters. The intensity generally increased with the increase of those biophysical parameters in both HV and HH modes, but the intensity in HV mode generally had a stronger correlation to those parameters than in HH mode in both Alaska and Kushiro. The HV intensity had strong correlation to the forest AGB and DBH, while weak correlation to the tree stand density in Alaska

  8. Evaluation of stem rot in 339 Bornean tree species: implications of size, taxonomy, and soil-related variation for aboveground biomass estimates

    Heineman, K. D.; Russo, S. E.; Baillie, I. C.; Mamit, J. D.; Chai, P. P.-K.; Chai, L.; Hindley, E. W.; Lau, B.-T.; Tan, S.; Ashton, P. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fungal decay of heart wood creates hollows and areas of reduced wood density within the stems of living trees known as stem rot. Although stem rot is acknowledged as a source of error in forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates, there are few data sets available to evaluate the controls over stem rot infection and severity in tropical forests. Using legacy and recent data from 3180 drilled, felled, and cored stems in mixed dipterocarp forests in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we quantified the frequency and severity of stem rot in a total of 339 tree species, and related variation in stem rot with tree size, wood density, taxonomy, and species' soil association, as well as edaphic conditions. Predicted stem rot frequency for a 50 cm tree was 53 % of felled, 39 % of drilled, and 28 % of cored stems, demonstrating differences among methods in rot detection ability. The percent stem volume infected by rot, or stem rot severity, ranged widely among trees with stem rot infection (0.1-82.8 %) and averaged 9 % across all trees felled. Tree taxonomy explained the greatest proportion of variance in both stem rot frequency and severity among the predictors evaluated in our models. Stem rot frequency, but not severity, increased sharply with tree diameter, ranging from 13 % in trees 10-30 cm DBH to 54 % in stems ≥ 50 cm DBH across all data sets. The frequency of stem rot increased significantly in soils with low pH and cation concentrations in topsoil, and stem rot was more common in tree species associated with dystrophic sandy soils than with nutrient-rich clays. When scaled to forest stands, the maximum percent of stem biomass lost to stem rot varied significantly with soil properties, and we estimate that stem rot reduces total forest AGB estimates by up to 7 % relative to what would be predicted assuming all stems are composed strictly of intact wood. This study demonstrates not only that stem rot is likely to be a significant source of error in forest AGB estimation

  9. Estimation of the carbon pool in soil and above-ground biomass within mangrove forests in Southeast Mexico using allometric equations

    Jesús Jaime Guerra-Santos; Rosa María Cerón-Bretón; Julia Griselda Cerón-Bretón; Diana Lizett Damián-Hernández; Reyna Cristina Sánchez-Junco; Emma del Carmen Guevara Carrió

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of carbon stored in soil and aboveground biomass from the most important area of mangroves in Mexico, with dominant vegetation of Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.), Black mangrove (Avicennia germinans L.), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn.) and button mangrove (Conocarpus erectus L.). We sampled soils with high fertility during the dry season in 2009 and 2010 at three sites on Atasta Peninsula, Campeche. We used allometric equations to estimate above ground biomass (AGB) of trees. AGB was higher in C. erectus (253.18±32.17 t⋅ha-1), lower in A. germinans (161.93±12.63 t⋅ha-1), and intermediate in R. mangle (181.70±16.58 t⋅ha-1) and L. racemosa (206.07±19.12 t⋅ha-1). Of the three studied sites, the highest absolute value for AGB was 279.72 t⋅ha-1 in button mangrove forest at any single site. Carbon stored in soil at the three sites ranged from 36.80±10.27 to 235.77±66.11 t⋅ha-1. The Tukey test (p <0.05) made for AGB was higher for black mangrove showed significant differences in soil carbon content between black mangrove and button mangrove. C. erectus had higher AGB compared with the other species. A. germinans trees had lower AGB because they grew in hypersaline environments, which reduced their development. C. erectus grew on higher ground where soils were richer in nutrients. AGB tended to be low in areas near the sea and increased with distance from the coast. A. germinans usually grew on recently deposited sediments. We assumed that all sites have the same potential to store carbon in soil, and then we found that there were no significant differences in carbon content between the three samples sites: all sites had potential to store carbon for long periods. Carbon storage at the three sampling sites in the state of Campeche, Mexico, was higher than that reported for other locations.

  10. Structural, physiognomic and aboveground biomass variation in savanna-forest transition zones on three continents. How different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    E. M. Veenendaal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through interpretations of remote sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands mostly located within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related in a similar way to tree canopy cover for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation to this total. Herbaceous layer cover also declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs being progressively replaced by shrubs as canopy closure occurs was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna-forest species discontinuum is observed compared to that implied when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater concentration of above ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much aboveground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna/forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, coexistence

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production from waste biomass

    Nor Aslan, A. K. H.; Mohd Ali, M. D.; Morad, N. A.; Tamunaidu, P.

    2016-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is a group of biopolymers that are extensively researched for such purpose due to the biocompatibility with mammal tissue and similar properties with conventional plastic. However, commercialization of PHA is impended by its high total production cost, which half of it are from the cost of pure carbon source feedstock. Thus, cheap and sustainable feedstocks are preferred where waste materials from various industries are looked into. This paper will highlight recent studies done on PHA production by utilizing crop and agro waste material and review its potential as alternative feedstock.

  12. Environmental issues for intensive biomass production systems

    The aim of IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.2 'Environmental Issues' was to evaluate environmental sustainability of intensive biomass systems and develop guidelines to ensure environmental soundness of such systems. Eight countries participated in the work: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, U.S.A. and U.K. During the period 1995-1997, collaborators have: evaluated environmental sustainability of intensive biomass production systems; assessed environmental sustainability of utilizing biosolids, e.g., wastewater sludge and wood ash, and effluents, to increase productivity of conventional and short rotation forestry systems; and evaluated and developed environmental guidelines for deployment of bioenergy production systems. The forestry and bioenergy industrial sectors were active participants in all Activity field study tours and workshops. This paper reviews achievements of Task XII Activity 4.2 and suggests where future international collaboration is required to achieve sustainable forestry bioenergy production systems 62 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  13. Forest biomass density, utilization and production dynamics in a western Himalayan watershed

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Prem Lall Sankhayan; Ole Hofstad

    2008-01-01

    There is enough evidence to show that the forest biomass has decreased significantly in the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh. The government has responded through restrictive measures to check this decline. Using tree biomass as proxy for degradation, we assessed the current state of biomass within dominant land use types and examined its implications for sustainability. The highest above-ground mean tree biomass density of 1158 t·ha-1 was recorded for the reserved forest followed by 728, 13, 11, 8, 5 and 3 t·ha-1 in the protected forest, fallow land, cultivated-unirrigated land, grassland, orchard land and cultivated-irrigated land respectively. Of the total accessible biomass, only 0.31% was extracted annually by the local people for fuel, fodder and other uses. Though, the current level of extraction may be sustainable in the short run, insufficient regeneration is observed for long term sustainability. Forest biomass production was simulated for the next 30 years with a logistic growth model and the relative significance of input variables in influencing system behaviour was analysed through sensitivity analysis. The model results highlighted the declining forest resources in the long run. Positive response through appropriate government policies can, however, change the scenario for the better.

  14. Modeling Forest Aboveground Biomass and Volume Using Airborne LiDAR Metrics and Forest Inventory and Analysis Data in the Pacific Northwest

    Ryan D. Sheridan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA Program provides a diverse selection of data used to assess the status of the nation’s forests using sample locations dispersed throughout the country. Airborne laser scanning (ALS systems are capable of producing accurate measurements of individual tree dimensions and also possess the ability to characterize forest structure in three dimensions. This study investigates the potential of discrete return ALS data for modeling forest aboveground biomass (AGBM and gross volume (gV at FIA plot locations in the Malheur National Forest, eastern Oregon utilizing three analysis levels: (1 individual subplot (r = 7.32 m; (2 plot, comprising four clustered subplots; and (3 hectare plot (r = 56.42 m. A methodology for the creation of three point cloud-based airborne LiDAR metric sets is presented. Models for estimating AGBM and gV based on LiDAR-derived height metrics were built and validated utilizing FIA estimates of AGBM and gV derived using regional allometric equations. Simple linear regression models based on the plot-level analysis out performed subplot-level and hectare-level models, producing R2 values of 0.83 and 0.81 for AGBM and gV, utilizing mean height and the 90th height percentile as predictors, respectively. Similar results were found for multiple regression models, where plot-level analysis produced models with R2 values of 0.87 and 0.88 for AGBM and gV, utilizing multiple height percentile metrics as predictor variables. Results suggest that the current FIA plot design can be used with dense airborne LiDAR data to produce area-based estimates of AGBM and gV, and that the increased spatial scale of hectare plots may be inappropriate for modeling AGBM of gV unless exhaustive tree tallies are available. Overall, this study demonstrates that ALS data can be used to create models that describe the AGBM and gV of Pacific Northwest FIA plots and highlights the potential of

  15. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass Change for Tropical Deciduous Forest in Bago Yoma, Myanmar between year 2000 and 2014 using Landsat Images and Ground Measurements

    Kim, H. S.; Wynn, K. Z.; Ryu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Even with recently increased awareness of the environmental conservation, the degradation of tropical forests are still one of the major sources of global carbon emission. Especially in Myanmar, the pressure to develop natural forest is growing rapidly after the change from socialism to capitalism in 2010. As the initial step of the forest conservation, the aboveground biomass(AGB) of South Zarmani Reserved Forest in Bago Yoma region were estimated using Landsat 8 OLI after the evaluation with 100 sample plot measurements. Multiple linear regression (MLR) model of band values and their principal component analysis (PCA) model were developed to estimate the AGB using the spectral reflectance from Landsat images and elevation as the input variables. The MLR model had r2 = 0.43, RMSE = 60.2 tons/ha, relative RMSE = 70.1%, Bias = -9.1 tons/ha, Bias (%) = -10.6%, and p < 0.0001, while the PCA model showed r2 = 0.45, RMSE = 55.1 tons/ha, relative RMSE = 64.1%, Bias = -8.3 tons/ha, Bias (%) = -9.7%, and p < 0.0001. The AGB maps of the study area were generated based on both MLR and PCA models. The estimated mean AGB values were 74.74±22.3 tons/ha and 73.04±17.6 tons/ha and the total AGB of the study area are about 5.7 and 5.6 million tons from MLR and PCA, respectively. Then, Landsat 7 ETM+ image acquired on 2000 was also used to compare the changing of AGB between year 2000 and 2014. The estimated mean AGB value generated from the Landsat 7 ETM+ image was 78.9±16.9 tons/ha, which is substantially decreased about 7.5% compared to year 2014. The reduction of AGB increased with closeness to village, however AGB in distant areas showed steady increases. In conclusion, we were able to generate solid regression models from Landsat 8 OLI image after ground truth and two regression models gave us very similar AGB estimation (less than 2%) of the study area. We were also able to estimate the changing of AGB from year 2000 to 2014 of South Zarmani Reserved Forest, Bago Yoma

  16. Biomass production and soil nutrients in organic and inorganic fertilized willow biomass production systems

    The use of organic waste materials as nutrient sources for willow biomass production is an attractive means to decrease fertilization costs, increase biomass production and reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with the system. In this study, changes in soil nutrients and biomass production of two willow varieties (Salix miyabeana–SX64 and Salix purpurea–9882-34) in organic and synthetic fertilized systems were compared at three locations in Northeastern U.S.A: Middlebury VT (MID), Delhi NY (DEL) and Fredonia NY (FRE). A 150 and 200 kg available N ha−1 of urea as commercial fertilizer (CF), biosolid compost (BC) and digested dairy manure (DM) and a control (CT0) treatments were applied in June 2008 to the willow which was re-sprouting after coppice. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in biomass production among the fertilization treatments at any of the three sites and for either of the varieties. First rotation biomass production of 9882-34 ranged from 9.0 to 11.6 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at DEL, 3.4–8.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at MID and 3.5–7.7 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at FRE. For SX64, biomass production ranged from 13.2 to 19.0 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at DEL, 9.0–15.0 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at Mid and 5.5–9.3 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at FRE. SX64 deployed small numbers of large stems and produced more biomass than 9882-34 which deployed large numbers of small stems. Application of BC significantly increased soil N and P levels at MID in both 2008 and 2009 (p < 0.05). At DEL, BC and DM treatments increased soil N, Ca, Mg and OM levels in both 2008 and 2009 (p < 0.05). The fertilization treatments had no significant effect on any soil nutrients at FRE. This study indicates that willow biomass can be produced without fertilizer additions in the first rotation across this range of sites due to the nutrient status of these sites and high internal nutrient cycling in these systems. -- Highlights: •Neither organic nor synthetic fertilization significantly improved biomass

  17. Estimation of aboveground net primary productivity in secondary tropical dry forests using the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach (CASA) model

    Cao, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, GA; Duran, SM; Calvo-Rodriguez, S.

    2016-07-01

    Although tropical dry forests (TDFs) cover roughly 42% of all tropical ecosystems, extensive deforestation and habitat fragmentation pose important limitations for their conservation and restoration worldwide. In order to develop conservation policies for this endangered ecosystem, it is necessary to quantify their provision of ecosystems services such as carbon sequestration and primary production. In this paper we explore the potential of the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach (CASA) for estimating aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a secondary TDF located at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. We calculated ANPP using the CASA model (ANPPCASA) in three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late). Each stage has a stand age of 21 years, 32 years, and 50+ years, respectively, estimated as the age since land abandonment. Our results showed that the ANPPCASA for early, intermediate, and late successional stages were 3.22 Mg C ha‑1 yr‑1, 8.90 Mg C ha‑1 yr‑1, and 7.59 Mg C ha‑1 yr‑1, respectively, which are comparable with rates of carbon uptake in other TDFs. Our results indicate that key variables that influence ANPP in our dry forest site were stand age and precipitation seasonality. Incident photosynthetically active radiation and temperature were not dominant in the ANPPCASA. The results of this study highlight the potential of the use of remote sensing techniques and the importance of incorporating successional stage in accurate regional TDF ANPP estimation.

  18. DINÁMICA DE LA BIOMASA AÉREA EN UN BOSQUE PLUVIAL TROPICAL DEL CHOCÓ BIOGEOGRÁFICO DYNAMICS OF TREE ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS IN A TROPICAL RAIN FOREST OF THE CHOCÓ BIOGEOGRÁFICO

    Harley Quinto Mosquera

    2011-06-01

    sub-parcel. While in the U it was of 178.94 t·ha-1 and 179.17 t·ha-1 in the years 2005 and 2008; the differences of the aboveground biomass through the time were not significant. The increments annual averages in survivors' BA were of 4.42 and 3.18 t·ha-1 year-1 in the E and U sub-parcels respectively. Also, in sub-parcel E under conditions imperturbadas, the rate of net increment was presented in the AB (TINBA of 2.61 t·ha-1 year-1, in agreement with the hypothesis of the increment in the BA in the tropical humid forests. The PPNA of carbon in Salero was of 5.21 t·ha-1 year-1, therefore the results didn't support the hypothesis of the decrease in the productivity of the tropical forests with the increment in the precipitation.

  19. Microbial biomass and productivity in seagrass beds

    Moriarty, D. J.; Boon, P. I.; Hansen, J. A.; Hunt, W. G.; Poiner, I. R.; Pollard, P. C.; Skyring, G. W.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Different methods for measuring the rates of processes mediated by bacteria in sediments and the rates of bacterial cell production have been compared. In addition, net production of the seagrass Zostera capricorni and bacterial production have been compared and some interrelationships with the nitrogen cycle discussed. Seagrass productivity was estimated by measuring the plastochrone interval using a leaf stapling technique. The average productivity over four seasons was 1.28 +/- 0.28 g C m-2 day-1 (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 4). Bacterial productivity was measured five times throughout a year using the rate of tritiated thymidine incorporated into DNA. Average values were 33 +/- 12 mg C m-2 day-1 for sediment and 23 +/- 4 for water column (n = 5). Spatial variability between samples was greater than seasonal variation for both seagrass productivity and bacterial productivity. On one occasion, bacterial productivity was measured using the rate of 32P incorporated into phospholipid. The values were comparable to those obtained with tritiated thymidine. The rate of sulfate reduction was 10 mmol SO4(-2) m-2 day-1. The rate of methanogenesis was low, being 5.6 mg CH4 produced m-2 day-1. A comparison of C flux measured using rates of sulfate reduction and DNA synthesis indicated that anaerobic processes were predominant in these sediments. An analysis of microbial biomass and community structure, using techniques of phospholipid analysis, showed that bacteria were predominant members of the microbial biomass and that of these, strictly anaerobic bacteria were the main components. Ammonia concentration in interstitial water varied from 23 to 71 micromoles. Estimates of the amount of ammonia required by seagrass showed that the ammonia would turn over about once per day. Rapid recycling of nitrogen by bacteria and bacterial grazers is probably important.

  20. Investigating the robustness of the new Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager derived texture metrics in estimating plantation forest aboveground biomass in resource constrained areas

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2015-10-01

    The successful launch of the 30-m Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) pushbroom sensor offers a new primary data source necessary for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation, especially in resource-limited environments. In this work, the strength and performance of Landsat-8 OLI image derived texture metrics (i.e. texture measures and texture ratios) in estimating plantation forest species AGB was investigated. It was hypothesized that the sensor's pushbroom design, coupled with the presence of refined spectral properties, enhanced radiometric resolution (i.e. from 8 bits to 12 bits) and improved signal-to-noise ratio have the potential to provide detailed spectral information necessary for significantly strengthening AGB estimation in medium-density forest canopies. The relationship between image texture metrics and measurements of forest attributes can be used to help characterize complex forests, and enhance fine vegetation biophysical properties, a difficult challenge when using spectral vegetation indices especially in closed canopies. This study examines the prospects of using Landsat-8 OLI sensor derived texture metrics for estimating AGB for three medium-density plantation forest species in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. In order to achieve this objective, three unique data pre-processing techniques were tested (analysis I: Landsat-8 OLI raw spectral-bands vs. raw texture bands; analysis II: Landsat-8 OLI raw spectral-band ratios vs. texture band ratios and analysis III: Landsat-8 OLI derived vegetation indices vs. texture band ratios). The landsat-8 OLI derived texture parameters were examined for robustness in estimating AGB using linear regression, stepwise-multiple linear regression and stochastic gradient boosting regression models. The results of this study demonstrated that all texture parameters particularly band texture ratios calculated using a 3 × 3 window size, could enhance AGB estimation when compared to simple spectral reflectance, simple

  1. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground Bbomass and litter in the world’s grasslands

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex.

  2. Synthesis gas production from various biomass feedstocks

    Juan A. Conesa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of five different biomass samples was studied in a horizontal laboratory reactor. The samples consisted of esparto grass, straw, Posidonea Oceanic seaweed, waste from urban and agricultural pruning and waste from forest pruning. Both pyrolysis in inert atmosphere and combustion in the presence of oxygen were studied. Different heating rates were used by varying the input speed. Major gas compounds were analyzed. The experimental results show that the amount of CO formed is lower in less dense species. It is also found that there is an increase of hydrocarbons formed at increasing feeding rates, in particular methane, while there is a decrease in the production of hydrogen.

  3. Storage of biomass and net primary productivity in desert shrubland of Artemisia ordosica on Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia,China

    JIN Zhao; QI Yu-chun; DONG Yun-she

    2007-01-01

    Biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) are two important parameters in determining ecosystem carbon pool and carbon sequestration. The biomass storage and NPP in desert shrubland of Artemisia ordosica on Ordos Plateau were investigated with method of harvesting standard size shrub in the growing season (June-October) of 2006. Results indicated that above- and belowground biomass of the same size shrubs showed no significant variation in the growing season (p>0.1), but annual biomass varied significantly (p< 0.01). In the A.ordosica community, shrub biomass storage was 699.76 1246.40 g·m-2 and annual aboveground NPP was 224.09 g·m-2·a-1. Moreover, shrub biomass and NPP were closely related with shrub dimensions (cover and height) and could be well predicted by shrub volume using power regression.

  4. Biomass production in experimental grasslands of different species richness during three years of climate warming

    H. J. De Boeck

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the single and combined impacts of climate warming and species richness on the biomass production in experimental grassland communities. Projections of a future warmer climate have stimulated studies on the response of terrestrial ecosystems to this global change. Experiments have likewise addressed the importance of species numbers for ecosystem functioning. There is, however, little knowledge on the interplay between warming and species richness. During three years, we grew experimental plant communities containing one, three or nine grassland species in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers in Wilrijk, Belgium. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures (unheated, while the other half were warmed by 3°C (heated. Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, so that warming would imply drier soils if evapotranspiration was higher. Biomass production was decreased due to warming, both aboveground (−29% and belowground (−25%, as negative impacts of increased heat and drought stress in summer prevailed. Increased resource partitioning, likely mostly through spatial complementarity, led to higher shoot and root biomass in multi-species communities, regardless of the induced warming. Surprisingly, warming suppressed productivity the most in 9-species communities, which may be attributed to negative impacts of intense interspecific competition for resources under conditions of high abiotic stress. Our results suggest that warming and the associated soil drying could reduce primary production in many temperate grasslands, and that this will not necessarily be mitigated by efforts to maintain or increase species richness.

  5. An Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Production from Biomass

    吕鹏梅; 常杰; 付严; 王铁军; 陈勇; 祝京旭

    2003-01-01

    In gaseous products of biomass steam gasification, there exist a lot of CO, CH4 and other hydrocarbons that can be converted to hydrogen through steam reforming reactions. There exists potential hydrogen production from the raw gas of biomass steam gasification. In the present work, the characteristics of hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification were investigated in a small-scale fluidized bed. In these experiments, the gasifying agent (air) was supplied into the reactor from the bottom of the reactor and the steam was added into the reactor above biomass feeding location. The effects of reaction temperature, steam to biomass ratio, equivalence ratio (ER) and biomass particle size on hydrogen yield and hydrogen yield potential were investigated. The experimental results showed that higher reactor temperature, proper ER, proper steam to biomass ratio and smaller biomass particle size will contribute to more hydrogen and potential hydrogen yield.

  6. The impact of integrating WorldView-2 sensor and environmental variables in estimating plantation forest species aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-09-01

    Reliable and accurate mapping and extraction of key forest indicators of ecosystem development and health, such as aboveground biomass (AGB) and aboveground carbon stocks (AGCS) is critical in understanding forests contribution to the local, regional and global carbon cycle. This information is critical in assessing forest contribution towards ecosystem functioning and services, as well as their conservation status. This work aimed at assessing the applicability of the high resolution 8-band WorldView-2 multispectral dataset together with environmental variables in quantifying AGB and aboveground carbon stocks for three forest plantation species i.e. Eucalyptus dunii (ED), Eucalyptus grandis (EG) and Pinus taeda (PT) in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa. Specifically, the strength of the Worldview-2 sensor in terms of its improved imaging agilities is examined as an independent dataset and in conjunction with selected environmental variables. The results have demonstrated that the integration of high resolution 8-band Worldview-2 multispectral data with environmental variables provide improved AGB and AGCS estimates, when compared to the use of spectral data as an independent dataset. The use of integrated datasets yielded a high R2 value of 0.88 and RMSEs of 10.05 t ha-1 and 5.03 t C ha-1 for E. dunii AGB and carbon stocks; whereas the use of spectral data as an independent dataset yielded slightly weaker results, producing an R2 value of 0.73 and an RMSE of 18.57 t ha-1 and 09.29 t C ha-1. Similarly, high accurate results (R2 value of 0.73 and RMSE values of 27.30 t ha-1 and 13.65 t C ha-1) were observed from the estimation of inter-species AGB and carbon stocks. Overall, the findings of this work have shown that the integration of new generation multispectral datasets with environmental variables provide a robust toolset required for the accurate and reliable retrieval of forest aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in densely forested terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Estimation of Above-Ground Tree Biomass Based on Probability Distribution of Allometric Parameters%基于异速参数概率分布的立木地上生物量估算

    黄兴召; 陈东升; 孙晓梅; 张守攻

    2014-01-01

    Allometric biomass equations are widely used to predict above-ground biomass in forest ecosystems. It found the distribution of the parameters a and b of the allometry between above-ground biomass ( M ) and diameter at breast height( D) ,lnM = a + blnD,well approximated by a bivariate normal from analysis a data of 304 functions of 80 papers. ANOVA was tested to parameters in seven genera. In contrast to the parameter a,there was significant difference in parameter b. There were negative correlation between the parameter a and b,the parameter b and latitude. From this negative correlation,simultaneous-equation was used to build general model for parameters which were changed by latitude . Three methods which include established general model,minimum-least-square regression and Bayesian approach were used to fitting the above-ground biomass of Larix kaempferi in sub-tropical alpine area. The result showed that general model was the lowest precise quantifications ( R2 =0. 892 ) ,but it could estimate the biomass where forest situated in latitude without samples. With sample size was more than 50,both Bayesian method and minimum-least-square regression was no significant difference in the mean absolute error. And it was less than 50,Bayesian method was better than minimum-least-square regression. Therefore,it was suggested that Bayesian method was used to estimate above-ground biomass when the sample size was less than 50 .%对收集的80篇文献中304个地上部分生物量( M)和胸径( D)的异速生物量模型 lnM =a+blnD数据集研究发现:模型参数a和b符合二元正态分布;参数a和b之间、参数b和纬度间呈负相关,并依此相关关系应用联立方程组建立参数a和b随纬度变化的通用模型。以实测的北亚热带高山区日本落叶松地上部分生物量数据对新建的通用模型、最小二乘法和贝叶斯方法拟合生物量的适用性进行研究,结果表明:虽然通用模型的拟合精度最低( R

  8. 基于遥感的湄公河次区域森林地上生物量分析%Forest Aboveground Biomass Analysis Using Remote Sensing in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    庞勇; 黄克标; 李增元; 覃先林; 陈尔学

    2011-01-01

    森林对维护区域生态环境及全球碳平衡、缓解全球气候变化发挥着不可替代的作用,对森林地上生物量进行精确估测能够大大减小陆地生态系统碳储量的不确定性。本文结合机载激光雷达、星载激光雷达和成像光学遥感等数据进行大湄公河次区域的森林地上生物量估测,生成连续的森林地上生物量图。结果表明:①基于星机地协同观测数据可以有效地估测森林地上生物量,模型总体平均误差为34t/hm^2,相关系数为0.7;②估测结果与FAOFRA2010报告以及其它报告公布的结果相比,一致性较好,平均差异为13.3%;③根据本文的遥感反演结果,大湄公河次区域森林生物量总量为62.72亿t,其中常绿阔叶林占71%,落叶阔叶林占10%,常绿针叶林占16%,混交林占3%;④从各国(地区)的生物量总量来看,缅甸森林地上生物量总量最大,占22%,其次是中国云南省、老挝、泰国、越南、中国广西壮族自治区和柬埔寨。%Forests play a key role in maintaining the regional environment and global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Accurately estimating forest aboveground biomass can significantly reduce uncertainties in investigating the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is rich in forest resources; changes in forest resources can affect regional and even global climate change. It is therefore important to estimate forest AGB in this region. Remote sensing is an efficient way to estimate forest parameters over large areas, especially at regional scales where field data are scarce. Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests. Combining airborne LIDAR with spaceborne LIDAR for regional forest biomass estimation could

  9. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  10. Estimation of Karst Mountain Grassland Aboveground Biomass Based on Linear Spectral Mixture Model%喀斯特山区草地地上生物量遥感估测

    陈全; 周忠发; 魏小岛

    2014-01-01

    由于喀斯特山区地表破碎,环境异质性强,影像上混合像元现象严重,增加了草地地上生物量遥感估测的难度。以Landsat ETM+为数据源,将光谱混合分析技术应用于喀斯特山区草地地上生物量的遥感估测中,分析了基于线性混合分解模型分解的草地分量与实测草地地上生物量的相关关系,进而构建了喀斯特山区草地地上生物量估测模型为y^=2451.158x-280.461(r2=0.8012),验证结果总体精度可达85%以上。基于光谱混合分析建立的草地地上生物量估测模型提高了喀斯特山区草地地上生物量遥感估测的精度,为喀斯特山区草地生长状况调查与监测提供了技术支持。%The grassland is an important part of the Karst mountain ecosystems in Southern China and the basis of protecting the karst mountainous ecological environment and developing of grassland animal husbandry. In typical karst mountain area, the complex and broken ground surface leads to serious mixed pixel phenomenon. Linear spectral mixture model was used to estimate grassland aboveground biomass based on Landsat ETM+ image.The results showed that the grassland fraction extracted with the linear mixed model had obvious lineal correlation with the field data measured. Grassland aboveground biomass esti-mation model can be expressed by the equation y^=2 451.158x-280.461 (r2=0.801 2). The accuracy validation showed that the overall accuracy was above 85%. The estimation model of grassland aboveground biomass which based on spectral mixture model can improve the estimation accuracy in karst mountainous area. This method can provide technical support for survey-ing and monitoring the growth of karst mountainous grass.

  11. Relationships between biomass composition and liquid products formed via pyrolysis

    Fan eLin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conversion of biomass is a rapid, low-cost way to produce a dense liquid product, known as bio-oil, that can be refined to transportation fuels. However, utilization of bio-oil is challenging due to its chemical complexity, acidity, and instability—all results of the intricate nature of biomass. A clear understanding of how biomass properties impact yield and composition of thermal products will provide guidance to optimize both biomass and conditions for thermal conversion. To aid elucidation of these associations, we first describe biomass polymers, including phenolics, polysaccharides, acetyl groups, and inorganic ions, and the chemical interactions among them. We then discuss evidence for three roles (i.e., models for biomass components in formation of liquid pyrolysis products: (1 as direct sources, (2 as catalysts, and (3 as indirect factors whereby chemical interactions among components and/or cell wall structural features impact thermal conversion products. We highlight associations that might be utilized to optimize biomass content prior to pyrolysis, though a more detailed characterization is required to understand indirect effects. In combination with high-throughput biomass characterization techniques this knowledge will enable identification of biomass particularly suited for biofuel production and can also guide genetic engineering of bioenergy crops to improve biomass features.

  12. Biomassa acima do solo de um ecossistema de "campina" em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira Aboveground biomass of a "campina" ecosystem in Roraima, Northern of Brazilian Amazonia

    Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a biomassa (viva + morta acima do solo de um ecossistema de "campina" localizado em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira. A biomassa foi determinada a partir de um inventário fitossociológico (1 ha amostral e distribuída em dois estratos: (1 gramíneo-lenhoso, composto de "ervas + liquens" (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Cladonia spp, Bromeliaceae, plântulas, "litter" fino e grosso e, (2 arbóreo-arbustivo, composto por árvores e arbustos. O estrato gramíneo-lenhoso foi estimado pelo método direto (corte e pesagem através de 10 quadras de 1m², aproveitando os transectos do inventário. O estrato arbóreo-arbustivo foi estimado pelo método indireto com o corte de 98 indivíduos de diferentes espécies e diâmetros. Foi gerado um modelo para expressar a relação entre a biomassa seca total (kg, a circunferência de base (cm e a altura total (m para os indivíduos deste estrato. A equação foi aplicada nos 3.966 indivíduos.ha-1 observados no inventário. A biomassa total foi estimada em 15,91 t.ha-1, sendo 2,20 ± 0,23 t.ha-1 (13,8% do estrato gramíneo-lenhoso e 13,70 ± 7,13 t.ha-1 (86,2% do arbóreo-arbustivo. A espécie arbórea de maior biomassa foi Humiria balsamifera (Aubl. St. Hill. (8,43 t.ha-1, seguida de Pagamea guianensis Aubl. (1,14 t.ha-1. Estes resultados são importantes para refinar os cálculos de emissão de gases do efeito estufa pela queima e decomposição da biomassa acima do solo em ecossistemas de campinas na Amazônia.The aboveground biomass of a "campina" ecosystem was estimated in Roraima, in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. The biomass was determined from a phytosociological inventory (1 ha and distributed between two categories: (1 grassy-woody, composed of "herbs+lichens" (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Cladonia spp, Bromeliaceae, seedlings, fine and coarse litter and, (2 woody, composed of trees and bushes. The grassy-woody category was estimated by the direct method

  13. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin;

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...... is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this report give some of the first suggestions of how this new and promising biomass resource can be...

  14. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T. Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben H. J.; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; Dewalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I. Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans F. M.; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha-1), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha-1) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  15. Biomass production of four Cynara cardunculus clones and lignin composition analysis

    Four Cynara cardunculus clones, two from Portugal and two from Spain were studied for biomass production and their lignin was characterized. The clones differed in biomass partitioning: Spanish clones produced more capitula (54.5% vs. 43.9%), and Portuguese clones more stalks (37.2% vs. 25.6%). The heating values (HHV0) of the stalks were similar, ranging from 17.1 to 18.4 MJ/kg. Lignin was studied by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS(FID)), separately in depithed stalks (stalksDP) and pith. StalksDP had in average higher relative proportions of lignin derived compounds than pith (23.9% vs. 21.8%) with slightly different lignin monomeric composition: pith samples were richer in syringyl units as compared to stalksDP (64% vs. 53%), with S/G ratios of 2.1 and 1.3, respectively. The H:G:S composition was 7:40:53 in stalksDP and 7:29:64 in pith. The lignin content ranged from 18.8% to 25.5%, enabling a differentiation between clones and provenances. - Highlights: • Spanish and Portuguese cardoon clones differ in aboveground biomass partitioning. • Cardoon lignin was characterized as a SG-lignin by Py-GC/MS(FID). • Depithed stalks and pith differ in lignin content and composition. • Pith has less lignin and a higher S/G ratio than depithed stalls

  16. Sustainable biomass production for energy in Sri Lanka

    Perera, K.K.C.K.; Rathnasiri, P.G.; Sugathapala, A.G.T. [Moratuwa Univ., Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2003-11-01

    The present study concentrates mainly on the estimation of land availability for biomass production and the estimation of sustainable biomass production potential for energy. The feasible surplus land area available for bioenergy plantation is estimated assuming two land availability scenarios (Scenarios 1 and 2) and three biomass demand scenarios (IBD Scenario, SBD Scenario and FBD Scenario). Scenario 1 assumes that 100% of the surplus area available in base year 1997 will be suitable for plantation without considering population growth and food production and that 75% of this surplus land is feasible for plantation. Scenario 2 assumes that future food requirement will grow by 20% and the potential surplus area will be reduced by that amount. The incremental biomass demand scenario (IBD Scenario) assumes that only the incremental demand for biomass in the year 2010 with respect to the base year 1997 has to be produced from new plantation. The sustainable biomass demand scenario (SBD Scenario) assumes that the total sustainable supply of biomass in 1997 is deducted from the future biomass demand in 2010 and only the balance is to be met by new plantation. The full biomass demand scenario (FBD Scenario) assumes that the entire projected biomass demand of the year 2010 needs to be produced from new plantation. The total feasible land area for the scenarios IBD-l, IBD-2, SBD-l, SBD-2, FBD-l and FBD-2 are approximately 0.96, 0.66, 0.80, 0.94, 0.60 and 0.30 Mha, respectively. Biomass production potential is estimated by selecting appropriate plant species, plantation spacing and productivity level. The results show that the total annual biomass production in the country could vary from 2 to 9.9 Mt. With the production option (i.e. 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing plantation with fertilizer application) giving the highest yield, the total biomass production for energy under IBD Scenario would be 9.9 Mtyr{sup -l} for Scenario 1 and 6.7 Mtyr{sup -l} for Scenario 2. Under SBD Scenario

  17. Sustainable biomass production for energy in Sri Lanka

    The present study concentrates mainly on the estimation of land availability for biomass production and the estimation of sustainable biomass production potential for energy. The feasible surplus land area available for bioenergy plantation is estimated assuming two land availability scenarios (Scenarios 1 and 2) and three biomass demand scenarios (IBD Scenario, SBD Scenario and FBD Scenario). Scenario 1 assumes that 100% of the surplus area available in base year 1997 will be suitable for plantation without considering population growth and food production and that 75% of this surplus land is feasible for plantation. Scenario 2 assumes that future food requirement will grow by 20% and the potential surplus area will be reduced by that amount. The incremental biomass demand scenario (IBD Scenario) assumes that only the incremental demand for biomass in the year 2010 with respect to the base year 1997 has to be produced from new plantation. The sustainable biomass demand scenario (SBD Scenario) assumes that the total sustainable supply of biomass in 1997 is deducted from the future biomass demand in 2010 and only the balance is to be met by new plantation. The full biomass demand scenario (FBD Scenario) assumes that the entire projected biomass demand of the year 2010 needs to be produced from new plantation. The total feasible land area for the scenarios IBD-1, 1BD-2, SBD-1, SBD-2, FBD-1 and FBD-2 are approximately 0.96, 0.66, 0.80, 0.94, 0.60 and 0.30 Mha, respectively. Biomass production potential is estimated by selecting appropriate plant species, plantation spacing and productivity level. The results show that the total annual biomass production in the country could vary from 2 to 9.9 Mt. With the production option (i.e. 1.5 mx1.5 m spacing plantation with fertilizer application) giving the highest yield, the total biomass production for energy under IBD Scenario would be 9.9 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 1 and 6.7 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 2. Under SBD Scenario, the

  18. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  19. Chronic nitrogen deposition alters tree allometric relationships: implications for biomass production and carbon storage.

    Ibáñez, Inés; Zak, Donald R; Burton, Andrew J; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2016-04-01

    As increasing levels of nitrogen (N) deposition impact many terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the potential effects of higher N availability is critical for forecasting tree carbon allocation patterns and thus future forest productivity. Most regional estimates of forest biomass apply allometric equations, with parameters estimated from a limited number of studies, to forest inventory data (i.e., tree diameter). However most of these allometric equations cannot account for potential effects of increased N availability on biomass allocation patterns. Using 18 yr of tree diameter, height, and mortality data collected for a dominant tree species (Acer saccharum) in an atmospheric N deposition experiment, we evaluated how greater N availability affects allometric relationships in this species. After taking into account site and individual variability, our results reveal significant differences in allometric parameters between ambient and experimental N deposition treatments. Large trees under experimental N deposition reached greater heights at a given diameter; moreover, their estimated maximum height (mean ± standard deviation: 33.7 ± 0.38 m) was significantly higher than that estimated under the ambient condition (31.3 ± 0.31 m). Within small tree sizes (5-10 cm diameter) there was greater mortality under experimental N deposition, whereas the relative growth rates of small trees were greater under experimental N deposition. Calculations of stemwood biomass using our parameter estimates for the diameter-height relationship indicated the potential for significant biases in these estimates (~2.5%), with under predictions of stemwood biomass averaging 4 Mg/ha lower if ambient parameters were to be used to estimate stem biomass of trees in the experimental N deposition treatment. As atmospheric N deposition continues to increase into the future, ignoring changes in tree allometry will contribute to the uncertainty associated with aboveground carbon storage

  20. Effects of soil chemistry on tropical forest biomass and productivity at different elevations in the equatorial Andes.

    Unger, Malte; Homeier, Jürgen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    The dependence of aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests on soil fertility is not fully understood, since previous studies yielded contrasting results. Here, we quantify aboveground biomass (AGB) and stem wood production, and examine the impact of soil chemistry on these parameters in mature tropical forest stands of the equatorial Andes in Ecuador. In 80 plots of 0.04 ha at four elevation levels (500, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 m a.s.l., total sample area = 3.2 ha), we measured ten important soil chemical parameters, inventoried all trees ≥10 cm dbh and monitored stem diameter growth with dendrometer tapes in 32 plots. Top canopy height and stem density significantly decreased from 500 to 2,000 m, while tree basal area increased and AGB remained invariant (344 ± 17 Mg DM ha(-1), mean ± SE) with elevation. Wood specific gravity (WSG) showed a significant, but small, decrease. Stem wood production decreased from 4.5 to 3.2 Mg DM ha(-1) year(-1) along the transect, indicating a higher biomass turnover at lower elevations. The only soil variable that covaried with AGB was exchangeable K in the topsoil. WSG increased with decreases in N mineralisation rate, soil pH and extractable Ca and P concentrations. Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that nitrogen availability acts on stem wood production only indirectly through a negative relation between N mineralisation rate and WSG, and a positive effect of a lowered WSG on stem growth. The SEM analysis showed neither direct nor indirect effects of resin-extractable P on wood production, but a negative P influence on AGB. We conclude that nitrogen availability significantly influences productivity in these Andean forests, but both N and P are affecting wood production mainly indirectly through alterations in WSG and stem density; the growth-promoting effect of N is apparently larger than that of P. PMID:22410639

  1. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  2. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Amanda N. Barry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass. To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to two-fold increases in biomass productivity.

  3. The effects of partial throughfall exclusion on canopy processes, aboveground production, and biogeochemistry of an Amazon forest

    Nepstad, D. C.; Moutinho, P.; Dias-Filho, M. B.; Davidson, E.; Cardinot, G.; Markewitz, D.; Figueiredo, R.; Vianna, N.; Chambers, J.; Ray, D.; Guerreiros, J. B.; Lefebvre, P.; Sternberg, L.; Moreira, M.; Barros, L.; Ishida, F. Y.; Tohlver, I.; Belk, E.; Kalif, K.; Schwalbe, K.

    2002-10-01

    Moist tropical forests in Amazonia and elsewhere are subjected to increasingly severe drought episodes through the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and possibly through deforestation-driven reductions in rainfall. The effects of this trend on tropical forest canopy dynamics, emissions of greenhouse gases, and other ecological functions are potentially large but poorly understood. We established a throughfall exclusion experiment in an east-central Amazon forest (Tapajós National Forest, Brazil) to help understand these effects. After 1-year intercalibration period of two 1-ha forest plots, we installed plastic panels and wooden gutters in the understory of one of the plots, thereby excluding ˜890 mm of throughfall during the exclusion period of 2000 (late January to early August) and ˜680 mm thus far in the exclusion period of 2001 (early January to late May). Average daily throughfall reaching the soil during the exclusion period in 2000 was 4.9 and 8.3 mm in the treatment and control plots and was 4.8 and 8.1 mm in 2001, respectively. During the first exclusion period, surface soil water content (0-2 m) declined by ˜100 mm, while deep soil water (2-11 m) was unaffected. During the second exclusion period, which began shortly after the dry season when soil water content was low, surface and deep soil water content declined by ˜140 and 160 mm, respectively. Although this depletion of soil water provoked no detectable increase in leaf drought stress (i.e., no reduction in predawn leaf water potential), photosynthetic capacity declined for some species, the canopy thinned (greater canopy openness and lower leaf area index) during the second exclusion period, stem radial growth of trees litter production) declined by one fourth, from 15.1 to 11.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, in the treatment plot and decreased slightly, from 11.9 to 11.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1, in the control plot. Stem respiration varied seasonally and was correlated with stem radial growth but showed no treatment

  4. Aboveground biomass of an invasive tree Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) before and after herbivory by adventive and introduced natural enemies: a temporal case-study in Florida

    Invasive plants may respond to injury from natural enemies by altering the quantity and distribution of biomass among woody materials, foliage, fruits, and seeds. Melaleuca, an Australian tree that has naturalized in south Florida, USA, has been reunited with two natural enemies: a weevil introduce...

  5. Fuels production by the thermochemical transformation of the biomass

    The biomass is a local and renewable energy source, presenting many advantages. This paper proposes to examine the biomass potential in France, the energy valorization channels (thermochemical chains of thermolysis and gasification) with a special interest for the hydrogen production and the research programs oriented towards the agriculture and the forest. (A.L.B.)

  6. Productivity and biomass of trematode (Digenea) parasites in lake ecosystems.

    Yurlova, N I

    2016-01-01

    The first estimation of the annual production and biomass of cercariae (free swimming transmission stage of digenetic trematodes) in a lake ecosystem has been performed. The biomass of cercariae is comparable with that of free-living invertebrates and may make a significant contribution to the energy flow in lake ecosystems. PMID:27021366

  7. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  8. Contribution of aboveground plant respiration to carbon cycling in a Bornean tropical rainforet

    Katayama, Ayumi; Tanaka, Kenzo; Ichie, Tomoaki; Kume, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-05-01

    Bornean tropical rainforests have a different characteristic from Amazonian tropical rainforests, that is, larger aboveground biomass caused by higher stand density of large trees. Larger biomass may cause different carbon cycling and allocation pattern. However, there are fewer studies on carbon allocation and each component in Bornean tropical rainforests, especially for aboveground plant respiration, compared to Amazonian forests. In this study, we measured woody tissue respiration and leaf respiration, and estimated those in ecosystem scale in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Then, we examined carbon allocation using the data of soil respiration and aboveground net primary production obtained from our previous studies. Woody tissue respiration rate was positively correlated with diameter at breast height (dbh) and stem growth rate. Using the relationships and biomass data, we estimated woody tissue respiration in ecosystem scale though methods of scaling resulted in different estimates values (4.52 - 9.33 MgC ha-1 yr-1). Woody tissue respiration based on surface area (8.88 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was larger than those in Amazon because of large aboveground biomass (563.0 Mg ha-1). Leaf respiration rate was positively correlated with height. Using the relationship and leaf area density data at each 5-m height, leaf respiration in ecosystem scale was estimated (9.46 MgC ha-1 yr-1), which was similar to those in Amazon because of comparable LAI (5.8 m2 m-2). Gross primary production estimated from biometric measurements (44.81 MgC ha-1 yr-1) was much higher than those in Amazon, and more carbon was allocated to woody tissue respiration and total belowground carbon flux. Large tree with dbh > 60cm accounted for about half of aboveground biomass and aboveground biomass increment. Soil respiration was also related to position of large trees, resulting in high soil respiration rate in this study site. Photosynthesis ability of top canopy for large trees was high and leaves for

  9. The economic efficiency of biomass conversion for hydrogen production

    The production of hydrogen from biomass is among the schemes which are under discussion regarding the substitution of fossil energy sources. The commercial realization of hydrogen production from biomass, and of all other schemes developed for the utilization of renewable raw materials (alcohol, vegetable oil, direct combustion), is mainly determined by the method's economic efficiency. This study places emphasis on the cost-benefit analysis of biomass conversion for hydrogen production. The present and future market potentials are assessed, and the competitiveness of hydrogen from renewable raw materials under the present and under changed conditions is evaluated. (orig.)

  10. GENETICALLY MODIFIED LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Qijun Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feed-stocks is of growing interest worldwide in recent years. However, we are currently still facing significant technical challenges to make it economically feasible on an industrial scale. Genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass has provided a potential alternative to address such challenges. Some studies have shown that genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass can increase its yield, decreasing its enzymatic hydrolysis cost and altering its composition and structure for ethanol production. Moreover, the modified lignocellulosic biomass also makes it possible to simplify the ethanol production procedures from lignocellulosic feed-stocks.

  11. Thermodynamic evaluation of biomass-to-biofuels production systems

    Biomass is a renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers. However, the usage of biomass is accompanied by possible drawbacks, mainly due to limitation of land and water, and competition with food production. In this paper, the analysis concerns so-called second generation biofuels, like Fischer–Tropsch fuels or Substitute Natural Gas which are produced either from wood or from waste biomass. For these biofuels the most promising conversion case is the one which involves production of syngas from biomass gasification, followed by synthesis of biofuels. The thermodynamic efficiency of biofuels production is analyzed and compared using both the direct exergy analysis and the thermo-ecological cost. This analysis leads to the detection of exergy losses in various elements which forms the starting point to the improvement of conversion efficiency. The efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels is also evaluated for the whole production chain, including biomass cultivation, transportation and conversion. The global effects of natural resources management are investigated using the thermo-ecological cost. The energy carriers' utilities such as electricity and heat are externally generated either from fossil fuels or from renewable biomass. In the former case the production of biofuels not always can be considered as a renewable energy source whereas in the latter case the production of biofuels leads always to the reduction of depletion of non-renewable resources

  12. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  13. Fuels production by the thermochemical transformation of the biomass; La production de carburants par transformation thermochimique de la biomasse

    Claudet, G. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The biomass is a local and renewable energy source, presenting many advantages. This paper proposes to examine the biomass potential in France, the energy valorization channels (thermochemical chains of thermolysis and gasification) with a special interest for the hydrogen production and the research programs oriented towards the agriculture and the forest. (A.L.B.)

  14. Emission guidelines for energy production from biomass

    For the introduction of bio-energy on the Dutch market it is important to know the regulations for the emission limits for the use of biomass. An overview is made of emission regulations in the Netherlands with respect to thermal conversion of biomass. Also experiences of practical situations have been compiled and evaluated and an inventory was made of emission regulations in Germany, Finland, Denmark, England and Austria and the European Union. All the compiled information has been evaluated and the Dutch emission regulations for bio-energy is represented in the form of a decision making scheme or working paper and compared with emission regulations in foreign countries. 18 refs

  15. Seagrass metabolism across a productivity gradient using the eddy covariance, Eulerian control volume, and biomass addition techniques

    Long, Matthew H.; Berg, Peter; Falter, James L.

    2015-05-01

    The net ecosystem metabolism of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum was studied across a nutrient and productivity gradient in Florida Bay, Florida, using the Eulerian control volume, eddy covariance, and biomass addition techniques. In situ oxygen fluxes were determined by a triangular Eulerian control volume with sides 250 m long and by eddy covariance instrumentation at its center. The biomass addition technique evaluated the aboveground seagrass productivity through the net biomass added. The spatial and temporal resolutions, accuracies, and applicability of each method were compared. The eddy covariance technique better resolved the short-term flux rates and the productivity gradient across the bay, which was consistent with the long-term measurements from the biomass addition technique. The net primary production rates from the biomass addition technique, which were expected to show greater autotrophy due to the exclusion of sediment metabolism and belowground production, were 71, 53, and 30 mmol carbon m-2 d-1 at 3 sites across the bay. The net ecosystem metabolism was 35, 25, and 11 mmol oxygen m-2 d-1 from the eddy covariance technique and 10, -103, and 14 mmol oxygen m-2 d-1 from the Eulerian control volume across the same sites, respectively. The low-flow conditions in the shallow bays allowed for periodic stratification and long residence times within the Eulerian control volume that likely reduced its precision. Overall, the eddy covariance technique had the highest temporal resolution while producing accurate long-term flux rates that surpassed the capabilities of the biomass addition and Eulerian control volume techniques in these shallow coastal bays.

  16. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    S. Saatchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  17. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, and reduced emissions of SO2, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO2 and SO2, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO2, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for achieving

  18. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    Nanou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportat

  19. Optimal use of biomass for energy production

    In addition to the EWAB programme, which is focused mainly on the application of waste and biomass for generating electricity, Novem is also working on behalf of the government on the development of a programme for gaseous and liquid energy carriers (GAVE). The Dutch ministries concerned have requested that Novem provide more insight concerning two aspects. The first aspect is the world-wide availability of biomass in the long term. A study group under the leadership of the University of Utrecht has elaborated this topic in greater detail in the GRAIN project. The second aspect is the question of whether the use of biomass for biofuels, as aimed at in the GAVE programme, can go hand in hand with the input for the electricity route. Novem has asked the Dutch research institute for the electric power industry (KEMA) to study the driving forces that determine the future use of biomass for electricity and biofuels, the competitive strength of each of the routes, and the possible future scenarios that emerge. The results of this report are presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets

  20. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    Kathryn Faye Bywaters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems- in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011;Bird et al., 2012. Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 368 to 3246 mg C L-1 d-1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production ranged from zero to 38.74 mg free fatty acids and triacylglycerols L-1 d-1, the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment – all results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  1. Mini digester and biogas production from plant biomass

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; C. Rozman; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different agriculture plant biomass and other organic wastes. The amount of biogas production (methane) is observed by the mini digester.Design/methodology/approach: The mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and some measurements with agriculture plant biomass were performed according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with three repetitions can be performed.Find...

  2. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass; Production d`ethanol a partir de biomasse lignocellulosique

    Ogier, J.C.; Leygue, J.P. [Cerealiers de France, 75 - Paris (France); Ballerini, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Rigal, L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, 31 - Toulouse (France). Institut National polytechnique; Pourquie, J. [Institut National Agronomique, 78 - Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    1999-10-01

    The reported study intends to describe the state of the art in the domain of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Its first goal was to pinpoint the main technical and economical bottlenecks of the processes which are today under consideration, and to identify which research and development efforts could be implemented to overcome them (in the short or middle term). Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex substrate, and essentially made of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin. The processes which have been considered, attempt to recover a maximum amount of sugars from the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemi-cellulose, and to ferment them into ethanol. The hydrolysis processes used in the past are essentially chemical processes, but the acid recovery costs and the formation of toxic products make them uncompetitive. They are now substituted by enzymatic processes, which are more specific and allow higher hydrolysis yields under less severe conditions. However, the cellulose that is the target of the enzymatic hydrolysis, is not directly accessible to the enzymes. It is the reason why a pretreatment step has to precede the enzymatic hydrolysis. Different types of pretreatment have been studied, but three methods appear more efficient: dilute acid hydrolysis, steam explosion with catalyst addition and thermo-hydrolysis. These pretreatments could result in high hydrolysis yields of the cellulose fraction (close to 100 %), and in a maximum recovery of the sugars from the hemi-cellulosic fraction. Enzymatic hydrolysis has yet to be improved in order to reduce the cost of consumption of the enzymes. Research works will have to focus upon the enzyme specific activity, in order to achieve higher efficiencies such as those obtained with amylases. The SSF (Saccharification and Simultaneous Fermentation) process improves the enzyme efficiency by reducing the feed-back inhibition from the hydrolysis products. The screening of efficient fermentative microorganisms under

  3. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    Samad, Abdul

    , the yield of SLs was 0.55 g/g carbon (sugars plus oil) for cultures with bagasse hydrolysates. Further, SL production was investigated using sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover hydrolysates derived from different pretreatment conditions. For the former and latter sugar sources, yellow grease or soybean oil was supplemented at different doses to enhance sophorolipid yield. 14-day batch fermentation on bagasse hydrolysates with 10, 40 and 60 g/L of yellow grease had cell densities of 5.7 g/L, 6.4 g/L and 7.8 g/L, respectively. The study also revealed that the yield of SLs on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.67 to 0.61 and to 0.44 g/g carbon when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L. With aforementioned increasing yellow grease concentration, the residual oil left after 14 days was recorded as 3.2 g/L, 8.5 g/L and 19.9 g/L. For similar experimental conditions, the cell densities observed for corn stover hydrolysate combined with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L concentration were 6.1 g/L, 5.9 g/L, and 5.4 g/L respectively. Also, in the same order of oil dose supplemented, the residual oil recovered after 14-day was 8.5 g/L, 8.9 g/L, and 26.9 g/L. Corn stover hydrolysate mixed with the 10, 20 and 40 g/L soybean oil, the SL yield was 0.19, 0.11 and 0.09 g/g carbon. Overall, both hydrolysates supported cell growth and sophorolipid production. The results from this research show that hydrolysates derived from the different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks can be utilized by C. bombicola to achieve substantial yields of SLs. Based upon the results revealed by several batch-stage experiments, it can be stated that there is great potential for scaling up and industrial scale production of these high value products in future.

  4. 长江口淡水潮滩芦苇地上与地下部分月生物量变化比较研究%Comparisons of Monthly Biomass Dynamics between Aboveground and Belowground Parts of Phragmites australis in Freshwater Tidal Flat in Yangtze Estuary

    张佳蕊; 张海燕; 陆健健

    2013-01-01

    during March 2010 to February 2011. Five quadrats of 0.25 m× 0.25 m were harvested from a section for the aboveground standing shoots and belowground material. After counting and measuring the height, the standing shoots were cut off level with the sediment. Belowground materials were extracted from a depth of 0.8 m. Then, all of the materials were taken to laboratories in Chongxi Wetland Research Center for pretreatment, about 2 km away from study site. Live, aboveground shoots were separated into leaf, rhizome, sheath, stem and panicle. Belowground materials were usually washed within two days of harvesting. Washed material was sorted into live and dead parts, where the live structures were separated into rhizome and root. Plant material was dried to a constant weight at 80 ℃ in an oven, and then was weighed by an electronic balance with precision of 0.1 g. The results showed that the dynamic curves of aboveground-belowground biomass of common reed could be divided into three stages: aboveground increase and belowground decrease (from March to May), both aboveground and belowground increase (from June to September) and then decrease synchronously (October and November). The biomasses of leaves, sheath and stems increased gradually from late March until leaves and sheath got the highest values of (808.3±30.2) g/m2 and (671.9±19.2) g/m2 in August, respectively, and stem had a value of (3 193.0±93.9) g/m2 in September. The biomass of panicle showed an increasing tendency, which bloomed in August. Both dynamic curves of living rhizome and root biomass were S-shape, and the biomass ranged from (1 933.3±93.1) g/m2 to (3 679.2±202.7) g/m2 and (695.8±7.2) g/m2 to (1 017.2±60.6) g/m2, respectively. In late September, the total biomass of common reed reached the highest value of (9 351.0±381.5) g/m2. From March to November, the root-shoot ratio ranged from 0.89 to 19.19. The results indicated the aboveground accumulation and production of common reed in the Chongxi

  5. Modeling the importance of biomass qualities in biomass supply chains for bioenergy production

    T.P. Upadhyay, J. H. Greibrokk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A tactical-operational level quantitative model can be an important decision support tool for bioenergy producers. Goal programming approach can help analyze the costs and volume implications of various competing goals in terms of biomass characteristics on part of the bioenergy producers. One cost and six quality characteristics goals, namely moisture and ash contents, and thermal values of two types of biomass (forest harvest residue and un/under-utilized species are selected for the four bioenergy producers in northwestern, Ontario, Canada. We run four models cenarios: i benchmark total cost and ceilings of mean values of six biomass qualities (Initial Goals, iirelaxing the quality goals by 10% from the Initial Goals scenario, iii increasing the conversion efficiency by 10%, and iv all goals as in Initial Goals except the Atikokan Generating Station (AGSbeing supplied with only un/under-utilized biomass. The smaller power plants have relatively less per unit biomass procurement cost. While per unit procurement costs increased, the total costs and biomass volume required to produce the same amount of bioenergy for each power plant decreased in all scenarios compared to the benchmark costs. The goal programming approach, and the results thereof are found to be useful in making effective decisions in the biomass supply chains for bioenergy production.

  6. Variation in aboveground biomass and necromass of two invasive species in the Atlantic rainforest, southeast Brazil Variação da biomassa e necromassa aérea de duas espécies invasoras na floresta atlântica, sudeste do Brasil

    Rita Cássia Quitete Portela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the variation of the above-ground biomass, necromass, and net above-ground primary production (NAGPP of two weed species, Panicum maximum Jacquin (Poaceae and Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf. Maxon. (Dennstaedtiaceae, at two sites in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, southeast Brazil. Both species form mono-dominant stands in the matrix surrounding forest fragments. The organic matter was sampled monthly from each site, separated into biomass and necromass, and net above-ground primary production (NAGPP was calculated. There was marked intra-seasonal fluctuation for both species; Pa. maximum generally had the largest values for necromass, total mass and NAGPP (NAGPP, Pa. maximum = 3953 g.m-2.y-1, Pt. arachnoideum = 2667 g.m-2.y-1. NAGPP did not vary between the two growth periods for Pa. maximum, but marked differences were found for Pt. arachnoideum (2% compared to 44% variation around the mean. The second growth year was drier and Pa. maximum produced much greater necromass in that year; Pt. arachnoideum showed little variation in biomass but much greater productivity in the drier second season. Pteridium arachnoideum appears to be more sensitive to climate, and especially rainfall.Este trabalho descreve a variação da biomassa e necromassa aérea, e da produção primária líquida (NAGPP de duas espécies invasoras Panicum maximum Jacquin (Poaceae e Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf. Maxon. (Dennstaedtiaceae em duas áreas da Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, no sudeste brasileiro. As duas espécies eram mono-dominantes nestas áreas, ambas localizadas na matriz entre fragmentos florestais. A matéria orgânica foi amostrada mensalmente durante dois anos, separada em biomassa e necromassa e a produção aérea primária líquida (NAGPP foi calculada. Houve variação intra-sazonal bem marcada, para ambas as espécies; Pa. maximum geralmente apresentou os maiores valores para biomassa, necromassa, massa total e

  7. Linking Gap Model with MODIS Biophysical Products for Biomass Estimation

    Wang, D.; Sun, G.; Cai, Y.; Guo, Z.; Fu, A.; Ni, W.; Liu, D.

    With the development of earth observation technology and data processing technology biophysical data from remote sensing means such as MODIS LAI and NPP are accessible now However it is still difficult for direct measurement of biomass from remote sensors One possibility for overcoming this problem is using ecological models to link the vegetation parameters currently available from remote sensing to biomass In this paper a combined work is done for estimating forest biomass A calibrated gap model ZELIG was run to simulate the forest development in a temperate forested area in NE China The output relationship between age and biomass was linked to registered MODIS LAI NPP and land cover type images of the same area From the above work forest age or biomass was estimated from existing remote sensed data Obviously there is a lot of work to be done such as optimal combination of biophysical parameters to improve the linkage between MODIS product and ecological modeling

  8. LEVULINIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BIOMASS

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic performances were also improved by the adoption of microwave irradiation as an efficient heating method, allowing significant energy and time savings. The hydrothermal conversions of inulin and wheat straw were carried out in the presence of niobium phosphate, which up to now have never been employed in these reactions. The preliminary results appeared to be in need of further optimization.

  9. Fertilization Affects Biomass Production of Suaeda salsa and Soil Organic Carbon Pool in East Coastal Region of China

    MENG Qing-feng; YANG Jing-song; YAO Rong-jiang; LIU Guang-ming; YU Shi-peng

    2013-01-01

    Land use practice significantly affects soil properties. Soil is a major sink for atmospheric carbon, and soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered as an essential indicator of soil quality. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of N and P applied to Suaeda salsa on biomass production, SOC concentration, labile organic carbon (LOC) concentration, SOC pool and carbon management index (CMI) as well as the effect of the land use practice on soil quality of coastal tidal lands in east coastal region of China. The study provided relevant references for coastal exploitation, tidal land management and related study in other countries and regions. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, consisting of four N-fertilization rates (0 (N0), 60 (N1), 120 (N2) and 180 kg ha-1 (N3)), three P-fertilization rates (0 (P0), 70 (P1) and 105 kg ha-1 (P2)) and bare land without vegetation. N and P applied to S. salsa on coastal tidal lands significantly affected biomass production (above-ground biomass and roots), bulk density (ρb), available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool and CMI. Using statistical analysis, significantly interactions in N and P were observed for biomass production and the dominant factor for S. salsa production was N in continuous 2-yr experiments. There were no significant interactions between N and P for SOC concentration, LOC concentration and SOC pool. However, significant interaction was obtained for CMI at the 0-20 cm depth and N played a dominant role in the variation of CMI. There were significant improvements for soil measured attributes and parameters, which suggested that increasing the rates of N and P significantly decreasedρb at the 0-20 cm depth and increased available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool as well as CMI at both the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depth, respectively. By correlation analysis, there were significantly positive correlations between biomass (above-ground biomass and roots) and SOC as well as LOC in

  10. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    Nanou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportation. In The Netherlands, the contribution of natural gas to the primary energy consumption is almost 50% (Source: Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands [ECN]) and it is a fuel with a well-devel...

  11. Aboveground biomass relationships for mixed ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Ulmus glabra Hudson) stands in Eastern Prealps of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy)

    Alberti, Giorgio; Candido, Patrick; Peressotti, Alessandro; Turco, Sheera; Piussi, Pietro; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Biomasse aérienne chez des peuplements mélangés de frêne (Fraxinus excelsior L. et Ulmus glabra Hudson) dans les Préalpes de Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italie). Environ 5 % de la surface forestière de Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italie) est constituée de peuplements de frêne en mélange avec d'autres essences. Dans la plupart des cas, ce sont des forêts secondaires installées sur des pâturages et des prairies au cours des cinquante dernières années. Elles constituent une importante ressource économique...

  12. Effect of Water and Nitrogen Coupling on Aboveground Biomass of Bromus Inermis in Tillering Stage%水氮耦合对分蘖期无芒雀麦地上生物量的影响

    徐舶; 张淑艳

    2015-01-01

    在盆栽控制条件下,设土壤田间持水量的40%、60%、80%3个水分梯度,0,0.564,1.128,1.692和2.257g/盆(纯氮量)5个氮肥梯度,对一年龄分蘖期无芒雀麦进行水分和氮肥组合处理,研究水氮耦合对无芒雀麦形态特征的影响.试验结果表明,无芒雀麦的地上生物量形成存在水氮的耦合效应,低氮和低水制约了无芒雀麦的生长,高水高氮也不利于无芒雀麦形成新枝条和增加生物量.%In potted condition under control,3 water gradient(40%, 60%, 80%of field capacity)and 5 nitrogen gra-dient(0, 0.564, 1.128, 1.692 and 2.257g/pot)had been set to conduct the treatment of combining water and nitrogen on one age Bromus inermis in tillering stage. Then, studied the the effects of water and nitrogen coupling on morpho-logical characteristics of bromus inermis. The results showed that there was water and nitrogen coupling effects exist-ed in the formation of aboveground biomass. And the growth of bromus inerm was restricted by low nitrogen and wa-ter. Additionally, high water and high nitrogen was also not conducive to the formation of new branches and the in-crease of biomass.

  13. Aboveground net primary productivity and rainfall use efficiency of grassland on three soils after two years of exposure to a subambient to superambient CO2 gradient.

    Fay, P. A.; Polley, H. W.; Jin, V. L.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CA) have increased by about 100 μL L-1 over the last 250 years to ~ 380 μL L-1, the highest values in the last half-million years, and CA is expected to continue to increase to greater than 500 μL L-1 by 2100. CO2 enrichment has been shown to affect many ecosystem processes, but experiments typically examine only two or a few levels of CA, and are typically constrained to one soil type. However, soil hydrologic properties differ across the landscape. Therefore, variation in the impacts of increasing CA on ecosystem function on different soil types must be understood to model and forecast ecosystem function under future CA and climate scenarios. Here we evaluate the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of grassland plots receiving equal rainfall inputs (from irrigation) and exposed to a continuous gradient (250 to 500 μL L-1) of CA in the Lysimeter CO2 Gradient Experiment in central Texas, USA. Sixty intact soil monoliths (1 m2 x 1.5 m deep) taken from three soil types (Austin silty clay, Bastrop sandy loam, Houston clay) and planted to seven native tallgrass prairie grasses and forbs were exposed to the CA gradient beginning in 2006. Aboveground net primary productivity was assessed by end of season (November) harvest of each species in each monolith. Total ANPP of all species was 35 to 50% greater on Bastrop and Houston soils compared to Austin soils in both years (p Salvia azurea, and these showed no detectable response to CA. No species switched the sign of its response to CA among the soils. Thus, four of the seven species determined the ANPP and rainfall use efficiency responses to CA among the three soils. Interactions between soils and CA have important consequences for the productivity, rainfall use efficiency, and species composition of grassland under future atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  14. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  16. Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield Efeito de espaçamentos entre fileiras e uso de herbicidas na massa aérea das plantas daninhas e produtividade de grãos de milho

    H.A. Acciares; M. S. Zuluaga

    2006-01-01

    The use of narrow plant spacing in corn (Zea mays) has been suggested as a technological alternative to obtain grain yield increases, due to a better use of resources. The regular pattern could diminish intraspecific competition while favoring interspecific competition with weeds. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of corn row spacing on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. Three corn...

  17. Aboveground biomass in Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) H. B. K. ecosystems using Landsat 7 ETM+ images Biomasa aérea en ecosistemas de Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) H. B. K. usando imágenes Landsat 7 ETM+

    EVA PADRÓN; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2007-01-01

    The significance of field work in remote sensing studies when applied to large areas has often been underestimated. The combination of specific forest inventories for the estimation of aboveground biomass in large dry tropical forest areas with remote sensor data has scarcely been explored to date. In this work, a systematic, stratified forest inventory involving 100 X 100 m square plots in an area of Peruvian Prosopis pallida dry forest, roughly one million hectares in size in the Piura prov...

  18. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Richard eSayre

    2015-01-01

    One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosyn...

  19. Strategies for Optimizing Algal Biology for Enhanced Biomass Production

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic c...

  20. Hydrogen production from marine biomass by hydrothermal gasification

    Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of Posidonia oceanica was studied. • The output was mainly composed of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. • Maximum hydrogen yield was obtained with biomass loading of 0.08 (g/mL) at 600 °C. • Maximum hydrogen and methane yields were 10.37 and 6.34 mol/kg, respectively. • The results propose an alternative solution to the landfill of marine biomass. - Abstract: The hydrothermal gasification of Posidonia oceanica was investigated in a batch reactor without adding any catalysts. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 300–600 °C with different biomass loading ranges of 0.04–0.12 (g/mL) in the reaction time of 1 h. The product gas was composed of hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and a small amount of C2–C4 compounds. The results showed that the formation of gaseous products, gasification efficiency and yield distribution of produced gases were intensively affected by biomass loading and temperature. The yields of hydrogen (10.37 mol/kg) and methane (6.34 mol/kg) were attained at 600 °C using biomass loading of 0.08 (g/mL). The results are very promising in terms of deployment of the utilization of marine biomass for hydrogen and/or methane production to industrial scale applications, thereby proposing an alternative solution to the landfill of P. oceanica residues

  1. Root diseases, climate change and biomass productivity

    Tree growth and yield in eastern boreal spruce fir forests are both greatly affected by root and butt rots. These pests are also prevalent in western coniferous species and boreal-sub-boreal forests. Infections are difficult to detect, but reduced growth, tree mortality, wind throw and scaled butt cull contribute to considerable forest gaps. Harvesting and stand tending practices in second growth stands are creating conditions for increased incidence. Tree stress is one of the major factors affecting the spread of root disease. It is expected that climate change will create abnormal stress conditions that will further compound the incidence of root disease. A comparison was made between natural and managed stands, including harvesting and stand practices such as commercial thinning. Studies of Douglas-fir forests in British Columbia were presented, with results indicating that managed forests contain one third to one half less carbon biomass than unmanaged forests. It was concluded that root diseases must be recognized and taken into account in order to refine and improve biomass estimates, prevent overestimation of wood supply models and avoid potential wood fibre losses. 40 refs., 2 figs.

  2. The influence of mosquito control recirculation ditches on plant biomass, production and composition in two San Francisco Bay salt marshes

    Balling, Steven S.; Resh, Vincent H.

    1983-02-01

    Vegetation of two San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. tidal marshes was examined to determine the effects of recirculation ditches designed to eliminate mosquito-breeding. Salicornia virginica L. biomass and production in Petaluma Marsh and plant species composition in Suisun Marsh were measured with respect to distance from ditches and natural channels. In Petaluma Marsh, both annual above-ground production estimates and infrared aerial photographs indicated that S. virginica growth rates were higher near ditches than in the open marsh. In the floristically diverse, less saline Suisun Marsh, there was a displacement of the more salt tolerant S. virginica by the less tolerant Juncus balticus Willd. and a significantly greater number of species near the ditches. Results in both marshes are correlated with low groundwater salinities near ditches and suggest that tidal circulation within ditches locally ameliorates extremes in soil conditions.

  3. Estimation of above-ground biomass of grassland based on multi-source remote sensing data%基于多元遥感数据的草地生物量估算方法

    王新云; 郭艺歌; 何杰

    2014-01-01

    Radar (SAR) C-band data was utilized to develop a biomass regression model and estimate the aboveground biomass (AGB) of the Caragana microphylla shrubbery in the desert steppe region in the northwest of China. The research area was located at Yangzhaizi Village in Ningxia Autonomous region. Grassland inventory was carried out in 45 randomly distributed plots (30 m × 30 m), and the data was used for either model development or validation. An allometric regression model was established to estimate its biomass for every Caragana microphylla shrub with CH (crown width multiple plant height) variable. The local allometric regression equation was applied to calculate AGB per plot. Furthermore, the correlation between the aboveground biomass of Caragana microphylla shrubbery and the radar backscatter coefficient was analyzed. The AGB regression model was developed by integrating field measurements of 25 sample plots with RADARSAT-2 backscatter remotely sensed data. The multiple stepwise regressions algorithm was applied to develop the AGB model and estimate the grassland above-ground biomass from RADARSAT-2 backscatter data. The developed model was validated by using 20 independent sample plots. Simultaneously, RADARSAT-2 images were fused with the optical HJ1B data by using a discrete wavelet transform for the land cover classification. The image classification based on the objects was performed by using the empirical-statistical machine learning techniques, such as a classification and regression trees (CART) algorithm. The overall accuracy and Kappa value of the proposed method was 90.2% and 0.88, respectively. It indicated that the proposed method performed well for the land use and land cover (LULC) classification. An AGB biomass distribution map was produced by RADARSAT-2 backscatter data in combination with the land cover classification image and AGB regression model. As a comparison, the AGB from RADARSAT-2 estimates were compared with the results from the HJ1B

  4. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  5. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass, such...... that exist for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are...

  6. Diseases and pests in biomass production systems

    The current status of disease and pest problems in willow and poplar biomass systems for energy within Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States is described. The IEA Disease and Pest Activities within the recent Task XII (1995-1997), and previous Tasks since 1987, have provided outstanding opportunities for international co-operation which has served substantially to augment national research programmes. Work is described on recognizing different forms of an insect pest or pathogen and understanding the genetic basis of its variability, which is of fundamental importance in developing pest management strategies that exclude inputs of energy-rich materials such as pesticides. Options for more natural pest control are considered including breeding for resistance, plantation designs based on host genotype diversity and biological control 16 refs, 2 figs

  7. Application Problem of Biomass Combustion in Greenhouses for Crop Production

    Kawamura, Atsuhiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is consumed much energy in fossil fuels to production crops in greenhouses in Japan. And fl ue gas as CO2 fertilization is used for growing crops in modern greenhouses. If biomass as renewable energy can use for production vegetables in greenhouses, more than 800,000 kl of energy a year (in crude oil equivalent) will be saved. In this study, at fi rst, we made the biomass combustion equipment, and performed fundamental examination for various pellet fuel. We performed the examination that considered an application to a real greenhouse next. We considered biomass as both a source of energy and CO2 gas for greenhouses, and the following fi ndings were obtained: 1) Based on the standard of CO2 gas fertilization to greenhouses, it is diffi cult to apply biomass as a CO2 fertilizer, so that biomass should be applied to energy use only, at least for the time being. 2) Practical biomass energy machinery for economy, high reliability and greenhouses satisfying the conservatism that it is easy is necessary. 3) It is necessary to develop crop varieties and cultivation systems requiring less strict environmental control. 4) Disposal of combustion ash occurring abundantly, effective practical use is necessary.

  8. Biomass production and utilisation. Policy implications for LDCs

    The importance of biomass in the energy sector of LDCs and in Africa in particular is illustrated so as to provide the background to the policy importance on the production and use of this energy source. The main areas for policy attention discussed are: biomass for power generation, biomass use in the transport sector, urban energy supply and the interactions with agricultural policies. The roles of the major institutions the government, private sector institutions, educational institutions and non-governmental organizations are identified. It is concluded that with the necessary policy shift that is being advocated, biomass can contribute to a more equitable supply of high quality and efficient energy services in the future of African countries. (K.A.)

  9. Grate-firing of biomass for heat and power production

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    bed on the grate, and the advanced secondary air supply (a real breakthrough in this technology) are highlighted for grate-firing systems. Amongst all the issues or problems associated with grate-fired boilers burning biomass, primary pollutant formation and control, deposition formation and corrosion......As a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, biomass (i.e., any organic non-fossil fuel) and its utilization are gaining an increasingly important role worldwide Grate-firing is one of the main competing technologies in biomass combustion for heat and power production, because it can...... fire a wide range of fuels of varying moisture content, and requires less fuel preparation and handling. The basic objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art knowledge on grate-fired boilers burning biomass: the key elements in the firing system and the development, the important...

  10. The effect of nitrogen addition on biomass production and competition in three expansive tall grasses

    Holub, Petr; Tůma, I.; Fiala, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 170, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 211-216. ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0556; GA MZe QJ1220007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : aboveground biomass * aggressivity * crowding coefficient * Nitrogen * tall grasses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  11. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  12. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by...... ‘‘microwave dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  13. Small-scale power/heat production based on biomass

    Conventional energy production from biomass is most often used to produce steam, hot water or air heating. According to this conference paper, the maximum electric output is obtained in processes based on gasification of biomass in combined gas turbine/steam turbine systems. The efficiency increases with increasing plant size. Production cost decreases with increasing plant size. However, large plants producing 20 MW electric also produce 30 MW heat energy which must be utilized if the total efficiency is to be large. There is a potential for small systems (3 - 5 kw electric) for decentralized power/heat production. The paper surveys in brief various technologies for small-scale power/heat plants based on biomass: steam turbine, steam engine, gas turbine, Stirling engine, diesel engine/gas engine. 9 refs., 5 figs

  14. Enhancing biomass and ethanol production by increasing NADPH production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Choi, Yun-Nam; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates that increased NADPH production can improve biomass and ethanol production in cyanobacteria. We over-expressed the endogenous zwf gene, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of pentose phosphate pathway, in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. zwf over-expression resulted in increased NADPH production, and promoted biomass production compared to the wild type in both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Ethanol production pathway including NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was also integrated with and without zwf over-expression. Excessive NADPH production by zwf over-expression could improve both biomass and ethanol production in the autotrophic conditions. PMID:26951740

  15. Estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the case of the Atlantic Forest

    Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Alves, Luciana Ferreira; Aidar, Marcos; Araujo, Luciana Spinelli; Baker, Tim; Batista, Joao Luis Ferreira; Campos, Mariana Cruz; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Chave, Jerome; Delitti, Welington Braz Carvalho; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Keller, Michael; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and discuss the best methods to estimate live above ground biomass in the Atlantic Forest. The methods presented and conclusions are the products of a workshop entitled "Estimation of Biomass and Carbon Stocks: the Case of Atlantic Rain Forest". Aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests is mainly contained in trees. Tree biomass is a function of wood volume, obtained from the diameter and height, architecture and wood density (dry weight per ...

  16. Nonenzymatic sugar production from biomass using biomass-derived γ-valerolactone.

    Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Rand, Jacqueline M; Alonso, David Martin; Han, Jeehoon; Youngquist, J Tyler; Maravelias, Christos T; Pfleger, Brian F; Dumesic, James A

    2014-01-17

    Widespread production of biomass-derived fuels and chemicals will require cost-effective processes for breaking down cellulose and hemicellulose into their constituent sugars. Here, we report laboratory-scale production of soluble carbohydrates from corn stover, hardwood, and softwood at high yields (70 to 90%) in a solvent mixture of biomass-derived γ-valerolactone (GVL), water, and dilute acid (0.05 weight percent H2SO4). GVL promotes thermocatalytic saccharification through complete solubilization of the biomass, including the lignin fraction. The carbohydrates can be recovered and concentrated (up to 127 grams per liter) by extraction from GVL into an aqueous phase by addition of NaCl or liquid CO2. This strategy is well suited for catalytic upgrading to furans or fermentative upgrading to ethanol at high titers and near theoretical yield. We estimate through preliminary techno-economic modeling that the overall process could be cost-competitive for ethanol production, with biomass pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24436415

  17. Soil C:N stoichiometry controls carbon sink partitioning between above-ground tree biomass and soil organic matter in high fertility forests

    Alberti G; Vicca S; Inglima I; Belelli-Marchesini L; Genesio L; Miglietta F; Marjanovic H; Martinez C.; Matteucci G; D’Andrea E; Peressotti A; Petrella F; Rodeghiero M; Cotrufo MF

    2015-01-01

    The release of organic compounds from roots is a key process influencing soil carbon (C) dynamics and nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Through this process, plants stimulate microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization thus releasing nitrogen (N) that sustains gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP, respectively). Root inputs also contribute to SOM formation. In this study, we quantified the annual net root-derived C input to soil (Net-Croot) across s...

  18. Production d'éthanol a partir de biomasse lignocellulosique Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Ogier J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude fait le point des connaissances scientifiques et techniques dans le domaine de la production alcoolique à partir de susbstrats lignocellulosiques. Ce travail, réalisé dans le cadre d'Agrice (Agriculture pour la chimie et l'énergie, est une synthèse bibliographique qui a cherché à identifier les avancées capables de débloquer certains verrous technologiques et économiques liés à ce type de procédé. La biomasse lignocellulosique est un substrat complexe, constitué des trois principales fractions que sont la cellulose, les hémicelluloses et la lignine. Le procédé de production d'éthanol consiste à récupérer par hydrolyse le maximum de sucres issus à la fois des fractions cellulosiques et hémicellulosiques, puis de fermenter ces sucres en éthanol. Les premiers procédés d'hydrolyse utilisés étaient surtout chimiques, mais ils sont peu compétitifs à l'heure actuelle, en raison notamment du coût des réactifs et de la formation de nombreux sous-produits et de composés inhibiteurs rendant les hydrolysats peu fermentescibles. Ils sont désormais concurrencés par les procédés enzymatiques, plus spécifiques et qui permettent de meilleurs rendements d'hydrolyse dans des conditions moins sévères. Cependant, la biomasse lignocellulosique n'est pas directement accessible aux enzymes, et elle doit subir au préalable une phase de prétraitement dont l'objectif est d'améliorer la susceptibilité à l'hydrolyse enzymatique de la cellulose et éventuellement d'hydrolyser la fraction hémicellulosique en sucres monomères. Parmi les nombreuses méthodes de prétraitement qui ont été étudiées, nous en avons identifié trois répondant au mieux aux objectifs précédemment cités : le prétraitement à l'acide dilué, l'explosion à la vapeur avec utilisation d'un catalyseur, et la thermohydrolyse. Ces trois méthodes permettraient d'atteindre des rendements d'hydrolyse enzymatique de la cellulose proches de

  19. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  20. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  1. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production from biomass

    Levin, David B. [Department of Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); NSERC Hydrogen Canada (H2CAN) Strategic Research Network (Canada); Chahine, Richard [Hydrogen Research Institute, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, 3351 Boul. Des Forges (P.O. Box 500), Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada); NSERC Hydrogen Canada (H2CAN) Strategic Research Network (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The increasing demand for H{sub 2} for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H{sub 2} as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H{sub 2} production on a massive scale. Increased production of H{sub 2} by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas), which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H{sub 2} from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermocatalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H{sub 2}, circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H{sub 2} production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H{sub 2} production systems with H{sub 2} purification and storage technologies. (author)

  2. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production from biomass

    The increasing demand for H2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas), which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermocatalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H2, circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H2 production systems with H2 purification and storage technologies. (author)

  3. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  4. Spirogyra biomass a renewable source for biofuel (bioethanol Production

    Fuad Salem Eshaq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels refer to renewable fuels from biological sources that can be used for heat, electricity and fuel. The fuels obtained from algae are termed as third generation fuels. The production of fuel from algae provides many advantages when compared to the fuel produced from other sources like agrobased raw materials. Other than environmental pollution control the algal biofuel will help in reduction of the fuel cost when compared to the agrobased and fossil fuels. In the present study algae specifically Spirogyra was used for the production of bioethanol by the fermentative process. A comparative study was carried out by using chemically pre-treated anduntreated Spirogyra biomass. The Spirogyra has a very simple cell wall made up of cellulose and starch that can be converted to ethanol by the fermentation process. The Spirogyra biomass was subjected to saccharification process by the fungal organism Aspergillus niger MTCCC 2196 for the hydrolysis, this process was followed by the fermentation using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC170 for the production of alcohol. A high yield of ethanol was recorded for untreated Spirogyra biomass when compared to chemically pre-treated biomass. The yield of alcohol using algal biomass is more when compared to alcohol produced from other sources like agrobased rawmaterials.

  5. Feasibility of Bioethanol Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Aunina, Zane; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Karlis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to discuss the potential of cellulosic ethanol production processes and compare them, to find the most appropriate production method for Latvia's situation, to perform theoretical calculations and to determine the potential ethanol price. In addition, price forecasts for future cellulosic and grain ethanol are compared. A feasibility estimate to determine the price of cellulosic ethanol in Latvia, if production were started in 2010, was made. The grain and cellulosic ethanol price comparison (future forecast) was made through to the year 2018.

  6. An inventory control model for biomass dependent production systems

    The financial performance of a biomass dependent production system was critiqued based on the development and validation of an inventory control model. Dynamic programming was used to examine the constraints and capabilities of producing ethanol from various biomass crops. In particular, the model evaluated the plantation, harvest, and manufacturing components of a woody biomass supply system. The optimum wood to ethanol production scheme produced 38 million litres of ethanol in the harvest year, at 13.6 million litre increase over the least optimal policy as demonstrated in the dynamic programming results. The system produced ethanol at a delivered cost of $0.38 L-1 which was consistent with the unit costs from other studies. Nearly 60% of the delivered costs were in ethanol production. The remaining costs were attributed to growing biomass (14%), harvest and shipment of the crop (18%), storage of the raw material and finished product (7%) and open-quotes lost salesclose quotes (2%). Inventory control, in all phases of production, proved to be an important cost consideration throughout the model. The model also analyzed the employment of alternative harvesting policies and the use of different or multiple feedstocks. A comparison between the least cost wood system and an even cut wood system further revealed the benefits of using an inventory control system

  7. Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and Sustainability

    Anoop Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc., which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic engineering is presently the most promising for the production of biohydrogen as it overcomes most of the limitations in other technologies. Microbial electrolysis is another recent technology that is progressing very rapidly. However, it is the dark fermentation approach, followed by photo fermentation, which seem closer to commercialization. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass is particularly suitable for relatively small and decentralized systems and it can be considered as an important sustainable and renewable energy source. The comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass and its comparison with other biofuels can be a tool for policy decisions. In this paper, we discuss the various possible approaches for producing biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass which is an globally available abundant resource. The main technological challenges are discussed in detail, followed by potential solutions.

  8. Biofuels and biochemicals production from forest biomass in Western Canada

    Biomass can be used for the production of fuels, and chemicals with reduced life cycle (greenhouse gas) emissions. Currently, these fuels and chemicals are produced mainly from natural gas and other fossil fuels. In Western Canada, forest residue biomass is gasified for the production of syngas which is further synthesized to produce different fuels and chemicals. Two types of gasifiers: the atmospheric pressure gasifier (commercially known as SilvaGas) and the pressurized gasifier (commercially known as RENUGAS) are considered for syngas production. The production costs of methanol, (dimethyl ether), (Fischer-Tropsch) fuels, and ammonia are $0.29/kg, $0.47/kg, $0.97/kg, and $2.09/kg, respectively, for a SilvaGas-based gasification plant with a capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day. The cost of producing methanol, DME, F-T fuels, and ammonia in a RENUGAS-based plant are $0.45/kg, $0.69/kg, $1.53/kg, and $2.72/kg, respectively, for a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day. The minimum cost of producing methanol, DME, F-T fuels, and ammonia are $0.28/kg, $0.44/kg, $0.94/kg, and $2.06/kg at plant capacities of 3000, 3500, 4000, and 3000 dry tonnes/day, respectively, using the SilvaGas-based gasification process. Biomass-based fuels and chemicals are expensive compared to fuels and chemicals derived from fossil fuels, and carbon credits can help them become competitive. -- Highlights: → Forest residue can be used for production of fuels and chemicals in Western Canada. → Methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch fuel and ammonia are focus of this study. → This study estimates the production cost of these fuels and chemicals from biomass. → Economic optimum sizes of production plants are also estimated through modeling. → Costs of fuels and chemicals from biomass are higher than that from fossil fuels.

  9. Hydrogen rich gas production by thermocatalytic decomposition of kenaf biomass

    Irmak, Sibel; Oeztuerk, ilker [Department of Chemistry, Cukurova University, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Adana 01330 (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a well known energy crop and an annual herbaceous plant grows very fast with low lodging susceptibility was used as representative lignocellulosic biomass in the present work. Thermocatalytic conversions were performed by aqueous phase reforming (APR) of kenaf hydrolysates and direct gasification of solid biomass of kenaf using 5% Pt on activated carbon as catalyst. Hydrolysates used in APR experiments were prepared by solubilization of kenaf biomass in subcritical water under CO{sub 2} gas pressure. APR of kenaf hydrolysate with low molecular weight polysaccharides in the presence of the reforming catalyst produced more gas compared to the hydrolysate that had high molecular weight polysaccharides. APR experiments of kenaf biomass hydrolysates and glucose, which was used as a simplest biomass model compound, in the presence of catalyst produced various amounts of gas mixtures that consisted of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The ratios of H{sub 2} to other gases produced were 0.98, 1.50 and 1.35 for 150 C and 250 C subcritical water-treated kenaf hydrolysates and glucose, respectively. These ratios indicated that more the degraded organic content of kenaf hydrolysate the better selectivity for hydrogen production. Although APR of 250 C-kenaf hydrolysate resulted in similar gas content and composition as glucose, the gas volume produced was three times higher in glucose feed. The use of solid kenaf biomass as starting feedstock in APR experiments resulted in less gas production since the activity of catalyst was lowered by solid biomass particles. (author)

  10. Carbon and nitrogen trade-offs in biomass energy production

    Cucek, Lidija; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI" 2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary); Kravanja, Zdravko [University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2012-06-15

    This contribution provides an overview of carbon (CFs) and nitrogen footprints (NFs) concerning their measures and impacts on the ecosystem and human health. The adversarial relationship between them is illustrated by the three biomass energy production applications, which substitute fossil energy production applications: (i) domestic wood combustion where different fossil energy sources (natural gas, coal, and fuel oil) are supplemented, (ii) bioethanol production from corn grain via the dry-grind process, where petrol is supplemented, and (iii) rape methyl ester production from rape seed oil via catalytic trans-esterification, where diesel is supplemented. The life cycle assessment is applied to assess the CFs and NFs resulting from different energy production applications from 'cradle-to-grave' span. The results highlighted that all biomass-derived energy generations have lower CFs and higher NFs whilst, on the other hand, fossil energies have higher CFs and lower NFs. (orig.)

  11. Biomass energy production in agriculture: A weighted goal programming analysis

    Energy production from biomasses can be an important resource that, when combined with other green energies such as wind power and solar plants, can contribute to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. A multi-period Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied to identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production under three concurrent constraints: water, labour and soil availability. Alternative scenarios are considered that take into account the effect of climate change and social change. The MpWGP model was tested with data from the Rovigo county area (Italy) over a 15-year time period. Our findings show that trade-off exists between the two optimisation targets considered. Although the optimisation of the first target requires traditional agricultural crops, which are characterised by high revenue and a low production of biomass energy, the latter would be achievable with intensive wood production, namely, high-energy production and low income. Our results also show the importance of the constraints imposed, particularly water availability; water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production. - Research Highlights: → The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. → A multi-period (15-year) Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied. → We identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production. → Three concurrent constraints have been considered: water, labour and soil availability.→ Water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production.

  12. Phytoplankton biomass, production and potential export in the North Water

    Klein, Bert; LeBlanc, Bernard; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Beret, Rachel; Michaud, Josée; Mundy, C.-J.; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie H.; Garneau, Marie-Ève; Roy, Suzanne; Gratton, Yves; Cochran, J. Kirk; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Pakulski, J. Dean; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    The seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and production were determined in the North Water, located between Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canadian Arctic), in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999. The patterns differed among the four defined regions of this large polynya, i.e. North (>77.5°N), East (>75°W), West (5 μm) fraction dominated the biomass and production during the bloom. During July, August, and September, biomass and production decreased over the whole region, with the highest biomass, dominated by large cells, occurring in the North. The annual particulate and dissolved phytoplankton production were the highest ever reported for the high Arctic, reaching maximum values of 254 and 123 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively, in the East. Rates in the North and West were considerably lower than in the East (ca. two- and three-fold, respectively). The f-ratios (i.e. ratio of new to total production), derived from the size structure of phytoplankton, were high north of 76°N (0.4-0.7). Regionally, this indicated a high potential export of particulate organic carbon ( EPOC) from the phytoplankton community to other trophic compartments and/or downwards in the East (155 g C m -2 yr -1), with lower values in the North and West (i.e. 77 and 42 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively). The seasonal and spatial patterns of EPOC were consistent with independent estimates of potential carbon export. Phytoplankton biomass and production were generally dominated by the large size fraction, whereas EPOC seemed to be dominated by the large size fraction early in the season and by the small size fraction (<5 μm) from June until the end of the growing season.

  13. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  14. Solid fuels/biomass. Section 2: Products and services

    This is a directory of companies providing products and services in the area of solid fuels and biomass. The subheadings of the directory include developers and owner operators, equipment manufacturers, measuring instruments and controls, consulting services, engineering and construction, operation and maintenance, project management, repair, and financial and legal services

  15. High biomass sorghum production across tillage systems and nitrogen rates

    Bioenergy production has traditionally focused on perennial crops; however, these crops require an establishment period before they can be utilized. High biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) grown as an annual crop can be used during this establishment period, but typical yields and nutrient...

  16. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass : HYVOLUTION

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    HYVOLUTION is the acronym of an Integrated Project ¿Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass¿ which has been granted in the Sixth EU Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Priority 6.1.ii, Sustainable Energy Systems. The aim of HYVOLUTION: ¿Developm

  17. Optimization of a photobioreactor biomass production using natural light

    Grognard, Frédéric; Pierre, Masci; Bernard, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We address the question of optimization of the biomass long term productivity in the framework of microalgal biomass production in photobioreactors under the influence of day/night cycles. For that, we propose a simple bioreactor model accounting for light attenuation in the reactor due to biomass density and obtain the control law that optimizes productivity over a single day through the application of Pontryagin's maximum principle, with the dilution rate being the control. An important constraint on the obtained solution is that the biomass in the reactor should be at the same level at the beginning and at the end of the day so that the same control can be applied everyday and optimizes the long term productivity. Several scenarios are possible depending on the microalgae's strain parameters and the maximal admissible value of the dilution rate: bang-bang or bang-singular-bang control or, if the growth rate of the algae is very strong in the presence of light, constant maximal dilution. A bifurcation diagr...

  18. Catch crop biomass production, nitrogen uptake and root development under different tillage systems

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2012-01-01

    Catch crops are generally regarded as an efficient tool to reduce nitrate leaching. However, the benefits need to be balanced against potential adverse effects on the main crop yields. The objectives of the study were to study three contrasting catch crops, that is, dyer’s woad (DW) (Isatis......). Above-ground biomass production and N uptake were measured in the catch crops and the main crop. Catch crop root growth was studied using both minirhizotron and core methods. Soil penetration resistance was recorded to 60 cm depth. Fodder radish and RG produced up to 1800 kg/ha dry matter and DW 900 kg....../ha. The nitrogen uptake in November was 55, 37 and 31 kg N/ha for FR, RG and DW, respectively, when averaged across the 2 yr of study. The yield of the spring barley main crop was in general highest where FR was grown as a catch crop. Ploughing tended to result in highest yields although differences were only...

  19. Biomass recycling heat technology and energy products

    Tabakaev, R. B.; Gergelizhiu, P. S.; Kazakov, A. V.; Zavorin, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Relevance is determined by necessity of utilizing of local low-grade fuels by energy equpment. Most widespread Tomsk oblast (Russian Federation region) low-grade fuels are described and listed. Capability of utilizing is analysed. Mass balances of heat-technology conversion materials and derived products are described. As a result, recycling capability of low-grade fuels in briquette fuel is appraised.

  20. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-01-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most stu...

  1. Photosynthetic pathway and biomass energy production.

    Marzola, D L; Bartholomew, D P

    1979-08-10

    The current interest in locating new or alternative sources of energy has focused attention on solar energy capture by crops that can be subsequently utilized as a substitute for fossil fuels. The very high productivity of sugarepane and the fact that it accumulates sugars that are directly fermentable to alcohol may have caused seemingly less productive crops to be overlooked. We show here that recoverable alcohol from achievable commercial yields of pineapple can actually equal that of sugarcane, with the pineapple crop requiring only a fraction of the water used by sugarcane. Pineapple is well adapted to the subhumid or semiarid tropics and thus is particularly well suited for exploiting large areas not now under cultivation with any crop of commercial value. PMID:17729660

  2. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  3. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha−1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ► We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ► Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ► BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ► BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha-1 (<77% of the C in the

  5. Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and Sustainability

    Anoop Singh; Surajbhan Sevda; Ibrahim M. Abu Reesh; Karolien Vanbroekhoven; Dheeraj Rathore; Deepak Pant

    2015-01-01

    Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc.), which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic ...

  6. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of drained peatlands that are managed to reverse subsidence through organic accretion holds significant potential for large-scale carbon storage and sequestration. This potential has been demonstrated in an experimental wetland restoration site established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, where soil carbon storage is up to 1 kg C m-2 and root and rhizome production can reach over 7 kg m-2 annually. Remote sensing-based estimation of biomass and productivity over a large spatial extent helps to monitor carbon storage potential of these restored peatlands. Extensive field measurements of plant biophysical characteristics such as biomass, leaf area index, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) [an important variable in light-use efficiency (LUE) models] have been collected for agricultural systems and forests. However the small size and local spatial variability of U.S. Pacific Coast wetlands pose new challenges for measuring these variables in the field and generating estimates through remote sensing. In particular background effects of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), floating aquatic vegetation, and inundation of wetland vegetation influence the relationship between field measurements and multispectral or hyperspectral indices. Working at the USGS experimental wetland site, characterized by variable water depth and substantial NPV, or thatch, we collected field data on hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summers of 2011 and 2012. We calculated aboveground biomass with existing allometric relationships, and fAPAR was measured with line and point quantum sensors. We analyzed reflectance data to develop hyperspectral and multispectral indices that predict biomass and fAPAR and account for background effects of water

  7. Drivers of aboveground wood production in a lowland tropical forest of West Africa: teasing apart the roles of tree density, tree diversity, soil phosphorus, and historical logging.

    Jucker, Tommaso; Sanchez, Aida Cuni; Lindsell, Jeremy A; Allen, Harriet D; Amable, Gabriel S; Coomes, David A

    2016-06-01

    Tropical forests currently play a key role in regulating the terrestrial carbon cycle and abating climate change by storing carbon in wood. However, there remains considerable uncertainty as to whether tropical forests will continue to act as carbon sinks in the face of increased pressure from expanding human activities. Consequently, understanding what drives productivity in tropical forests is critical. We used permanent forest plot data from the Gola Rainforest National Park (Sierra Leone) - one of the largest tracts of intact tropical moist forest in West Africa - to explore how (1) stand basal area and tree diversity, (2) past disturbance associated with past logging, and (3) underlying soil nutrient gradients interact to determine rates of aboveground wood production (AWP). We started by statistically modeling the diameter growth of individual trees and used these models to estimate AWP for 142 permanent forest plots. We then used structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect pathways which shape rates of AWP. Across the plot network, stand basal area emerged as the strongest determinant of AWP, with densely packed stands exhibiting the fastest rates of AWP. In addition to stand packing density, both tree diversity and soil phosphorus content were also positively related to productivity. By contrast, historical logging activities negatively impacted AWP through the removal of large trees, which contributed disproportionately to productivity. Understanding what determines variation in wood production across tropical forest landscapes requires accounting for multiple interacting drivers - with stand structure, tree diversity, and soil nutrients all playing a key role. Importantly, our results also indicate that logging activities can have a long-lasting impact on a forest's ability to sequester and store carbon, emphasizing the importance of safeguarding old-growth tropical forests. PMID:27516859

  8. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  9. Influence of the Wax Lake Delta sediment diversion on aboveground plant productivity and carbon storage in deltaic island and mainland coastal marshes

    DeLaune, R. D.; Sasser, C. E.; Evers-Hebert, E.; White, J. R.; Roberts, H. H.

    2016-08-01

    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing a significant loss of coastal wetland area due to increasing sea level rise, subsidence, sediment starvation and marsh collapse. The construction of large scale Mississippi River sediment diversions is currently being planned in an effort to help combat coastal wetlands losses at a rate of >50 km-2 y-1. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is currently being used as a model for evaluating potential land gain from large scale diversions of Mississippi River water and sediment. In this study, we determine the impact of the WLD diversion on plant production at newly formed islands within the delta and adjacent, mainland freshwater marshes. Plant aboveground productivity, sediment nutrient status and short term accretion were measured at three locations on a transect at each of three fresh water marsh sites along Hog Bayou and at six newly formed emerging island sites in the delta. Spring flooding has resulted in a greater increase in plant production and consequently, greater carbon sequestration potential in adjacent mainland marshes compared to the newly formed island sites, which contain less total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in the sediment. While sediment diversions are predicted to create land, as seen in island formation in the WLD, the greatest benefit of river sediment diversions from a carbon credit perspective might be to the adjacent freshwater mainland marshes for several reasons. Both greater plant production and sediment C accumulation are two important factors for marsh stability, while perhaps even more critical, is the prevention of the loss of stored sediment C in the marsh profile. This stored C would be lost without the introduction of freshwater, nutrients and sediment through river sediment diversion efforts.

  10. Biomass and productivity of trematode parasites in pond ecosystems.

    Preston, Daniel L; Orlofske, Sarah A; Lambden, Jason P; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2013-05-01

    1. Ecologists often measure the biomass and productivity of organisms to understand the importance of populations and communities in the flow of energy through ecosystems. Despite the central role of such studies in the advancement of freshwater ecology, there has been little effort to incorporate parasites into studies of freshwater energy flow. This omission is particularly important considering the roles that parasites sometimes play in shaping community structure and ecosystem processes. 2. Using quantitative surveys and dissections of over 1600 aquatic invertebrate and amphibian hosts, we calculated the ecosystem-level biomass and productivity of trematode parasites alongside the biomass of free-living aquatic organisms in three freshwater ponds in California, USA. 3. Snails and amphibian larvae, which are both important intermediate trematode hosts, dominated the dry biomass of free-living organisms across ponds (snails = 3.2 g m(-2); amphibians = 3.1 g m(-2)). An average of 33.5% of mature snails were infected with one of six trematode taxa, amounting to a density of 13 infected snails m(-2) of pond substrate. Between 18% and 33% of the combined host and parasite biomass within each infected snail consisted of larval trematode tissue, which collectively accounted for 87% of the total trematode biomass within the three ponds. Mid-summer trematode dry biomass averaged 0.10 g m(-2), which was equal to or greater than that of the most abundant insect orders (coleoptera = 0.10 g m(-2), odonata = 0.08 g m(-2), hemiptera = 0.07 g m(-2) and ephemeroptera = 0.03 g m(-2)). 4. On average, each trematode taxon produced between 14 and 1660 free-swimming larvae (cercariae) infected snail(-1) 24 h(-1) in mid-summer. Given that infected snails release cercariae for 3-4 months a year, the pond trematode communities produced an average of 153 mg m(-2) yr(-1) of dry cercarial biomass (range = 70-220 mg m(-2) yr(-1)). 5. Our results suggest that a significant amount of energy

  11. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  12. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience. PMID:26840632

  13. Biological hydrogen production from biomass by thermophilic bacteria

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Mars, A.E.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lai, M.; de Vrije, T. [Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (AFSG), Business Unit Biobased Products, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, (Netherlands); van Niel, E.W.J. [Lund University, Applied microbiology, P.O. Box 124, 221 000 Lund, (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    To meet the reduction of the emission of CO{sub 2} imposed by the Kyoto protocol, hydrogen should be produced from renewable primary energy. Besides the indirect production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from renewable resources, such as sunlight, wind and hydropower, hydrogen can be directly produced from biomass. At present, there are two strategies for the production of hydrogen from biomass: the thermochemical technology, such as gasification, and the biotechnological approach using micro-organisms. Biological hydrogen production delivers clean hydrogen with an environmental-friendly technology and is very suitable for the conversion of wet biomass in small-scale applications, thus having a high chance of becoming an economically feasible technology. Many micro-organisms are able to produce hydrogen from mono- and disaccharides, starch and (hemi)cellulose under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic production of hydrogen is a common phenomenon, occurring during the process of anaerobic digestion. Here, hydrogen producing micro-organisms are in syn-trophy with methanogenic bacteria which consume the hydrogen as soon as it is produced. In this way, hydrogen production remains obscure and methane is the end-product. By uncoupling hydrogen production from methane production, hydrogen becomes available for recovery and exploitation. This study describes the use of extreme thermophilic bacteria, selected because of a higher hydrogen production efficiency as compared to mesophilic bacteria, for the production of hydrogen from renewable resources. As feedstock energy crops like Miscanthus and Sorghum bicolor and waste streams like domestic organic waste, paper sludge and potato steam peels were used. The feedstock was pretreated and/or enzymatically hydrolyzed prior to fermentation to make a fermentable substrate. Hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, Thermotoga elfii and T. neapolitana on all substrates was observed. Nutrient

  14. Biological hydrogen production from biomass by thermophilic bacteria

    To meet the reduction of the emission of CO2 imposed by the Kyoto protocol, hydrogen should be produced from renewable primary energy. Besides the indirect production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from renewable resources, such as sunlight, wind and hydropower, hydrogen can be directly produced from biomass. At present, there are two strategies for the production of hydrogen from biomass: the thermochemical technology, such as gasification, and the biotechnological approach using micro-organisms. Biological hydrogen production delivers clean hydrogen with an environmental-friendly technology and is very suitable for the conversion of wet biomass in small-scale applications, thus having a high chance of becoming an economically feasible technology. Many micro-organisms are able to produce hydrogen from mono- and disaccharides, starch and (hemi)cellulose under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic production of hydrogen is a common phenomenon, occurring during the process of anaerobic digestion. Here, hydrogen producing micro-organisms are in syn-trophy with methanogenic bacteria which consume the hydrogen as soon as it is produced. In this way, hydrogen production remains obscure and methane is the end-product. By uncoupling hydrogen production from methane production, hydrogen becomes available for recovery and exploitation. This study describes the use of extreme thermophilic bacteria, selected because of a higher hydrogen production efficiency as compared to mesophilic bacteria, for the production of hydrogen from renewable resources. As feedstock energy crops like Miscanthus and Sorghum bicolor and waste streams like domestic organic waste, paper sludge and potato steam peels were used. The feedstock was pretreated and/or enzymatically hydrolyzed prior to fermentation to make a fermentable substrate. Hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, Thermotoga elfii and T. neapolitana on all substrates was observed. Nutrient requirements

  15. Estimativas da área foliar e da biomassa aérea da pupunheira por meio de relações alométricas Leaf area and aboveground biomass estimates in peach palm using allometric relationships

    Adriana Ramos

    2008-06-01

    Kunth are found in literature and are very useful especially in plant physiology research. However, leaf and biomass area parameters are quite variable as a function of genetics and environment. The objective of this work was to identify the most adjustable equations for peach palm leaf area and biomass area, in restricted by hydric and thermic factors. 14 peach palms (Putumayo landrace from Yurimaguas, Peru were planted in 2 x 1 m spacing. The parameters measured in the field were: main stem height, main stem diameter, leaf number and rachis length and thickness. Fresh and dry mass of rachis, leaflets, palm heart and stem were obtained. Plants selected for this study presented main stem height varying from 0.37 to 2.00 m, with two plants by length. In the laboratory were measured the leaf area and dry matter weight. Equations were fitted using regression analysis. The equation for peach palm leaf area was obtained by regression of leaflets dry weight. Among the tested models, non linear equations of the type Y= ax b and Y= a bx presented better fit (R²>0.88. The values of leaf area, leaf biomass and total leaf biomass varied between 0,84 - 14,06 m², 0,78 2,45 kg planta-1 and 0,14 a 4,44 kg planta-1. Among the parameters studied, plant height and rachis thickness were the most suitable for best indirect estimation of leaf area and aboveground biomass in peach palm plants.

  16. Recent advances in production of succinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Akhtar, Junaid; Idris, Ani; Abd Aziz, Ramlan

    2014-02-01

    Production of succinic acid via separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) are alternatives and are environmentally friendly processes. These processes have attained considerable positions in the industry with their own share of challenges and problems. The high-value succinic acid is extensively used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical, leather and textile industries and can be efficiently produced via several methods. Previously, succinic acid production via chemical synthesis from petrochemical or refined sugar has been the focus of interest of most reviewers. However, these expensive substrates have been recently replaced by alternative sustainable raw materials such as lignocellulosic biomass, which is cheap and abundantly available. Thus, this review focuses on succinic acid production utilizing lignocellulosic material as a potential substrate for SSF and SHF. SSF is an economical single-step process which can be a substitute for SHF - a two-step process where biomass is hydrolyzed in the first step and fermented in the second step. SSF of lignocellulosic biomass under optimum temperature and pH conditions results in the controlled release of sugar and simultaneous conversion into succinic acid by specific microorganisms, reducing reaction time and costs and increasing productivity. In addition, main process parameters which influence SHF and SSF processes such as batch and fed-batch fermentation conditions using different microbial strains are discussed in detail. PMID:24292125

  17. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  18. Bio-syngas production from biomass catalytic gasification

    A promising application for biomass is liquid fuel synthesis, such as methanol or dimethyl ether (DME). Previous studies have studied syngas production from biomass-derived char, oil and gas. This study intends to explore the technology of syngas production from direct biomass gasification, which may be more economically viable. The ratio of H2/CO is an important factor that affects the performance of this process. In this study, the characteristics of biomass gasification gas, such as H2/CO and tar yield, as well as its potential for liquid fuel synthesis is explored. A fluidized bed gasifier and a downstream fixed bed are employed as the reactors. Two kinds of catalysts: dolomite and nickel based catalyst are applied, and they are used in the fluidized bed and fixed bed, respectively. The gasifying agent used is an air-steam mixture. The main variables studied are temperature and weight hourly space velocity in the fixed bed reactor. Over the ranges of operating conditions examined, the maximum H2 content reaches 52.47 vol%, while the ratio of H2/CO varies between 1.87 and 4.45. The results indicate that an appropriate temperature (750 oC for the current study) and more catalyst are favorable for getting a higher H2/CO ratio. Using a simple first order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, the apparent activation energies and pre-exponential factors are obtained for nickel based catalysts. The results indicate that biomass gasification gas has great potential for liquid fuel synthesis after further processing

  19. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    There is considerable public interest in developing a sustainable biobased economy that favors support of family farms and rural communities and also promotes the development of biorenewable energy resources. This study focuses on a number of questions related to the development and exploration of new pathways that can potentially move us toward a more sustainable biobased economy. These include issues related to biomass fuels for drying grain, economies-of-scale, new biomass harvest systems, sugar-to-ethanol crop alternatives for the Upper Midwest U.S., biomass transportation, post-harvest biomass processing and double cropping production scenarios designed to maximize biomass feedstock production. The first section of this study considers post-harvest drying of shelled corn grain both at farm-scale and at larger community-scaled installations. Currently, drying of shelled corn requires large amounts of fossil fuel energy. To address future energy concerns, this study evaluates the potential use of combined heat and power systems that use the combustion of corn stover to produce steam for drying and to generate electricity for fans, augers, and control components. Because of the large capital requirements for solid fuel boilers and steam turbines/engines, both farm-scale and larger grain elevator-scaled systems benefit by sharing boiler and power infrastructure with other processes. The second and third sections evaluate sweet sorghum as a possible "sugarcane-like" crop that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Various harvest systems are considered including a prototype mobile juice harvester, a hypothetical one-pass unit that separates grain heads from chopped stalks and traditional forage/silage harvesters. Also evaluated were post-harvest transportation, storage and processing costs and their influence on the possible use of sweet sorghum as a supplemental feedstock for existing dry-grind ethanol plants located in the Upper Midwest. Results show that the concept

  20. Carbonaceous residues from biomass gasification as catalysts for biodiesel production

    Rafael Luque; Antonio Pineda; Juan C. Colmenares; Juan M. Campelo; Antonio A. Romero; Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz; Luisa F. Cabeza; Jaime Cot-Gores

    2012-01-01

    Tars and alkali ashes from biomass gasification processes currently constitute one of the major problems in biomass valorisation,generating clogging of filters and issues related with the purity of syngas production.To date,these waste residues find no useful applications and they are generally disposed upon generation in the gasification process.A detailed analysis of these residues pointed out the presence of high quantities of Ca (>30 wt%).TG experiments indicated that a treatment under air at moderate temperatures (400-800 ℃) decomposed the majority of carbon species,while XRD indicated the presence of a crystalline CaO phase.CaO enriched valorized materials turned out to be good heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils,providing moderate to good activities (50%-70% after 12 h) to fatty acid methyl esters in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol.

  1. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well. PMID:26256682

  2. Optimal process design for thermochemical production of fuels from biomass

    Gassner, Martin; Maréchal, François

    2008-01-01

    Transport applications are a major global source of greenhouse gas emissions and the production of fuels that are renewable and neutral in CO2 is an important issue in chemical process research and development. Contrary to the biological routes that produce bioethanol and -diesel on industrial scale through fermentation or esterification, 2nd generation biofuels obtained through thermochemical processing of lignocellulosic and waste biomass by means of gasification and fuel reforming are expe...

  3. Biomass Yield of Different Plants for Biogass Production

    Balodis, Oskars; Bartuševics, Jānis; Gaile, Zinta

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate yield potential of plants probably suitable for biogas production preliminary field trials were carried out at Research and Study farm “Vecauce” in 2010 using eight annual plant species: maize, winter oil-seed rape, oil radish, sunflower, foxtail millet, millet, hemp and amaranth. All species (except oil radish) were represented with several varieties, and some species were harvested at 2-3 development stages. Obtained fresh biomass yield was from 33.05 (millet „Rudes‟...

  4. Hydrogen production by water splitting with biomass and coal

    This study shall contribute to recognise the chemical and engineering research and development need for the future energy supply which besides the improvement of the energy efficiency will increasingly use renewable energies. As an introduction to the complex topic a summarised opinion of competent international experts about the development of energy requirements and its supply in the current century is put in front. An important role can be derived from this for the biomass. The use of the solar power accumulated in the biomass for water splitting to produce the low-emission fuel hydrogen could play a significant role to substitute oil and natural gas. Besides this, the coal which has today the largest foreseeable reserves of the fossil fuels probably will have to make an important contribution. Dominant for the use of coal is the efficiency improvement of the transformation processes and the reduction of the emissions / immissions, as well for electricity production as for synthetic fuel production. This aim should most likely be achieved by gasification and for the electricity production in connection with gas turbines (combined cycle) or also hydrogen fuel cells. The principles of the gasification for the different carbonaceous educts - from biomass up to anthracite - are the same. The differences in reactivity and in accompanying substances require both a better understanding of the chemical - physical fundamentals and technological progress, to guarantee the required high process efficiency and the restrictive purity specifications of gas turbines or fuel cells. The state of the art for the hydrogen production also with a view to the use of renewable energies is presented and discussed in detail. The process developments for the gasification of biomass are surprisingly little progressed in comparison with the expensive electrolysis using renewable electricity (photo voltaic, wind). After describing of R and D projects which build up on the principles of

  5. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  6. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. PMID:22695801

  7. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  8. Biomass and multi-product crops for agricultural and energy production - an AGE analysis

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops. T

  9. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  10. Biomass production, nutrient cycling, and carbon fixation by Salicornia brachiata Roxb.: A promising halophyte for coastal saline soil rehabilitation.

    Rathore, Aditya P; Chaudhary, Doongar R; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-08-01

    In order to increase our understanding of the interaction of soil-halophyte (Salicornia brachiata) relations and phytoremediation, we investigated the aboveground biomass, carbon fixation, and nutrient composition (N, P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg) of S. brachiata using six sampling sites with varying characteristics over one growing season in intertidal marshes. Simultaneously, soil characteristics and nutrient concentrations were also estimated. There was a significant variation in soil characteristics and nutrient contents spatially (except pH) as well as temporally. Nutrient contents in aboveground biomass of S. brachiata were also significantly differed spatially (except C and Cl) as well as temporally. Aboveground biomass of S. brachiata ranged from 2.51 to 6.07 t/ha at maturity and it was positively correlated with soil electrical conductivity and available Na, whereas negatively with soil pH. The K/Na ratio in plant was below one, showing tolerance to salinity. The aboveground C fixation values ranged from 0.77 to 1.93 C t/ha at all six sampling sites. This study provides new understandings into nutrient cycling-C fixation potential of highly salt-tolerant halophyte S. brachiata growing on intertidal soils of India. S. brachiata have a potential for amelioration of the salinity due to higher Na bioaccumulation factor. PMID:26852782

  11. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  12. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  13. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    陈冠益; 方梦祥; ANDRIES,J.; 骆仲泱; SPLIETHOFF,H.; 岑可法

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The ki-netic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into pri-mary products ( tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  14. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology. PMID:25022835

  15. Combined biomass valorization and hydrogen production in a photoelectrochemical cell

    Cha, Hyun Gil; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2015-04-01

    In a typical hydrogen-producing photoelectrochemical cell (PEC), water reduction at the cathode (producing hydrogen) is accompanied by water oxidation at the anode (producing oxygen). This anode reaction is, however, not kinetically favourable. Here we investigate the possibility of utilizing solar energy for biomass conversion by performing the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) at the anode of a PEC. HMF is a key intermediate in biomass conversion, and FDCA is an important monomer for the production of numerous polymers. Using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl as a mediator, we obtained a near-quantitative yield and 100% Faradaic efficiency at ambient conditions without the use of precious-metal catalysts. This reaction is also thermodynamically and kinetically more favourable than water oxidation. Our results suggest that solar-driven biomass conversion can be a viable anode reaction that has the potential to increase both the efficiency and the utility of PECs constructed for solar-fuel production.

  16. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  17. Anaerobic digestion of biomass for methane production: a review

    Gunaseelan, V.N. [PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-12-31

    Biological conversion of biomass to methane has received increasing attention in recent years. Hand- and mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste and nearly 100 genera of fruit and vegetable solid wastes, leaves, grasses, woods, weeds, marine and freshwater biomass have been explored for their anaerobic digestion potential to methane. In this review, the extensive literature data have been tabulated and ranked under various categories and the influence of several parameters on the methane potential of the feedstocks are presented. Almost all the land- and water-based species examined to date either have good digestion characteristics or can be pre-treated to promote digestion. This review emphasizes the urgent need for evaluating the inumerable unexplored genera of plants as potential sources for methane production. (author)

  18. Tar dewpoint analyser. For application in biomass gasification product gases

    This project aims at the development of an analyser for the on-line measurement of tar dewpoints in biomass product gases. The work has been executed according to the project proposal. On basis of the specifications for the tar dewpoint analyser (TDA), an existing hydrocarbon dewpoint sensor was modified and a gas conditioning section was designed for tar dewpoint measurements. Preliminary laboratory tests with the gas conditioning section and dewpoint sensor were run to investigate the performance and fouling characteristics of the dewpoint sensor and the gas conditioning section. The TDA (gas conditioning section + sensor) was tested and validated downstream the laboratory scale BFB gasifier at ECN. Tar dewpoints between 25C and 170C could successfully be measured. After finishing the tests a pre design for a commercial analyser was made. Finally, the market for the TDA was identified and segmented in R and D groups, indirect co-combustion and stand-alone biomass gasification installations

  19. Biomass and Stored Carbohydrate Compensation after Above-Ground Biomass Removal in a Perennial Herb: Does Environmental Productivity Play a Role?

    Latzel, Vít; Janeček, Štěpán; Hájek, Tomáš; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 17-29. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP505/10/P173; GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : compensation * disturbance * HPLC Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  20. Benthic bacterial biomass and production in the Hudson River estuary

    Bacterial biomass, production, and turnover were determined for two freshwater march sites and a site in the main river channel along the tidally influenced Hudson River. The incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine into DNA was used to estimate the growth rate of surface and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial production at marsh sites was similar to, and in some cases considerably higher than, production estimates reported for other aquatic wetland and marine sediment habitats. Production averaged 1.8-2.8 mg C·m-2· hour-1 in marsh sediments. Anaerobic bacteria in marsh sediment incorporated significant amounts of [methyl-3H]thymidine into DNA. Despite differences in dominant vegatation and tidal regime, bacterial biomass was similar (1 x 103 ± 0.08 mg C·m-2) in Trapa, Typha, and Nuphar aquatic macrophyte communities. Bacterial abundance and productivity were lower in sandy sediments associated with Scirpus communities along the Hudson River (0.2 x 103 ± 0.05 mg C·m-2 and 0.3 ± 0.23 mg C · m-2· hour-1, respectively)

  1. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  2. Embodied HANPP. Mapping the spatial disconnect between global biomass production and consumption

    Biomass trade results in a growing spatial disconnect between environmental impacts due to biomass production and the places where biomass is being consumed. The pressure on ecosystems resulting from the production of traded biomass, however, is highly variable between regions and products. We use the concept of embodied human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) to map the spatial disconnect between net-producing and net-consuming regions. Embodied HANPP comprises total biomass withdrawals and land use induced changes in productivity resulting from the provision of biomass products. International net transfers of embodied HANPP are of global significance, amounting to 1.7 PgC/year. Sparsely populated regions are mainly net producers, densely populated regions net consumers, independent of development status. Biomass consumption and trade are expected to surge over the next decades, suggesting a need to sustainably manage supply and demand of products of ecosystems on a global level. (author)

  3. On-line catalytic upgrading of biomass fast pyrolysis products

    LU Qiang; ZHU XiFeng; LI WenZhi; ZHANG Ying; CHEN DengYu

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed to achieve fast pyrolysis of biomass and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Four biomass materials (poplar wood, fir wood, cotton straw and rice husk) were pyrolyzed to reveal the difference among their products. Moreover, catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors from cotton straw was performed by using five catalysts, including two microporous zeolites (HZSM-5 and HY) and three mesoporous catalysts (ZrO2&TiO2, SBA-15 and AI/SBA-15). The results showed that the distribution of the pyrolytic products from the four materials differed a little from each other, while catalytic cracking could significantly alter the pyrolytic products. Those important primary pyrolytic products such as levoglucosen, hydroxyacetaldehyde and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone were decreased greatly after catalysis. The two microporous zeolites were ef-fective to generate high yields of hydrocarbons, while the three mesoporous materials favored the formation of furan, furfural and other furan compounds, as well as acetic acid.

  4. Mapping tropical forest biomass with radar and spaceborne LiDAR: overcoming problems of high biomass and persistent cloud

    Mitchard, E. T. A.; Saatchi, S. S.; White, L.J.T.; Abernethy, K. A.; Jeffery, K J; S. L. Lewis; Collins, M.; M. A. Lefsky; M. E. Leal; Woodhouse, I.H.; P. Meir

    2011-01-01

    Spatially-explicit maps of aboveground biomass are essential for calculating the losses and gains in forest carbon at a regional to national level. The production of such maps across wide areas will become increasingly necessary as international efforts to protect primary forests, such as the REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) mechanism, come into effect, alongside their use for management and research more generally. However, mapping biomass over high-biomas...

  5. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  6. Mini digester and biogas production from plant biomass

    P. Vindis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different agriculture plant biomass and other organic wastes. The amount of biogas production (methane is observed by the mini digester.Design/methodology/approach: The mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and some measurements with agriculture plant biomass were performed according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with three repetitions can be performed.Findings: With the mini digester the amount of biogas production is observed. The parameters such as biogas production and biogas composition from maize and sugar beet silage in certain ratio were measured and calculated. The highest biogas and methane yield was 493 NI kg VS-1 or 289 NI CH4 kg VS-1.Research limitations/implications: The scope of substrates for the anaerobic digestion process is on the increase so the interest in the use of the biogas as a source of a renewable energy is very high. With mini digester it is possible to observe the amount of biogas (methane production and so the most suitable plant giving the maximum methane yield, can be determined.Practical implications: The aim of biogas as renewable source of energy is to replace fossil fuels with sustainable energy production systems and to fulfil the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. On big farms the liquid manure and different energy crops can be used for biogas production. That can improve the economical efficiency of the farm and reduce the CO2 emissions.Originality/value: Mini digester for biogas production was built as special equipment. The quality of produced biogas is determined with a gas analyser GA 45.

  7. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  8. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  9. Sampling of contaminants from product gases of biomass gasifiers

    Staahlberg, P.; Lappi, M.; Kurkela, E.; Simell, P.; Oesch, P.; Nieminen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1998-12-01

    Reliable sampling and analysis of products from biomass gasification are essential for the successful process development and economical operation of commercial gasifiers. One of the most important and most difficult analytical tasks is to characterise the emissions from the gasifiers. This report presents a review of the sampling and analytical systems employed and developed when doing research on coal and biomass gasification. In addition to the sampling systems published in the literature, experiences obtained in various biomass gasification R and D projects of VTT in 1985-1995 are described. The present sampling methods used for different gas contaminants at VTT are also briefly presented. This report focuses mainly on the measurement of tars, nitrogen compounds and sulphur gases. Isokinetic and non-isokinetic sampling train systems are described and, in addition, special sampling apparatus based on liquid-quenched probe and gas dilution is briefly outlined. Sampling of tars with impinger systems and sampling of heavy tars with filter techniques are described in detail. Separate sampling of particulates is briefly discussed. From inorganic compounds the sampling systems used for H{sub 2}S and other sulphur gases, NH{sub 3} and HCN and HCl are presented. Proper storage of the samples is also included in the report. (orig.) 90 refs.

  10. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Jennifer K. Costanza; Robert C. Abt; Alexa J. McKerrow; Collazo, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-u...

  11. Evaluation of Alnus species and hybrids. [For biomass energy production

    Hall, R.B. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US). Dept. of Forestry); Burgess, D. (Petawawa National Forestry Inst., Chalk River, Ontario (CA))

    1990-01-01

    Trials of a common set of seed lots representing 39 parents and five species of Alnus have been started in four countries: Belgium, Canada, the UK, and the US. Initial results indicate that cold hardiness is a problem in using A. acuminata but that sufficiently hardy A. rubra sources are available. A. glutinosa had the best growth in the nursery, and A. cordata had the best survival under severe moisture-stress conditions. A summary also is given of a workshop on alder improvement that further demonstrates the potential for developing the genus for biomass energy production. (author).

  12. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  13. Liquid hot water pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production accompanying with high valuable products.

    Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Wen; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong; Zhou, Guixiong; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance of biomass and enhance the ethanol conversion efficiency of polysaccharides. Compared with other pretreatment methods, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment not only reduces the downstream pressure by making cellulose more accessible to the enzymes but minimizes the formation of degradation products that inhibit the growth of fermentative microorganisms. Herein, this review summarized the improved LHW process for different biomass feedstocks, the decomposition behavior of biomass in the LHW process, the enzymatic hydrolysis of LHW-treated substrates, and production of high value-added products and ethanol. Moreover, a combined process producing ethanol and high value-added products was proposed basing on the works of Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion to make LHW pretreatment acceptable in the biorefinery of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26403722

  14. "Trojan Horse" strategy for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production.

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Hadi, Masood Z.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomson, James (USDA, Albany, CA); Whalen, Maureen (USDA, Albany, CA); Thilmony, Roger (USDA, Albany, CA); Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Sapra, Rajat

    2008-08-01

    Production of renewable biofuels to displace fossil fuels currently consumed in the transportation sector is a pressing multi-agency national priority. Currently, nearly all fuel ethanol is produced from corn-derived starch. Dedicated 'energy crops' and agricultural waste are preferred long-term solutions for renewable, cheap, and globally available biofuels as they avoid some of the market pressures and secondary greenhouse gas emission challenges currently facing corn ethanol. These sources of lignocellulosic biomass are converted to fermentable sugars using a variety of chemical and thermochemical pretreatments, which disrupt cellulose and lignin cross-links, allowing exogenously added recombinant microbial enzymes to more efficiently hydrolyze the cellulose for 'deconstruction' into glucose. This process is plagued with inefficiencies, primarily due to the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, mass transfer issues during deconstruction, and low activity of recombinant deconstruction enzymes. Costs are also high due to the requirement for enzymes and reagents, and energy-intensive and cumbersome pretreatment steps. One potential solution to these problems is found in synthetic biology; they propose to engineer plants that self-produce a suite of cellulase enzymes targeted to the apoplast for cleaving the linkages between lignin and cellulosic fibers; the genes encoding the degradation enzymes, also known as cellulases, are obtained from extremophilic organisms that grow at high temperatures (60-100 C) and acidic pH levels (<5). These enzymes will remain inactive during the life cycle of the plant but become active during hydrothermal pretreatment i.e., elevated temperatures. Deconstruction can be integrated into a one-step process, thereby increasing efficiency (cellulose-cellulase mass-transfer rates) and reducing costs. The proposed disruptive technologies address biomass deconstruction processes by developing transgenic plants encoding a

  15. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based on the principle of keeping the heating value of the gas almost unchanged. The studied parameters include reaction temperature, residence time of volatile phase in the reactor, physico-chemical pretreatment of biomass particles, heating rate of the external heating furnace and improvement of the heat and mass transfer ability of the pyrolysis reactor. The running temperature of a separate cracking reactor and the geometrical configuration of the pyrolysis reactor are also studied. However, due to time limits, different types of catalysts are not used in this work to determine their positive influences on biomass pyrolysis behaviour. The results indicate that product gas production from biomass pyrolysis is sensitive to the operating parameters mentioned above, and the product gas heating value is high, up to 13-15 MJ/N m3

  16. Kinetic studies of amylase and biomass production by Calvatia gigantea

    Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Production of alpha-amylase (alpha-4, glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) by microorganisms has been practiced for many years in small and large scale operations and the literature on this enzyme is voluminous. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae have been reported as the main fungal species used for commercial production of the enzyme. On the other hand, large volumes of low-cost agricultural products such as acorn (the perisperm-free dry seed contains approximately 60% starch) are wasted in many countries and provide a challenge to biotechnology to efficiently utilize these rich sources of starch for the production of high added value products like enzymes. C. gigantea is an edible puffball excreting high levels of alpha-amylase when cultivated on different sources of starch containing elevated quantities of toxic tannic compounds. This fungus has been employed for the production of microbial protein from wastes and acorns containing high levels of toxic tannic compounds. The same fungus was also reported to grow on both hydrolyzable and condensed tannins as sole carbon sources. The present work was undertaken to investigate certain kinetic characteristics of alpha-amylase and biomass production by C. gigantea grown on soluble and acorn starch in a lab fermenter. (Refs. 18).

  17. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. PMID:26298257

  18. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  19. Chlorella vulgaris vs cyanobacterial biomasses: Comparison in terms of biomass productivity and biogas yield

    Highlights: • Cyanobacteria and C. vulgaris were compared in terms of growth and methane production. • Biomasses were subjected to anaerobic digestion without applying any disruption method. • Cyanobacteria showed an increased methane yield in comparison with C. vulgaris. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare cyanobacteria strains (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, Anabaena planctonica, Borzia trilocularis and Synechocystis sp.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) in terms of growth rate, biochemical profile and methane production. Cyanobacteria growth rate ranged 0.5–0.6 day−1 for A. planctonica, A. ovalisporum and Synecochystis sp. and 0.4 day−1 for B. tricularis. Opposite, C. vulgaris maximum growth rate was double (1.2 day−1) than that of cyanobacteria. Regarding the methane yield, microalgae C. vulgaris averaged 120 mL CH4 g COD in−1 due to the presence of a strong cell wall. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of cyanobacteria supported higher methane yields. B. trilocularis and A. planctonica presented 1.42-fold higher methane yield than microalgae while this value was raised to approximately 1.85-fold for A. ovalisporum and Synechochystis sp. In the biogas production context, this study showed that the low growth rates of cyanobacteria can be overcome by their increased anaerobic digestibility when compared to their microalgae counterpartners, such is the case of C. vulgaris

  20. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  1. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... hydrolysates indicate the great potential of the tested strain as a realistic candidate for industrial scale bioethanol production from lignocellulose. The study shows that the use of fluidized bed reactor technology might be a viable approach in a commercial lignocellulose-based bioethanol process using......Bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass) as a motor fuel is an attractive renewable fully sustainable energy sources as a means of lowering dependence on fossil fuels and air pollution towards greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2. Bioethanol, unlike gasoline, is an oxygenated fuel, which burns...

  2. Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm: Photoefficiency and biomass production under intermittent lighting.

    Toninelli, Andrea Efrem; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Mingshen; Wu, Hong; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of intermittent lighting on the growth performances of a Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm. Flashing light effect (FLE) is common in traditional suspended cultures of microalgae; yet, publications about this phenomenon, in the context of biofilm cultivation, are scarce. In this work we demonstrate that, thanks to intermittent illumination, it is possible for attached cultivations to fulfill FLE, improve photoefficiency and productivity as well as providing protection from photoinhibition using much lower flashing light frequencies than those usually required with suspended cultures. Medium frequency intermittent lighting (0.1 Hz) guaranteed excellent light integration resulting in 9.13 g m(-2) d(-1) biomass productivity, which was 8.9% higher than with continuous lighting. Results showed that a light fraction value of 0.5 always improved photoefficiency values as related to continuous light with a 118.8% maximum increase. PMID:27561323

  3. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  4. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  5. Productivity of clay tailings from phosphate mining: I. Biomass crops

    Phosphate mining in Florida has waste products of phosphatic clay and quartz sand tailings, each making up about one-third of the original matrix (PO4 ore, sand, and clay). Phosphatic clay ponds typically occupy about 50% of the mined sites and normally require 10 to 15 yr before 40 to 50% solids are obtained. These clays contain no phytotoxic materials and are high in most plant nutrients. When surface water has disappeared, these clays are classified as clayey Haplaquents. A split-plot field experiment was conducted to study biomass yield, quality, plant nutrient concentrations, changes in soil nutrients, and 226Ra. Seven biomass crops -(i) elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L. PI 300086), (ii) leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wet], (iii) alemangrass [Echinochloa polystachya (H.B.K) Hitch], (iv) erianthus [Erianthus arundinaceum (Retz) Jews IK 76-63'], (v) desmodium (Desmodium cinerascens A. Gray), (vi) sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench USDA M 81E], and (vii) forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Pioneer 931] - were grown on the phosphatic clay with and without a 5-cm surface layer of quartz sand tailings. Nitrogen was the only fertilizer element applied for grass species and no fertilizer was applied for legumes during the 4-yr period. Dry biomass yield averaged over 4 yr for erianthus, leucaena, and elephantgrass averaged 139.6, 58.5, and 56.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Crude protein and digestibility were low in mature, whole-plant samples except for leucaena (122.0 g kg-1). Generally, all whole plants contained adequate concentrations of nutrients. Mehlich-I-extractable soil nutrient concentrations changed little over the 4-yr period. Radium-226 concentration in plant tissue (0.23 pCi g-1) was nearly six times higher than the concentration measured in plants from an unmined surface Spodosol (0.04 pCi g-1)

  6. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    Collins, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Univ. of Agronomy

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  7. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass. A comparative study

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Koukios, E.G. [Bioresource Technology Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens GR-15700 (Greece); Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; De Vrije, T.; Claassen, P.A.M. [Wageningen UR Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet extract (SB) were comparatively evaluated for fermentative hydrogen production. Pretreatments and/or enzymatic hydrolysis led to 27, 37, 56, 74 and 45 g soluble sugars/100 g dry BS, CS, BG, CG and SB, respectively. A rapid test was applied to evaluate the fermentability of the hydrolysates and SB extract. The thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus showed high hydrogen production on hydrolysates of mild-acid pretreated BS, hydrolysates of BG and CG, and SB extract. Mild-acid pretreated CS showed limited fermentability, which was partially due to inhibitory products released in the hydrolysates, implying the need for the employment of a milder pretreatment method. The difference in the fermentability of BS and CS is in strong contrast to the similarity of the composition of these two feedstocks. The importance of performing fermentability tests to determine the suitability of a feedstock for hydrogen production was confirmed.

  8. Effects of Chemical Parameters on Spirulina platensis Biomass Production: Optimized Method for Phycocyanin Extraction

    Vasanthi, B.; P. Soundarapandian

    2008-01-01

    The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cult...

  9. Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

    Rafał Baum; Karol Wajszczuk; Benedykt Pepliński; Jacek Wawrzynowicz

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the production capacity of Polish agriculture with respect to biomass used for energy production. The forecast production potential of agricultural biomass in Poland in 2020 includes three key areas: the expected consumption of renewable energy according to energy type, the energy potential of agriculture and barriers to the use of biomass. Studies have shown that in Poland, total energy consumption will significantly increase (over 10% by 2020). Growth of demand for rene...

  10. Biomass and its potential for protein and amino acids : valorizing agricultural by-products

    Sari, Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomass for industrial products is not new. Plants have long been used for clothes, shelter, paper, construction, adhesives, tools, and medicine. With the exploitation on fossil fuel usage in the early 20th century and development of petroleum based refinery, the use of biomass for industrial application declined. Since the late 1960s, the petroleum-based products have widely replaced the use of biomass-based products. However, depletion of fossil fuels, rising oil prices, and grow...

  11. Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield Efeito de espaçamentos entre fileiras e uso de herbicidas na massa aérea das plantas daninhas e produtividade de grãos de milho

    H.A. Acciares

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of narrow plant spacing in corn (Zea mays has been suggested as a technological alternative to obtain grain yield increases, due to a better use of resources. The regular pattern could diminish intraspecific competition while favoring interspecific competition with weeds. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of corn row spacing on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. Three corn hybrids with two-row width (0.70 and 0.35 m were tested. A greater photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD interception with a lower weed aboveground dry matter in narrow row arrangement was obtained. Corn grain yield was greater in the narrow row arrangement than in the wide row spacing. This increase in grain yield was related to a better resource use that allows for a reduced interspecific competition. The use of reduced spatial arrangement appeared to be an interesting alternative to increase both the grain yield potential and corn suppressive ability against weeds in corn dryland production systems.O uso de espaçamento reduzido entre fileiras de milho foi sugerido como uma alternativa tecnólogica para obter incrementos de produção de grãos devido a um melhor uso de recursos. Os arranjos regulares das culturas podem diminuir a competição entre as plantas da cultura, ao mesmo tempo que podem favorecer a competição com as plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito da modificação do espaçamento em milho sobre a produção de biomassa da parte aérea das plantas daninhas e sobre a produção de grãos da cultura. Foram conduzidos experimentos em campo durante duas estações de crescimento. Utilizaram-se três híbridos de milho com dois espaçamentos (0,70 e 0,35 m entre fileiras. Observou-se maior intercepção da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa, com menor produção de biomassa aérea das plantas daninhas no menor

  12. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  13. Harvesting and processing of microalgae biomass fractions for biodiesel production

    There has been a recent resurgent interest in microalgae as an oil producer for biofuel applications. An adequate supply of nutrients and carbon dioxide enables algae to successfully transform light energy of the sun into energy - rich chemical compounds through photosynthesis. A strain with high lipids, successfully grown and harvested, could provide oil for most of our process by volume, which would then provide the most profitable output. Significant advances have also been made in upstream processing to generate cellular biomass and oil. However, the process of extracting and purifying of oil from algae continues to prove a significant challenge in producing both microalgae bioproducts and biofuel, as the oil extraction from algae is relatively energy-intensive and expensive. The aim of this review is to focus on different harvesting and extraction processes of algae for biodiesel production reported within the last decade. (author)

  14. Availability of biomass for energy production. GRAIN: Global Restrictions on biomass Availability for Import to the Netherlands

    The report includes reports of activities that were carried out within the GRAIN project. This evaluation shows that the (technical) potential contribution of bio-energy to the future world's energy supply could be very large. In theory, energy farming on current agricultural land could contribute over 800 EJ, without jeopardising the world's food supply. Use of degraded lands may add another 150 EJ, although this contribution will largely come from crops with a low productivity. The growing demand for bio-materials may require a biomass input equivalent to 20-50 EJ, which must be grown on plantations when existing forests are not able to supply this growing demand. Organic wastes and residues could possibly supply another 40-170 EJ, with uncertain contributions from forest residues and potentially a very significant role for organic waste, especially when bio-materials are used on a larger scale. In total, the upper limit of the bio-energy potential could be over 1000 EJ per year. This is considerably more than the current global energy use of 400 EJ. However, this contribution is by no means guaranteed: crucial factors determining biomass availability for energy are: (1) Population growth and economic development; (2) The efficiency and productivity of food production systems that must be adopted worldwide and the rate of their deployment in particular in developing countries; (3) Feasibility of the use of marginal/degraded lands; (4) Productivity of forests and sustainable harvest levels; (5) The (increased) utilisation of bio-materials. Major transitions are required to exploit this bio-energy potential. It is uncertain to what extent such transitions are feasible. Depending on the factors mentioned above, the bio-energy potential could be very low as well. At regional/local level the possibilities and potential consequences of biomass production and use can vary strongly, but the insights in possible consequences are fairly limited up to now. Bio-energy offers

  15. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a...... production potential of 45 T (TS) ha−1 y−1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g−1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase in...... weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  16. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  17. Thermal conversion of biomass with emphasis on product distribution, reaction kinetics and sulfur abatement.

    Khalil, Roger A.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the work performed in this study has concentrated on the thermal decomposition of biomass. This was done because to the simple fact that biomass is mainly composed of volatiles that evaporates prior to the gasification stage.The characteristics of the devolatilized products during pyrolysis are reported in Paper I for several fuels types that have been considered as sources for energy production due to their fast growing abilities. Paper I also reports results for the same biomass typ...

  18. COMBINING LIDAR ESTIMATES OF BIOMASS AND LANDSAT ESTIMATES OF STAND AGE FOR SPATIALLY EXTENSIVE VALIDATION OF MODELED FOREST PRODUCTIVITY. (R828309)

    Extensive estimates of forest productivity are required to understand the relationships between shifting land use, changing climate and carbon storage and fluxes. Aboveground net primary production of wood (NPPAw) is a major component of total NPP and...

  19. Mapping tropical forest biomass with radar and spaceborne LiDAR in Lopé National Park, Gabon:Overcoming problems of high biomass and persistent cloud

    Mitchard, E. T. A.; Woodhouse, I.H.; P. Meir; Saatchi, S. S.; White, L.J.T.; Jeffery, K J; Abernethy, K. A.; S. L. Lewis; Collins, M.; M. A. Lefsky; M. E. Leal

    2012-01-01

    Spatially-explicit maps of aboveground biomass are essential for calculating the losses and gains in forest carbon at a regional to national level. The production of such maps across wide areas will become increasingly necessary as international efforts to protect primary forests, such as the REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) mechanism, come into effect, alongside their use for management and research more generally. However, mapping biomass over high-biomas...

  20. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  1. Model for optimization of biomass utilization of energy production by energetic and economic requirements

    Istvan Takacs; Erika Nagy-Kovacs; Ervin Hollo; Sandor Marselek

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-energy use is not a new idea. Earlier the by-products of the production processes or naturally grown materials were mainly used for energy production. One of the answers to the contemporary problems is the deliberate as well as mass production of the biomass, furthermore the planned and systematic collection of the by-products, which is the source of the energy being able to replace a part of the fossil fuels. At the same time during the production of biomass the conventional sources ...

  2. MICROALGAE BIOMASS PRODUCTION BASED ON WASTEWATER FROM DAIRY INDUSTRY

    Marcin Dębowski; Marcin Zieliński; Magdalena Rokicka

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of culturing high-oil algae biomass based on wastewater from dairy processing plants. The experiments were conducted in laboratory scale with tubular photobioreactor using. The best technological properties were demonstrated for eluates from an anaerobic reactor treating dairy wastewater. The use of a substrate of this type yielded algae biomass concentration at a level of 3490 mg d.m./dm3, with the mean rate of algae biomass growth at 1...

  3. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Vanja Janušić; Duška Ćurić; Tajana Krička; Neven Voća; Ana Matin

    2008-01-01

    Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol.Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cel...

  4. Vancomycin production is enhanced in chemostat culture with biomass-recycle.

    McIntyre, J J; Bunch, A W; Bull, A T

    1999-03-01

    Production of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin by Amycolatopsis orientalis ATCC 19795 was examined in phosphate-limited chemostat cultures with biomass-recycle, employing an oscillating membrane separator, at a constant dilution rate (D= 0. 14 h-1). Experiments made under low agitation conditions (600 rpm) showed that the biomass concentration could be increased 3.9-fold with vancomycin production kinetics very similar to that of chemostat culture without biomass-recycle. The specific production rate (qvancomycin) was maximal when the biomass-recycle ratio (R) was 0.13 (D= 0.087 h-1). When the dissolved oxygen tension dropped below 20% (air saturation), the biomass and vancomycin concentrations decreased and an unidentified red metabolite was released into the culture medium. Using increased agitation (850 rpm), used to maintain the dissolved oxygen tension above 20% air saturation, maximum increases in biomass concentration (7.9-fold) and vancomcyin production 1.6-fold (0.6 mg/g dry weight/h) were obtained when R was 0.44 (D= 0.056 h -1) compared to chemostat culture without biomass-recycle. Moreover, at this latter recycle ratio the volumetric vancomycin production rate was 14.7 mg/L/h (a 7-fold increase compared to chemostat culture without biomass-recycle). These observations encourage further research on biomass-recycling as a means of optimising the production of antibiotics. PMID:10099566

  5. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    A. B. Nasrin; A. N. Ma; Y. M. Choo; Mohamad, S.; M. H. Rohaya; A. Azali; Z. Zainal

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE) and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its phys...

  6. MICROALGAE BIOMASS PRODUCTION BASED ON WASTEWATER FROM DAIRY INDUSTRY

    Marcin Dębowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of culturing high-oil algae biomass based on wastewater from dairy processing plants. The experiments were conducted in laboratory scale with tubular photobioreactor using. The best technological properties were demonstrated for eluates from an anaerobic reactor treating dairy wastewater. The use of a substrate of this type yielded algae biomass concentration at a level of 3490 mg d.m./dm3, with the mean rate of algae biomass growth at 176 mg d.m./dm3∙d. The mean content of oil in the proliferated biomass of algae approximated 20%.

  7. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  8. Biomass and productivity estimation using aerospace data and Geographic Information System

    Traditionally biomass estimation involved harvesting of the trees. As the forest cover decreased, there became the need for non-destructive methods for volume/biomass estimation. Methods were developed to relate the biomass with girth, height, etc. Component-wise biomass equations were developed, which were used to estimate biomass at the plat level. In last couple of years satellite remote sensing has been successfully used for biomass and productivity estimation. The unique characteristic of plants is displayed by its reflectance in red and infrared region of electro-magnetic radiation. These have relationship with the biophysical parameters of plants. Therefore, process based models were developed to make use of the remotely sensed data available on monthly basis for estimation of Net Primary Productivity (NPP). Production efficiency model was used to estimate the NPP at the patch level, which takes Intercepted Photosynthetically Active Radiation (IPAR) and photosynthetic efficiency as input parameters testimate NPP

  9. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  10. Soil physical conditions in Nigerian savannas and biomass production

    posed by the vast area of upland soils which are made up of coarse-textured soils and in some cases gravel and stones. Aggregates of such soils are weak, they loose productivity fast and do not retain adequate water and nutrients for sustainable production. These characteristics imply that even with the best of soil fertility amendments, soil physical conditions must be managed to achieve sustainable crop production. Plant growth had to be encouraged in the soils, such that enough biomass is produced for food and soil management. Another area which requires attention in the tropics is with regard adaptability of equipment for accurate evaluation of soil physical properties. Most commercially available equipment in the field of soil physics needs to be modified to suit the tropical environment

  11. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  12. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  13. Ethanol Production from Hydrothermally-Treated Biomass from West Africa

    Bensah, Edem C.; Kádár, Zsófia; Mensah, Moses Y.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of diverse biomass resources in Africa, they have received little research and development focus. This study presents compositional analysis, sugar, and ethanol yields of hydrothermal pretreated (195 degrees C, 10 min) biomass from West Africa, including bamboo wood, rubber ...

  14. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  15. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs.

  16. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs

  17. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    A. B. Nasrin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB, in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its physical and chemical properties, mechanical strength and burning characteristics. It was found that briquettes made either from 100% pulverized EFB or mixed with sawdust exhibited good burning properties. EFB fibre and PKE, due to their physical properties, were recommended to be blended with sawdust in producing quality briquettes. In overall, converting palm biomass into briquettes has increased its energy content and reduced moisture content about minimum of 5% and 38% respectively compared to its raw materials. The properties of palm biomass briquettes obtained from the study were compared to the commercial sawdust briquettes properties and to the minimum requirements of DIN 51731. The details of the study were highlighted in this paper. Palm biomass briquettes can become an important renewable energy fuel source in the future.

  18. Production of nickel bio-ore from hyperaccumulator plant biomass: applications in phytomining.

    Boominathan, Rengasamy; Saha-Chaudhury, N M; Sahajwalla, Veena; Doran, Pauline M

    2004-05-01

    An important step in phytomining operations is the recovery of metal from harvested plant material. In this work, a laboratory-scale horizontal tube furnace was used to generate Ni-enriched bio-ore from the dried biomass of Ni hyperaccumulator plants. Prior to furnace treatment, hairy roots of Alyssum bertolonii were exposed to Ni in liquid medium to give biomass Ni concentrations of 1.9% to 7.7% dry weight; whole plants of Berkheya coddii were grown in Ni-containing soil to produce above-ground Ni levels of up to 0.49% dry weight. The concentration of Ca in the Ni-treated B. coddii biomass was about 15 times greater than in A. bertolonii. After furnace treatment at 1200 degrees C under air, Ni-bearing residues with crystalline morphology and containing up to 82% Ni were generated from A. bertolonii. The net weight loss in the furnace and the degree of concentration of Ni were significantly reduced when the furnace was purged with nitrogen, reflecting the importance of oxidative processes in Ni enrichment. Ni in the B. coddii biomass was concentrated by a factor of about 17 to yield a residue containing 8.6% Ni; this bio-ore Ni content is substantially higher than the 1% to 2% Ni typically found in mined ore. However, the B. coddii samples after furnace treatment also contained about 34% Ca, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH. Such high Ca levels may present significant challenges for further metallurgical processing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of furnace treatment for generating Ni-rich bio-ore from hyperaccumulator plants. The results also suggest that minimizing the uptake of Ca and/or reducing the Ca content of the biomass prior to furnace treatment would be a worthwhile strategy for improving the quality of Ni bio-ore produced in phytomining operations. PMID:15083504

  19. Belowground plant biomass allocation in tundra ecosystems and its relationship with temperature

    Wang, Peng; Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.; Mommer, Liesje; van Ruijven, Jasper; Maximov, Trofim C.; Berendse, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Climate warming is known to increase the aboveground productivity of tundra ecosystems. Recently, belowground biomass is receiving more attention, but the effects of climate warming on belowground productivity remain unclear. Enhanced understanding of the belowground component of the tundra is important in the context of climate warming, since most carbon is sequestered belowground in these ecosystems. In this study we synthesized published tundra belowground biomass data from 36 field studies spanning a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient from ‑20 °C to 0 °C across the tundra biome, and determined the relationships between different plant biomass pools and MAT. Our results show that the plant community biomass–temperature relationships are significantly different between above and belowground. Aboveground biomass clearly increased with MAT, whereas total belowground biomass and fine root biomass did not show a significant increase over the broad MAT gradient. Our results suggest that biomass allocation of tundra vegetation shifts towards aboveground in warmer conditions, which could impact on the carbon cycling in tundra ecosystems through altered litter input and distribution in the soil, as well as possible changes in root turnover.

  20. Effects of planting density on the distribution of biomass in a douglas-fir plantation in southern Italy

    Marziliano PA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of initial planting densities on the distribution of above-ground biomass of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii were investigated in a plantation in southern Italy. Allometric equations designed for the plantation under study were used to estimate above-ground biomass and in particular partitioning to stem and crown compartments. A comparison between biomass estimated with allometric equations and biomass estimated with a constant biomass expansion factor (BEF from the Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC 2005 was carried out. Moreover, a BEF calculated as the ratio of total above-ground or compartment biomass to stem volume was used to define the sensitivity of BEF to age and to tree density. Variation of above-ground standing biomass estimated with allometric equations was evaluated according to 6 differing planting densities (833, 1000, 1250, 1667, 2000 and 2500 trees per hectare. In the first 20 years after planting higher biomass stock was detected in high density plots, but after the age of 32 years differences between plots disappeared. When the plantation was 40 years old, a higher amount of total biomass was observed in plots of 2000 trees per hectare (about 405 Mg ha-1, a lower amount in plots of 2500 trees per hectare (about 381 Mg ha-1. The Douglas-fir plantation has a total above-ground carbon stock of 197 Mg C ha-1 at the age of 40 and a mean annual CO2 sequestration of 18 Mg ha-1 y-1. Constant BEF from INFC underestimated biomass on average by 11% for ages 15 and 25 and overestimated biomass on average by 16% for older ages. BEFs expressed as a ratio of biomass to stem volume significantly depended upon age and planting density, with decreasing trends for total, stem and crown compartments. Our results indicated that total above-ground biomass production is not influenced by different tree density if considered over a long period. If cutting cycles are short, planting density on average

  1. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans: equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

    Michael J Osland

    Full Text Available Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1 total aboveground biomass; (2 leaf biomass; (3 stem plus branch biomass; and (4 leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

  2. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

    Osland, Michael J; Day, Richard H; Larriviere, Jack C; From, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone. PMID:24971938

  3. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

  4. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. PMID:25647023

  5. Biomass logistics analysis for large scale biofuel production: case study of loblolly pine and switchgrass.

    Lu, Xiaoming; Withers, Mitch R; Seifkar, Navid; Field, Randall P; Barrett, Steven R H; Herzog, Howard J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the costs, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the biomass supply chain for large scale biofuel production. Two types of energy crop were considered, switchgrass and loblolly pine, as representative of herbaceous and woody biomass. A biomass logistics model has been developed to estimate the feedstock supply system from biomass production through transportation. Biomass in the form of woodchip, bale and pellet was investigated with road, railway and waterway transportation options. Our analysis indicated that the farm or forest gate cost is lowest for loblolly pine whole tree woodchip at $39.7/dry tonne and highest for switchgrass round bale at $72.3/dry tonne. Switchgrass farm gate GHG emissions is approximately 146kgCO2e/dry tonne, about 4 times higher than loblolly pine. The optimum biomass transportation mode and delivered form are determined by the tradeoff between fixed and variable costs for feedstock shipment. PMID:25710677

  6. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  7. FOOD PRODUCTION VS. BIOMASS EXPORT VS. LAND-USE CHANGE: A CGE ANALYSIS FOR ARGENTINA

    Perry, Miles

    2008-01-01

    World trade in biomass is likely to increase in the years up to 2020 as imports are required to meet the demand created (directly or indirectly) by policy measures such as the EU Biofuels Directive. This paper assesses the macroeconomic consequences such large-scale trade for the exporting country, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Argentina. Given an exogenous increase in world prices for biomass, the model finds that production shifts towards biomass and away from other ...

  8. INFLUENCE OF REACTION TEMPERATURE AND REACTION TIME ON PRODUCT FROM HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF BIOMASS RESIDUE

    Jakaphong Kongpanya; Kanokorn Hussaro; Sombat Teekasap

    2014-01-01

    Thailand is facing with problems associated with biomass residue such as palm oil residues (oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches, shells and fibers). Biomass is promising source for the production of an array of energy-related produts including, liquid, solid and gaseous fuels, heat, chemicals electricity and other materials. Therefore, the use of biomass for energy is not still fully utilization due to the high moisture content, lower heating value of the energy unit or low ...

  9. Factors governing phytoplankton biomass and production in tropical estuaries of western Taiwan

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chuang, Yi-Li; Chou, Lien-Siang; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-04-01

    Factors governing phytoplankton community composition and production in tropical estuaries remain mostly unknown. We aimed to quantify phytoplankton biomass, production, and community composition seasonally in 2 tropical estuaries with different levels of nutrient concentrations and turbidity, and we compared them with an offshore control site on the western coast of central Taiwan for two years. Phytoplankton biomass and production varied with season and site. Annual integrated primary production showed that these three sites were mesotrophic systems. Spearman rank correlations showed that phytoplankton biomass and production were positively correlated with water temperature, but negatively correlated with turbidity. The threshold of turbidity was 12 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU), above which phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations were biomass and production, whereas water temperature and SiO2 concentration had both a direct effect on production and an indirect effect by changing community composition.

  10. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  11. Avoiding tar formation in biocoke production from waste biomass

    This paper focuses in avoiding tar formation and in optimizing pyrolysis gas (maximizing H2 and CO) in the production of biocoke from waste lignocellulosic biomass. In order to obtain metallurgical grade biochar (biocoke) slow heating rate and high temperature are required. Under such conditions useless pyrolysis liquids, mainly composed of water together with some heavy-sticky tars, are obtained. In order to make biocoke a cost-effective process it is necessary to optimize pyrolysis vapors avoiding tar formation and maximizing the amount and quality of both coke and gases. With this objective, in this work different heating rates (3–20 °C min−1) and catalysts (zeolite, Ni/CeO2–Al2O3) have been tested in a two step pyrolysis process. Olive tree cuttings have been pyrolyzed in a 3.5 L batch reactor at 750 °C and the vapors generated have been thermally and catalytically treated at 900 °C in a second tubular reactor. About 25 wt.% biocoke useful as reducing agent in certain metallurgical processes, ≈57 wt.% gases with near 50 vol.% H2, and no tar production has been achieved when a heating rate of 3 °C min−1 and the homemade Ni/CeO2–Al2O3 catalyst were used. - Highlights: • Metallurgical grade biochar was obtained by olive waste pyrolysis. • Low heating rates avoid tar formation and increase gas and biochar yields. • Ni/CeO2–Al2O3 was better than HZSM5 zeolite for vapor upgrading in a second step. • Ni/CeO2–Al2O3 and 3 °C min−1 gave the maximum H2, gas and biochar yields

  12. Investigating the Relationship between the Inter-Annual Variability of Satellite-Derived Vegetation Phenology and a Proxy of Biomass Production in the Sahel

    Michele Meroni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahel region, moderate to coarse spatial resolution remote sensing time series are used in early warning monitoring systems with the aim of detecting unfavorable crop and pasture conditions and informing stakeholders about impending food security risks. Despite growing evidence that vegetation productivity is directly related to phenology, most approaches to estimate such risks do not explicitly take into account the actual timing of vegetation growth and development. The date of the start of the season (SOS or of the peak canopy density can be assessed by remote sensing techniques in a timely manner during the growing season. However, there is limited knowledge about the relationship between vegetation biomass production and these variables at the regional scale. This study describes the first attempt to increase our understanding of such a relationship through the analysis of phenological variables retrieved from SPOT-VEGETATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR. Two key phenological variables (growing season length (GSL; timing of SOS and the maximum value of FAPAR attained during the growing season (Peak are analyzed as potentially related to a proxy of biomass production (CFAPAR, the cumulative value of FAPAR during the growing season. GSL, SOS and Peak all show different spatial patterns of correlation with CFAPAR. In particular, GSL shows a high and positive correlation with CFAPAR over the whole Sahel (mean r = 0.78. The negative correlation between delays in SOS and CFAPAR is stronger (mean r = −0.71 in the southern agricultural band of the Sahel, while the positive correlation between Peak FAPAR and CFAPAR is higher in the northern and more arid grassland region (mean r = 0.75. The consistency of the results and the actual link between remote sensing-derived phenological parameters and biomass production were evaluated using field measurements of aboveground herbaceous biomass

  13. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production

    Miranda, J. R.; Passarinho, Paula C.; de Gouveia, L.

    2012-01-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the mi...

  14. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environmental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government. - Highlights: ► Bioeconomic optimization model predicts how biomass production affects environment. ► Rising biomass production could impair climate and water quality. ► Environmental protection policies compared as biomass supply grows. ► Carbon price protects the environment cost-effectively as biomass supply expands

  15. Exergetic assessment of an integrated gasifier/boiler system for hydrogen production with different biomass types

    Kalinci, Y. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Izmir Vocational School; Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Dincer, I. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2009-07-01

    Biomass comprises all living matter present on earth and is derived from growing plants including algae, trees and crops or animal manure. It usually consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Sulfur is also present in small quantities, while some biomass consists of significant amounts of inorganic species. Biomass has the potential to accelerate the realization of hydrogen as a major fuel of the future. Since biomass is renewable and consumes atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) during growth, it can have a small net CO{sub 2} impact compared to fossil fuels. However, hydrogen from biomass has major challenges as there are no completed technology demonstrations. In addition, the yield of hydrogen is low from biomass to biomass since the hydrogen content in biomass is low to begin with and the energy content is low due to the 40 percent oxygen content of biomass. This paper highlighted the importance of biomass-based syntactical gas and hydrogen production and reviewed the characteristics of six different biomass fuels used in various gasification systems and their energetic aspects and technical details. These fuels included almond shells; walnut prunings; rice straw; whole tree wood chips; sludge; and non-recyclable waste paper for hydrogen production from an integrated gasifier-boiler power system. The paper also presented a case study on biomass-based hydrogen production and assessed its thermodynamic performance through exergy. The results of the study were discussed through exergetic, irreversibility and improvement potential. It was concluded that the highest exergy rate was found for walnut pruning and almond shell. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and

  17. Exploring long-term trends in land use change and aboveground human appropriation of net primary production in nine European countries

    Gingrich, Simone; Niedertscheider, Maria; Kastner, Thomas; Haberl, Helmut; Cosor, Georgia; Krausmann, Fridolin; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel; Reith-Musel, Annabella; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Erb, Karl Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Profound changes in land use occurred during the last century in Europe, driven by growing population, changes in affluence, and technological innovation. To capture and understand these changes, we compiled a consistent dataset on the distribution of land-use types and biomass extraction for nine...... differences, e.g., between communist and capitalist countries, did not directly affect HANPP dynamics, economic and population growth were related to increases in biomass extraction for long periods of time in much of the sample, and only in recent decades did the collapse of the Eastern Block's Comecon...

  18. The challenge of biomass production. Analysis of Chinnahagari and Upparahalla watersheds, Bellary District, India

    Avornyo, F. [Animal Research Institute, Tamale (Ghana); Ballal, F. [College of Animal Production, Sudan University of Sciences and Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Husseini, R. [Faculty of Agriculture, University for Development Studies, Tamale (Ghana); Mysore, A. [Agriculture, Man and Ecology Foundation AME, Bangalore (India); Nabi, S.A. [PETTRA, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Guevara, A.L.P. [Rural Sociology, Tegucigalpa (Honduras)

    2003-07-01

    Results are presented of a field study conducted in the Chinnahagari and Upparahalla watersheds in the Karnataka state of India, with the objective of identifying the opportunities for and constraints in efforts for enhancing biomass production. The Agricultural Research for Development (ARD) procedure which is a process of integrating different perspectives of stakeholders was used for planning strategies to combat low biomass problems.

  19. Development of over-production strain of saccharification enzyme and biomass pretreatment by proton beam irradiation

    - The first year : Pre-treatment of biomass by proton beam irradiation and characterization of the pretreated biomass by IR and SEM - The second year : Strain development by proton beam irradiation for the production of cellulase and hemicellulase - The third year : Optimization of Saccharification process by cellulase and hemicellulase

  20. Biomass and its potential for protein and amino acids : valorizing agricultural by-products

    Sari, Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomass for industrial products is not new. Plants have long been used for clothes, shelter, paper, construction, adhesives, tools, and medicine. With the exploitation on fossil fuel usage in the early 20th century and development of petroleum based refinery, the use of biomass for indust

  1. Estimating Above-Ground Biomass Within the Footprint of an Eddy-Covariance Flux Tower: Continuous LiDAR Based Estimates Compared With Discrete Inventory and Disturbance History Based Stratification Boundaries

    Ferster, C. J.; Trofymow, J. A.; Coops, N. C.; Chen, B.; Black, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    Eddy-covariance (EC) flux towers provide data about carbon (C) exchange between land and the atmosphere at an ecosystem scale. However, important research questions need to be addressed when placing EC flux towers in complex heterogeneous forest landscapes, such as the coastal forests of Western Canada. Recently available footprint analysis, which describes the contribution function and catchment area where EC flux is being measured, can be used to relate EC flux tower measurements with the biological structure and carbon stock distributions of complex forest landscapes. In this study, above ground biomass is estimated near an EC flux tower using two approaches. In the first approach, a remote sensing based surface representing above ground biomass was estimated using small footprint, discrete return, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Plot level LiDAR metrics were supplemented with metrics calculated using individual tree detection. A multiple regression model was developed to estimate above ground biomass using ground plot and LiDAR data, and then the model was applied across the EC flux footprint area to estimate the spatial distribution of above ground biomass. In the second approach, line boundaries from forest inventory, disturbance history, and site series were used to delineate discrete stratification units and the measured groundplot data assigned to the various strata. Within the heterogeneous tower footprint area, footprint weighting allows us to compare and contrast above ground biomass estimates from these two approaches. Using this methodology we then plan to compare, for the same period, ground-based measurements of ecosystem C stock changes with accumulative EC measured net ecosystem C flux.

  2. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production:Mapping and Analysis of the Potential for Sustainable Biomass Utilization in Denmark and Europe

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the...

  3. A REVIEW ON THE UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION AS CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL IN CONCRETE

    Onuaguluchi, Obinna; Eren, Özgür

    2010-01-01

    Biomass energy production is considered an environmentally friendly way of providing energy because of its CO2 neutrality. Unfortunately, the disposal of particulate residue from biomass combustion has thrown up a significant environmental conservation problem. Furthermore, the increasing cost of landfill disposal engendered by the stringent environmental guidelines being imposed by regulatory agencies across the world makes it imperative that cheap and effective alter...

  4. Future production and utilisation of biomass in Sweden: potentials and CO2 mitigation

    Swedish biomass production potential could be increased significantly if new production methods, such as optimised fertilisation, were to be used. Optimised fertilisation on 25% of Swedish forest land and the use of stem wood could almost double the biomass potential from forestry compared with no fertilisation, as both logging residues and large quantities of excess stem wood not needed for industrial purposes could be used for energy purposes. Together with energy crops and straw from agriculture, the total Swedish biomass potential would be about 230 TWh/yr or half the current Swedish energy supply if the demand for stem wood for building and industrial purposes were the same as today. The new production methods are assumed not to cause any significant negative impact on the local environment. The cost of utilising stem wood produced with optimised fertilisation for energy purposes has not been analysed and needs further investigation. Besides replacing fossil fuels and, thus, reducing current Swedish CO2 emissions by about 65%, this amount of biomass is enough to produce electricity equivalent to 20% of current power production. Biomass-based electricity is produced preferably through co-generation using district heating systems in densely populated regions, and pulp industries in forest regions. Alcohols for transportation and stand-alone power production are preferably produced in less densely populated regions with excess biomass. A high intensity in biomass production would reduce biomass transportation demands. There are uncertainties regarding the future demand for stem wood for building and industrial purposes, the amount of arable land available for energy crop production and future yields. These factors will influence Swedish biomass potential and earlier estimates of the potential vary from 15 to 125 TWh/yr. (author)

  5. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  6. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  7. 白三叶和狗牙根混播群落3年间地上生物量和种间竞争的动态%Three year study of above-ground biomass and interspecific competition of

    田宏; 陈明新; 蔡化; 王凤; 张鹤山; 刘洋

    2011-01-01

    采用2种牧草总密度保持不变而组成种比例在0~1变化的替代试验法,设白三叶100%(A)、白三叶75%+狗牙根25%(B)、白三叶50%+狗牙根50%(C)、白三叶25%+狗牙根75%(D)、狗牙根100%(E)5种处理,研究混播组合播种后3年的地上生产力和种间竞争动态.结果表明:建植第1年,3种混播组合的地上生物量高于A处理(2.078 kg/m2),但不及E处理(4.406 kg/m2);试验第2、第3年,混播组合的全年地上生物量均显著高于单播处理(P<0.05);连续3年的地上生物总量以C处理最高,达17.72 kg/m2,与其他各处理差异显著(P<0.05);播种后3年中的各年前期,混播组合的地上生物量主体为白三叶,白三叶和狗牙根占有不同的生态位,表现出共生关系,但白三叶的竞争能力大于狗牙根;随着时间的推移,狗牙根逐渐成为地上生物量主体,2种牧草出现拮抗作用,狗牙根的竞争力大于白三叶,最终整个群落变为以狗牙根为优势种的草地.%From 2005 to 2007, mixed community of white clover and bermudagrass were observed to investigate the above-ground biomass and inter-specific competition dynamics of the mix-sowed forage grasses. With the total density of the forage grasses unchanged, five seeding treatments were carried out, namely, treatment A (white clover, 100%),treatment B (white clover, 75%; bermudagrass, 25%), treatment C (w,hite clover, 50%; bermudagrass, 50%), treatment D (white clover, 25%; bermudagrass, 75%) and treatment E (bermudagrass, 100%). The results indicated the aboveground biomass of the 3 mixture treatments (B, C and D ) were all higher than that of treatment A (2.078 kg/m2), but less than that of treatment E (4.406 kg/m2) in 2005 and the yields of 3 mixture treatments were all higher than that of treatments A and E in 2006 and 2007. The aboveground biomass of treatment C was the maximum (17.72 kg/m2) and was significantly different from other treatments (P<0.05) in 3 years

  8. Microwave-Assisted γ-Valerolactone Production for Biomass Lignin Extraction: A Cascade Protocol.

    Tabasso, Silvia; Grillo, Giorgio; Carnaroglio, Diego; Calcio Gaudino, Emanuela; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating "greener" industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone), a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction. After lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA)-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA) is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation. PMID:27023511

  9. Microwave-Assisted γ-Valerolactone Production for Biomass Lignin Extraction: A Cascade Protocol

    Silvia Tabasso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating “greener” industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone, a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction. After lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation.

  10. Production of methanol/DME from biomass:EFP06

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus; Fink, Anders; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2011-01-01

    I dette projekt undersøges produktion af DME/metanol ud fra biomasse. Produktion af DME/metanol ud fra biomasse indbefatter brugen af en forgasser for at transformere det faste biomassebrændsel til en syntesegas (syngas) - denne syngas kan herefter katalytisk konvertes til DME/metanol. To forskellige forgassertyper er blevet undersøgt i dette projekt: • To-trins-forgasseren (Viking Forgasseren), som blev designet til at producere en meget ren gas til brug i en gas motor, er blevet forbundet t...

  11. Development of Sustainable Landscape Designs for Improved Biomass Production in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Bonner, Ian J.

    Demand for renewable and sustainable energy options has resulted in a significant commitment by the US Government to research pathways for fuel production from biomass. The research presented in this thesis describes one potential pathway to increase the amount of biomass available for biofuel production by integrating dedicated energy crops into agricultural fields. In the first chapter an innovative landscape design method based on subfield placement of an energy crop into row crop fields in central Iowa is used to reduce financial loss for farmers, increase and diversify biomass production, and improve soil resources. The second chapter explores how subfield management decisions may be made using high fidelity data and modeling to balance concerns of primary crop production and economics. This work provides critical forward looking support to agricultural land managers and stakeholders in the biomass and bioenergy industry for pathways to improving land stewardship and energy security.

  12. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass; Biomasse zur Energiegewinnung. Oekonomische Bewertung, Effizienzvergleich und optimale Biomassenutzung

    Zeddies, Juergen [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre; Schoenleber, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  13. PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS BY PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS IN THERMAL PLASMA

    Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Kavka, Tetyana; Van Oost, G.; Beeckman, E.; Verstraeten, J.

    Bruges, Belgie, 2005, s. 230-234. ISBN 908086692X. [International Workshop on Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas: Sources and Applications/2nd./. Bruges (BE), 30.08.2005-02.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Keywords : syngas * biomass * plasma * gas composition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  14. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Jović Jelena M.; Pejin Jelena; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica; Mojović Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes) is ...

  15. Investigation of Hydrogen Production by Biomass Partial Oxidation

    Hanika, Jiří; Lederer, J.; Tukač, V.; Veselý, Václav

    St. Petersburg: -, 2010, s. 19. ISBN N. [International Conference on Chemical Reactors CHEMREACTOR-19 /19./. Vienna (AT), 05.09.2010-09.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-2TP1/024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen * biomass * rape waste Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  16. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  17. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Hechun Cao; Zhiling Zhang; Xuwen Wu; Xiaoling Miao

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% a...

  18. Linking light and productivity in lakes to zooplankton biodiversity, biomass and resource use efficiency

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lake productivity is determined by the amount of nutrients and light available. While phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient in freshwater systems light availability can be reduced by several factors, while the most important one in Scandinavian lakes is the amount of dissolved organic compounds (DOC). Primary productivity can affect zooplankton biomass and diversity by bottom-up driven mechanisms while zooplankton biomass and diversity can also be affected by fish via top-dow...

  19. The Current and Potential Production of Forest Biomass for Energy in Europe, Russia, and China

    Schopfhauser, W.

    1996-01-01

    In this analysis, the forest biomass utilization and the potential for energy production for Western and Eastern Europe, Russia and China has been estimated. Western and Eastern Europe are assessed on a country level and Russia and China as regions. Current trends and developments of forest resources characterize their ability to produce forest biomass for energy production. Europe is characterized by a slowly increasing forest land area, underutilization of the forest resource, and increased...

  20. Maximizing renewable hydrogen production from biomass in a bio/catalytic refinery

    Westermann, Peter; Jørgensen, Betina; Lange, L.;

    2007-01-01

    photofermentative production. Due to these constraints biological hydrogen production from biomass has so far not been considered a significant source in most scenarios of a future hydrogen-based economy. In this review we briefly summarize the current state of art of biomass-based hydrogen production and suggest a......Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary for...... combination of a biorefinery for the production of multiple fuels (hydrogen, ethanol, and methane) and chemical catalytic technologies which could lead to a yield of 10-12 mol hydrogen per mol glucose derived from biological waste products. Besides the high hydrogen yield, the advantage of the suggested...

  1. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

    Márcio Viera; Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis) and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) and, of corn (Zea mays) in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood) from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn); - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn); - 50E:50A (50%...

  2. Advances in the production of sponge biomass Aplysina aerophoba--a model sponge for ex situ sponge biomass production.

    Hausmann, Rudolf; Vitello, Marco P; Leitermann, Frank; Syldatk, Christoph

    2006-06-25

    Sponges are a promising source of organic compounds of potential interest regarding industrial and medical applications. For detailed studies on such compounds, large amounts of sponge biomass are required. Obtaining that is at present extremely difficult because most sponges are relatively rare in nature and their mass cultivation in the laboratory has not yet been accomplished. In this study the possibility of culturing Aplysina aerophoba fragments in laboratory was examined. While a substantial biomass increase was not yet observed, we achieved fragmented sponge tissue to develop into a functional sponge as a first success. PMID:16697067

  3. Competition between biomass and food production in the presence of energy policies: a partial equilibrium analysis

    Bioenergy has several advantages over fossil fuels. For example, it delivers energy at low net CO2 emission levels and contributes to sustaining future energy supplies. The concern, however, is that an increase in biomass plantations will reduce the land available for agricultural production. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of taxing conventional electricity production or carbon use in combination with subsidizing biomass or bioelectricity production on the production of biomass and agricultural commodities and on the share of bioelectricity in total electricity production. We develop a partial equilibrium model to illustrate some of the potential impacts of these policies on greenhouse gas emissions, land reallocation and food and electricity prices. As a case study, we use data for Poland, which has a large potential for biomass production. Results show that combining a conventional electricity tax of 10% with a 25% subsidy on bioelectricity production increases the share of bioelectricity to 7.5%. Under this policy regime, biomass as well as agricultural production increase. A carbon tax that gives equal net tax yields, has better environmental results, however, at higher welfare costs and resulting in 1% to 4% reduction of agricultural production

  4. Competition between biomass and food production in the presence of energy policies: a partial equilibrium analysis

    Bioenergy has several advantages over fossil fuels. For example, it delivers energy at low net CO2 emission levels and contributes to sustaining future energy supplies. The concern, however, is that an increase in biomass plantations will reduce the land available for agricultural production. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of taxing conventional electricity production or carbon use in combination with subsidizing biomass or bioelectricity production on the production of biomass and agricultural commodities and on the share of bioelectricity in total electricity production. We develop a partial equilibrium model to illustrate some of the potential impacts of these policies on greenhouse gas emissions, land reallocation and food and electricity prices. As a case study, we use data for Poland, which has a large potential for biomass production. Results show that combining a conventional electricity tax of 10% with a 25% subsidy on bioelectricity production increases the share of bioelectricity to 7.5%. Under this policy regime, biomass as well as agricultural production increase. A carbon tax that gives equal net tax yields, has better environmental results, however, at higher welfare costs and resulting in 1% to 4% reduction of agricultural production. (author)

  5. Macrobenthic biomass and production in a heterogenic subarctic fjord after invasion by the red king crab

    Fuhrmann, Mona M.; Pedersen, Torstein; Ramasco, Virginie; Nilssen, Einar M.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the macrobenthic fauna and their production potential in Porsangerfjord, Northern Norway, in relation to environmental gradients and the recent invasion by the predatory red king crab into the outer fjord. The study area is characterized by a distinct along-fjord temperature gradient, with the influence of warmer Atlantic water in the outer fjord and year-round bottom temperatures around zero in the inner fjord. Benthic organisms can play a crucial role in ecosystem energy flow. Despite this, our knowledge of factors regulating benthic secondary production in high latitude ecosystems is limited. Macrobenthic abundance, biomass (B), production (P) and production-to-biomass ratio (P/B) were estimated from grab samples collected in 2010. Annual P/B ratios were calculated using a multi-parameter artificial neural network (ANN) model by Brey (2012). The mean abundance, biomass, production and P/B were 4611 ind. m- 2 (95% CI = 3994, 5316), 65 g ww m- 2 (95% CI = 51, 82), 174 kJ m- 2 y- 1 (95% CI = 151, 201) and 1.02 y- 1, respectively. Benthic biomass and production in the fjord were dominated by polychaetes. Spatial variability in P/B and production was mainly driven by community structure and differences in environmental habitat conditions. The inner basins of the fjord were characterized by high total production (439 kJ m- 2 y- 1), attributable to high standing stock biomass and community structure, despite cold bottom temperatures. In the middle and outer fjord, smaller taxa with low individual body masses increased the P/B ratios, but they did not compensate for the low biomass, thereby resulting in lower total production in these areas. The low biomass and the sparseness of large taxa in the outer and middle fjord may already be a result of predation by the invasive red king crab resulting in an overall lower macrobenthic production regime.

  6. Thermophilic biohydrogen production using pre-treated algal biomass as substrate

    Algal biomass is rich in carbohydrates which can be utilized as a promising source of substrate for dark fermentation. It becomes more significant when biomass is produced by capturing atmospheric greenhouse gas, CO2. In the present study, clean energy was generated in the form of biohydrogen utilizing algal biomass. Biohydrogen production was carried out by thermophilic dark fermentation using mixed culture. The culture of Chlorella sorokiniana was cultivated in helical airlift photobioreactor at 30 °C under continuous light intensity of 120 μmol m−2 s−1 provided by white fluorescent lamps. Biomass reached to stationary phase on 9th day giving maximum dry cell weight of 2.9 kg m−3. Maximum carbohydrate and protein content observed was 145 g kg−1 and 140 g kg−1, respectively. Maximum volumetric productivity of 334 g dm−3 d−1 was observed. Algal biomass was subjected to various physical and chemical pre-treatments processes for the improvement of hydrogen production. It was observed that the pretreatment with 200 dm3 m−3 HCl-heat was most suitable pretreatment method producing cumulative hydrogen of 1.93 m3 m−3 and hydrogen yield of 958 dm3 kg−1 volatile suspended solid or 2.68 mol mol−1 of hexose. Growth kinetics parameters such as μmax and Ks were estimated to be 0.44 h−1 and 120 g m−3, respectively. The relationship between biomass and hydrogen production was simulated by the Luedeking–Piret model showing that H2 production is growth associated. The study thus showed the potential of algal biomass as substrate for biological hydrogen production. - Highlights: • Biomass production using customized helical airlift photobioreactor. • Study on different pre-treatment methods on saccharification of algal biomass. • Utilization of pre-treated algal biomass as substrate for H2 production. • Modelling and simulation of biomass and hydrogen production profile

  7. Hydrogen Production From Crude Bio-oil and Biomass Char by Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming

    Xing-long Li; Shen Ning; Li-xia Yuan; Quan-xin Li

    2011-01-01

    We reports an efficient approach for production of hydrogen from crude bio-oil and biomass char in the dual fixed-bed system by using the electrochemical catalytic reforming method.The maximal absolute hydrogen yield reached 110.9 g H2/kg dry biomass.The product gas was a mixed gas containing 72%H2,26%CO2,1.9%CO,and a trace amount of CH4.It was observed that adding biomass char (a by-product of pyrolysis of biomass) could remarkably increase the absolute H2 yield (about 20%-50%).The higher reforming temperature could enhance the steam reforming reaction of organic compounds in crude bio-oil and the reaction of CO and H2O.In addition,the CuZn-Al2O3 catalyst in the water-gas shift bed could also increase the absolute H2 yield via shifting CO to CO2.

  8. Pretreatment optimization of Sorghum pioneer biomass for bioethanol production and its scale-up.

    Koradiya, Manoj; Duggirala, Srinivas; Tipre, Devayani; Dave, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Based on one parameter at a time, saccharification of delignified sorghum biomass by 4% and 70% v/v sulfuric acid resulted in maximum 30.8 and 33.8 g% sugar production from biomass respectively. The Box Behnken Design was applied for further optimization of acid hydrolysis. As a result of the designed experiment 36.3g% sugar production was achieved when 3% v/v H2SO4 treatment given for 60 min at 180°C. The process was scaled-up to treat 2 kg of biomass. During the screening of yeast cultures, isolate C, MK-I and N were found to be potent ethanol producers from sorghum hydrolyzate. Culture MK-I was the best so used for scale up of ethanol production up to 25 L capacity, which gave a yield of 0.49 g ethanol/g sugar from hydrolyzate obtained from 2 kg of sorghum biomass. PMID:26384087

  9. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  10. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias;

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4) were investigated. Each acid were used...... the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass) was significantly affected by the acid concentration used...... for the saccharification of the carbohydrates. The highest bioethanol yields of 16.32% ± 0.90% (gEtOH/gBiomass) and 16.27% ± 0.97% (gEtOH/gBiomass) were obtained in hydrolysates produced with HNO3 0.5 N and H2SO4 0.5 N, respectively....

  11. Estimating total standing herbaceous biomass production with LANDSAT MSS digital data

    Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Rangeland biomass data were correlated with spectral vegetation indices, derived from LANDSAT MSS data. LANDSAT data from five range and three other land use sites in Willacv and Cameron Counties were collected on October 17 and December 10, 1975, and on July 31 and September 23, 1976. The overall linear correlation of total standing herbaceous biomass with the LANDSAT derived perpendicular vegetation index was highly significant (r = 0.90**) for these four dates. The standard error of estimate was 722 kg/ha. Biomass data were recorded for two of these range sites for 8 months (March through October) during the 1976 growing season. Standing green biomass accounted for most of the increase in herbage, starting in June and ending about September and October. These results indicate that satellite data may be useful for the estimation of total standing herbaceous biomass production that could aid range managers in assessing range condition and animal carrying capacities of large and inaccessible range holdings.

  12. Effects of Chemical Parameters on Spirulina platensis Biomass Production: Optimized Method for Phycocyanin Extraction

    B. Vasanthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cultures was maximum at pH 10.0. Among the cultures, CS-1 recorded maximum biomass at pH 10.0. S. platensis culture S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. S. platensis cultures were grown under different light wave lengths ranging from 340-700 nm and observed that it grows best in red light but later on there was no significant difference between the biomass produced under red and normal white lights. S. platensis culture CS-1 has shown the highest chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycocyanin and protein contents. When the extracted protein was resolved on a 15% SDS-PAGE gel, the cultures have polypeptide subunits ranging from the molecular weights 20 to 95 kDa. The liquid nitrogen method was found to be the best by extraction higher quantity of phycocyanin from all S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures, S. platensis culture CS-1 recorded the highest phycocyanin content and among the local isolates SM-2 showed the highest pigment content. SDS-PAGE analysis of phycocyanin pigment revealed two characteristic bands with a molecular weights of 14.3 and 20.1 kDa approximately for a and subunits.

  13. Aboveground biomass in Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd. H. B. K. ecosystems using Landsat 7 ETM+ images Biomasa aérea en ecosistemas de Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd. H. B. K. usando imágenes Landsat 7 ETM+

    EVA PADRÓN

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of field work in remote sensing studies when applied to large areas has often been underestimated. The combination of specific forest inventories for the estimation of aboveground biomass in large dry tropical forest areas with remote sensor data has scarcely been explored to date. In this work, a systematic, stratified forest inventory involving 100 X 100 m square plots in an area of Peruvian Prosopis pallida dry forest, roughly one million hectares in size in the Piura province (Peru has been compiled. The inventory encompassed the principal silvicultural variables defining the ecosystem studied, which were used in allometric equations for the different species, genera and plant associations in the area in order to estimate the amount of aboveground biomass present in each plot. Field data were related to a Landsat 7 ETM+ image by using six different vegetation indices derived from an image mosaic for the area. Two regression equations (relating the amount of aboveground phytomass to the different vegetation indices provided reasonably acceptable phytomass predictions for the type of ecosystem concerned (R² between 0.72 and 0.52La importancia del trabajo de campo en estudios de teledetección radica en la necesidad de proveer una validación a los valores de reflectividad incluidos en los datos de los sensores remotos. La diversidad ecológica del medio forestal y la evaluación de grandes superficies de difícil acceso hacen de la combinación del inventario forestal y de la teledetección una herramienta compleja y útil en el análisis del medio terrestre. El presente trabajo muestra la aplicación de un inventario sistemático estratificado sobre un millón de hectáreas de bosque tropical seco de Prosopis pallida en el Departamento de Piura (Perú en la validación de diferentes tipos de clasificación realizadas sobre dicho ecosistema mediante el uso de imágenes Landsat ETM+. El inventario recoge las principales

  14. Biomass pretreatment

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  15. Exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production via biomass gasification and catalytic synthesis

    In this paper an exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production from biomass is presented. This process combines a steam-blown indirect biomass gasification of woody feedstock, with a subsequent conversion of produced syngas into ethanol. The production process involves several process sections, including biomass drying and gasification, syngas cleaning, reforming, conditioning, and compression, ethanol synthesis, separation of synthesis products, and heat recovery. The process is simulated with a computer model using the flow-sheeting software Aspen Plus. The exergy analysis is performed for various ethanol catalysts, including Rh-based and MoS2-based (target) catalysts as well as for various gasification temperatures. The exergetic efficiency is 43.5% for Rh-based and 44.4% for MoS2-based (target) catalyst, when ethanol is considered as the only exergetic output. In case when by-products of ethanol synthesis are considered as the additional output the exergetic efficiency for Rh-based catalyst increases to 58.9% and 65.8% for MoS2-based (target) catalyst. The largest exergy losses occur in biomass gasifier and ethanol synthesis reactor. The exergetic efficiency for both ethanol catalysts increases with decreasing gasification temperature. -- Highlights: ► Thermochemical ethanol production from biomass via biomass gasification and ethanol synthesis has been modeled. ► Exergy analysis is performed for various process conditions and ethanol catalysts. ► Exergetic efficiencies biomass-to-ethanol range from 43.5% for Rh-based catalyst to 44.4% for MoS2-based catalyst. ► The largest exergy losses take place in the biomass gasification. ► Exergy losses in gasification can be reduced at lower gasification temperatures.

  16. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Hechun Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  17. Modeling Woody Biomass Procurement for Bioenergy Production at the Atikokan Generating Station in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Thakur Upadhyay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient procurement and utilization of woody biomass for bioenergy production requires a good understanding of biomass supply chains. In this paper, a dynamic optimization model has been developed and applied to estimate monthly supply and procurement costs of woody biomass required for the Atikokan Generating Station (AGS in northwestern Ontario, based on its monthly electricity production schedule. The decision variables in the model are monthly harvest levels of two types of woody biomass, forest harvest residues and unutilized biomass, from 19,315 forest depletion cells (each 1 km2 for a one year planning horizon. Sixteen scenarios are tested to examine the sensitivity of the cost minimization model to changing economic and technological parameters. Reduction in moisture content and improvement of conversion efficiency showed relatively higher reductions in monthly and total costs of woody biomass feedstock for the AGS. The results of this study help in understanding and designing decision support systems for optimal biomass supply chains under dynamic operational frameworks.

  18. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    Tonini, D.

    2013-02-15

    composition (e.g. amount of organic and paper) and properties (e.g. LHV, water content) play a crucial role in affecting the final ranking. When assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related to the optimized electricity and phosphorous recovery. However, recovery of nutrients and phosphorous might come at the expenses of increased N-eutrophication and emissions of hazardous substances to soil. The first could be significantly mitigated by post-treating the digestate left from bioliquid digestion (e.g. composting). Compared with waste refining treatment, efficient source-segregation of the organic waste with subsequent biological processing may decrease digestate/compost contamination and recover phosphorous similarly to the waste refinery process. However, recent studies highlighted how this strategy often fails leading to high mass/energy/nutrients losses as well as to contamination of the segregated organic waste with unwanted impurities. All in all, more insight should be gained into the magnitude of iLUC impacts associated with energy crops. Their quantification is the key factor determining a beneficial or detrimental GHG performance of bioenergy systems based on energy crops. If energy crops are introduced, combined heat and power production should be prioritized based on the results of this research. Production of liquid biofuels for transport should be limited as the overall energy conversion efficiency is significantly lower thereby leading to decreased GHG performances. On this basis, recovery of energy, materials and resources from waste such as residual agricultural/forestry biomass and municipal/commercial/industrial waste should be seen as the way ahead. Highly-efficient combustion and incineration offer

  19. Production of biomass by Spirulina at different groundwater type. Case of Ouargla-Southeast Algeria

    Saggaï, Ali; Dadamoussa, Belkheir; Djaghoubi, Afaf; Bissati, Samia

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Spirulina platensis was cultivated to estimate the biomass production with different groundwater type in Ouargla. Growth experiments were undertaken in flasks under shelter in outdoor condition. For this, the temperature, pH and salinity value was recorded between two days of growth. Biomass concentration in the culture media was calculated by measuring the DO625. The combination of the Mioplocen water with the nutriments gave the highest values of biomass concentration with avenge of 1.78 ±0.91g/l. All the three-type water supported the growth of Spirulina that appeared as good as a culture media.

  20. Thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid products in the aqueous medium

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Aqueous liquefaction of biomass samples was carried out in an autoclave in the reaction temperature range of 550-650 K. In this study, the maximum liquid yield (49%) was obtained from the spruce wood powder at 650 K. It is clear that the yield of liquid products increase with increasing liquefaction temperature for each biomass sample. In general, composition of liquefaction products depends on structural composition of the sample. The yield of water soluble fraction increases with increasing lignin content of the biomass sample, and the highest water soluble fraction (WSF) yield was obtained for hazelnut shell at liquefaction temperature around 650 K, which was about 21%. The yield of heavy oil generally decreases with increasing lignin content of the biomass sample, and the highest heavy oil yield was obtained for beech wood at liquefaction temperature around 650 K, which was about 28%. The yield of acetone insoluble fraction (residue) decreases with increasing liquefaction temperature for all of runs. (Author)

  1. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  2. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass for Fuel Gas Production

    Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Kavka, Tetyana; Chumak, Oleksiy; Mašláni, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3-4 (2009), s. 299-313. ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma gasification * syngas * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009 http://www.begellhouse.com/journals/57d172397126f956,5cbc272245f24168,0ac09d02537962cf.html

  3. CFD Simulation of Hydrogen Production by Biomass Partial Oxidation

    Tukač, V.; Hanika, Jiří; Veselý, Václav; Lederer, J.; Kovač, D.; Nečesaný, F.

    Praha: Process Engineering Publisher, 2010, s. 38. ISBN 978-80-02-02246-6. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2010 /19./ - European Congress of Chemical Engineering ECCE-7 /7./. Prague (CZ), 28.08.2010-01.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-2TP1/024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : new raw materials * fuel oil * biomass Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering www.chisa.cz/2010, www.ecce7.com

  4. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O' Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  5. Dual uses of microalgal biomass: An integrative approach for biohydrogen and biodiesel production

    Highlights: • Chlorella sp. NBRI029 and Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 shows high biomass productivity. • Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 shows maximum H2 evolution in 6th day of fermentation. • Residual biomass after H2 production contains high lipid content. • Lipid extracted from the residual biomass fulfills various biodiesel properties. - Abstract: Dual application of biomass for biohydrogen and biodiesel production could be considered a feasible option for economic and sustainable energy production from microalgae. In this study, after a large screening of fresh water microalgal isolates, Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 and Chlorella sp. NBRI029 have exhibited high biomass (1.31 ± 0.11 and 2.62 ± 0.13 g/L respectively) and lipid (244.44 ± 12.3 and 587.38 ± 20.2 mg/L respectively) yield with an organic carbon (acetate) source. Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 has shown the highest H2 (maximum evolution of 17.72% v/v H2 of total gases) production; it produced H2 continuously for seven days in sulfur-deprived TAP media. Sulfur deprivation during the H2 production was found to increase the lipid content (410.03 ± 18.5 mg/L) of the residual biomass. Fatty acid profile of the lipid extracted from the residual biomass of Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 has showed abundance of fatty acids with a carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Cetane number, iodine value, and saponification value of biodiesel were found suitable according to the range given by the Indian standard (IS 15607), Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and the European biodiesel standard EN14214

  6. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  7. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MWth) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MWth) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  8. Characterization of residual biomass from the Arequipa region for the production of biofuels

    María Laura Stronguiló Leturia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to select residual biomass from the Arequipa Region for the production of biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. In each case, the initial point is a matrix based on products with residual biomass available in the region, from the agricultural and livestock sectors, information that was obtained from the regional Management of Agriculture web site. Specific factors of the resudue that will be used as raw material for each biofuel production would be considered for the selection process. For the production of biodiesel it is necessary to start from the oil extracted from oilseeds. Regarding obtaining bioethanol, it requires that the residual biomass has high percent of cellulose. With regard to the generation of biogas, we will use animal droppings. Finally, the raw materials selected are: squash and avocado seeds for biodiesel, rice chaff and deseeded corncob for bioethanol and cow and sheep droppings for biogas

  9. Potential and impacts of renewable energy production from agricultural biomass in Canada

    Highlights: • This study quantifies the bioenergy production potential in the Canadian agricultural sector. • Two presented scenarios included the mix of market and non-market policy targets and the market-only drivers. • The scenario that used mix of market and policy drivers had the largest impact on the production of bioenergy. • The production of biomass-based ethanol and electricity could cause moderate land use changes up to 0.32 Mha. • Overall, agricultural sector has a considerable potential to generate renewable energy from biomass. - Abstract: Agriculture has the potential to supply considerable amounts of biomass for renewable energy production from dedicated energy crops as well as from crop residues of existing production. Bioenergy production can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by using ethanol and biodiesel to displace petroleum-based fuels and through direct burning of biomass to offset coal use for generating electricity. We used the Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture to estimate the potential for renewable energy production from biomass, the impacts on agricultural production, land use change and greenhouse gas emissions. We explored two scenarios: the first considers a combination of market incentives and policy mandates (crude oil price of $120 bbl−1; carbon offset price of $50 Mg−1 CO2 equivalent and policy targets of a substitution of 20% of gasoline by biomass-based ethanol; 8% of petroleum diesel by biodiesel and 20% of coal-based electricity by direct biomass combustion), and a second scenario considers only carbon offset market incentives priced at $50 Mg−1 CO2 equivalent. The results show that under the combination of market incentives and policy mandates scenario, the production of biomass-based ethanol and electricity increases considerably and could potentially cause substantial changes in land use practices. Overall, agriculture has considerable potential to generate

  10. Comparison of pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified black liquor with stand-alone production from gasified biomass

    When gasified black liquor is used for hydrogen production, significant amounts of biomass must be imported. This paper compares two alternative options for producing hydrogen from biomass: (A) pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified back liquor; and (B) stand-alone production of hydrogen from gasified biomass. The comparison assumes that the same amount of biomass that is imported in Alternative A is supplied to a stand-alone hydrogen production plant and that the gasified black liquor in Alternative B is used in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) CHP unit. The comparison is based upon equal amounts of black liquor fed to the gasifier, and identical steam and power requirements for the pulp mill. The two systems are compared on the basis of total CO2 emission consequences, based upon different assumptions for the reference energy system that reflect different societal CO2 emissions reduction target levels. Ambitions targets are expected to lead to a more CO2-lean reference energy system, in which case hydrogen production from gasified black liquor (Alternative A) is best from a CO2 emissions' perspective, whereas with high CO2 emissions associated with electricity production, hydrogen from gasified biomass and electricity from gasified black liquor (Alternative B) is preferable. (author)

  11. Optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass: A superstructure based approach

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass, such...... pathways that exist for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case with different choices of objective functions. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are...

  12. The effect of nitrogen addition on biomass production and competition in three expansive tall grasses

    A large increase of grasses Calamagrostis epigejos, Bromus inermis and Brachypodium pinnatum has often been observed in many regions enriched by higher nitrogen (N) wet deposition inputs. Competitive relationships between these grasses under enhanced N loads have not yet been studied. Therefore an outdoor experiment was established which involved monocultures of Calamagrostis, Bromus and Brachypodium and their 1:1 mixtures in containers under two N treatments, i.e., unfertilized and fertilized (+50 kg N ha−1). In monocultures, the total aboveground biomass of Calamagrostis, Bromus and Brachypodium were 1.1, 3.6 and 2.5 times higher respectively due to enhanced N fertilization. Relative crowding and aggressivity coefficients indicate that Calamagrostis and Bromus dominate when mixed with Brachypodium at both levels of N availability. When mixed with Bromus, Calamagrostis is the poorer competitor at lower N loads, however, it can be dominating in N fertilized treatments. - Highlights: ► A large increase of tall grasses has often been observed in many ecosystems. ► Data on competitive relationships between grasses were investigated. ► Competition indices indicate that Calamagrostis and Bromus dominate in mixtures with Brachypodium. ► Calamagrostis is a better competitor when mixed with Bromus but only at higher N loads. ► N deposition may play a critical role in the expansion and persistence of grasses in the landscape. - Competition abilities of Calamagrostis and Bromus were greater than Brachypodium and the competitive superiority of Calamagrostis to Bromus was in N rich substrate.

  13. Life cycle water footprint of hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Wong, Alain; Zhang, Hao; Kumar, Amit

    2016-10-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel requires water. This study is focused on the production of hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) from lignocellulosic biomass. Although there has been considerable focus on the assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is limited work on the assessment of the life cycle water footprint of HDRD production. This paper presents a life cycle water consumption study on lignocellulosic biomass to HDRD via pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) processes. The results of this study show that whole tree (i.e., tree chips) biomass has water requirements of 497.79 L/MJ HDRD and 376.16 L/MJ HDRD for production through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Forest residues (i.e., chips from branches and tops generated during logging operations) have water requirements of 338.58 L/MJ HDRD and 255.85 L/MJ HDRD for production through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Agricultural residues (i.e., straw from wheat, oats, and barley), which are more water efficient, have water requirements of 83.7 L/MJ HDRD and 59.1 L/MJ HDRD through fast pyrolysis and the HTL process, respectively. Differences in water use between feedstocks and conversion processes indicate that the choices of biomass feedstock and conversion pathway water efficiency are crucial factors affecting water use efficiency of HDRD production. PMID:27379729

  14. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking.

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km(2) of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha(-1), which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec's managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041-2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec's forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests. PMID:26966680

  15. Identifying key drivers of greenhouse gas emissions from biomass feedstocks for energy production

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