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Sample records for abortive infection mechanism

  1. Interferon-γ promotes abortion due to Brucella infection in pregnant mice

    Suzuki Hiroshi; Furuoka Hidefumi; Watanabe Kenta; Lee Dong; Kim Suk; Watarai Masahisa

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The mechanisms of abortion induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated abortion induced by Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in a mouse model. Results High rates of abortion were observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Regardless of whether fetuses were aborted or stayed alive, the transmission of bacteria into the fetus and bacte...

  2. Therapeutic abortion and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Qvigstad, E; Skaug, K; Jerve, F; Vik, I S; Ulstrup, J C

    1982-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the cervix of 30 of 218 (13.8%) women admitted for legal termination of pregnancy. During the first two weeks after the abortion seven of the 30 (23.3%) patients developed pelvic inflammatory disease. Four of these had serological evidence of recent active chlamydial infection. Thus, routine examination of patients for genital chlamydial infection before termination of pregnancy is recommended.

  3. Interferon-γ promotes abortion due to Brucella infection in pregnant mice

    Suzuki Hiroshi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms of abortion induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated abortion induced by Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in a mouse model. Results High rates of abortion were observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Regardless of whether fetuses were aborted or stayed alive, the transmission of bacteria into the fetus and bacterial replication in the placenta were observed. There was a higher degree of bacterial colonization in the placenta than in other organs and many bacteria were detected in trophoblast giant cells in the placenta. Intracellular growth-defective virB4 mutant and attenuated vaccine strain S19 did not induce abortion. In the case of abortion, around day 7.5 of gestation (period of placental development, transient induction of IFN-γ production was observed for infection by the wild type strain, but not by the virB4 mutant and S19. Neutralization of IFN-γ, whose production was induced by infection with B. abortus, served to prevent abortion. Conclusion These results indicate that abortion induced by B. abortus infection is a result of transient IFN-γ production during the period of placental development.

  4. Abortion

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  5. Abortions in sheep associated with Arcobacter skirrowii infection.

    Bath, Gareth F; Leask, Rhoda; Pettey, Kenneth P; Coetzee, Debra J

    2013-01-01

    The history, circumstances, clinical signs, post mortem lesions, morbidity, mortality and laboratory findings are described in an abortion storm in sheep that occurred in Mpumalanga, South Africa, associated with infection with Arcobacter skirrowii. Altogether, about 200 Suffolk Down ewes lost 60 lambs in late pregnancy or at term. Although only three foetuses were submitted for investigation, two had signs consistent with a diagnosis of A. skirrowii infection and the organism was isolated from the placentas of both specimens. No abortions had occurred in previous years, or have subsequently. There were no animal introductions prior to the outbreak that could have indicated a source of infection. One stillborn lamb submitted subsequently had lesions consistent with dystocia, and the history and circumstantial evidence indicated that dystocia had been a factor in several more losses. No ewes or rams had shown signs of diarrhoea or other diseases associated with A. skirrowii infection. Twenty-two faecal, preputial and vaginal swab specimens taken from six rams and 13 ewes after the abortion event were all negative for A. skirrowii. This is the first report of abortions in sheep associated with A. skirrowiiin South Africa. Because the genus Arcobacter is similar to Campylobacter, it is possible that infection has gone unrecognised in the past. Veterinarians and laboratories should take note and include this genus in the list of potential abortifacient organisms. The possible role of Arcobacter species in other diseases like enteritis and mastitis, as well as the potential role as a zoonosis, must be borne in mind. PMID:27476399

  6. Abortions in sheep associated with Arcobacter skirrowii infection

    Gareth F. Bath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The history, circumstances, clinical signs, post mortem lesions, morbidity, mortality and laboratory findings are described in an abortion storm in sheep that occurred in Mpumalanga, South Africa, associated with infection with Arcobacter skirrowii. Altogether, about 200 Suffolk Down ewes lost 60 lambs in late pregnancy or at term. Although only three foetuses were submitted for investigation, two had signs consistent with a diagnosis of A. skirrowii infection and the organism was isolated from the placentas of both specimens. No abortions had occurred in previous years, or have subsequently. There were no animal introductions prior to the outbreak that could have indicated a source of infection. One stillborn lamb submitted subsequently had lesions consistent with dystocia, and the history and circumstantial evidence indicated that dystocia had been a factor in several more losses. No ewes or rams had shown signs of diarrhoea or other diseases associated with A. skirrowii infection. Twenty-two faecal, preputial and vaginal swab specimens taken from six rams and 13 ewes after the abortion event were all negative for A. skirrowii. This is the first report of abortions in sheep associated with A. skirrowiiin South Africa. Because the genus Arcobacter is similar to Campylobacter, it is possible that infection has gone unrecognised in the past. Veterinarians and laboratories should take note and include this genus in the list of potential abortifacient organisms. The possible role of Arcobacter species in other diseases like enteritis and mastitis, as well as the potential role as a zoonosis, must be borne in mind.

  7. Abortion.

    1993-09-01

    Vacuum aspiration, dilatation and curettage, hysterotomy, and, in some cases, hysterectomy comprise surgical methods of abortion. Oral administration of RU-486, epostane, prostaglandins E and F2 and vaginal suppositories of prostaglandins E and F2 are medical abortion methods. The traditional or clandestine methods are usually performed by unqualified persons and pregnant women themselves. These methods tend to be inefficient and harmful. They include oral preparations of herbs and drugs (e.g., quinine and ergot), introduction of fluids (e.g., household disinfectants) into the vagina, introduction of foreign bodies (e.g., twigs, stems, hollow tubes, needles, wire) into the uterus. Hospital records, death certificates, and community-based surveys are common sources of data on abortion. Worldwide, 40-70/1000 women of childbearing age undergo an abortion. 20-33% of all pregnancies are terminated. Abortion is always legal when it is performed to save a pregnant woman's life. In most countries, it is legal to protect the woman's physical or mental health against serious danger. The risk of death from a legal abortion is rare. On the other hand, when an abortion is performed by an unqualified, unskilled abortionist and/or under unhygienic conditions (all of which are common in countries who have a law against abortion) the risk of death is much higher. In fact, abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal death in many countries (25% and 86% of maternal deaths in Bangladesh and Romania, respectively). Common complications of abortion are incomplete abortion, trauma to pelvic organs (e.g., uterine perforation), tetanus, and infertility. In some developing countries, the cost of treating abortion complications account for up to 50% of maternity hospital budgets. Ways to reduce mortality from unsafe abortion include promoting contraceptive use, legalizing abortion, allowing trained practitioners to perform abortions for health reasons, and improving clinical management

  8. Abortion

    1985-01-01

    The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) recognizes that there is justification for abortion on medical and nonmedical socioeconomic grounds and that such an elective surgical procedure should be decided upon by the patient and the physician(s) concerned. Ideally, the service should be available to all women on an equitable basis across Canada. CMA has recommended the removal of all references to hospital therapeutic abortion committees as outlined in the Criminal Code of Canada. The Criminal C...

  9. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam

    Thủy Đỗ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI. Method The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis (VC, bacterial vaginosis (BV and syphilis. To assess the validity of the obtained results, the study was repeated among 100 women and the duplicate samples were analysed at PSH and Copenhagen University Hospital (CUH. Results In all 54% of the women were diagnosed as having an RTI, including 3.3% with sexually transmitted infections. Endogenous infections were most prevalent (VC 34% and BV 12% followed by chlamydia (1.3% and trichomoniasis (0.7%. The sensitivity of culture for VC and BV was 30% and 88%, respectively, when tests in PSH were measured against tests in CUH. Antibiotic resistance was common among bacterial isolates. Conclusion RTIs are common among women seeking abortion. The presence of RTIs is associated with an increased risk of developing iatrogenic infections, routine administration of prophylactic antibiotic to all women undergoing abortion should be considered. However, the choice of routine prophylactic antibiotics should be based on relevant surveillance data of antibiotic resistance

  10. Intranasal infection with Chlamydia abortus induces dose-dependent latency and abortion in sheep.

    David Longbottom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3 were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×10(3, 5×10(5 and 5×10(7 inclusion forming units (IFU, respectively prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×10(6 IFU C. abortus (group 5. Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50-67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and

  11. Abortion.

    Savage, A

    1979-09-15

    I refer for termination anyone who requests it for--pace Mr V Tunkel, (28 July, p 253)--the law is generally regarded as being one of "abortion on demand." I have some misgivings as I do not believe that women in early pregnancy are always in a fit state to make a considered decision, and they cannot in the nature of things be given time. I have, however, become increasingly worried about the morbidity arising from the procedure, and it is interesting that letters on the subject (25 August, pp 495 and 496) should be followed by one reporting rupture of the uterus during prostaglandin-induced abortion--yet another complication to add to those of cervical incompetence, pelvic sepsis, and permanent neurological damage. In so far as these tragedies usually follow late terminations Mr John Corrie's Bill is to be welcomed. A few further points. I am not so cynical as to think that every impregnation is the result of a thoughtless act of male lust. Unlike Professor Peter Huntingford (25 August, p 496), I listen to men as well as women, and many of them are deeply involved emotionally in the pregnancy they have helped to produce. Certainly I think a man should have the right to be consulted if his wife is to undergo a procedure that might damage her health. It is unfair contemptuously to dismiss as "whims" opinions that differ from ones own. These may result from genuine conscientious doubts or inability to cope from overwork and understaffing. Abortion is quite the most expensive form of contraception, and perhaps in these days of financial stringency this should be taken into account. "Bigotry" is defined in my dictionary as "blind zeal." This could be said of those who enthusiastically promote a course of action without regard to circumstances, safety, or cost. PMID:497770

  12. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Amir Kamali; HesamAdin Seifi; Ahmad Reza Movassaghi; Gholam Reza Razmi; Zahra Naseri

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS. Results: N. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth. Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  13. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Amir; Kamali; Hesam; Adin; Seifi; Ahmad; Reza; Movassaghi; Gholam; Reza; Razmi; Zahra; Naseri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospom caninum(N.caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran.Methods:Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran.In addition,the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination.To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis,data analysis was performed by SAS.Results:N.caninum was detected in 179(45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR.Among the PCR-positive brain samples,only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination.The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16(28%) of PCR-positive samples.The risk factors including season,parity of dam,history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd,cow’s milk production,herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection.This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods.In addition,a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth.Conclusions:The results showed N.caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses.In addition,at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection.These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that repeat ovine...

  15. Cytokine gene expression in aborting and non-aborting dams and in their foetuses after experimental infection with Neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.

    Almeria, S; Serrano-Pérez, B; Darwich, L; Mur-Novales, R; Garcia-Ispierto, I; Cabezón, O; López-Gatius, F

    2016-08-30

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. In this study, Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL4) and T reg (IL-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time PCR using the TaqMan approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate Nc-Spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. In prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and transplacental infection in all the 6 infected foetuses. In the spleen of the dams, IL-4 expression was down-regulated in dams with aborted/non viable foetuses compared to both uninfected dams (controls, n=3) and infected dams with live fetuses at euthanasia. In the lymph nodes draining the placenta, up-regulated expression of IL-4 was observed in infected dams with live foetuses compared to control dams. In the placenta, infected dams with live foetuses had significantly up-regulated IFN-γ in both caruncle and cotyledon and up-regulated IL-10 in cotyledon compared to control dams. Infected live foetuses showed up-regulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in foetal spleen, and showed downregulated expression of IL-4 in the thymus compared to control uninfected foetuses. Expression of any cytokine in the thymus was significantly lower compared to the levels observed in foetal spleen. The results indicate an up-regulated expression of Th1, Th2 and Treg in infected dams with live foetuses and in their foetuses. On the other hand, down-regulation of Th2 immune responses and Treg cytokines were observed in infected dams which had aborted or had non-viable foetuses at euthanasia, suggesting an immunological recovery of cytokine gene expression levels in dams a few weeks after an abortion occurred. PMID:27523950

  16. A randomised controlled trial of prophylaxis of post-abortal infection: ceftriaxone versus placebo

    Henriques, C U; Wilken-Jensen, C; Thorsen, P;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of post-operative infection after first trimester abortion in women treated with a long-acting cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) compared with low risk patients receiving no treatment and with high risk patients receiving our standard treatment of ampicillin/piva...

  17. Pelvic inflammatory disease associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection after therapeutic abortion. A prospective study.

    Qvigstad, E; Skaug, K; Jerve, F; Fylling, P; Ulstrup, J C

    1983-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was cultured from the cervix of 70 of 557 (12.6%) patients admitted for therapeutic abortion. Postoperatively, 22 (3.9%) developed acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); of these women, 14 (63.6%) had harboured C trachomatis in the cervix before the abortion. Thus of 70 patients with chlamydial infection, 14 (20%) developed PID postoperatively. Of the chlamydia-positive patients, six of the 15 (40%) aged less than 20 years and eight of the 53 (15%) patients aged 20-30 ...

  18. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  19. Molecular and Pathological Study of Bovine Aborted Fetuses and Placenta from Neospora caninum Infected Dairy Cattle

    P Shayan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The objective of the study was to evaluate the presence of Neospora caninum organisms in the brain of aborted fetuses and placentas of full-term calves born of seropositive cows. "nMethods: During 2006-2007, 12 brains of aborted calves from Neospora seropositive cattle and 7 pla­centas from seropositive dams giving birth to full-term calves, from four dairy cattle farms located around Tehran province, Iran were examined by Nested-PCR and histopathology techniques. "nResult: The Nested-PCR demonstrated that all of 12 aborted fetal brain samples and 5 of 7 placentas were infected by N. caninum. Mild to severe placentitis was observed in 5 placentas. Severe hyperemia and pe­rivascular and perineuronal edema revealed in all fetal brain. In 3 out of 12 brains, scattered foci of he­morrhages, neuropilar necrosis and gliosis were present. In addition, nonpurulent encephalitis with severe lymphohistiocytic perivascular cuffing in one case and a small tissue cyst like Neospora caninum cyst in other calf were observed. "n Conclusion: Our results confirmed the molecular and histopathologic findings of other studies about Neos­pora caninum infection and it seems to support the hypothesis that Neospora infection is associated with bovine abortion in Iran.

  20. Abortion - medical

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  1. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam

    Nguyen, My Huong; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Do, Thi Thu Thuy;

    2009-01-01

    as having an RTI, including 3.3% with sexually transmitted infections. Endogenous infections were most prevalent (VC 34% and BV 12%) followed by chlamydia (1.3%) and trichomoniasis (0.7%). The sensitivity of culture for VC and BV was 30% and 88%, respectively, when tests in PSH were measured against tests...

  2. Kinetics of Infection and Effects on Placental Cell Populations in a Murine Model of Chlamydia psittaci-Induced Abortion

    Buendía, Antonio J.; Sánchez, Joaquín; Martínez, María C.; Cámara, Paulina; Navarro, Jose A.; Rodolakis, Annie; Salinas, Jesus

    1998-01-01

    The anatomical progression of chlamydial infection was studied in different areas of the placenta, using a mouse model and two inoculation times: early pregnancy (day 7, group A) and midpregnancy (day 11, group B). The first population cells affected were decidual cells and neutrophils located just at the limits of the maternal and fetal placenta. The following invaded area was the layer of giant cells. Complete colonization of the maternal placenta occurred after day 15 of pregnancy independently of the inoculation time, the metrial gland being the last area to be invaded; numerous granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells were infected. Finally, chlamydial inclusions were observed in labyrinthine trophoblastic cells from day 18 of pregnancy onward. Since no fetal damage was observed, it seems that an indirect mechanism involving the lysis of GMG cells and neutrophil infiltration of the decidua and metrial gland may be the pathogenic mechanism that leads to abortion. PMID:9573099

  3. Laws Requiring Parental Involvement to Obtain Abortion and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Minors.

    Silvie Colman; Ted Joyce; Thomas S. Dee

    2011-01-01

    Report evaluates whether policies requiring parental involvement in minors' decision to obtain an abortion can alter their sexual behavior and help reduce the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. Using data from the STI surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the findings offer little evidence of a link between parental involvement laws and teen STI rates.

  4. Detection and Identification of Toxoplasma gondii Type One Infection in Sheep Aborted Fetuses in Qazvin Province of Iran

    M Kamalzade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to apply the nested-PCR and bioassay methods in detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii infection in provided sheep aborted fetus samples from Qazvin Province of Iran. Methods: Eighteen sheep aborted fetal samples were studied by nested-PCR-RFLP, histopathologi­cal observation and microbiological assay. Bioassay in mice was carried out by inoculating the brain samples intraperitoneally. Results: The results demonstrated the frequency of 66% infected sheep aborted fetal samples with T. gondii type one. Although we could not isolate any parasite from inoculated mice even after three pas­sages, but it was confirmed histopathologically formation of cyst like bodies in prepared mice brain sections. Conclusion: The results of the performed nested-PCR and formation of brain cyst in inoculated mice exhibited that T. gondii type one infection might be considered as one of the major causative agents for abortion in ewes.

  5. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  6. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  7. De novo transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analysis reveal potential mechanisms of seed abortion in dove tree (Davidia involucrata Baill.)

    Li, Meng; Dong, Xujie; Peng, Jiqing; Xu, Wen; Ren, Rui; Liu, Jane; Cao, Fuxiang; Liu, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Background Dove tree (Davidia involucrata Baill.) is a rare and endangered species. Natural reproduction of dove tree is extremely difficult due to its low fecundity. Serious seed abortion is one of the key factors restraining its sexual reproduction. Understanding the inducements of seed abortion is critical for addressing the issue of offspring production and the survivability of such an endangered species. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of seed abortion in woody plants are lac...

  8. Abortion - surgical

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... problem. Your pregnancy is harmful to your health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event such ...

  9. [Herpetic infection of spermatozoa in failure of reproductive technologies and spontaneous abortion].

    Bocharova, E N; Bragina, E E; Gusak, Iu K; Zotov, V V; Tereshchenko, A B; Shileĭko, L V; Kurilo, L F; Klimova, R R; Kushch, A A

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was studied in ejaculate of 36 men whose wives had the history of spontaneous abortions, or failure of artificial insemination (AI), or extracorporeal fertilization (ECF). The control group consisted of 222 patients examined prophylactically after urogenital inflammation or for primary infertility. HSV was detected with immunofluorescence (IF) reaction with monoclonal antibodies to HSV antigens, rapid culture method (RCM) and transmission electronic microscopy. HSV antigens were detected in fraction of mobile spermatozoa in 13 (65%) of 20 samples from patients of the study group. HSV detectability in the study group was significantly higher than in the controls (p = 0.003). Intragametic capsides of HSV were detected at ultrastructural investigation in 13 of 19 (68%) ejaculate samples from patients of the study group in whom IF and/ or RCM results were positive. The study of 6 ejaculate samples of this group in which HSV was not detected by IF or RCM and 24 control samples HSV capsides were not detected. The following conclusions can be made: mobile spermatozoa of normal morphology can be infected with HSV; as shown morphologically, samples of ejaculate from men whose wives had spontaneous abortions contained intragametic HSV capsides; intragametic HSV infection of spermatozoa had a negative effect on the course of pregnancy and/or embryon vitality. PMID:17722621

  10. Activation of mRNA translation by phage protein and low temperature: the case of Lactococcus lactis abortive infection system AbiD1

    Ehrlich S Dusko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abortive infection (Abi mechanisms comprise numerous strategies developed by bacteria to avoid being killed by bacteriophage (phage. Escherichia coli Abis are considered as mediators of programmed cell death, which is induced by infecting phage. Abis were also proposed to be stress response elements, but no environmental activation signals have yet been identified. Abis are widespread in Lactococcus lactis, but regulation of their expression remains an open question. We previously showed that development of AbiD1 abortive infection against phage bIL66 depends on orf1, which is expressed in mid-infection. However, molecular basis for this activation remains unclear. Results In non-infected AbiD1+ cells, specific abiD1 mRNA is unstable and present in low amounts. It does not increase during abortive infection of sensitive phage. Protein synthesis directed by the abiD1 translation initiation region is also inefficient. The presence of the phage orf1 gene, but not its mutant AbiD1R allele, strongly increases abiD1 translation efficiency. Interestingly, cell growth at low temperature also activates translation of abiD1 mRNA and consequently the AbiD1 phenotype, and occurs independently of phage infection. There is no synergism between the two abiD1 inducers. Purified Orf1 protein binds mRNAs containing a secondary structure motif, identified within the translation initiation regions of abiD1, the mid-infection phage bIL66 M-operon, and the L. lactis osmC gene. Conclusion Expression of the abiD1 gene and consequently AbiD1 phenotype is specifically translationally activated by the phage Orf1 protein. The loss of ability to activate translation of abiD1 mRNA determines the molecular basis for phage resistance to AbiD1. We show for the first time that temperature downshift also activates abortive infection by activation of abiD1 mRNA translation.

  11. Induced Abortion

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  12. Abortion - medical

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  13. Expression of prostaglandin receptors in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected recurrent spontaneous aborters.

    Singh, Namita; Prasad, Priya; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwar; Das, Banashree; Rastogi, Sangita

    2016-06-01

    A study was undertaken to quantify the expression of prostaglandin (PG) receptors and find the effect of gestational age on expression of PG receptor genes in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected recurrent spontaneous aborters (RSA). Endometrial curettage tissue (ECT) was collected from 130 RSA (Group I) and 100 age-matched controls (Group II) at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi (India). PCR was performed for diagnosis of C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid; mRNA expression of PG receptor genes was assessed by real-time PCR (q-PCR), while serum progesterone/estrogen levels were determined by respective commercial kits. Data were evaluated statistically. A total of 15.4 % RSA (GroupI) were diagnosed as C. trachomatis-positive (200 bp), whereas controls were uninfected. q-PCR showed significant upregulation (PRSA, mean serum progesterone level was significantly low (PRSA. PMID:27028620

  14. Markers related to the diagnosis and to the risk of abortion in bovine neosporosis.

    Almería, Sonia; López-Gatius, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Bovine neosporosis has emerged as a main cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. An important question to understand the disease is why not all infected cows abort. In the present review we summarize the knowledge on markers related to the diagnosis and more importantly to the risk of abortion in the infected cow. Markers considered herein include those based on specific antibodies, antibody titers and antibody subtypes, cellular immunological markers, hormones and other proteins related to gestation. The identification of parasite molecules that are specifically identified in the aborting cows might help to understand the mechanism of parasite-associated abortion and control the disease. PMID:25841793

  15. Abortion - surgical

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  16. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RECENTLY INFECTED ABORTED EGYPTIAN WOMEN.

    Badr, Mohamed S; Attia, Samar S; El-Sherbiny, Walid S; Abd-Allah M A, El Ebidi; Hefny, Hesham M; Salem, Ahmed N M

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in human beings. Human toxoplasmosis can be associated with serious clinical manifestations, particularly in developing fetus. The aim of the current study was to identify the possible lineage type of Toxoplasma gondii, molecularly detected in placental samples of women whose pregnancies were spontaneously terminated in the first trimester. Preliminary detection of Toxoplasma genomic materials was done by a SYBR green qPCR technology. Subsequent identification of Toxoplasma strain was done for the positive samples using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the SAG2 loci of T. gondii using restriction enzymes HhaI and Sau3AI. Out of 72 tested samples, Toxoplasma B1 gene was detected in 9 cases. Toxoplasma genotypes I and II in addition to unknown type were identified in 4, 3 and 2 cases respectively, while type III was not detected in our samples, hence excluded as a leading cause of abortion in humans in our preliminary study. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain to what extent the genotype of the parasite directly contributes to the clinical severity of human toxoplasmosis. Certainly, advanced molecular techniques targeting different Toxoplasma strains are crucial for better understanding of human toxoplasmosis. For more elucidation, additional studies are recommended intended for genetic characterization of such serious parasitic infection using larger number of samples. PMID:27363040

  17. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from naturally infected aborted bovine fetuses.

    Canada, Nuno; Meireles, Carla S; Rocha, A; da Costa, J M Correia; Erickson, M W; Dubey, J P

    2002-12-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are related parasites. The former is a common cause of abortion in dairy cattle. The latter has not been conclusively demonstrated in bovine fetuses. During the course of attempts to isolate N. caninum from aborted fetuses, T. gondii was isolated from 2 aborted fetuses, 1 from Portugal and 1 from the United States. Both isolates were made by bioassay of fetal brains in mice. The fetus from Portugal was about 5 mo in gestational age, and the fetus from the United States was a full-term stillborn. PMID:12537120

  18. High prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among HIV-infected women from Western India : need to emphasize dual method use?

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Janssen, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence, reasons, and predictors of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among ever married HIV-infected women attending a care facility in Maharashtra, Western India, and discusses its programmatic and policy implications. Retrospectively collected data of pregnanci

  19. Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrheae Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem

    Avcı, Oğuzhan; Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem in Çankırı. A total of 172 serum and 172 leukocytes samples were collected from unvaccinated Holstein cows for mentioned infections in 2010. All sampled animals were over 3 years. While the serum samples were analysed by commercially available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), leukocyte samples...

  20. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol.

  1. Prematurity and Abortion

    Francisco Jover-Díaz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the pathogenic role of Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy is controversial, some cases of stillbirth and abortion occurring after an acute or chronic infection have been mentioned in the literature. Recently, Q fever has been advocated as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy

  2. Mouse model for abortive rabies infection of the central nervous system.

    Smith, J S

    1981-01-01

    When adult mice were injected by the footpad route with the attenuated rabies virus ERA/BHK, serum- and brain-associated antibody and interferon were produced, nonspecific cytotoxic cells and virus-specific cytolytic T cells in the spleen were activated, and a nonlethal infection of the central nervous system occurred. Cyclophosphamide treatment of these animals 1 day after virus infection suppressed antibody formation and induction of cytolytic T cells and resulted in a lethal infection. Vir...

  3. Quantitative detection of Neospora caninum in bovine aborted fetuses and experimentally infected mice by real-time PCR.

    Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Zaballos, Angel; Alvarez-García, Gema; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2002-04-01

    We report the development of a real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection of Neospora caninum in infected host tissues. The assay uses the double-stranded DNA-binding dye SYBR Green I to continuously monitor product formation. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 76-bp DNA fragment corresponding to the Nc5 sequence of N. caninum. A similar method was developed to quantify the 28S rRNA host gene in order to compare the parasite load of different samples and to correct for the presence of potential PCR-inhibiting compounds in the DNA samples. A linear quantitative detection range of 6 logs with a calculated detection limit of 10(-1) tachyzoite per assay was observed with excellent linearity (R(2) = 0.998). Assay specificity was confirmed by using DNA from the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The applicability of the technique was successfully tested in a variety of host brain tissues: (i) aborted bovine fetuses classified into negative or positive Neospora-infected animals according to the observation of compatible lesions by histopathological study and (ii) experimentally infected BALB/c mice, divided into three groups, inoculated animals with or without compatible lesions and negative controls. All samples were also tested by ITS1 Neospora nested PCR and a high degree of agreement was shown between both PCR techniques (kappa = 0.86). This technique represents a useful quantitative diagnostic tool to be used in the study of the pathogenicity, immunoprophylaxis, and treatment of Neospora infection. PMID:11923330

  4. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  5. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA): a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    Zimmermann Dieter R; Doherr Marcus G; Kaiser Carmen; Psarrou Evgenia; Vretou Evangelia; Thoma Ruedi; Gerber Andrea; Polkinghorne Adam; Pospischil Andreas; Borel Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abo...

  6. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA): a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    Gerber, Andrea; Thoma, Ruedi; Vretou, Evangelia; Psarrou, Evgenia; Kaiser, Carmen; Doherr, Marcus G.; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. RESULTS: Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus in...

  7. Abortion and Selection

    Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat; Jonathan Gruber; Phillip B. Levine; Douglas Staiger

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of legalized abortion in the early 1970s led to dramatic changes in fertility behavior. Some research has suggested as well that there were important impacts on cohort outcomes, but this literature has been limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms through which abortion access affects cohort outcomes, and use that framework to both address inconsistent past methodological approaches, and provide evidence on the long-run...

  8. The abortion debate in Australia.

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  9. Abortive phage-infection and UV-protection markers on ColI plasmids from epidemic strains of Salmonella

    Cultures of Escherichia coli carrying ColI plasmids received in conjugation from strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. agona were examined for abortive infection (Abi) of phage BF23 and for enhanced resistance to the lethal action of UV-irradiation (Uvr). The Abi character of stored cultures of E. coli was also compared with the reaction of the same stock culture tested 5 years before. Seven of the eight potential types differentiated by three characters were represented among 160 ColI plasmids: ColIa Abi+ Uvr+ (3 plasmids), ColIa Abi- Uvr+ (1), ColIa Abi- Uvr-> (2), ColIb Abi+ Uvr+ (85), ColIb Abi+ Uvr- (5), ColIb Abi- Uvr+ (4), ColIb Abi-? Uvr- (60). Recognition that different plasmid types could be carried by strains of a clone proved useful in the interpretation of the epidemic spread of strains of S. typhimurium of phage type/biotype 141/9f in Scotland and in tracing the ancestry of a recently emerged rhamnose non-fermenting mutant strain of S. agona. (author)

  10. Haemophilus influenzae Septic Abortion

    Sharon L. Hillier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemophilus influenzae septic abortion is typically caused by nontypeable strains of the organism. Furthermore, nontypeable species with a special affinity for the genital tract are the most frequent isolates encountered, and an ascending vaginal or cervical infection is often the suspected route of transmission.

  11. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    de Castro Alessandra MMG; Cruz Taís F; Salgado Vanessa R; Kanashiro Tatiana M; Ferrari Karen L; Araujo João P; Brandão Paulo E; Richtzenhain Leonardo J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located ...

  12. Mechanism of human rhinovirus infections.

    Blaas, Dieter; Fuchs, Renate

    2016-12-01

    About 150 human rhinovirus serotypes are responsible for more than 50 % of recurrent upper respiratory infections. Despite having similar 3D structures, some bind members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, some ICAM-1, and some use CDHR3 for host cell infection. This is also reflected in the pathways exploited for cellular entry. We found that even rhinovirus serotypes binding the same receptor can travel along different endocytic pathways and release their RNA genome into the cytosol at different locations. How this may account for distinct immune responses elicited by various rhinoviruses and the observed symptoms of the common cold is briefly discussed. PMID:27251607

  13. Up Regulation of the Maternal Immune Response in the Placenta of Cattle Naturally Infected with Neospora caninum

    Rosbottom, Anne; Gibney, Helen; Kaiser, Peter; Hartley, Catherine; Smith, Robert F.; Robinson, Rebecca; Kipar, Anja; Williams, Diana J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite which is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. It forms persistent infections which recrudesce during pregnancy leading to foetal infection and in a proportion of cases, abortion. The mechanisms underlying abortion are not understood. In this study, recrudescence of a persistent infection in eight naturally infected cows occurred between 20 and 33 weeks of gestation. Animals were killed at the time of recrudescence and parasites...

  14. Epstein-Barr virus infection mechanisms

    Liudmila S. Chesnokova; Lindsey M. Hutt-Fletcher

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection occurs by distinct mechanisms across different cell types. EBV infection of B cellsin vitro minimally requires 5 viral glycoproteins and 2 cellular proteins. By contrast, infection of epithelial cells requires a minimum of 3 viral glycoproteins, which are capable of interacting with one or more of 3 different celular proteins. The ful complement of proteins involved in entry into al cel types capable of being infectedin vivo is unknown. This review discusses the events that occur when the virus is delivered into the cytoplasm of a cel, the players known to be involved in these events, and the ways in which these players are thought to function.

  15. High prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among HIV-infected women from Western India: need to emphasize dual method use?

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Janssen, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence, reasons, and predictors of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among ever married HIV-infected women attending a care facility in Maharashtra, Western India, and discusses its programmatic and policy implications. Retrospectively collected data of pregnancies conceived after the diagnosis of HIV were analyzed using descriptive and logistic regression techniques. Among the 622 women interviewed, 113 women had 158 pregnancies with known outcomes after HIV diagnosis. Among these pregnancies, 80 (51%) were unwanted and 79 (50%) were voluntarily terminated. Fear of transmitting HIV to the child was a frequently mentioned reason for an unwanted pregnancy (71.8%) and induced abortion (59.5%). Women from urban areas [OR 2.43 (95% CI 1.23-4.79)] and with two or more live births before HIV diagnosis [OR 3.33 (95% CI 1.36-8.20)] were significantly more likely to report an unwanted pregnancy. Women with two or more live births before HIV diagnosis [OR 3.16 (95% CI 1.20-8.35)], who did not know that HIV transmission to the baby can be prevented [OR 3.29 (95% CI 1.48-7.34)] and with an unwanted pregnancy [OR 4.82 (95% CI 2.33-10.00)], were significantly more likely to terminate the pregnancy. Despite increased coverage of antiretroviral treatment, effective provision of reproductive healthcare services to HIV-infected women remains challenging. A high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions and a low level of knowledge about prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) underscore the need for preconception counseling and provision of comprehensive family planning services to HIV-infected women. Enrolling all HIV-infected pregnant women, irrespective of their decision to continue with their pregnancy, in the PMTCT program and discussing with HIV-infected women and their partners at HIV diagnosis a full array of contraceptive methods and not just consistent use of condoms might be helpful in reducing unwanted

  16. Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Shapiro, Karen; Miller, Melissa A; Packham, Andrea E; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Murray, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection. PMID:26494610

  17. Immune mechanisms in Babesia-infected animals

    The course of a Babesia infection depends on the species of host and parasite involved. Animals infected with virulent babesias may need chemotherapy before acquired immunity develops. Maintenance of immunity is not dependent on the presence of the parasite. Babesia infections are characteristically of long duration. The immune response to babesias includes both humoral and cellular components. Antibody levels detected in serodiagnostic tests do not relate to levels of resistance to the parasite. Some antibodies, however, appear to be protective. Antiparasitic antibodies may damage parasites in or outside the red cell and act as opsonins. T-cell-deficient and anti-lymphocyte-serum-treated rodents are more susceptible to rodent piroplasms indicating a role for T-cells as either helper cells and/or as mediators of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). There is indirect evidence of CMI, but the cell-mediated mechanisms involved in parasite killing are not known. In domestic animals immunity is largely species- and strain-specific. Antigenic variation by babesias occurs. In rodents, however, there is cross-immunity between different species of rodent piroplasms and between rodent piroplasms and some malaria parasites. Prior infection with agents such as BCG, and Corynebacterium parvum, gives mice non-specific resistance to rodent piroplasms possibly mediated through a soluble non-antibody factor. This factor may also be liberated during piroplasm infections and by being toxic to malaria parasites account for heterologous immunity. Active immunization against babesias has been achieved with avirulent strains, irradiated parasites and dead parasites in adjuvant. During Babesia infections the primary and, to a lesser degree, the secondary immune response to heterologous antigens can be depressed. Maximum depression coincides with peak parasitaemia when antigen priming may be abolished completely. Immunosuppression during Babesia infections can prolong or exacerbate concurrent

  18. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA: a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    Zimmermann Dieter R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA specific for Chlamydophila (Cp. abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined.

  19. Immunologically mediated abortion (IMA).

    Giacomucci, E; Bulletti, C; Polli, V; Prefetto, R A; Flamigni, C

    1994-06-01

    Roughly 20% of all clinical pregnancies evolve into "spontaneous abortions". The causes of spontaneous abortion have been determined in under 60% of the total and comprise genetic, infectious, hormonal and immunological factors. In some cases the immune tolerance mechanism may be impaired and the foetus immunologically rejected (IMA, immunologically mediated abortion). The immunological mechanism implicated depends on the time in which pregnancy loss takes place. During preimplantation and up to the end of implantation (13th day) the cell-mediated immune mechanism (potential alloimmune etiologies) is responsible for early abortion. This mechanism involves immunocompetent decidual cells (eGL, endometrial granulated lymphocytes) already present during pre-decidualization (late luteal phase) and their production of soluble factors or cytokines. Once the implantation process is over, after blastocyst penetration of the stroma and the decidual reaction of uterine tissue, IMA could be caused by cell-mediated and humoral mechanism (anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies or autoantibody etiology), by the production of paternal anti major histocompatibility complex antibodies, or even by an autoimmune disorder leading to the production of autoantibodies (antiphospholipid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies or polyclonal B cell activation). The diagnostic work-up adopted to select IMA patients is crucial and includes primary (karyotype of both partners, toxo-test, hysterosalpingography, endometrial biopsy, thyroid function tests, serum hprolactin, luteal phase dating) and secondary (full hemochromocytometric test, search for LE cells, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, antinuclear antibodies, Rheumatoid factor, blood complement VDRL) investigations. Therapeutical approaches vary. If autoimmune disorders are demonstrated therapies with different combinations of corticosteroids, aspirin and heparin or intravenous immunoglobulin are administered. Otherwise, therapy with paternal

  20. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  1. A survey of the incidence of Neospora caninum infection in aborted and stillborn bovine fetuses in England and Wales.

    Otter, A; Jeffrey, M; Griffiths, I B; Dubey, J P

    1995-06-17

    Selected brains and fetal viscera from 190 aborted or stillborn bovine fetuses submitted to Veterinary Investigation Centres in England and Wales between August 1992 and January 1993 were examined histologically. Non-suppurative inflammation of the brain and/or myocardium and placental cotyledons was identified by light microscopy in 20 (10.5 per cent). An immunocytochemical examination of fixed tissue sections using antisera against Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis species revealed positive immunolabelling for N caninum in the brains of eight (4.2 per cent), but no labelling with anti-T gondii or anti-Sarcocystis species antisera was evident. These results suggest that N caninum may be an important cause of reproductive failure in cattle in England and Wales. PMID:7571263

  2. Mechanisms of infection in the respiratory tract.

    Baskerville, A

    1981-12-01

    Related to its potential vulnerability the respiratory tract has a very complex and effective defence apparatus. The interaction between these defence mechanisms and certain characteristics of aetiological agents results in a pattern in which initial infections by these agents tend to occur at specific sites in the tract. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the upper respiratory tract include Bordetella bronchiseptica and Haemophilus spp in pigs; Pasteurella spp in cattle, sheep, pigs; Mycoplasma spp in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry; equine herpesvirus 1 in horses; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in cattle; parainfluenza 3 in cattle and sheep; infectious laryngo-tracheitis and infectious bronchitis in poultry; feline viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirus in cats; Aujeszky's disease virus and swine influenza in pigs; and equine influenza in horses. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the lower respiratory tract include Aspergillus fumigatus in poultry and mammals, respiratory syncytial virus in cattle, distemper virus in dogs and adenovirus in cattle and dogs. A fuller understanding of the interactions between an agent and the host at the point of entry would make it much easier to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic agents. PMID:16030806

  3. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    A. Kumar; L. Hessini; E.M.H. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  4. Space Shuttle ascent aborts

    Schmidgall, Richard A.

    1989-09-01

    Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.

  5. Determination of Seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondiiInfection in Pregnant and Aborted Sheep in Elazig and Vicinity by Sabin-Feldman (SF) Test

    AKTAŞ, Münir; DUMANLI, Nazir

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted in pregnant and aborted sheep to determine Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies. Blood samples were collected from a total of 154 sheep from 22 different herds during the period December 1996-January 1997 in Elazig and vicinity. Of these 154 sheep, 56 were pregnant, 57 aborted in the previous year and the remaining 41 sheep aborted within the period of the study. Sera obtained properly from these blood samples were examined by Sabine-Feldman (SF) test. Seropositivity for T...

  6. Should abortion be legalized?

    Sodhy, L S

    1968-01-01

    Abortion is an important means of family planning, especially when contraception is unavailable or when it fails. Morbidity associated with legal abortion is low, though illegal abortion is a common cause of maternal mortality. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and the German Demogratic Republic all have laws legalizing abortion. Legalized abortion is the surest method of population control and should be promoted if the moral and religious objections can be overcome. PMID:12255647

  7. Abortion Before & After Roe

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  8. Effect of heat preservation infusion on incidence of infection for patients after artificial abortion%人工流产后感染患者应用保温输液的效果评价

    王瑜玲; 王健平; 黄彬寿; 曾军荣; 刘敏鸿; 黄燕莺

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the control effect of heat preservation infusion on incidence of infection after artificial abortion.Methods 168 cases of patients after artificial abortion were randomly divided into the heat preservation infusion group and normal infusion group with 84 cases in each group.The normal infusion group received routine nursing,and was intravenously infused fluid with non heat preservation method,the heat preservation infusion group was intravenously infused constant temperature liquid heated to 37℃.The incidence of infection was observed in two groups of patients after artificial abortion.Results The infection rate of the heat preservation group was significantly less than the normal infusion group.Conclusions Heat preservation infusion can effectively reduce the infection rate after artificial abortion.%目的 观察保温输液对人工流产后感染状况的控制效果.方法 将168例人工流产患者随机分为保温输液组和常温输液组各84例.常温输液组采用常规护理,用非保温方式静脉输入室温液体,保温输液组输入恒温加热至37℃的液体,观察2组患者人工流产术后感染的发生情况.结果 保温输液组流产后感染发生率显著低于常温输液组.结论 保温输液能有效降低人工流产后的感染率.

  9. 复发性流产与宫颈HPV感染的相关性分析%Correlation Analysis of HPV Infection and Pregnancy Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions

    钟小敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨复发性流产与宫颈HPV感染的相关性。方法:将本站妇科门诊就诊的早期复发性流产(RSA)98例患者作为实验组,同时期妊娠的非RSA女性95例为对照组,采用PCR法对两组患者进行宫颈HPV基因检测,对比两组患者HPV感染的阳性率及各亚型在HPV感染中的比例。结果:实验组中HPV阳性34例(34.7%),对照组HPV阳性12例(12.6%),实验组HPV阳性率显著高于对照组(χ2=16.186, P0.05);HPV阳性与RSA发生呈正相关性(r=0.259,P0.05).There was significant positive correlation between HPV-positive and RSA occur (r=0.259,P<0.001).Conclusion:Early pregnancy recurrent spontaneous abortions is associated with HPV infection closely, HPV may be involved in the occurrence of RSA.

  10. Helminth infections induce immunomodulation: consequences and mechanisms

    Riet, Petronella Helena van

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well as regulatory responses. The latter is thought to prevent strong immune responses against parasitic worms, allowing their long-term survival and restricting pathology. This regulatory network is t...

  11. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  12. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  13. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  14. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, L.; Agger, J. F.

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  15. Abortion and psychiatric practice.

    Stotland, Nada L

    2003-03-01

    The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be. PMID:15985924

  16. Bills to decriminalize abortion in Brazil.

    1994-01-01

    The National Congress in Brazil is currently considering 9 abortion bills, 2 of which were introduced by women. In this interview, the women senators--Jandira Feghall of the Communist Party and Eva Blay of the Social Democrat Party--discuss the likely outcome of the abortion debate. Although the Roman Catholic Church has announced its intentions to oppose any liberalization of the abortion law, there are divisions within the Church as evidenced by the existence of groups such as Catholics for a Free Choice. Both senators agree that decriminalization of abortion will depend upon the societal response and an effort must be made to reach the many people who are confused and undecided about the issue. Although the present debate fits within the broader current debate on population policies, it has been the insistence of the feminist movement that put abortion reform on the agenda. Blay's bill calls for the legalization of abortion on demand until the 12th week of pregnancy and in cases of rape or risk to the woman's life after that point. A controversial aspect of Feghall's bill is the inclusion of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as a condition for abortion. Feghall notes that this is an option rather than a requirement, but she will eliminate this condition if it engenders discrimination against HIV-infected women. PMID:12318722

  17. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  18. Legalized abortion in Czechoslovakia.

    Zidovsky, J; Zwinger, A

    1972-01-01

    A law legalizing abortion was passed nearly 20 years ago in Czechosl ovakia. The law aimed to give women the freedom to decide for themselves whether they want to be pregnant and to decrease the dangers of illegal abortion. The law resulted in a decreased number of abortions and of complications and deaths associated with abortion. Fertility in the country also declined. In 1968 there were more abortions than live births in the country. Since 1957, the law has been modified. The law still aims to prevent the birth of defective children and to protect the life and health of mothers. Each application for abortion is now examined on its own merits. Favorable economic circumstances, prolife social policies adopted by the government, and the new stricter interpretation of the abortion law have resulted in a r ising birthrate since 1969. Contraception is still stressed as preferab le to abortion. PMID:12256872

  19. Kinetics of Infection and Effects on Placental Cell Populations in a Murine Model of Chlamydia psittaci-Induced Abortion

    Buendía, Antonio J.; Sánchez, Joaquín; Martínez, María C.; Cámara, Paulina; Navarro, Jose A.; Rodolakis, Annie; Salinas, Jesus

    1998-01-01

    The anatomical progression of chlamydial infection was studied in different areas of the placenta, using a mouse model and two inoculation times: early pregnancy (day 7, group A) and midpregnancy (day 11, group B). The first population cells affected were decidual cells and neutrophils located just at the limits of the maternal and fetal placenta. The following invaded area was the layer of giant cells. Complete colonization of the maternal placenta occurred after day 15 of pregnancy independ...

  20. Late-term abortion.

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  1. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  2. 57.1% of Unmarried Women Undergoing Abortion Have RTI:Survey

    2004-01-01

    A survey of 2,002 unmarried women under 24 years of age who requested abortions in four Chinese cities indicates that reproductive tract infection (RTI) has become a major factor affecting the reproductive health of unmarried women having abortions.

  3. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options.

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Walker, Jennifer N; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778

  4. Abortion in Ireland.

    Francome, C

    1992-08-22

    Substantial legal barriers to abortion persist in both the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, despite growing popular support for abortion under certain conditions. A 1983 amendment to the republic's constitution guarantees the fetus the same right to life s the mother and bans the provision of information on abortion. Although a recent well publicized case of a pregnant, suicidal 14-year-old who travelled to England for an abortion resulted in an Irish Supreme Court ruling that abortion was acceptable in cases of "real and substantial risk" to a woman's life, uncertainty still surrounds the right to travel to England for the procedure. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 Abortion Act does not apply and abortions are denied even in cases of rape and incest. A total of 1766 women from Northern Ireland and 4158 from the republic travelled to England for abortions in 1991. Public opinion seems to have shifted toward support for less restrictive abortion laws, however. Whereas 80% of those surveyed in a 1980 Irish poll supported to ban on abortion in all cases, this statistic had dropped to 30% by 1990. Similarly, a 1991 poll taken in Northern Ireland found 80% of respondents to be a favor of abortion in cases where the procedure is necessary to maintain a woman's physical or mental health. PMID:1392954

  5. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During the...... first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....

  6. Trypsin enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: mechanism of enhancement.

    Clark, S M; Roth, J R; Clark, M L; Barnett, B B; Spendlove, R S

    1981-01-01

    The infectivity of most rotaviruses is enhanced by treatment with trypsin. We studied the mechanism of enhancement of examining the effect of trypsin on rotavirus infectivity, aggregation, early interactions with host cells, and structure. The results indicated that trypsin does not increase levels of infectious virus by dispersion of aggregates or affect the efficiency or rate of attachment of virus to cells. A fraction of virus that was not infections without trypsin treatment was found to ...

  7. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  8. Protective Immune Mechanisms in Helminth Infection

    Important insights have been gained in our understanding of how immune responses mediate resistance to helminths and control associated pathological responses. Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the componen...

  9. The moral significance of spontaneous abortion.

    Murphy, T F

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is rarely addressed in moral evaluations of abortion. Indeed, 'abortion' is virtually always taken to mean only induced abortion. After a brief review of medical aspects of spontaneous abortion, I attempt to articulate the moral implications of spontaneous abortion for the two poles of the abortion debate, the strong pro-abortion and the strong anti-abortion positions. I claim that spontaneous abortion has no moral relevance for strict pro-abortion positions but that the ...

  10. 毛白杨花粉败育机制的研究%STUDY ON MECHANISM OF POLLEN ABORTION IN CHINESE WHITE POPLAR (\\%POPULUS TOMENTOSA\\% CARR.)

    康向阳

    2001-01-01

    从细胞遗传学角度较为系统地揭示了毛白杨花粉败育的机制,即主要是毛白杨异质性遗传基础与环境相互作用的结果。(1)在减数分裂中有数目不等的联合程度较差的单价体以及落后染色体出现,这种与异质性相关的染色体行为异常,导致同源染色体向子细胞的不均衡分配,造成具功能染色体的缺失,从而引起毛白杨一定比率的败育花粉的产生;(2)遗传上的不平衡与温度等环境因子相互作用,进一步引发毛白杨生理乃至结构上的不平衡,花粉母细胞(或孢原细胞)和绒毡层细胞发育异常,从而造成不产粉或产粉较少;环境与基因型互作的差异性导致了花粉败育的年度不稳定性。(3)易位、倒位等染色体结构变异和天然三倍体株系的存在也是造成毛白杨花粉败育的原因。%The mechanism of pollen abortion in Chinese white poplar was revealed systematically from the observation of cytogenetics in this paper,that is,principally,resulted from interactions between environment and genetic heterogenetic basis of the species.(1)Unequal number of univalents with decreased degree of synapsis and lagging chromosomes occurred in meiosis.The abnormal chromosomal behavior correlated with heterogenicity gave rise to unequal allocation of homogenous chromosomes to daughter cells and resulted in the deletion of functional chromosoms,thus led to the occurence of a certion proportion of aborted pollens.(2)The interaction between genetic imbalance and such environmental factors as temperature,etc.,further drew forth physiological and even structrural imbalance,with abnormal development of pollen mother cells (orsporogonium) and tapetal cells,and consequently resulted in no or very few production of pollens.The difference in the interaction between environment and genotype reflected on the unstability of pollen abortion in different years.(3)The esistence of chromosome structrural

  11. [Abortion law in Italy].

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  12. Pathogenic mechanisms in the development of surgical site infections

    Jovanović Zorica; Ilić Milena; Janković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical site infections represent a major problem in modern medicine. Bacterial survival and growth in surgical wounds depends on the effectiveness of the host defense mechanisms and on the ability of bacteria to resist these defensive mechanisms. Surgical site contamination causes cellular injury and triggers the inflammatory response. Host response to infection. An acute inflammatory response occurs within seconds to minutes of injury or invasion; it is non-specific and self-...

  13. Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection and Neuropathogenesis.

    Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John

    2016-08-01

    A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis. PMID:27348136

  14. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  15. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

  16. Cell mechanics and immune system link up to fight infections

    Ekpenyong, Andrew; Man, Si Ming; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Guck, Jochen; Bryant, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases, in which pathogens invade and colonize host cells, are responsible for one third of all mortality worldwide. Host cells use special proteins (immunoproteins) and other molecules to fight viral and bacterial invaders. The mechanisms by which immunoproteins enable cells to reduce bacterial loads and survive infections remain unclear. Moreover, during infections, some immunoproteins are known to alter the cytoskeleton, the structure that largely determines cellular mechanical properties. We therefore used an optical stretcher to measure the mechanical properties of primary immune cells (bone marrow derived macrophages) during bacterial infection. We found that macrophages become stiffer upon infection. Remarkably, macrophages lacking the immunoprotein, NLR-C4, lost the stiffening response to infection. This in vitro result correlates with our in vivo data whereby mice lacking NLR-C4 have more lesions and hence increased bacterial distribution and spread. Thus, the immune-protein-dependent increase in cell stiffness in response to bacterial infection (in vitro result) seems to have a functional role in the system level fight against pathogens (in vivo result). We will discuss how this functional link between cell mechanical properties and innate immunity, effected by actin polymerization, reduces the spread of infection.

  17. SEPTIC ABORTION: AN AVOIDABLE TRAGIC COMPLICATION

    Neelam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to study the incidence, demographic factors, clinical features, management, maternal morbidity, maternal mortality, surgical interventions with special emphasis on various contributing factors and unmet needs of septic abortion. In this study, 153 cases of septic abortions during six years periods, from January 2009 to December 2014 in the department of obstetrics and gynecology in Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, were included. All patients were evaluated with special reference to incidence, age incidence, marital status, socio economic status, residential distribution, gravida incidence, causes of septic abortion, grades of infection, clinical presentation, and management. Incidence of septic abortion was 3.88 % . Criminal interference was in 74 % of cases. Most of the cases (65 % were from low socioeconomic group. Sixty percent were from rural area. Fifty eight percent were tribal. Sixteen percent were admitted in septic shock. Laparotomy was required in seventeen percent of cases. Hysterectomy was require in five cases. Unfortunately, maternal death was nine. Cause of maternal death was septic shock in six and haemorrhagic shock in three. This incidence of septic abortion can be reduced by increasing awareness and making “safe abortion services” easily available, free of coast and also by providing family planning services.

  18. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  19. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  20. Abortion in Zambia

    Coast, Ernestina; Freeman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The poster, based on 112 in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 with women in Zambia who had recently had an abortion, shows the complex pathways that some women take despite safe abortion being legal under a wide range of circumstances in Zambia.

  1. Abortion: the new debate.

    Callahan, D

    1986-06-01

    The course of the debate on abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion has been marked by a variety of medical and scientific developments. Many of these new developments have important legal, psychologic, social, moral, and political implications. The cumulative impact of all these developments may pose a significant challenge to the social and legal foundations of Roe v. Wade. PMID:3523563

  2. Access to legal abortion.

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  3. Abortion; 1 : 2 000 000

    The cartogram represents the crude rate of abortions (number of abortions per 1,000 inhabitants) in the individual districts, crude abortion rate in Slovakia: 0.54 %, number of all abortions (average of 1996 - 1998) is presented. The complicated mosaics reveals two main spatial cores of the highest abortion rate. The first is in the south-west of Slovakia, from Malacky to Komarno, and the second, the largest, is from Ziar nad Hronom and Velky Krtis as far as Michalovce. In contrary, the rate of abortions is registered in the northern districts of the eastern Slovakia, almost the whole region Presov and in the northern districts of the region of Zilina. The size of the sign expresses the absolute number of abortions and simultaneously the structure of abortions: spontaneous and induced abortions. The higher share of the spontaneous abortions (more than a quarter) generally occurs in the districts with the lowest abortion rate. (authors)

  4. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  5. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  6. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  7. Unintended Pregnancies, Restrictive Abortion Laws, and Abortion Demand

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect restrictive state abortion laws have on the pregnancy resolution decisions of women with unintended pregnancies. The empirical results find that the abortion ratio and the abortion rate of unintended pregnancies are more sensitive to increases in the abortion price than previous estimates that analyzed total pregnancies (unintended and intended). A Medicaid funding restriction has very little effect on a state's abortion rate of unintended pregnancies, but cause...

  8. Abortion: the hidden plague.

    Tuckwell, S

    1974-05-01

    Abortion is called the invisible plague of all countries and cultures in the twentieth century. It is by far the most important method of birth control in the world today. For every 200 babies born there are at least 100 abortions. In the rich world, a woman who wants to end her pregnancy goes to an abortionist, but for millions of poor women, abortion happens spontaneously in their own homes induced by poor nutrition, sheer physical weakness, and too many pregnancies too close together. In countries where abortion is illegal, millions of women die each year as a result of severe illness or the botched handiwork of backyard operators. The most common complications are massive hemorrhaging, perforation of the uterus, laceration, sepsis, and renal failure. The experience of a great many countries shows that simply legalizing abortion can lead to a dramatic drop in death and illness. Relaxation of abortion laws can save lives, money, and misery for mothers and children. Illegal abortion has become a major problem in Africa there are 3 main types of women who enter hospitals with complications after abortions: 1) the teenager who is away from home; 2) the young woman, often educated, working, and with financial responsibilities, who is ambitious for herself, her husband, or her family; and 3) the woman in her thirties, illiterate, a rural worker, married most of her reproductive life, and pregnant most years. The third type of woman may abort because her system is utterly depleted. Such women must be shown that there is a good chance of survival for her children so that she will not have so many. PMID:12307249

  9. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  10. Some research advances of immune mechanism during infection in China

    YANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging and reemerging infectious diseases continue to pose a substantial threat throughout the world.Understanding the immune mechanism during infection contributes not only to discoveries in science but also to advances in health care.Chinese researchers have made tremendous efforts to decipher the underlying mechanism of how pathogens elicit and evade immune responses and the immune homeostasis during infection.Here,we review new findings in Chinese studies concerning immune response to pathogens,immunoregulation and pathogen evasion,which offer us new insight into the trend in infectious immunology in China.

  11. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  12. [Interregional project concerning abortion].

    Jourdain, A; Pierotti, D; Vinclair, M

    1979-01-01

    The law legalizing abortion in France was passed in 1975. To group information of a social and medical nature and to publish reports on their activities, a questionnaire was designed to be filled by physicians and nurses working in centers and hospitals performing abortion. There were 19,000 abortions performed in 1976, and 30,000 are expected to be performed in 1979. The questionnaire contains 80 questions gathering information on socieconomic data, on medical history, on the procedure of the intervention, and on the follow-up visit. A study done on 5700 questionnaires filled between 1976 and 1977 show that most abortion seekers belong to the middle class, and that pregnancy was due in 20% of cases to pill failure, and in 34% of cases to failure of behavioral methods, or to lack of contraception. 88% of patients declared themselves satisfied with the procedure. PMID:12309432

  13. Autoimmune diseases and fungal infections: immunological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches

    ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Autoimmune disease represents a breakdown of natural tolerance to autoreactive antigens.Pemphigus and lupus erythematosus are common autoimmune diseases either skin-specific or with predominant skin involvement. During the past decades,much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of autoimmune diseases and the immunological mechanism in some infectious diseases such as fungal infections. Various novel approaches have been developed in the treatment of these diseases.

  14. Abortion in Present day Vietnam

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the abortion rate in Vietnam has been likely rising. In rural area, this rate is a bit higher than in urban one. Young age groups’ abortion rate is relatively high and ofter higher than older age groups. The main reason is due to their limited awareness of contraceptive methods. Low education level also affects the abortion. The abortion of people at low education level is relatively high, but people with elementary school graduation has the lowest rate of abortion. The Northwest had the highest abortion rate, the lowest rate belonged to the South Central Coast. The abortion rate depends on each couple’s number of alive children. The highest abortion rate is of couples with 1 or 2 alive children. The majority of couples only have one time of abortion for 12 months before research timepoint.

  15. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the

  16. Pathogenic mechanisms in the development of surgical site infections

    Jovanović Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical site infections represent a major problem in modern medicine. Bacterial survival and growth in surgical wounds depends on the effectiveness of the host defense mechanisms and on the ability of bacteria to resist these defensive mechanisms. Surgical site contamination causes cellular injury and triggers the inflammatory response. Host response to infection. An acute inflammatory response occurs within seconds to minutes of injury or invasion; it is non-specific and self-limiting. Mast cell degranulation, activation of three plasma systems and release of subcellular components from damaged cells occur as a consequence of cellular injury. Inflammation is mediated by a variety of soluble factors, including the complement system, the clotting system and the kinin system. The cell-derived mediators include histamine and serotonin, platelet activating factor, arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, nitric oxide, and cytokines (regulators of host responses to infection, inflammation and immune responses. The main role of an inflammatory reaction is to recruit various cells and plasma components to the surgical site. Neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited at the site infection. Intracellular killing of microbes by neutrophils is accomplished through several mechanisms, including lysosomal enzymes and oxygen-dependent mechanisms. Later, local and blood-borne macrophages also migrate to the surgical site, initiate phagocytosis, and present antigens to T-lymphocytes in a recognizable form. Sepsis is a common systemic complication of infection. Septic shock is associated with severe infection and release of inflammatory mediators into the systemic circulation. The lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of septic shock. The most common clinical manifestations of sepsis include fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, altered blood pressure

  17. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  18. Abortion: sin or crime?

    Kulpys, Žydrūnas

    2005-01-01

    Abortą nagrinėja ir moralinė teologija, ir kanonų teisė. Moralinė teologija gvildeną abortą kaip didelį moralinį blogį ir sunkią nuodėmę. Kanonų teisė nagrinėja abortą ir kaip teisinį nusikaltimą, už kurį automatiškai skiriama griežta sankcija - ekskomunikavimas. Kokiomis aplinkybėmis abortas yra nuodėmė ir kada jis tampa ir teisiniu nusikaltimu, automatiškai užtraukiančiu atskyrimą nuo Bažnyčios - ekskomunikavimą? Vien tik aborto nuodėmė neužtraukia ekskomunikos. Nors abortas yra sunki nuodė...

  19. HIV virology and pathogenetic mechanisms of infection: a brief overview

    Emanuele Fanales-Belasio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on HIV virology and pathogenesis address the complex mechanisms that result in the HIV infection of the cell and destruction of the immune system. These studies are focused on both the structure and the replication characteristics of HIV and on the interaction of the virus with the host. Continuous updating of knowledge on structure, variability and replication of HIV, as well as the characteristics of the host immune response, are essential to refine virological and immunological mechanisms associated with the viral infection and allow us to identify key molecules in the virus life cycle that can be important for the design of new diagnostic assays and specific antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this article we review the characteristics of molecular structure, replication and pathogenesis of HIV, with a particular focus on those aspects that are important for the design of diagnostic assays.

  20. [Spontaneous abortion. Etiologic survey. Results].

    Baaklini, N; Anguenot, J L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The definition of repeated spontaneous abortions is subject to caution. For some, it corresponds to at least three repeated spontaneous abortions with no normal previous pregnancy; for others, it comprises the repeated spontaneous abortions occurring after a normal pregnancy. It is a frequent problem, especially if one tries to give a wider definition. The authors studied the frequency of repeated spontaneous abortions in a continuous series of 14,857 pregnancies which took place between January 1982 and December 1988. In the study of the aetiology of the repeated spontaneous abortions in the various groups of women defined according to the number of previous pregnancies and abortions, they find the classical causes of repeated spontaneous abortions in all the categories: therefore, it seems legitimate to them that a wider definition be given for repeated spontaneous abortions. PMID:2291048

  1. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...... are used and their potential effect.MethodsData were obtained among women admitted with incomplete abortion at Kagera Regional Hospital during the period January - June, 2006. The women underwent an empathetic interview to determine if they had experienced an unsafe abortion prior to their admission....... In all 125/187 women revealed having had an unsafe abortion. The women identified as having had an unsafe abortion underwent a questionnaire interview where information about abortion provider and abortion method used was obtained through open-ended questions. To get more detailed information about...

  2. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  3. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-01-01

    All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn t...

  4. Tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.

    2016-08-20

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:27550334

  5. CMA abortion survey.

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in t...

  6. College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion

    Maxwell, Joseph W.

    1970-01-01

    Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

  7. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  8. Pregnancy outcome following spontaneous abortions

    Swati Agrawal

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Previous history of spontaneous abortion is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. There is increased risk of abortion, preterm delivery, need for caesarean sections and fetal loss in cases of previous spontaneous abortions. These complications and fetal loss can be reduced by booking the patients and giving due antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1891-1893

  9. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  10. Abortion health services in Canada

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  11. Radical surgery in septic abortion.

    Chatterjee, P; Ghosh, M; Ghosh, S

    1979-08-01

    At R.G. Kar Medical College Hospital, Calcutta, 10 cases of septic abortion from 1975-1977 were studied. Hysterectomies were preformed on 4 cases due to emergency situations including traumatised uterine fundus and perforated cervix, and on 6 cases after conservative treatment. Upon performing laparotomy in 9 cases, a uterine rent was detected; in 1 case there was a perforation in the posterior wall of the cervix, and in 5 cases mechanical obstructions due to internal adhesions to the uterine rent were found. 4 patients died primarily because of the patients seeking help too late. It is suggested that under high risk circumstances, laparotomy is advantageous to conservative medical management since bowel injuries and mechanical obstructions can only be detected by laparotomy. Radical surgery, however, should be undertaken before the patients general condition deteriorates to the point that the patient cannot tolerate surgical intervention. PMID:12336028

  12. Mechanism of intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus

    Shu-Lin Zhang; Ya-Fei Yue; Gui-Qin Bai; Lei Shi; Hui Jiang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanism of intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV).METHODS: HBV DNA was detected in vaginal secretion and amniotic fluid from 59 HBsAg-positive mothers and in venous blood of their newborns by PCR. HBsAg and HBcAg in placenta were determined by ABC immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: The rate of HBV intrauterine infection was 40.l% (24/59). HBV DNA was detected in 47.5% of amniotic fluid samples and 52.5% of vaginal secretion samples respectively.HBsAg and HBcAg were detected in placentas from HBsAgpositive mothers. The concentration of the two antigens decreased from the mother's side to the fetus's side, in the following order: maternal decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells. However, in 4 placentas the distribution was in the reverse order. HBsAg and HBcAg were detected in amniotic epithelial cells from 32 mothers.CONCLUSION: The main route of HBV transmission from mother to fetus is transplacental, from the mother side of placenta to the fetus side. However, HBV intrauterine infection may take place through other routes.

  13. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26057783

  14. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion. PMID:12340335

  15. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    Lima, Joana Madureira; Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-06-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190-9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  16. Modifications of lung clearance mechanisms by acute influenza A infection

    Four volunteers with naturally acquired, culture-proved influenza A infection inhaled a radiolabeled aerosol to permit investigation of lung mucociliary clearance mechanisms during and after symptomatic illness. Mucus transport in the trachea was undetectable when monitored with an external multidetector probe within 48 hours of the onset of the illness, but was found at a normal velocity by 1 week in three of the four subjects. In two volunteers who coughed 23 to 48 times during the 4.5-hour observation period, whole lung clearance was as fast within the first 48 hours of illness as during health 3 months later in spite of the absence of measurable tracheal mucus transport. Conversely, in spite of the return 1 week later of mucus transport at velocities expected in the trachea, whole lung clearance for the 4.5-hour period was slowed in two volunteers who coughed less than once an hour. The data offer evidence that cough is important in maintaining lung clearance for at least several days after symptomatic influenza A infection when other mechanisms that depend on ciliary function are severely deficient

  17. Abortion Performance and Politics

    Candelario, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    “Performing abortion” typically refers to what health care providers do in clinics, private offices, and (rarely) hospitals 1.21 million times per year,every year, in the United States. At the same time, the phrase indicates what performance artists, choreographers, and activists have been doing on stages, in galleries, and on the streets for decades. Candelario is intrigued by this double meaning that invites us to take seriously what abortion means at this political and historical moment, b...

  18. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  19. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  20. Legal abortion and public health.

    Tietze, C

    1984-01-01

    Over 15 million abortions have been performed in the US since the process of abortion legalization began in 1967. Consequences of legalization have included a marked reduction of pregnancy-related mortality and the prevention in many cases of the birth of infants with major physical or mental defects. Prenatal diagnosis, backed up by selective abortion, has made procreation a possibility for many couples who might otherwise avoid childbearing. However, the number of abortions performed on the basis of prenatal diagnosis remains small, comprising only about .01% of all legal abortions. In recent months, the pro-choice movement in the US has been handed 2 important victories: the US Supreme Court reaffirmed the 1973 decision legalizing abortion and the US Senate defeated a constitutional amendment intended to reverse this decision. As a result of these victories, contributions to pro-choice groups have declined. Continued vigilance is needed to protect these victories. PMID:12267089

  1. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go. PMID:11660187

  2. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion *

    Doane, Benjamin K.; Quigley, Beverly G.

    1981-01-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, ...

  3. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  4. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn the Shiite jurisprudence, the ensoulment occurs after about 4 months. Before this stage, all Shiite authorities regard abortion as forbidden (Hiram unless if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother's life in real danger or will be intolerable for her. But after that, they regard abortion as Hiram, unless in conditions in which continuing the pregnancy results in dying of both mother and fetus, but abortion will save the life of mother. However, the Shiite authorities have not accepted to legitimate abortion in unwanted pregnancies and even in pregnancies resulted from adultery (Zina or rape."nThe debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. There are some important and notable related Fatwas that make jurisprudical basis for some new and problem solving legal acts, showing the inherent and valuable flexibility of the Shiite jurisprudence in dealing with such important issues. Some related issues, such as the priority of saving the life of mother after ensoulment can be referred to jurisprudical authorities for more assessment.

  5. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  6. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    Donohue, John J, III; Steven D. Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  7. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    Donohue, John J.; Levitt, Steven D.

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legalization fa...

  8. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    MN Jali

    2001-01-01

    The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the argumen...

  9. Heat shock cognate protein 70 contributes to Brucella invasion into trophoblast giant cells that cause infectious abortion

    Furuoka Hidefumi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell tropism of Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in the placenta is thought to be a key event of infectious abortion, although the molecular mechanism for this is largely unknown. There is a higher degree of bacterial colonization in the placenta than in other organs and many bacteria are detected in trophoblast giant (TG cells in the placenta. In the present study, we investigated mechanism of B. abortus invasion into TG cells. Results We observed internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in cultured TG cells. A monoclonal antibody that inhibits bacterial internalization was isolated and this reacted with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70. Depletion and over expression of Hsc70 in TG cells inhibited and promoted bacterial internalization, respectively. IFN-γ receptor was expressed in TG cells and IFN-γ treatment enhanced the uptake of bacteria by TG cells. Administering the anti-Hsc70 antibody to pregnant mice served to prevent infectious abortion. Conclusion B. abortus infection of TG cells in placenta is mediated by Hsc70, and that such infection leads to infectious abortion.

  10. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  11. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  12. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  13. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  14. New aspects of the infection mechanisms of Bacillus anthracis.

    Zakowska, Dorota; Bartoszcze, Michał; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Kocik, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Articles concerning new aspects of B. anthracis mechanisms of infection were reviewed. It was found, that the hair follicle plays an important role in the spore germination process. The hair follicle represent an important portal of entry in the course of the cutaneous form of disease infections. After mouse exposition to aerosol of spores prepared from B. anthracis strains, an increase in the level of TNF-α cytokines was observed. The TNF-α cytokines were produced after intrusion into the host by the microorganism. This process may play a significant role in the induced migration of infected cells APCs (Antigen Presenting Cells) via chemotactic signals to the lymph nodes. It was explained that IgG, which binds to the spore surface, activates the adaptive immune system response. As a result, the release C3b opsonin from the spore surface, and mediating of C3 protein fragments of B. anthracis spores phagocytosis by human macrophages, was observed. The genes coding germination spores protein in mutant strains of B. anthracis MIGD was a crucial discovery. According to this, it could be assumed that the activity of B. anthracis spores germination process is dependent upon the sleB, cwlJ1 and cwlJ2 genes, which code the GSLEs lithic enzymes. It was also discovered that the specific antibody for PA20, which binds to the PA20 antigenic determinant, are able to block further PA83 proteolytic fission on the surface of cells. This process neutralized PA functions and weakened the activity of free PA20, which is produced during the PA83 enzyme fission process. Interaction between PA63 monomer and LF may be helpful in the PA63 oligomerization and grouping process, and the creation of LF/PA63 complexes may be a part of an alternative process of assembling the anthrax toxin on the surface of cells. It was found that actin-dependent endocytosis plays an important role in the PA heptamerisation process and leads to blocking the toxin activity. Chaperones, a protein derived from

  15. Abortive infection of Lutzomyia longipalpis insect vectors by aflagellated LdARL-3A-Q70L overexpressing Leishmania amazonensis parasites.

    Cuvillier, Armelle; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Ambit, Audrey; Barral, Aldina; Merlin, Gilles

    2003-10-01

    Leishmania donovani ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 3A (LdARL-3A) is a small G protein isolated from the protozoan parasite L. donovani with no defined physiological function. Previously [Cuvillier, A., Redon, F., Antoine, J.-C., Chardin, P., DeVos, T., and Merlin, G. (2000) J Cell Sci 113: 2065-2074] we have shown that overexpression in L. amazonensis promastigotes of the mutated protein LdARL-3A-Q70L, which remains constitutively associated with GTP, leads to the disappearance of the flagellum but does not impair cell viability or growth. Here we report that parasites overexpressing LdARL-3A-Q70L can invade in vitro cultivated macrophages to the same extent as control cells, demonstrating that the flagellum is not necessary for attachment to or engulfment into macrophages. These infections are productive because amastigotes differentiate and multiply. However, aflagellated LdARL-3A-Q70L-overexpressing Leishmania promastigotes could not survive in experimentally infected Lutzomyia longipalpis insect vectors, in contrast to untransfected or native LdARL-3A-overexpressing cells. Overexpression of the native and mutated proteins did not modify in vitro procyclic to metacyclic lipophosphoglycan maturation or differentiation from procyclic to metacyclic promastigotes, nevertheless there is a block in transmission of Leishmania. Better understanding of LdARL-3A pathways, notably those regarding flagellum biogenesis, may lead to the future development of Leishmania-specific drugs, which may stop parasite transmission in nature without affecting other species. PMID:12969377

  16. Study of karyotypes in Case of Recurrent Abortions in Gujarat

    N. Parikh; Rawal, J; Oza, S; B. M. Patel; H. R. Jadav; C A Pensi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: - The biological definition of miscarriage is the expulsion of the conceptus before viability has been achieved. The definition of recurrent miscarriage is three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. The risk factors for recurrent miscarriage are epidemiological, genetic, anatomical disorders, endocrinal, reproductive tract infections, thrombophilic disorders, disorders of materno-fetal alloimmune relationships, environmental effects and psychological causes. About 50% to 6...

  17. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    Dietz, Hans Henrich; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Jorgensen, Jens Christian; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Hans; Pedersen, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel...

  18. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  19. New German abortion law agreed.

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  20. The Question of Abortion in Serbia

    Rasevic, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Induced abortion has for a long time been a predominant method of birth control in Serbia. With spreading of contraception, significance of induced abortion became to a decrease. Besides this positive trend, estimated number of induced abortions about 200000 abortions per a year shows that a significant number of women mostly, and a certain number of women exclusively, relies on this method of birth control.Research findings discovered a complex array of factors of abortion problem, including...

  1. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law ...

  2. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  3. Nitric oxide levels in women with missed and threatened abortion: results of a pilot study.

    Paradisi, Roberto; Fabbri, Raffaella; Battaglia, Cesare; Facchinetti, Fabio; Venturoli, Stefano

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic production of nitric oxide (NO) in missed and threatened abortion and in nonpregnant and regular pregnant controls with the purpose of defining its role in the mechanisms regulating the first-trimester pregnancy toward either positive or negative evolution. Patients with missed abortion showed serum NO levels clearly decreased compared with nonpregnant patients and patients with regular pregnancy and threatened abortion, supporting a direct functional role of the NO mediator in early embryonic development and confirming its importance in the uterus and cervix during abortion. PMID:17349639

  4. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  5. Abortion and Crime: A Review

    Theodore J. Joyce

    2009-01-01

    Ten years have passed since John Donohue and Steven Levitt initially proposed that legalized abortion played a major role in the dramatic decline in crime during the 1990s. Criminologists largely dismiss the association because simple plots of age-specific crime rates are inconsistent with a large cohort affect following the legalization of abortion. Economists, on the other hand, have corrected mistakes in the original analyses, added new data, offered alternative tests and tried to replicat...

  6. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  7. Kvinners reaksjoner etter spontan abort

    2012-01-01

    Background: Approximately 15 percent of all verified pregnancies end in miscarriage. It is known that spontaneous abortion often cause psychological distress. The women are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, depression and other psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms could persist for years after the miscarriage and there is frequently no routine to identify psychiatric morbidity among the women. Research has been conducted to identify the consequences of abortion, but the stud...

  8. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals

    Schikora, Adam; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bueso, Edouardo; Garcia, Anna Victoria; Nilau, Theodora; Charrier, Amélie; Pelletier, Sandra; Menanteau, Pierrette; Baccarini, Manuela; Velge, Philippe; Hirt, Heribert

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also...

  9. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    MN Jali

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.

  10. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308 Avaliação de diferentes protocolos de extração de DNA para detecção de Brucella abortus a partir de abortos ou de bezerros nascidos de vacas experimentalmente infectadas com estirpe 2308

    M. Matrone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives, 26 spleens (11 positives, 23 livers (8 positives and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives. All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04 or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004 and equal to the spleens (p=0.18. From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (pO objetivo do presente estudo foi aperfeiçoar a detecção de Brucella abortus pela PCR em homogeneizados de órgãos de fetos abortados por vacas infectadas, importante mecanismo para descobrir focos da doença na fase de erradicação. Assim, foram comparados diferentes protocolos de extração de DNA, visando à detecção de B. abortus pela PCR em amostras clínicas colhidas de abortos ou de bezerros oriundos de vacas desafiadas com a estirpe 2308 de B. abortus. Para tanto, foram construídos dois grupos padrão ouro com base na bacteriologia clássica, constituídos por: 32 pulmões (17 positivos, 26 baços (11 positivos, 23 fígados (8 positivos e 22 linfonodos bronquiais (7 positivos. Todas essas amostras foram submetidas a três protocolos de extração de DNA, seguidos do mesmo processo de amplificação com os primers B4 e B5. Nos resultados acumulados por

  11. An epidemiologic study of late-term abortions in dairy cattle in Denmark, July 2000 August 2003

    Carpenter, Tim E.; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Mette M.;

    2006-01-01

    .11) risk of increased abortions was found to exist in bovine viral diarrhea virus-(BVDV) infected herds, it could be at least partially explained by additional calvings in those herds. Temporal correlation between inseminations and abortions was statistically significant (P <0.001) with the highest...

  12. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  13. House subcmte. tightens abortion language.

    1978-05-10

    Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion. PMID:12335662

  14. Urinary Tract Infection Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Translation.

    Godaly, Gabriela; Ambite, Ines; Puthia, Manoj; Nadeem, Aftab; Ho, James; Nagy, Karoly; Huang, Yujing; Rydström, Gustav; Svanborg, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Rapid developments in infection biology create new and exciting options for individualized diagnostics and therapy. Such new practices are needed to improve patient survival and reduce morbidity. Molecular determinants of host resistance to infection are being characterized, making it possible to identify susceptible individuals and to predict their risk for future morbidity. Immunotherapy is emerging as a new strategy to treat infections worldwide and controlled boosting of the host immune defense represents an important therapeutic alternative to antibiotics. In proof of concept studies, we have demonstrated that this approach is feasible. The long-term goal is not just to remove the pathogens but to also develop technologies that restore resistance to infection in disease-prone patients and devise personalized therapeutic interventions. Here, we discuss some approaches to reaching these goals, in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). We describe critical host signaling pathways that define symptoms and pathology and the genetic control of innate immune responses that balance protection against tissue damage. For some of these genes, human relevance has been documented in clinical studies, identifying them as potential targets for immune-modulatory therapies, as a complement to antibiotics. PMID:26927188

  15. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Lisa M Vallely

    Full Text Available In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion.Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information.Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119 of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119 of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported.In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  16. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind; Vandamme, P.

    2002-01-01

    aborted fetuses from a single sow. The high prevalence of arcobacters in Danish pig abortions may account for at least some of the >90% of cases in which no established abortifacient agent is detected, but further studies are needed to define the role of each species, especially where co-infections with......A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and possible significance of campylobacteria in pig abortions in Denmark, Surface-cauterised liver and kidney samples from 55 aborted pig fetuses submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory were taken and a sensitive isolation procedure used to...

  17. "Abortion? That's for women!" Narratives and experiences of commercial motorbike riders in south-western Uganda.

    Nyanzi, Stella; Nyanzi, Barbara; Bessie, Kalina

    2005-04-01

    Although constitutionally illegal, induced abortion is a vital reproductive health option in Uganda. This paper analyses men's narratives about meanings of, and experiences with, abortion. Men play significant roles in abortion as instigators, facilitators, collaborators, transporters, advisors, informers, supporters or punishment givers. Many participants were knowledgeable about abortion. Attitudes were ambivalent, with initial reactions of denial and relegation of abortion to women's private domains. Further exploration, however, revealed active support and involvement of men. Interpretations of abortion ranged from 'dependable saviour' to 'deceptive sin'. Though a private action, abortion is socially scripted and often collectively determined by wider social networks of kinsmen, the community, peers, law and religion. A disjuncture exists between dominant public health discourse and the reality of local men who interact with women and girls as wives, lovers, sex sellers, mothers, daughters and sisters. Interventions targeting men about abortion should include safe sex education, provide safe abortion services and create stronger social support mechanisms. Policy and law should incorporate local knowledge and practice. PMID:16104664

  18. Serological differences in Neospora caninum-associated epidemic and endemic abortions.

    Schares, G; Rauser, M; Zimmer, K; Peters, M; Wurm, R; Dubey, J P; de Graaf, D C; Edelhofer, R; Mertens, C; Hess, G; Conraths, F J

    1999-08-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the sensitive and specific detection of bovine antibodies to Neospora caninum was developed and evaluated using sera from cattle experimentally infected with N. caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis hirsuta, Eimeria bovis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Babesia divergens, and field sera from naturally exposed animals. Field sera were classified using a gold standard that included the results from an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and an immunoblot (IB). Based on these gold standard results, i.e., IFAT-IB results, an equal relative sensitivity and specificity of 94.2%(theta0) was reached when a cutoff of 0.034 (d0) was employed. The analysis of IFAT-IB-positive field sera showed that within groups of aborting and nonaborting dams, the animals from herds with endemic N. caninum-associated abortions had significantly higher ELISA indices than animals from herds with N. caninum-associated epidemic abortions. By contrast, IFAT-IB-positive aborting dams from herds with endemic N. caninum-associated abortions had significantly lower IFAT titers than IFAT-IB-positive aborting dams from herds with epidemic N. caninum-associated abortions. This is the first time that statistically significant serological differences between herds exhibiting epidemic and endemic N. caninum-associated abortions are described. PMID:10461950

  19. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells

  20. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    Kohio, Hinissan P.; Adamson, Amy L., E-mail: aladamso@uncg.edu

    2013-09-15

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells.

  1. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights. PMID:12348324

  2. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  3. Expression of Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bax in the First Trimester Abortion Materials

    Ender DÜZCAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate possible similar or different mechanisms in recurrent and spontaneous abortion by evaluating immunohistochemical correlation between proliferation marker Ki-67, and apoptosis markers Bcl-2 and Bax in the fetal trophoblasts and maternal deciduas from abortion material.Material and Method: Eighty samples of curettage materials from 65 abortion patients histopathologically diagnosed “decidua showing Arias-Stella reaction and chorionic villi” or only “decidua showing Arias-Stella reaction” were included in the study. Hematoxylin&Eosin stained sections from all cases were re-evaluated and further stained immunohistochemically using antibodies against Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bax.Results: Proliferation rate evaluated by Ki-67 expression both in the cytotrophoblastic cells and decidua was found to be significantly lower in spontaneous and recurrent abortions compared to evacuation abortion. The extent of Bcl-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblastic cells covering villous stroma was also decreased in spontaneous abortion. There were no significant differences between spontaneous and recurrent abortions in terms of Bcl-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and Ki-67 proliferation index in cytotrophoblastic cells or decidua. Bax staining showed minimal decidual expression in a few spontaneous and recurrent abortions.Conclusion: We concluded that proliferation rate was decreased in fetal villous cytotrophoblasts and maternal deciduas in spontaneous and recurrent abortions. We also proposed that loss of Bcl-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts may cause abortion in a subset of cases. However, the data from spontaneous and recurrent abortions did not not support the presence of different mechanisms in both groups.

  4. Year in review 2005: Critical Care – Respirology: mechanical ventilation, infection, monitoring, and education

    Haitsma, Jack J; Villar, Jesús; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize all original research in the field of respiratory intensive care medicine published in 2005 in Critical Care. Twenty-seven articles were grouped into the following categories and subcategories to facilitate rapid overview: mechanical ventilation (physiology, spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation, high frequency oscillatory ventilation, side effects of mechanical ventilation, sedation, and prone positioning); infection (pneumonia and sepsis); monitoring (ventilatory ...

  5. Study of karyotypes in Case of Recurrent Abortions in Gujarat

    N. Parikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - The biological definition of miscarriage is the expulsion of the conceptus before viability has been achieved. The definition of recurrent miscarriage is three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. The risk factors for recurrent miscarriage are epidemiological, genetic, anatomical disorders, endocrinal, reproductive tract infections, thrombophilic disorders, disorders of materno-fetal alloimmune relationships, environmental effects and psychological causes. About 50% to 60% of all first trimester abortions are associated with derangement of one or more chromosomal complements. Aim: - The aim of this study was to assess frequency and increasing the awareness of physician about the nature of chromosomal aberration that contribute to the occurrence of repeated abortions. Material & Methods: - Patient of recurrent abortion was investigated by history taking, examination and investigations. For present study 20 women having two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions, who attended outdoor & indoor patient department, were selected and karyotyping was done. In 10 of the above cases karyotype study of both partners was done. So in total 30 individuals (20 females & 10 males were selected for Cytogenetic study. In all cases relevant history and clinical findings and other investigations were noted. Blood samples were obtained and karyotype study was performed at Genetic Laboratory, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results and Conclusions: - Cytogenetic evaluation by karyotypes revealed robertsonian translocation in one (5% female; this patient had a history of 2 spontaneous abortions and two times IVF failure, she had history of chocolate cyst of ovary and family history of infertility. No numerical anomaly; mosaicism or inversions were found in this study; 23 cases had normal karyotype and remaining 6 cases came out inconclusive.

  6. New clues underlying mechanism of HIV infection in pig-tailed macaques

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recent studies made by CAS scientists may shed new light on a novel approach to demystifying the complicated pathogenesis of AIDS, i.e., the formative mechanism of HIV infection at the molecular level.

  7. Mechanisms of recrudescence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice.

    Cox, J H; Knight, B. C.; Ivanyi, J.

    1989-01-01

    The capacity of various immunosuppressive agents to cause a recrudescence of the replication of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in the spleens of chronically infected mice was investigated. The actions of three corticosteroid preparations, cyclosporin A, and anti-T-cell subset monoclonal antibodies were compared. Treatment of mice with hydrocortisone acetate, which depressed the number of splenic lymphocytes and suppressed T-cell responses, most effectively exacerbated the stationary BCG counts, at 4...

  8. Abortion counseling and the school counselor.

    Duncan, J A; Moffett, C F

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court decision of January 22, 1973, legalizing abortion now requires school counselors to examine both their personal and professional positions on abortion information and abortion counseling. To date a review of school counseling literature reveals a failure to deal with abortion as a counseling issue. Also, schools have failed to develop official policies regarding abortion counseling and the distribution of abortion information. The counselors who have provided abortion information to date have done so at the request of a student or parent rather than by making the information generally available. A study in 1973 in Virginia, however, revealed that Virginia counselor educators believed that there was a need for counselors in training to be exposed to abortion information as part of their formal training experience. Generally, today's present exposure to abortion information makes it impossible for counselors to continue to ignore a growing demand for both abortion information and counseling. School counselors must deal with the following questions: 1) What course of action should school counselors take when a pregnant young seeks counseling on alternatives to pregnancy continuation? 2) What is the counselor's professional role in abortion counseling with respect to his or her personal feelings and beliefs? 3) What kind of training if any should school counselors receive regarding abortion counseling? 4) Is there a need for in-service training on abortion counseling for school counselors? 5) Should various professional organizations develop materials that would assist their members in providing abortion counseling? 6) Should institutions such as schools, churches, and community agencies establish policies concerning abortion counseling? Although the answers are not simple, the school counselors and their professional organizations must begin to develop the answers in order to provide good counseling services to young women exercising their right to

  9. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Mahmoud Abbasi; Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki; Neda Allahbedashti

    2014-01-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) durin...

  10. Clinical observations and management of a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 outbreak with abortion and encephalomyelitis

    Walter, Jasmin; Seeh, Christoph; Fey, Kerstin; Bleul, U; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Latent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection is common in horse populations worldwide and estimated to reach a prevalence nearing 90% in some areas. The virus causes acute outbreaks of disease that are characterized by abortion and sporadic cases of myeloencephalopathy (EHM), both severe threats to equine facilities. Different strains vary in their abortigenic and neuropathogenic potential and the simultaneous occurrence of EHM and abortion is rare. In this report, we present clinical o...

  11. The Role of Urogenital Infection in the Mechanism of Infertility Development

    Shevchenko E.A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the role of urogenital infection in the mechanisms of infertility development. Materials and Methods. To diagnose urogenital infection agents, polymerase chain reaction technique in real time has been used. Results. There has been determined a statistically significant absence of differences in the groups of infertile and fertile patients according to the frequency of occurrence of urogenital infection agents studied. The bare fact that there is urogenital infection is not a cause and a triggering element of infertility pathogenesis.

  12. Remembering Aborted Foetuses in a Japanese Shrine

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a shrine beside a temple in Kyoto there are a large number of small effigies. They commemorate aborted foetuses. In the absence of proper contraception, the Japanese for centuries have had to use abortion and, in the past, infanticide to control their population. These 'water children' (who return to the water world at abortion) are a source of great sadness in Japan.

  13. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  14. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  15. "If a woman has even one daughter, I refuse to perform the abortion": Sex determination and safe abortion in India.

    Potdar, Pritam; Barua, Alka; Dalvie, Suchitra; Pawar, Anand

    2015-05-01

    In India, safe abortion services are sought mainly in the private sector for reasons of privacy, confidentiality, and the absence of delays and coercion to use contraception. In recent years, the declining sex ratio has received much attention, and implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act (2003) has become stringent. However, rather than targeting sex determination, many inspection visits target abortion services. This has led to many private medical practitioners facing negative media publicity, defamation and criminal charges. As a result, they have started turning women away not only in the second trimester but also in the first. Samyak, a Pune-based, non-governmental organization, came across a number of cases of refusal of abortion services during its work and decided to explore the experiences of private medical practitioners with the regulatory mechanisms and what happened to the women. The study showed that as a fallout from the manner of implementation of the PCPNDT Act, safe abortion services were either difficult for women to access or outright denied to them. There is an urgent need to recognize this impact of the current regulatory environment, which is forcing women towards illegal and unsafe abortions. PMID:26278839

  16. A method for quantifying mechanical properties of tissue following viral infection.

    Vy Lam

    Full Text Available Viral infection and replication involves the reorganization of the actin network within the host cell. Actin plays a central role in the mechanical properties of cells. We have demonstrated a method to quantify changes in mechanical properties of fabricated model three-dimensional (3D connective tissue following viral infection. Using this method, we have characterized the impact of infection by the human herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus (HCMV. HCMV is a member of the herpesvirus family and infects a variety of cell types including fibroblasts. In the body, fibroblasts are necessary for maintaining connective tissue and function by creating mechanical force. Using this 3D connective tissue model, we observed that infection disrupted the cell's ability to generate force and reduced the cumulative contractile force of the tissue. The addition of HCMV viral particles in the absence of both viral gene expression and DNA replication was sufficient to disrupt tissue function. We observed that alterations of the mechanical properties are, in part, due to a disruption of the underlying complex actin microfilament network established by the embedded fibroblasts. Finally, we were able to prevent HCMV-mediated disruption of tissue function by the addition of human immune globulin against HCMV. This study demonstrates a method to quantify the impact of viral infection on mechanical properties which are not evident using conventional cell culture systems.

  17. U.S. adults' pornography viewing and support for abortion: a three-wave panel study.

    Tokunaga, Robert S; Wright, Paul J; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Pornography consumption may affect judgments on a wide range of sexual and reproductive topics. The present study hypothesized that the consistent images projected in pornography affect sexual scripts related to abortion judgments. National, three-wave longitudinal data gathered from U.S. adults were employed to examine associations between earlier pornography consumption and subsequent support for abortion. The findings suggested that prior pornography consumption may lead to later support for abortion. This study provides additional evidence of pornography's socializing impact, particularly for the older White segment of the population, and adds to knowledge about what environmental factors influence judgments about abortion. Mechanisms that may explain how pornography viewing shapes support for abortion are discussed. PMID:25010599

  18. Bowel injuries secondary to induced abortion: a dilemma

    To study the pattern of bowel injuries incurred by induced abortion, and the morbidity and mortality associated with them. All patients with bowel injuries due to induced abortion. Detailed data of all the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 22 patients, mostly young with an average age of 26.86 years, presented with bowel injuries following induced abortion. Severe hemorrhage occurred in 8(36.4%) patients while 11(50%) had ileal perforation; 9(40.9%) underwent primary repair and 2(9.1%) ileostomy formation. Two (9.1%) patients with jejunal perforation had primary repair, whereas two with both jejunal and ileal perforations underwent resections with anastomosis in one and ileostomy in another. Seven (31.8%) with large gut involvement had colostomy formation. Septicemia and wound infection occurred in 7(31.8%) patients each, faecal fistula and abdominal wound dehiscence in 3(13.6%), and pelvic abscess in 1(4.6%) patient. The total mortality in this series was 6(27.3%) patients. Iatrogenic injuries during induced abortion, most commonly caused by quacks, can be minimized substantially if the procedure is performed by qualified medical personnel in proper health care facilities. There is a need for radical overhauling of the mind set in our society together with legislation. (author)

  19. Sundhedspersonales holdninger til sene provokerede aborter varierer

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Internationale undersøgelser viser, at sene provokerede aborter skaber en større bekymring hos sundhedspersonale end tidlige aborter. Den største bekymring er risikoen for, at det aborterede foster udviser livstegn efter fødslen. Undersøgelser peger desuden på, at indikationen for abort, religiøs...... tilknytning og fagligt tilhørsforhold påvirker holdningerne. Antallet af sene provokerede aborter stiger i takt med, at fosterdiagnostikken udvikles, og der er derfor behov for forskning, der kan kaste lys over, hvordan det danske sundhedspersonale forholder sig til sene provokerede aborter....

  20. Seventeen years of legalized abortion in Singapore.

    Saw, S

    1988-06-01

    "In this paper we first discuss the two-stage process of legalizing induced abortion in Singapore, the initial legalization to make it available on a restrictive basis in 1970 and the complete liberalization to make it available on demand from 1975 onwards. The incidence of abortions registered in the last seventeen years and the major characteristics of aborters are analysed. The impact of abortion on the rapid decline of fertility to below-replacement level is highlighted, and the need to reduce abortion by amending the more liberal aspects of the law are considered at the end of the paper." PMID:12341971

  1. Vaccines and drugs against Neospora caninum, an important apicomplexan causing abortion in cattle and other farm animals

    Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Andrew Hemphill, Joachim Müller Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract: The apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum represents an important abortion-causing parasite in cattle. The economic impact of neosporosis has led to considerable investments to develop vaccines that would prevent infection and abortion. Live-attenuated vaccines have been shown to confer some protection against N. caninum infection, but may cause problems due ...

  2. The calcification of staphylococcus aureus bacteria by the mineralization by inhibitor exclusion mechanism : a potential defense mechanism against bacterial infections

    Truong, Linh Y.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a worldwide concern. Our goal was to develop a new strategy to treat antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. We investigated whether bacteria are killed by the Mineralization by Inhibitor Exclusion (MIE) mechanism. This mechanism exploits the size exclusion characteristics of the bacterial cell wall, and therefore has no impact on mammalian cells. Our studies demonstrate that live Staphylococcus aureus are calcified by the MIE mecha...

  3. Survey of infectious etiologies of bovine abortion during mid- to late gestation in dairy herds.

    Barkallah, Mohamed; Gharbi, Yaakoub; Hassena, Amal Ben; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2014-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66%) cases, 13 (8.66%) of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%), Chlamydiaceae (4.66%), Waddlia chondrophila (8%), Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.66%) and Salmonella spp. (3.33%). In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle. PMID:24662769

  4. Survey of infectious etiologies of bovine abortion during mid- to late gestation in dairy herds.

    Mohamed Barkallah

    Full Text Available Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66% cases, 13 (8.66% of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%, Chlamydiaceae (4.66%, Waddlia chondrophila (8%, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%, Listeria monocytogenes (4.66% and Salmonella spp. (3.33%. In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle.

  5. SELF - INDUCED MEDICAL ABORTION: A RISING CHALLENGE

    Bindoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In India medical abortion has become acceptable to the masses. As per the MTP Act 2003 medical abortion can be provided by certified providers at approved places or centres which have referral linkages even though the Centre is not approved for MTP. Despit e this in India a large number of abortions are still illegal. People are resorting to abortion without any pre - abortion checkup or counseling which is contrary to the MTP Act. This study was carried out to determine the reasons for resorting to self - induc ed abortion, assess the associated complications and acceptance of contraception after abortion. 77.7% of women in this study included those who reported to hospital following self - administered abortion so did not have any checkup, investigation or counsel ing. 23% women got the prescriptions from RMP, 42.85% from chemists and 30% from friend even though 55% of them were not residing far from the hospital. Following self - administered abortion, women reported with pain abdomen, retained products, pelvic infla mmatory disease and heavy bleeding requiring emergency suction evacuation. These women were not aware about the need for contraception and mistook self - induced abortion as a method for family planning. They resorted to self - induced abortions because they b elieved it to be safe, and presumed that a visit to the hospital is avoidable. 45 % of these women had undergone abortions in the past without any side effect. It is feared that if self - induced medical abortions continues unheeded the health system will get overburdened with resultant complications besides losing an opportunity for contraceptive counseling . It is recommended that the private practitioners may be brought into the system besides ensuring that regulations regarding prescription of drugs and the MTP Act are followed. Besides this masses should be made aware of the legality of medical abortion by using handouts and posters.

  6. Nasopharyngeal Tuberculosis: Epidemiology, Mechanism of Infection, Clinical Manifestations, and Management

    Chonticha Srivanitchapoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis (NPTB is a noteworthy disease especially in its worldwide spread of the Mycobacterium infection. Although NPTB has been identified in less than one percent of TB cases, recent multiple case reports indicate an either increased awareness or incidence of this disease. The most helpful diagnostic tool is an uncomplicated nasopharyngeal biopsy. However, NPTB is usually ignored because it has varied clinical manifestations and similar presentations with other more common head and neck diseases. Furthermore, the most common presenting symptom is cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a more common and serious disease. Treatment outcomes of NPTB are good in both HIV-positive or HIV-negative patients. In addition, pulmonary tuberculosis association was reported in wide range between 8.3% and 82% which should be considered in a treatment program. In conclusion, early diagnosis and management in NPTB can be achieved by (1 increased awareness of this disease, (2 improvement in knowledge regarding clinical manifestations, and (3 improvement of diagnostic techniques.

  7. Seroprevalence study of the main causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Morocco.

    Lucchese, Laura; Benkirane, Abdelali; Hakimi, Imane; El Idrissi, Ahmed; Natale, Alda

    2016-03-31

    Sera from 221 cattle were collected in 25 farms in Morocco to investigate the evidence and circulation of some of the main bovine abortive agents in the dairy cattle farming, where abortions are often reported. All sera were examined for brucellosis, 176 for neosporosis, 88 for leptospirosis, and 42 for Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD/MD), Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) (Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, IBR/IPV), and Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) infections (at least 1 sample per herd). Abortions were reported in 23 (10.4%) of the 221 tested cattle. Antibodies against the investigated pathogens were detected in all samples tested, with an overall seroprevalence of 33.48% for Brucella, 9.09% for Leptospira, 8.52% for Neospora, 37.71% for BVDV, 50% for BHV-1, 9.52% for BHV-4. As for Leptospira antibodies against serovars Hardjo, Pomona, and Tarassovi were identi ed. Mixed infections were common. The lack of evidence of non-infectious factors epidemiologically related to abortions suggested that the investigated agents are to be considered important risk factors in the dynamic of the abortion syndrome, even if further investigations are necessary to identify the abortion cause. Particular attention should be paid on brucellosis, considering the high seroprevalence and its zoonotic relevance. PMID:27033527

  8. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BOVINE ABORTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    Agerholm, J.S.; Krogh, H.V.; Jensen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of bovine abortions associated with Bacillus licheniformis is described. The material consisted of 2445 bovine abortions submitted for diagnostics from 1986 through 1993. Initially, B, licheniformis had been isolated from 81 cases. Sections of these cases were reexamined...... microscopically and immunohistochemically by a PAP technique using a primary antibody against B, licheniformis. Of these abortions, 47 were most likely associated with B. licheniformis as tissue lesions with immunostained bacteria were present in these. In the remaining cases the diagnosis may not have been...... established due to the lack of sufficient materials, or the isolation of the bacterium was considered to be a result of contamination. In four cases concomitant infections with B, licheniformis and bovine virus diarrhoea virus were present. Abortions caused by B. licheniformis were predominantly seen during...

  9. A prospective self-controlled study of fertility after second-trimester prostaglandin-induced abortion.

    MacKenzie, I Z; Fry, A

    1988-05-01

    One hundred forty women whose pregnancies were terminated in the second trimester with prostaglandins because of suspected fetal disease have been prospectively followed to assess their subsequent fertility. In six instances difficulties had been experienced in conceiving the pregnancy that was terminated. Since abortion 104 women have conceived, 97% within 24 months of abortion but in five instances after some delay. Only one woman had not succeeded in conceiving a wished-for pregnancy. There were no apparent differences in abortion management between those women readily conceiving and those in whom there was some delay, although termination because of chromosomal reasons or anatomic abnormalities was less commonly followed by another pregnancy as compared with those terminated for rubella or other viral infections. Reduced fertility after a late prostaglandin-induced abortion thus appears to be very infrequent. PMID:3369497

  10. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Anubhuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is one of the diseases comprising the TORCH [ Toxoplasma gondii , Rubella virus , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes simplex virus] infections . It is known to cause perinatal death if the organism is acquired during pregnancy . Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infection which may result in mental retardation and blindness in the infant . The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and it i s associated risk facto rs among the women with history of spontaneous abortion . MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 60 women with past or present history of spontaneous abortion and another 60 pregnant women without any bad obstetric history as control attending our hospital were in cluded in the study . All the serum samples were tested for the presence of specific Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies using the On Site Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test strip , a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay . RESULTS: Total seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the study was 12 . 5% . Total seropositivity in women with history of spontaneous abortion was 12 ( 20% and 3 ( 5% among control group . More number of seropositivity was observed among women between 26 to 30 years ( 60% . Risk factor of having cat a s pet animal had greater association of getting toxoplasmosis . CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly high in the study population than in control group . There should be routine screening for antenatal wo men with bad obstetric history .

  11. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010 offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  12. Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos.

    Purvis, Dara E

    2015-01-01

    One thread of abortion criticism, arguing that gender equality requires that men be allowed to terminate legal parental status and obligations, has reinforced the stereotype of men as uninterested in fatherhood. As courts facing disputes over stored pre-embryos weigh the equities of allowing implantation of the pre-embryos, this same gender stereotype has been increasingly incorporated into a legal balancing test, leading to troubling implications for ART and family law. PMID:26242955

  13. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Walter E. Block

    2010-01-01

    I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010) offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  14. Infection

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  15. [Request for abortion during the 2d pregnancy trimester].

    Treffers, P E; Van den Berg, G R; Jager-van Gelder, P A; Van Oenen, J J

    1976-12-18

    156 women, 12-20 weeks pregnant, applied for abortion at the Wilhelmo Clinic in Amsterdam; 102 abortions were granted. The 156 late-abortion seekers were compared with 282 early-abortion seekers and 490 pregnant women. The late-abortion seekers were significantly younger (P .05). A significantly greater number of women over 30 applied for early abortion (P .001). Unmarried or divorced women were more likely to apply to abortion (P .001). Nulliparae applied more frequently for late abortion, compared to early-abortion seekers (P .001). Women with only one child were more likely to be in the pregnancy group (p .05), with 2 children in the early-abortion group (p .001). Women from Surinam and the Antilles were more likely to be in the early abortion group (p .001). Of the late-abortion seekers, 9 had medical indications. Many had psychosocial problems; 91 had problems with partner relations. In 24 cases the delay in seeking abortion was due to a doctor. An ambivalent attitude toward the abortion existed in 22 of the patients. 83% of the late-abortion seekers and 11.3% of the early-abortion seekers had previously had an abortion. The contraceptive use of the late-abortion seekers was not regular. 1.3% of the late-abortion seekers and 9.9% of the early-abortion seekers were using IUDs at the time of conception. PMID:1012384

  16. An outpatient regimen of combined oral mifepristone 400 mg and misoprostol 400 microg for first-trimester legal medical abortion

    Ravn, Pernille; Rasmussen, Ase; Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Kristiansen, Frank Vous

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the success rate of medical abortion using an outpatient regimen of oral mifepristone 400 mg and oral misoprostol 400 microg for legal abortion in women < 56 days pregnant. METHODS: Successful abortion was defined as an endometrial thickness < 20 mm evaluated by transvaginal...... procedure over a 3-year period and 606 (92%) experienced successful medical abortion. The remaining 8% had vacuum aspiration performed mainly due to uterine retention (70%). Other reasons were vaginal bleeding (25%), vomiting (2%), or pelvic infection (4%). Most women reported no days with severe pain (67......%), 0--1 days with moderate pain (82%), and 0--1 days with light pain (62%). In terms of gastrointestinal side effects, 68% reported nausea, 33% vomiting, and 27% diarrhea. Most women (90%) felt that the information given at the hospital prior to the abortion was sufficient, 74% would prefer medical...

  17. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  18. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  19. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime

    Ted Joyce

    2004-01-01

    The inverse relationship between abortion and crime has spurred new research and much controversy. If the relationship is causal, then polices that increased abortion have generated enormous external benefits from reduced crime. In previous papers, I argued that evidence for a casual relationship is weak and incomplete. In this paper, I conduct a number of new analyses intended to address criticisms of my earlier work. First, I examine closely the effects of changes in abortion rates between ...

  20. Abortion Counselling in Britain: Understanding the Controversy

    Hoggart, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews literature from a number of disciplines in order to provide an explanation of the political controversy attached to the provision of abortion counselling. It will show how this is an area of health policy debate in which women's reproductive bodies have become a setting for political struggle. The issue of abortion counselling in Britain has undergone a number of discursive shifts in response to political manoeuvring and changing socio-legal framing of abortion. In partic...

  1. [Diagnosis and epidemiology of Neospora caninum-associated abortions in cattle].

    Conraths, F J; Schares, G

    1999-05-01

    Neospora caninum, a recently discovered protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, has world-wide been recognized as an important cause of bovine abortion. N. caninum possesses a wide host range. The dog can be a definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle, the infection is transmitted transplacentally with high efficiency, while the majority of congenitally infected calves is clinically normal at birth and thereafter. Whether horizontal transmission occurs in cattle and whether this potential mode of transmission has epidemiological significance, remains to be elucidated. N. caninum-associated abortions can occur in epidemic or endemic form in a herd. The clinical symptoms of bovine neosporosis are confined to the occurrence of abortion, stillbirth and weak calves. Multifocal nonsuppurative encephalitis represents the most frequent pathohistological finding in N. caninum-associated abortions. The causative agent can be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry or polymerase chain reaction. Serological techniques can be used for indirect diagnosis. On the basis of the available diagnostic methods and the present knowledge about the epidemiology of the infection proposals are made regarding diagnosis, epidemiological assessment and prophylaxis of N. caninum-associated abortion problems in cattle herds. PMID:10384703

  2. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  3. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  4. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  5. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  6. Chest radiological patterns predict the duration of mechanical ventilation in children with RSV infection

    RSV-infected children demonstrate various radiographic features, some of which are associated with worse clinical outcomes. To investigate whether specific chest radiological patterns in RSV-infected children with acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the peri-intubation period are associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation. We included RSV-infected children 8 days, a backward stepwise regression arrived at a model that included age and right and left lung atelectasis. Using day 2 chest radiograph results, the best model included age and left lung atelectasis. A model combining the two days' findings yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 with a satisfactory fit (P = 0.95). Chest radiological patterns around the time of intubation can identify children with RSV-associated ARF who would require prolonged mechanical ventilation. (orig.)

  7. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    Ricardo E. Fretes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  8. Mechanism of Anemia in Schistosoma mansoni–Infected School Children in Western Kenya

    Butler, Sara E.; Muok, Erick M.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Odhiambo, Keziah; Mwinzi, Pauline M. N.; Secor, W. Evan; Karanja, Diana M. S.

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanism of anemia associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection might provide useful information on how treatment programs are implemented to minimize schistosomiasis-associated morbidity and maximize treatment impact. We used a cross-sectional study with serum samples from 206 Kenyan school children to determine the mechanisms in S. mansoni-associated anemia. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunos...

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Vaginal Bleeding after Drug-induced Abortion by Yaoliuan Capsule and Its Effects on Menses Recovery

    JIN Zhichun; HUANG Guangying

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore the effect of Yaoliuan capsule in the prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion and menses recovery after drug-induced abortion, 323 cases of gestation period ≤ 49 days and without contraindication, were divided randomly into study group (168 cases, taking Yaoliuan capsule) and control group (155 cases, taking placebo capsule). The results showed that in the study group, there were 161 cases (95.8 %) of complete abortion, 7 cases (4.2 %) of incomplete abortion; In the control group, there were 146 cases (94.2 %) of complete abortion, 6 cases (3.9 %) of incomplete abortion, 3 cases (1.9 %) of abortion failure. The vaginal bleeding time was 5-25 days (mean 10.8 days) in study group, while that was 6-62 days (mean 19.1 days) in control group. The menstrual cycle was 30.5±5.2 days and 33.8 d±8.6 days respectively in study and control groups. The menstrual period was 6.1±3.5 days and 9.9±5.1 days respectively in study and control groups. Yaoliuan capsule is an effective drug to prevent and treat vaginal bleeding following drug-induced abortion, promote menstruation recovery and prevent pelvic infection.

  10. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of aerial and subterranean pods development provides insights into seed abortion in peanut

    Wei ZHU; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Haifen; Zhu, Fanghe; Hong, Yanbin; Rajeev K. Varshney; Liang, Xuanqiang

    2014-01-01

    The peanut is a special plant for its aerial flowering but subterranean fructification. The failure of peg penetration into the soil leads to form aerial pod and finally seed abortion. However, the mechanism of seed abortion during aerial pod development remains obscure. Here, a comparative transcriptome analysis between aerial and subterranean pods at different developmental stages was produced using a customized NimbleGen microarray representing 36,158 unigenes. By comparing 4 consecutive t...

  12. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro; Debora Diniz

    2015-01-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of ...

  13. A Critical Appraisal of Laws on Second Trimester Abortion1

    Berer, Marge

    2013-01-01

    There will always be women who need abortions after 12 weeks of pregnancy, and their reasons are often compelling. Although second trimester abortions carry relatively more risks than first trimester abortions, abortion is still very safe throughout the second trimester if done in safe conditions. This paper is about law and policy on second trimester abortions, which are allowed on more restrictive grounds than first trimester abortions in most countries, if at all. It focuses on countries w...

  14. The role of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in spontaneous bovine abortion in Argentina.

    Moore, D P; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Morrell, E; Poso, M A; Cano, D B; Leunda, M R; Linschinky, L; Odeón, A C; Odriozola, E; Ortega-Mora, L M; Campero, C M

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the role of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in spontaneous bovine abortions in Argentina. Based on histopathological results, 70 presumptive cases of apicomplexan protozoal abortion from a total of 666 cases of spontaneous bovine abortion submitted to the National Institute of Agrarian Technology, Balcarce, from 1999 to 2007 were included in this study. N. caninum infection was diagnosed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and by nested-PCR. T. gondii infection also was diagnosed by nested-PCR. DNA from fetuses was extracted primarily from CNS tissues. Heart, liver, muscle and/or placenta were processed when nervous tissue was not available. Sixty-six (9.9%) fetuses were positive by at least one technique (IFAT, IHC or nested-PCR) for N. caninum infection. Overall, there was poor agreement among results obtained by these diagnostic techniques. In contrast, no Toxoplasma-infection was detected in any aborted bovine fetus. PMID:18691819

  15. J-2X Abort System Development

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  16. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530

  17. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent. PMID:17955907

  18. Association of Histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from Brazil.

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n = 4); necrotizing myocarditis (n = 3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n = 3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n = 2), N. caninum (n = 2), BVDV (n = 1), and BoHV-1 (n = 1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485

  19. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  20. Abortion Legalization and Lifecycle Fertility

    Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat; Jonathan Gruber; Phillip B. Levine

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has convincingly shown that abortion legalization in the early 1970s led to a significant drop in fertility at that time. But this decline may have either represented a delay in births from a point where they were have represented a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine data from the 1970 U.S. Census and microdata from 1968 to 1999 Vital Statistics records to calculate lifetime fertility of women in the 1930s through 1960s birth cohorts. We examine whether those women...

  1. Mechanisms of immunity in post-exposure vaccination against Ebola virus infection.

    Steven B Bradfute

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever that is characterized by rapid viral replication, coagulopathy, inflammation, and high lethality rates. Although there is no clinically proven vaccine or treatment for Ebola virus infection, a virus-like particle (VLP vaccine is effective in mice, guinea pigs, and non-human primates when given pre-infection. In this work, we report that VLPs protect Ebola virus-infected mice when given 24 hours post-infection. Analysis of cytokine expression in serum revealed a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in mice given VLPs post-exposure compared to infected, untreated mice. Using knockout mice, we show that VLP-mediated post-exposure protection requires perforin, B cells, macrophages, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, and either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Protection was Ebola virus-specific, as marburgvirus VLPs did not protect Ebola virus-infected mice. Increased antibody production in VLP-treated mice correlated with protection, and macrophages were required for this increased production. However, NK cells, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha were not required for post-exposure-mediated protection. These data suggest that a non-replicating Ebola virus vaccine can provide post-exposure protection and that the mechanisms of immune protection in this setting require both increased antibody production and generation of cytotoxic T cells.

  2. Usual hospital care versus post-abortion care for women with unsafe abortion: a case control study from Sri Lanka

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Lalini C. Rajapaksa; Galwaduge, Chandani

    2014-01-01

    Background Good quality post-abortion-care (PAC) is essential to prevent death and long-term complications following unsafe abortion, especially in countries with restrictive abortion laws. We assessed the PAC given to women following an unsafe abortion, compared to the routine hospital care following spontaneous abortion or unintended pregnancy carried to term in Sri Lanka. Methods A case–control study was conducted in Sri Lanka among 171 cases following unsafe abortion, 638 controls followi...

  3. Induced Abortion and the Risk of Tubal Infertility

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between induced abortion and tubal infertility in Chengdu, China.Methods A 1 :2 case-control study was designed. Infertile women with bilateral tubal occlusion in the case group compared with two control groups: infertile control group with bilateral tubal patency and pregnant control group with currently pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires through face-to-face interviews, covering the subjects' demographic details and histories of gynecology and obstetrics. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated as a measure of the association using stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis.Results Induced abortion was not found to be associated with tubal infertility in the analysis including either the infertile controls or the pregnant controls, but other risk factors were found, such as history of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), lower abdominal surgeries, dysmenorrhea and pregnancy.Conclusion It is contended that facing an increasing trend of infertile cases with tubal occlusion in China, it is emphasized that special attention should paid to the long term impact of reproductive tract infection, especially, asymptomatic ones, rather than induced abortion.

  4. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  5. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion. PMID:26242952

  6. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2007-01-01

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  7. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  8. Action mechanisms of lithium chloride on cell infection by transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    Xiaofeng Ren

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses.

  9. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  10. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied. PMID:24100828