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Sample records for abortive cytoplasmic male

  1. Abortive Process of a Novel Rapeseed Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line Derived from Somatic Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba

    WANG Juan; GAO Ya-nan; KONG Yue-qin; JIANG Jin-jin; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Yong-tai; WANG You-ping

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The lforal organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened iflament and delfated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther.

  2. Mitochondrial ORF79 levels determine pollen abortion in cytoplasmic male sterile rice.

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Itabashi, Etsuko; Fujii, Shinya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important agricultural trait characterized by lack of functional pollen, and caused by ectopic and defective mitochondrial gene expression. The pollen function in CMS plants is restored by the presence of nuclear-encoded restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Previously, we cloned Rf2, which restores the fertility of Lead Rice (LD)-type CMS rice. However, neither the function of Rf2 nor the identity of the mitochondrial gene causing CMS has been determined in LD-CMS rice. Here, we show that the mitochondrial gene orf79 acts as a CMS-associated gene in LD-CMS rice, similar to its role in BT-CMS rice originating from Chinsurah Boro II, and Rf2 weakly restores fertility in BT-CMS rice. We also show that RF2 promotes degradation of atp6-orf79 RNA in a different manner from that of RF1, which is the Rf gene product in BT-CMS rice. The amount of ORF79 protein in LD-CMS rice was one-twentieth of the amount in BT-CMS rice. The difference in ORF79 protein levels probably accounts for the mild and severe pollen defects in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. In the presence of Rf2, accumulation of ORF79 was reduced to almost zero and 25% in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively, which probably accounts for the complete and weak fertility restoration abilities of Rf2 in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. These observations indicate that the amount of ORF79 influences the pollen fertility in two strains of rice in which CMS is induced by orf79. PMID:26850149

  3. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  4. The epididymis, cytoplasmic droplets and male fertility

    Trevor G Cooper

    2011-01-01

    The potential of spermatozoa to become motile during post-testicular maturation,and the relationship between the cytoplasmic droplet and fertilizing capacity are reviewed.Post-testicular maturation of spermatozoa involves the autonomous induction of motility,which can occur in vivo in testes with occluded excurrent ducts and in vitro in testicular explants,and artefactual changes in morphology that appear to occur in the testis in vitro.Both modifications may reflect time-dependent oxidation of disulphide bonds of head and tail proteins.Regulatory volume decrease(RVD),which counters sperm swelling at ejaculation,is discussed in relation to loss of cytoplasmic droplets and consequences for fertility.It is postulated that:(i)fertile males possess spermatozoa with sufficient osmolytes to drive RVD at ejaculation,permitting the droplet to round up and pinch off without membrane rupture; and(ⅱ)infertile males possess spermatozoa with insufficient osmolytes so that RVD is inadequate,the droplet swells and the resulting flagellar angulation prevents droplet loss.Droplet retention at ejaculation is a harbinger of infertility caused by failure of the spermatozoon to negotiate the uterotubal junction or mucous and reach the egg.In this hypothesis,the epididymis regulates fertility indirectly by the extent of osmolyte provision to spermatozoa,which influences RVD and therefore droplet loss.Man is an exception,because ejaculated human spermatozoa retain their droplets.This may reflect their short midpiece,approximating head length,permitting a swollen droplet to extend along the entire midpiece; this not only obviates droplet migration and flagellar angulation but also hampers droplet loss.

  5. Cytomorphology and Cytochemical Localization of K-type and T-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Pollens in Wheat

    YAO Ya-qin; ZHANG Gai-sheng; LIU Hong-wei; WANG Jun-wei

    2003-01-01

    By using the technology of microscopy,electron microscopy and enzyme cytochemical localization, comparison was made of the cytomorphology, ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity in pollens during microspore formation and pollen development, for K-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, T-type CMS lines and their maintainer lines on wheat. The results indicated that pollen abortion of the T-type CMS lines mainly occurred at the later mononucleate pollen stage, and cytomorphological changes of the abortive pollen began with a vacuolar membrane, and pollen aborting was related to a lack of ATPase activity in the nucleus and nucleolus during the mononucleate pollen stage. Pollen abortion of the K-type CMS lines took place mainly during the later binucleate and trinucleate stages, and cytomorphological changes of the abortion first began with mitochondria. The abortion was related to intine disruption.

  6. An unedited 1.1 kb mitochondrial orfB gene transcript in the Wild Abortive Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (WA-CMS system of Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica

    Maiti Mrinal K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of hybrid rice technology has significantly increased global rice production during the last three decades. Approximately 90% of the commercially cultivated rice hybrids have been derived through three-line breeding involving the use of WA-CMS lines. It is believed that during the 21st century, hybrid rice technology will make significant contributions to ensure global food security. This study examined the poorly understood molecular basis of the WA-CMS system in rice. Results RFLPs were detected for atp6 and orfB genes in sterile and fertile rice lines, with one copy of each in the mt-genome. The RNA profile was identical in both lines for atp6, but an additional longer orfB transcript was identified in sterile lines. 5' RACE analysis of the long orfB transcript revealed it was 370 bp longer than the normal transcript, with no indication it was chimeric when compared to the genomic DNA sequence. cDNA clones of the longer orfB transcript in sterile lines were sequenced and the transcript was determined unedited. Sterile lines were crossed with the restorer and maintainer lines, and fertile and sterile F1 hybrids were respectively generated. Both hybrids contained two types of orfB transcripts. However, the long transcript underwent editing in the fertile F1 hybrids and remained unedited in the sterile lines. Additionally, the editing of the 1.1 kb orfB transcript co-segregated with fertility restoring alleles in a segregating population of F2 progeny; and the presence of unedited long orfB transcripts was detected in the sterile plants from the F2 segregating population. Conclusion This study helped to assign plausible operative factors responsible for male-sterility in the WA cytoplasm of rice. A new point of departure to dissect the mechanisms governing the CMS-WA system in rice has been identified, which can be applied to further harness the opportunities afforded by hybrid vigor in rice.

  7. Development of Transgenic Restorer of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Upland Cotton

    WANG Xue-de; LI Yue-you

    2002-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase gene (gst) has been introduced into restorers of cytoplasmic male sterility in upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transviable pollens of hybrid (sterile line×restorer) F1. The hybrid gave 3.6 more bolls per plant, 10.1% less aborted seeds and 10.6% more lint yield when ‘Zheda strong restorer’ was used as male parent than when ‘DES-HAF277’ was. Southern and Northern bloting analysis showed that the foreign gst gene was detectable and highly expressed in ‘Zheda strong restorer’.

  8. Development of Japonica Male Sterile Lines Integrating Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Photosensitive Genic Male Sterility

    WANG Shou-hai; DU Shi-yun; WANG De-zheng; LI Cheng-quan

    2005-01-01

    It has been previously established that the BT type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is induced by high temperatures,while photosensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) seed sets by low temperatures induce. In the current study, we have bred photosensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (PCMS) lines (2308SA and 2310SA) by crossing the CMS line with the PGMS japonica line with maintainer genes. The sterility of PCMS japonica was consequently controlled by two groups of male sterile genes resulting from the integration of PGMS and CMS genes. The results on plant fertility, at different sowing times, were as follows: (a) Under conditions of natural long-day photoperiod and at temperatures above 35℃, the PGMS gene regulated PCMS japonica sterility - the higher the temperature, the lower the pollen fertility. However, bagged seed sets of PCMS japonica, not exposed to high temperatures, induced the CMS seed set. (b) Exposure to long-day photoperiod and temperature conditions between 35℃ and the critical sterility inducing temperature of PGMS resulted in both PGMS and CMS gene controlled sterility of PCMS japonica, which exhibited stable characteristics. (c) When exposed to critical sterility inducing temperatures or short-day photoperiod and daily high temperatures below 32℃, the BT type of the CMS gene regulated PCMS sterility. Under these conditions, the PGMS gene rendered male sterility insusceptible to occasional cool summer days when this PCMS line, adopted for hybrid seed production, develops into panicle differentiation stage.The present study also investigated the fertility restoration, seed production and combining ability of PCMS japonica so as to optimize its use.

  9. Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Cotton Anther

    JIANG Pei-dong; ZHU Yun-guo; WANG Xiao-ling; ZHU Wei; ZHANG Xiao-quan; XIE Hai-yan; WANG Xue-de

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cell, including superoxide (O2-·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), are thought to be important inducible factors of cell apoptosis if excessively accumulated in cells. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of ROS production and scavenging in anthers of the cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) cotton,CMS line, maintainer, and hybrid F1 anthers, were employed for studying the relationship between CMS and metabolism of ROS, by comparing ROS changes in the sterile and fertile anthers at different developmental stages. The results showed that during the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous cell division stage), anthers of CMS line had higher contents of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA than those of maintainer or hybrid F1. Simultaneously, the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in scavenging ROS were measured in the anthers of the CMS line,indicating that an increase of ROS in anthers of abortion preliminary stage had an inducible effect on the antioxidant enzymes. But during the abortion peak of CMS anther (pollen mother cell meiosis stage), on the one hand, contents of O2-·,H2O2, and MDA were extraordinarily high in CMS anthers, on the other hand, the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were excessively low, which disrupted the balance between the production and elimination of ROS and led to pollen mother cells apoptosis at this stage. In the following two stages (uninucleate microspore stage and mature pollen stage), the contents of O2-· and H2O2 in the aborted anthers were approximated to contents in the fertile anthers of the maintainer and hybrid F1. However, MDA contents were continuously raised and enzymic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were consistently decreased in sterile anthers, which indicated that ROS still had harmful effects on the anthers after the apoptosis of the male cells. Excessive accumulation of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA and significant reduction of ROS

  10. Expression of ogu cytoplasmic male sterility in cybrids of Brassica napus.

    Gourret, J P; Delourme, R; Renard, M

    1992-03-01

    A light and electron microscopic investigation revealed that ogu cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in cybrids of Brassica napus is primarily a deficiency of the tapetum and clearly time and site specific. Three patterns of ogu CMS were found, and specific conclusions drawn. First, the partially male fertile cybrid 23 was highly variable. It sometimes produced heterogeneous stamens with an endothecium formed exclusively around the fertile locules, thus delineating each microsporangium as a functional unit. The second type, including cybrids 27, 58 and 85, on the contrary, was stable and completely male sterile. In the four locules of normal length, microspores were observed to die at the vacuolate polarized stage while the tapetum disappeared prematurely through excessive vacuolization by the end of meiosis followed by a rapid autolysis during the tetrad or early free microspore stage. The subepidermal layer of the locule wall failed to form characteristic thickenings. The male-sterile stamens were completely indehiscent. At the time of anthesis they contained only collapsed empty exines adhering to each other. These cybrids, 27, 58 and 85, were closest to the ogu CMS trait of radish and seemed to be the best suited for further use in plant breeding. The third pattern was found in cybrids 77 and 118, which besides showing abortion of the microsporangia also showed a feminization of the stamens. We suggest that this feminization might be due to an alloplasmic situation associating Brassica napus nuclear genes with the mitochondrial DNA of radish. PMID:24202671

  11. Genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    Parvez A. Sofi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait that suppresses pollen production due to the interaction of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In maize three types of CMS systems, namely CMS-T, CMS-S and CMS-C, have been documented and are differentiated by the reaction to restorers, mitochondrial DNA restriction digest patterns, and complements of low molecular weight plasmids. CMS-T is restored fully by Rf-1 and Rf-2, CMS-S by Rf-3, and CMS-C by Rf-4. All restorer genes except Rf-2 restore fertility by affecting the transcript profile of CMS-associated locus. The sterility is caused by the disorganization of the tapetum and surrounding cell layers as a result of the expression of pollen specific genes. Even though such phenotypes are associated with gene dysfunction in mitochondria, the chloroplasts have emerged as ideal organs for engineering male sterility in crop plants. A number of systems such as barnase-barstar have been standardized in Brassica. Recently, polyhydroxy butyrate was identified as a potential candidate gene for engineering male sterility. Moreover, a broad group of proteins called PPR (pentatricopeptide repeat proteins has also shown to hold great promise for engineering male sterility in crop plants as most of the restorers belong to this category. In maize one such protein, CRP-1, has been identified

  12. DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to charac...

  13. Two neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice

    2000-01-01

    @@It was difficult to use the pronounced heterosis of indica-japonica hybrids rice due to the panicle sterility caused by male and female gamete abortion. The female gamete abortion in most of subspecific hybrids could be solved by using an abortion-neutral gene S5-n, a wide compatibility gene. The problem of male gamete abortion indicated by distorted segregation of marker genes remained to be studied. Segregation distortion via male gamete had been reported on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 11, and 12.

  14. Abortion.

    Savage, A

    1979-09-15

    I refer for termination anyone who requests it for--pace Mr V Tunkel, (28 July, p 253)--the law is generally regarded as being one of "abortion on demand." I have some misgivings as I do not believe that women in early pregnancy are always in a fit state to make a considered decision, and they cannot in the nature of things be given time. I have, however, become increasingly worried about the morbidity arising from the procedure, and it is interesting that letters on the subject (25 August, pp 495 and 496) should be followed by one reporting rupture of the uterus during prostaglandin-induced abortion--yet another complication to add to those of cervical incompetence, pelvic sepsis, and permanent neurological damage. In so far as these tragedies usually follow late terminations Mr John Corrie's Bill is to be welcomed. A few further points. I am not so cynical as to think that every impregnation is the result of a thoughtless act of male lust. Unlike Professor Peter Huntingford (25 August, p 496), I listen to men as well as women, and many of them are deeply involved emotionally in the pregnancy they have helped to produce. Certainly I think a man should have the right to be consulted if his wife is to undergo a procedure that might damage her health. It is unfair contemptuously to dismiss as "whims" opinions that differ from ones own. These may result from genuine conscientious doubts or inability to cope from overwork and understaffing. Abortion is quite the most expensive form of contraception, and perhaps in these days of financial stringency this should be taken into account. "Bigotry" is defined in my dictionary as "blind zeal." This could be said of those who enthusiastically promote a course of action without regard to circumstances, safety, or cost. PMID:497770

  15. Genetics of Fertility Restoration in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Pepper

    2006-01-01

    Pepper hybrid seeds production using male sterility could lower cost by reducing time and labour, and increase the genetic purity of the F1 seeds. To investigate the genetics of fertility restoration of the Peterson cytoplasmic sterility in pepper, a doubled haploid population of 115 pepper lines obtained from anther culture of the F1 hybrid between Yolo Wonder (sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (fertility restorer line) and the parental lines were test-crossed by 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genic male sterile line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed in greenhouse and open field with the following three criteria: pollen index (PI, visual estimation of pollen amount per flower), pollen number (PN, pollen counting under microscope), and seed number (SN, the number of seeds per fruit in open pollination). Correlations between the each couple of criteria within, as well as between the cultivation methods ranged from 0.55 to 0.84. Analysis of variance showed that the genotype (DH line) and environment were the significant sources of variation of the fertility.Narrow sense of heritance of fertility restoration ranged from 0.38 to 0.92, depending on the criteria and environment. The distribution of the progeny was continuous between the parental genotypes indicating the quantitative inheritance of fertility restoration. Inferred from segregation according to Snape et al.(1984), the number of segregating genes was estimated to be that three to four genetic factors were involved in pollen traits (PI and PN) and five to eight genetic factors in seed production (SN). The heredity analysis of the CMS will be helpful for understanding of the genetic mechanism of the fertility restoration and the exploitation of the CMS in hybrid seed production.

  16. Abortion

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  17. Abortion.

    1993-09-01

    Vacuum aspiration, dilatation and curettage, hysterotomy, and, in some cases, hysterectomy comprise surgical methods of abortion. Oral administration of RU-486, epostane, prostaglandins E and F2 and vaginal suppositories of prostaglandins E and F2 are medical abortion methods. The traditional or clandestine methods are usually performed by unqualified persons and pregnant women themselves. These methods tend to be inefficient and harmful. They include oral preparations of herbs and drugs (e.g., quinine and ergot), introduction of fluids (e.g., household disinfectants) into the vagina, introduction of foreign bodies (e.g., twigs, stems, hollow tubes, needles, wire) into the uterus. Hospital records, death certificates, and community-based surveys are common sources of data on abortion. Worldwide, 40-70/1000 women of childbearing age undergo an abortion. 20-33% of all pregnancies are terminated. Abortion is always legal when it is performed to save a pregnant woman's life. In most countries, it is legal to protect the woman's physical or mental health against serious danger. The risk of death from a legal abortion is rare. On the other hand, when an abortion is performed by an unqualified, unskilled abortionist and/or under unhygienic conditions (all of which are common in countries who have a law against abortion) the risk of death is much higher. In fact, abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal death in many countries (25% and 86% of maternal deaths in Bangladesh and Romania, respectively). Common complications of abortion are incomplete abortion, trauma to pelvic organs (e.g., uterine perforation), tetanus, and infertility. In some developing countries, the cost of treating abortion complications account for up to 50% of maternity hospital budgets. Ways to reduce mortality from unsafe abortion include promoting contraceptive use, legalizing abortion, allowing trained practitioners to perform abortions for health reasons, and improving clinical management

  18. Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders

    Hjollund, N H; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K;

    2000-01-01

    Male-mediated spontaneous abortion has never been documented for humans. The welding of stainless steel is associated with the pulmonary absorption of hexavalent chromium, which has genotoxic effects on germ cells in rodents. Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among...... spouses of stainless-steel welders....

  19. Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders

    Hjollund, N H; Bonde, Jens Peter; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2000-01-01

    Male-mediated spontaneous abortion has never been documented for humans. The welding of stainless steel is associated with the pulmonary absorption of hexavalent chromium, which has genotoxic effects on germ cells in rodents. Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among...

  20. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.: Morphological Analysis

    Ildephonse Habarugira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524 and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  1. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  2. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M4 generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets. (Kaihara, S.)

  3. Genetic variation among the male sterile cytoplasms induced by gamma irradiation in sugar beets

    In sugar beets, cytoplasmic male sterility was induced artificially by radiation treatment. In the present study, four kinds of male sterile strain made from the strain H-2002 with normal cytoplasms were used, and the mode of inheritance of the sterility maintained by these strains was confirmed. Also the hereditary mechanism of pollen fructification recovery was studied, and the newly induced heterotypic property of sterile cytoplasms was examined in comparison with naturally found sterile strains. In each of four produced strains, the male sterility was inherited down to M4 lines stably through mother plants, and it was presumed that the sterility was caused by highly stable cytoplasmic mutation. In each strain, two pairs of nuclear genes took part in the recovery of pollen fructification, but the mode of action of two genes was different. As the result of mating for verification with O type strain to S cytoplasm strain, it seemed that at least the function as O type was not shown to three strains of γ-60, γ-114 and γ-165, and in the sterile cytoplasms of these three strains, the action of fructification recovery genes different from X and Z arose. It was presumed that the genes of X locus did not take effect in these induced cytoplasms. The possibility that at least four kinds of male sterile cytoplasms different from S were induced from normal cytoplasms by artificial mutation was proved indirectly. (Kako, I.)

  4. Abortion

    1985-01-01

    The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) recognizes that there is justification for abortion on medical and nonmedical socioeconomic grounds and that such an elective surgical procedure should be decided upon by the patient and the physician(s) concerned. Ideally, the service should be available to all women on an equitable basis across Canada. CMA has recommended the removal of all references to hospital therapeutic abortion committees as outlined in the Criminal Code of Canada. The Criminal C...

  5. Downy mildew incidence of pearl millet hybrids with different male-sterility inducing cytoplasms.

    Yadav, O P

    1996-02-01

    The use of different sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid seed production of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is advocated to avoid possible disease epidemics occurring due to cytoplasmic uniformity. The effects of commercially unexploited, but potentially exploitable, sources of CMS, like A2, A3 and A4, on downy mildew [Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet] incidence were studied by using the disease incidence of isonuclear hybrids with male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm. The mean downy mildew incidence of hybrids carrying different male-sterile cytoplasm was similar to that of hybrids retaining the fertile cytoplasm. The cytoplasm accounted for only 0.6% of the total variation and its effect was non-significant; pollinators could explain most of the variation in determining the disease incidence of hybrids. This suggested that these male-sterile cytoplasms are not linked to downy mildew susceptibility and thus can be exploited commercially to broaden the cytoplasmic base of the male-sterile lines and, ultimately, of hybrids. PMID:24166178

  6. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance

    Wang, Zhi Wei; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found tha...

  7. The genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration in rice

    GUO JingXin; LIU YaoGuang

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited characteristic found in many (>150) plant species. CMS/restoration systems are useful tools for hybrid seed production, and are ideal models for study of the interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. CMS/restoration systems in rice have been widely used for hybrid seed production, greatly contributing to the food supply. This article reviews the progress of the studies on the genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration in rice.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L

    Groenendijk, C.F.M.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Van Brederode, J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored

  9. Relationship between ethylene and the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility in rice

    2000-01-01

    @@ It was found that exogenous ethylene or ethrel could induce rice male sterility and endogenous ethylene was negatively correlated with pollen fertility and play a key role in the occurrence of rice male sterility. However, it is unknown whether ethylene is related to the occurrence of CMS (cytoplasmic male sterility). In this study, a field experiment was conducted in Guangzhou, using CMS line Zhenshan 97A and its maintainer line Zhenshan 97B.

  10. Establishment and Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus by Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization

    HU Qiong; LI Yun-chang; MEI De-sheng; FANG Xiao-ping; Lise N Hansen; Sven B Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Exploitation of novel cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS)is a main approach for widening the cytoplasmic genetic background of hybrid oilseed rape and avoiding epidemic risk in oilseed rape production.In this study,symmetric somatic hybrids between Brassicanapus var.Zhongshuang4 and Sinapis arvensis(Yeyou18)were produced by protoplast fusion.Two of the six established hybrids were male sterile showing trace or no pollen release upon flowering with non-or slightly extended stamens.Using Zhongshuang4 as a recurrent parent to pollinate the male sterile plants,the ratio of male sterile plants increased with the number of backcrosses.As early as in BC3 generation,most of the sterile families had nearly 100%sterile plants.Up to BC4 generation,the male sterility became stable and no fertility segregation was observed.All F1 progenies from tested crosses using restorer and maintainer lines of Polima CMS were 100%sterile,indicating that the established CMS by somatic hybridization is different from Polima CMS.The origin of the cytoplasm and potential use of this hovel CMS in oilseed rape breeding were discussed.Key wotds:Oilseed rape,Protoplast fusion,Cytoplasmic male sterility,Sinapis arvensis

  11. Observation on Microstructure of Male Abortion in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜雄性败育的显微结构观察

    王福青; 李敏; 曲咏梅

    2001-01-01

    通过对核质互作型雄性不育系169A和核雄性不育两用系88_3的细胞形态解剖学观察表明,两个不育系在开花时雄性细胞均表现100%的败育,花药的表皮细胞均具有生活力,但败育形式、时期、特点各异。169A败育发生于孢原细胞前后,以孢原细胞退化,或转变成薄壁细胞为主要特点。88_3败育从小孢子母细胞至二核花粉粒皆有发生,高峰期在四分体前后(约占80%),小孢子母细胞不能进入减数分裂和不能完成减数分裂及小孢子不能正常发育是败育的主要形式,但败育特点均是败育一旦发生便是急剧而彻底的解体或凝集成一团。%The morphological anatomical characters of the anthers from nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction male sterile line 169A and genic male sterile line 88-3 were observed. The results showed that the epidermal cells of the anther had viability,while the male sex cell of the two sterile lines appeared 100% abortion at blooming date, however,their abortion form,duration and characters were different.The abortion of 169A occurred before to behind of the sporogonia,whose important characterization was that the sporogonia degenerated or transformed into the parenchyma cells. The abortion of 88-3 ocurred from the microspore mother cells to pollen grains of two-nucleus,while the high peak stage of abortion(80%) occurred before and after the tetrad phase. The main abortion forms of 88-3 were that the microspore mother cells were not able to enter meiosis process and to finish meiosis,and the microspores were not able to develop normally.The same abortion character of the two male sterile lines was that the microspore mother cells and microspores sharply and thoroughly disintegrated or aggregated when abortion occurred.

  12. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    Ildephonse Habarugira; Theo Hendriks; Marie-Christine Quillet; Jean-Louis Hilbert; Caroline Rambaud

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores...

  13. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia hybrida. A structural and histochemical analysis.

    Bino, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structural and histochemical aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) in Petuniahybrida . In petunia and in other crops, cms is the most commonly used tool for hybrid seed production. Application of the trait makes hybrid seed production possi

  14. Cytoplasmic male sterility and inter and intra subgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica species: A review

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Brassica comprise a remarkably diverse group of crops and encompass varieties that are grown as oilseeds, vegetables, condiment mustards and forages. One of the basic requirements for developing hybrid varieties in oilseed Brassica is the availability of proven heterosis. The development of hybrid cultivars has been successful in many Brassica spp. Midparent heterosis and high-parent heterosis (heterobeltiosis have extensively been explored and utilized for boosting various quantity and quality traits in rapeseed. Heterosis is commercially exploited in rapeseed and its potential use has been demonstrated in turnip rape (B. rapa L. and Indian mustard (B. juncea L. for seed yield and most of the agronomic traits. The oilseed rape plant, B. napus, possesses two endogenous male sterile cytoplasms, nap and pol. Ogura type of cytoplasmic male sterility was first discovered in Japanese wild radish and other male-sterile Brassicas (Ogura bearing cytoplasm derived from interspecific crosses. Information concerning the allelic frequencies of restorers can be useful in trying to understand their evolutionary origins. The ogu, pol and nap cytoplasms of B. napus induce sterility in all, some, and only a few cultivars, respectively. In this study, different kinds of male sterility, combining ability and heterosis of qualitative and quantitative traits in different Brassica species will be reviеwed.

  15. Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Møller, Ian Max; Studer, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    increase biomass yield, improve nutritional value and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stress. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an efficient tool to control pollination for hybrid seed production. In order to identify the causative polymorphism of the CMS phenotype, a cytoplasmic male sterile plant...

  16. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration of Maxie cytoplasmic male sterility im rice (Oryza sativa L. )

    ZHANGXiaoguo; ZHUYingguo; MEIQiming

    1996-01-01

    The genetic behavior of fertility restoration genes of the cytoplasmic male sterile line Maxie A was studied to facilitate the use of Maweizhan male sterile cytoplasm. The F1,F2, and F1 of Maxie A / Minhui 63 were grown in paddy field, 1993-1995.

  17. Development and Performance of the Cytoplasmic-nuclear Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A of Soybean

    Ding Derong; Gai Junyi; Cui Zhanglin; Qiu Jiaxun

    2000-01-01

    The F1 of N8855×N2899, a cross between two G. max cultivars, was found to be male-sterile. After it was back-crossed with the recurrent parent N2899 for four successive generations, a cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterile line and its maintainer line, designated as NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B, respectively, were obtained. NJCMS1A performed stable in male sterility and normal in female fertility with 98. 29% plants are male-sterile and 0 pollen germination. The abnormal phenomenon of 2~3 styles surrounded by 20~30 stamens was found in some flowers of male sterile plants of BC1F1 and BC2F1.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Associated Gene of Cotton (Gossypium harknessii)

    WU Jian-yong; GONG Yang-chang; XING Chao-zhu; GUO Li-ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that results in the failure to produce functional pollen.It was identified in many plants,and it is widely used to exploit heterosis.Now,there are some genes associated with the CMS phenomena that have been identified in the mitochondrial genome.For example,specific genes implicated in CMS have been reported in maize,petunia,bean,Brassica,radish,sunflower,rice,carrot,sorghum,pepper,and many others.

  19. Self-fertilization and restoration to cytoplasmic male sterility of some wild species of helianthus

    Onemli F.; Gucer T.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine self-fertility and restoration capability of cytoplasmic male fertility of some wild sunflower genotypes. The evaluated genotypes were Helianthus petiolaris spp. petiolaris (E-142), Helianthus neglectus (E-017) and Helianthus annuus (E-060, E-173, E-174 and E-175). For hybridization, the female inbred line 2453-A was used. Results showed that self fertility ratios of wild sunflower genotypes varied between 22.4...

  20. Cytological study of radiation induced alterations in cytoplasmic factors controlling male sterility in corn. Progress report, February 28, 1975--December 1, 1975

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: cytoplasmic constituents of the embryo of various gymnosperms and angiosperms; cytoplasmic male sterility in corn; modification of cytoplasmic sterility factors using gamma radiation, EMS, and ethidium bromide; selection for sterile, blight-resistant corn plants; electron microscopy study of abnormal mitochondria in cytoplasm of corn; cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia; non-Mendelian variegation in Petunia and Nicotiana; graft transmission of cytoplasmic male sterility; cytoplasmic male sterility in Vicia faba; and studies on Blakeslee's I virus in Datura

  1. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its near-isogenic restorer line in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L..

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS, aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. RESULTS: We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations.

  2. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; Psorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that methylation of nuclear genes in sterility-inducing cytoplasm may be one of mechanisms causing the CMS phenomenon. PMID:26027370

  3. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility is associated with decreased Hira expression in male Drosophila.

    Ya Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria that infect numerous species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia can induce several reproductive phenotypes in their insect hosts including feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. CI is the most common phenotype and occurs when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females resulting in no or very low numbers of viable offspring. However, matings between males and females infected with the same strain of Wolbachia result in viable progeny. Despite substantial scientific effort, the molecular mechanisms underlying CI are currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression studies were undertaken in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans which display differential levels of CI using quantitative RT-PCR. We show that Hira expression is correlated with the induction of CI and occurs in a sex-specific manner. Hira expression is significantly lower in males which induce strong CI when compared to males inducing no CI or Wolbachia-uninfected males. A reduction in Hira expression is also observed in 1-day-old males that induce stronger CI compared to 5-day-old males that induce weak or no CI. In addition, Hira mutated D. melanogaster males mated to uninfected females result in significantly decreased hatch rates comparing with uninfected crosses. Interestingly, wMel-infected females may rescue the hatch rates. An obvious CI phenotype with chromatin bridges are observed in the early embryo resulting from Hira mutant fertilization, which strongly mimics the defects associated with CI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest Wolbachia-induced CI in Drosophila occurs due to a reduction in Hira expression in Wolbachia-infected males leading to detrimental effects on sperm fertility resulting in embryo lethality. These results may help determine the underlying mechanism of CI and provide further insight in to the important role

  4. Screening and Identifying Two Specific Molecular Markers in Maintainer Line of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis)

    C.G. Wang; J.M. Gao; H. Li; Y. Gu; X.Q. Chen; W.Q. Song

    2007-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that prevents the production of function pollen, but maintains female fertility. It has been widely used in breeding programs to product F1 hybrid seed in some crops (Hanson, 1991).

  5. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Sua-type cytoplasmic male sterility of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Li, Fengxia; Yang, Aiguo; Lv, Jing; Gong, Daping; Sun, Yuhe

    2016-07-01

    To uncover the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-associated mitochondrial genes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of Sua-CMS mitochondrial genome. The Sua-CMS mtDNA sequence is 522,731 bp in length and contains 34 protein-coding genes, 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and three ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The nucleotide sequence data of 34 protein-coding genes of 14 mitochondrial genomes were used for constructing the phylogenetic tree. The results showed that Nicotiana tabacum Sua-CMS exhibits most close relationship with other solanaceae species. PMID:27158790

  7. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    Peng Yang

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS and microsporocyte stage (MS (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8% DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6% DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  8. Isolation and genetic characterization of a fertility-restoring revertant induced from cytoplasmic male sterile rice

    A male fertile revertant was isolated from M1 of a cytoplasmic male sterile indica rice line II-32A, the dry seeds of which were treated with 60Co-γ rays at a dose of 290 Gy. The acquired revertant T24 was morphologically and agronomically similar to II-32B, the maintainer of II-32A. Testcrosses of the revertant with II-32A and Zhenshan 97A showed that the revertant was able to restore the fertility of CMS lines. Genetic analysis of the progenies between T24 and II-32A, Zhenshan 97A XieqingzaoA and DZhenshan 97A, which have different cytoplasms, showed that the fertility restoration of four CMS lines by T24 involved one nuclear gene, indicating that T24 was a result of the mutation of one nuclear gene. The mechanism of the restoration of CMS line by T24 was obviously different from other restorers such as Minghui 63 and 20964, which were shown to behave in two gene mode in fertility restoration. The discovery of the revertant T24 contributes to the understanding of CMS and fertility restoration of CMS in rice. The T24 and its parent II-32A may constitute a pair of near isogenic lines for the restoring gene, which should be valuable materials for molecular genetic analysis of CMS

  9. Cytoplasmic male sterile systems in pigeonpea with special reference to A7 CMS

    Nalini Mallikarjuna, Deepak R Jadhav, Kulbushan B. Saxena and Rakesh K. Srivastava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the cereals and vegetable crops, cytoplasmic male sterility is comparatively a new system available topigeonpea breeders to exploit heterosis/hybrid vigor. It has been possible to develop a CMS system for pigeonpea as crosspollination is possible in this crop. Various CMS systems have been developed for pigeonpea utilizing different wildrelatives from different gene pools. CMS based hybrids developed from A4 system have recorded superiority in yieldscompared to the checks on farmer’s fields. This has opened up a new window for yield improvement in pigeonpea. Thepaper discusses different CMS systems available for pigeonpea in general and the A7 system which was developed utilizingCajanus platycarpus, in particular.

  10. A duplicated coxI gene is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in an alloplasmic Brassica juncea line derived from somatic hybridization with Diplotaxis catholica

    Aruna Pathania; Rajesh Kumar; V. Dinesh Kumar; Ashutosh; K. K. Dwivedi; P. B. Kirti; P. Prakash; V. L. Chopra; S. R. Bhat

    2007-08-01

    A cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of Brassica juncea was derived by repeated backcrossing of the somatic hybrid (Diplotaxis catholica + B. juncea) to B. juncea. The new CMS line is comparable to euplasmic lines for almost all characters, except for flowers which bear slender, needle-like anthers with aborted pollen. Detailed Southern analysis revealed two copies of coxI gene in the CMS line. One copy, coxI-1 is similar to the coxI gene of B. juncea, whereas the second copy, coxI-2 is present in a novel rearranged region. Northern analysis with eight mitochondrial gene probes showed altered transcript pattern only for the coxI gene. Two transcripts of 2.0 and 2.4 kb, respectively, were detected in the CMS line. The novel 2.4 kb transcript was present in floral bud tissue but absent in the leaf tissue. In plants where male sterility broke down under high temperature during the later part of the growing season, the 2.4 kb coxI transcript was absent, which suggested its association with the CMS. The two coxI genes from the CMS line showed two amino acid changes in the coding region. The novel coxI gene showed unique repeats in the 5′ region suggesting recombination of mitochondrial genomes of the two species. The possible role of the duplicated coxI gene in causing male sterility is discussed.

  11. Abortion - medical

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  12. Mapping of the nuclear fertility restorer gene for HL cytoplasmic male sterility in rice using microsatellite markers

    2000-01-01

    Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of a BC1 population derived from Congguang 41A//Miyang 23/Congguang 41B was used to map the nuclear fertility restorer gene for Honglian (HL) cytoplasmic male sterility.One hundred and fifty-nine microsatellite primer pairs were screened for polymorphisms between the parents and between two bulks representing fertile and sterile plants.One microsatellite marker RM258 produced polymorphic products.The nuclear fertility restorer gene for HL cytoplasmic male sterility was mapped on chromosome 10,7.8cM from RM258.The restorer gene may be clustered on chromosome.

  13. Somatic hybrids between Arabidopsis thaliana and cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Yamagishi, H; Glimelius, K

    2003-08-01

    Somatic hybrids were produced by protoplast fusion between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia and a male-sterile radish line MS-Gensuke ( Raphanus sativus) with the Ogura cytoplasm. Forty-one shoots were differentiated from the regenerated calli and established as shoot cultures in vitro. About 20 of these shoots were judged to be hybrids based on growth characteristics and morphology. Molecular analyses of 11 shoots were performed, confirming the hybrid features. Of these 11 shoots, eight were established as rooted plants in the greenhouse. Polymerase chain reaction and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the nuclear genomes of all analyzed shoots and plants confirmed that they contained hybrid DNA patterns. Their chromosome numbers also supported the hybrid nature of the plants. Investigations of the organelles in the hybrids revealed that the chloroplast (cp) genome was exclusively represented by radish cpDNA, while the mitochondrial DNA configuration showed a combination of both parental genomes as well as fragments unique to the hybrids. Hybrid plants that flowered were male-sterile independent of the presence of the Ogura CMS-gene orf138. PMID:12827437

  14. Involvement of a universal amino acid synthesis impediment in cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper.

    Fang, Xianping; Fu, Hong-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chai, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we studied the different maturation processes of sterile and fertile pepper anthers. A paraffin section analysis of the sterile anthers indicated an abnormality of the tapetal layer and an over-vacuolization of the cells. The quantitative proteomics results showed that the expression of histidinol dehydrogenase (HDH), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DAD), aspartate aminotransferase (ATAAT), cysteine synthase (CS), delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and glutamate synthetase (GS) in the amino acid synthesis pathway decreased by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of DAD, ATAAT, CS and P5CS showed a 2- to 16-fold increase in the maintainer line anthers. We also found that most of the amino acid content levels decreased to varying degrees during the anther tapetum period of the sterile line, whereas these levels increased in the maintainer line. The results of our study indicate that during pepper anther development, changes in amino acid synthesis are significant and accompany abnormal tapetum maturity, which is most likely an important cause of male sterility in pepper. PMID:26987793

  15. Balanced Chromosomal Translocation of Chromosomes 6 and 7: A Rare Male Factor of Spontaneous Abortions

    Resim, Sefa; Kadıoğlu, Ateş; Akman, Tolga; Bayrak, Ayşe Gül; Efe, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carriers of structural chromosomal rearrangements such as Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and producing offspring with genetic abnormalities. Case Report: We report a man with balanced chromosomal translocations located at 6p22, and 7q22. His wife has a history of four spontaneous abortions. Conclusion: Couples with a history of abortions should be investigated cytogenetically, after other causes of mis...

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Shiyong Mei; Touming Liu; Zhiwei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm ...

  17. Reduced activity of ATP synthase in mitochondria causes cytoplasmic male sterility in chili pepper.

    Li, Jinjie; Pandeya, Devendra; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Liu, Wing Yee; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2013-04-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait characterized by the inability to produce functional pollen. The CMS-associated protein Orf507 (reported as Orf456 in previous researches) was previously identified as a candidate gene for mediating male sterility in pepper. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid analysis to screen for interacting proteins, and found that the ATP synthase 6 kDa subunit containing a mitochondrial signal peptide (MtATP6) specifically interacted with Orf507. In addition, the two proteins were found to be interacted in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Further functional characterization of Orf507 revealed that the encoded protein is toxic to bacterial cells. Analysis of tissue-specific expression of ATP synthase 6 kDa showed that the transcription level was much lower in anthers of the CMS line than in their wild type counterparts. In CMS plants, ATP synthase activity and content were reduced by more than half compared to that of the normal plants. Taken together, it can be concluded that reduced ATP synthase activity and ATP content might have affected pollen development in CMS plants. Here, we hypothesize that Orf507 might cause MtATP6 to be nonfunctional by changing the latter's conformation or producing an inhibitor that prevents the normal functioning of MtATP6. Thus, further functional analysis of mitochondrial Orf507 will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying CMS in plants. PMID:23274393

  18. Pollen mitochondria in cytoplasmically male sterile tobacco zygotic and embryonic cells

    An attempt is being made to establish cytoplasmic organelles transmission during the process of fertilization, by using tobacco grain pollen labelled with leucine 14C and tritiated thymidine. Through autoradiography the fate of pollen germination and its entry into the embryo sac has been studied. A few days after fertilization, labelled cytoplasmic organelles - mainly mitochondria - were detected in the embryo sac. However, labelling was not observed in cytoplasmic organelles by using tritiated thymidine. For more conclusive results labelled DNA incorporated in cytoplasmic organelles have to be traced during the embryo and endosperm development

  19. Male Factors and socioeconomic indicators correlate with the risk of spontaneous abortion

    Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    No less than 10% of clinically recognised pregnancies end as spontaneous abortions and the recurrence risk is high. Due to lack of data and appropriate study design only little is known about preventable causes of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of paternal and...... personal identification numbers and information stored in several population registers. Change of partner reduced the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion substantially (OR = 0.59; 95 CI 0.52-0.67), but also changes in social status or job reduced the recurrence risk significantly. Changing the...... municipality of residence to a low risk area (based upon the geographical distribution of spontaneous abortions) reduced the risk of spontaneous abortion in both cohorts. A paternal effect on the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion cannot be ruled out but environmental factors also play a role....

  20. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli.

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  1. Premature Tapetum Degeneration: a Major Cause of Abortive Pollen Development in Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male Sterility in Rice

    Yinlian Shi; Sha Zhao; Jialing Yao

    2009-01-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile (PSGMS) rice (Oryza sativa L.), a natural mutant found in the rice cultivar Nongken 58, is very useful for the development of hybrid rice cultivars. Despite its widespread use in breeding programs, the initial stage of the abortive development of PSGMS rice and the possible cytological mechanisms of pollen abortion have not been determined. In the present study, a systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of PSGMS rice with its normal fertile counterpart is conducted. The results show that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice first occurs before the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage, and continues during the entire process of pollen development until pollen degradation. The abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of the tapetum. Although tapetum degeneration in PSGMS rice initiates already at the PMC stage, it proceeds slowly and does not complete until the breakdown of the pollen. Such cytological observations were supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, which detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD), indicating that the premature tapetum degeneration is in the process of PCD.

  2. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Maintenance in JA-CMS Cotton

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) an...

  3. The CMS-associated 16 kDa protein encoded by orfH522 in the PET1 cytoplasm is also present in other male-sterile cytoplasms of sunflower.

    Horn, R; Hustedt, J E; Horstmeyer, A; Hahnen, J; Zetsche, K; Friedt, W

    1996-02-01

    In sunflower plants carrying the PET1 cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) is associated with a new open reading frame (orfH522) in the 3'-flanking region of the atpA gene and an additional 16 kDa protein. Twenty-seven male-sterile cytoplasms of different origin were studied for the expression of the 16 kDa protein. In addition to the PET1 cytoplasm nine other male-sterile cytoplasms express the CMS-associated protein. These CMS sources originate from different interspecific crosses, from spontaneously occurring male-sterile plants in wild sunflower and from induced mutagenesis. Polyclonal antisera were raised against fusion proteins which contain 421 bp of the 3'-coding region of orfH522 to verify by immunological methods the identity of the other CMS cytoplasms. The anti-ORFH522 antiserum showed a positive reaction in the immunoblot with all CMS cytoplasms which expressing the 16 kDa protein. Investigations of the mitochondrial DNA demonstrated that all ten CMS cytoplasms which express the 16 kDa protein have the same organization at the atpA locus. OrfH522 as probes gave the same transcript pattern for the investigated CMS cytoplasms, just as for PET1. The MAX1 cytoplasm has an orfH522-related sequence but does not synthesize the 16 kDa protein. Using the sodium carbonate treatment the 16 kDa protein proved to be membrane-bound. Computer analyses predict that the hydrophobic N-terminal region of ORFH522 may form a transmembrane helix functioning as membrane anchor. PMID:8605303

  4. Abortion - surgical

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... problem. Your pregnancy is harmful to your health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event such ...

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  6. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Near-Isogenic Restorer Line in Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Liu, Chen; Ma, Ning; Wang, Ping-Yong; Fu, Nan; Shen, Huo-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS), aiming to find out critical gene...

  7. 新型叶用芥菜细胞质雄性不育系0912A的花药发育特征%Anther development of 0912A as a novel cytoplasmic male sterile line of leaf mustard

    邹瑞昌; 万正杰; 徐跃进; 杨文杰; 傅廷栋

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the spatial-temporal patterns and other characteristics of anther abortion in 0912A as a leaf mustard cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer line 0912B,cytological observations of anther development were made by means of paraffin sections. The results showed that the abortion of male sterile line was diverse. The abortion mainly occurred at the differentiation stage of arches-porial cell, which lacked the formation of pollen sacs. Part of anther abortion occurred at the period from pollen mother cell to the mono-nuclear microspore: some pollen mother cells gathered and disintegrated gradually after vacuolization; some pollen mother cells disintegrated due to the hypertrophy of tapetal layer cells in the radial direction; some pollen mother cells could develop to tetrad, then disintegrated; part of the pollen mother cells could develop to the mono-nucleus microspores, however the mono-nucleus microspores broke when they were highly vacuolated. The stamens of 0912A were also found to degenerate as abortive filaments.%采用石蜡切片方法,对叶用芥菜细胞质雄性不育系0912A及其保持系0912B的花药发育过程进行细胞学观察,以确定其花药败育的时期、方式和特点.结果表明:0912A不育系的败育形式多样,主要有花药发育受阻于孢原细胞分化期,无花粉囊的形成;部分花药在花粉母细胞期至单核小孢子期出现发育异常:有的花粉母细胞液泡化后浓缩解体,还有的花粉母细胞因绒毡层细胞径向肥大或液泡化而受挤压解体;有的花粉母细胞虽能进行减数分裂,但发育到四分体时期或单核时期细胞解体,花粉败育.同时对0912A的花器官形态进行观察,发现其雄蕊退化为细丝状,败育彻底.

  8. Cytological observations on microspore degeneration in cytoplasmic male sterility induced by gamma-irradiation in sugar beets

    Meiotic behaviours and the abnormalities of microsporogenesis were investigated in the complete sterile plants from four kinds of γ-line, which are the progenies of the male sterile mutants induced by γ-irradiations from H-2002, and these sterile plants were compared with those of H-19 MS with S cytoplasms in spontaneous origin. In the meiosis, there was no chromosomal abnormality showing the association of nine bivalents and the regular distribution of chromosomes irrespective of the source of cytoplasms. After the liberation of quartets, the conspicuous deformity of tapetal cells occurred in the complete sterile plants throughout all kinds of γ-line and H-19 MS. The modified type of anther tapeta was newly found in several plants from γ-114. The tapetal cells surrounding anther cavity enlarged vadially without the formation of tapetal plasmodium in this type. It is suggested that the different mechanism on pollen sterility has something to do with the cytoplasmic types which are responsible for the expression of complete sterile plants. The starch reaction in the middle layer and the endothecium of the anther also correlated with the type of tapetal abnormality. (Kobatake, H.)

  9. Perspectiva masculina acerca do aborto provocado Male perspective on induced abortion

    Graciana Alves Duarte

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a perspectiva de homens de uma comunidade universitária que viviam em união legal ou consensual acerca do aborto provocado. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo de corte transversal em que se analisaram informações de 361 entrevistados, pertencentes a diferentes categorias de uma universidade. Utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado para avaliar a associação das variáveis dependentes com as independentes. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 53% afirmaram que as mulheres têm direito a interromper a gestação; as situações de maior aceitação foram: risco de vida da gestante (85%, gravidez resultante de estupro (80% e anomalia fetal (75%. As variáveis associadas à opinião masculina favorável ao aborto foram: maior escolaridade dos homens e das parceiras e o grupo (docente/aluno a que pertencia o entrevistado. CONCLUSÕES: Os entrevistados tenderam a ser mais favoráveis ao aborto nas situações já legitimadas legal e/ou socialmente. O maior grau de escolaridade, tanto deles quanto das parceiras, apareceu como relevante para determinar a postura em relação ao aborto.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the perspective on induced abortion of men of a university community living in legal or consensual wedlock. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out and 361 members of different categories of an university were interviewed. Chi-square test was used to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Fifth-three percent of the participants acknowledged that women have the right to end pregnancy. Men were more favorable to abortion when there is a risk to woman's life (85%; rape-related pregnancy (80%; and fetal anomalies (75%. Higher schooling of both men and their partners and the interviewees' position (teacher/student were associated to a positive attitude towards abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Men tended to be more prone to abortion in legally and/or socially accepted instances. Better education of

  10. Induced Abortion

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  11. Abortion - medical

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  12. Ultra structure of wheat hybrid of cytoplasmic male sterile lines by irradiation

    Hybrids F1 of restores lines BPM15 and Yuanhui 3 crossed with CMS lines 85EA, 89 AR and TA were observed on the ultra structure of microspore at various developmental stage respectively. The main results showed as follows. At mono-nucleus microspore stage, cytoplasm were thick and organella, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum were abundant. At two-nucleus and three-nucleus stage, there were a lot of starch grains. In the CMS hybrid F1 of BPM15 and Yuanhui 3 crossed with 85EA and 89AR, there were more endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome at mono-nucleus microspore stage, which might be one of the causes that fertility of 85EA and 89AR were easier to restore than Tcms

  13. Discovery of mitochondrial chimeric-gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility of HL-rice

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome libraries of HL-type sterile line(A) and maintainer line(B) have been constructed.Mitochondrial gene, atp6, was used to screen libraries, due to the different Southern and Northern blot results between sterile and maintainer line. Sequencing analysis of positive clones proved that there were two copies of atp6 gene in sterile line and only one in maintainer line. One copy of atpt6 in sterile line was same to that in maintainer line; the other showed different flanking sequence from the 49th nucleotide downstream of the termination codon of atp6 gene. A new chimeric gene, orfH79, was found in the region. OrfH79 had homology to mitochondrial gene coxⅡ and orfl07, and was special to HL-sterile cytoplasm.``

  14. Identification of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NEA in Brassica napus L. and Its Genetic Studies

    JIANG Liang-cai; PU Xiao-bin; ZHANG Qi-xing; CHEN Fang; ZHANG Jin-fang

    2002-01-01

    Male sterile NEA plants were identified in progenies of the radiated 92P×Aggregate-silique in Brassica napus L. In 1993. Their progeny plants from test crossing and open pollination were 100% male sterile. The double-low male sterile lines JL-4 and JL-18 were bred through successive backcrossing of the double -low variety No. 4 and No. 18 in Brassica napus L. To NEA. Restorer lines 6720 and 6722 with significant heterosis in F1 were developed. The results from investigating the restoring-maintaining relationship and inheritance of the restorer gene indicated that JL-4 and JL-18 were different from both PolCMS and Shan 2A type,and their restorer gene was controlled by a pair of dominant genic genes.

  15. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  16. The transfer of 'Polima' cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to broccoli (B. oleracea) by protoplast fusion.

    Yarrow, S A; Burnett, L A; Wildeman, R P; Kemble, R J

    1990-08-01

    Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. "Green Comet". Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts of broccoli. The broccoli type cybrids were morphologically similar to "Green Comet", while the hybrid type was an intermediate of the two fusion parents. Flowers on the cybrids were distinctive in that although they possessed a morphology typical of Polima, they had very reduced petals. The broccoli type cybrids exhibited some female fertility, albeit low, establishing potential for F1 hybrid production. PMID:24226699

  17. Abortion - surgical

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  18. Transcriptome de novo assembly and analysis of differentially expressed genes related to cytoplasmic male sterility in cabbage.

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jiao-Jiao; Jia, Xue-Fang; Jia, Si-Qi

    2016-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait producing abnormal pollen during anther development. To identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying mechanisms, cabbage anthers at different developmental stages were cytologically examined and the transcriptomes were analyzed in CMS line and its maintainer line using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Microscopy showed that anther development in the CMS line was abnormal in the tetrad stage and failed to produce fertile pollen. We obtained 55,663,594 and 54,801,384 raw transcriptome reads from the sterile and maintainer lines, respectively, and assembled these reads into 68,851 unigenes with an average size of 1028 bp. By using the fragments assigned per kilobase of target per million mapped reads (FPKM) method, 5592 differentially expressed genes were identified, consisting of 3403 up- and 2089 down-regulated genes. Furthermore, there were 1011 and 45 genes specifically expressed in the maintainer or sterile line, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation and enrichment analysis of metabolic pathways were performed to map and analyze the candidate genes that may be involved in male sterility. Expression of eighteen genes was examined using qRT-PCR and their expression patterns were found to be same as the sequencing data. A clear cytological difference exists between the sterile and maintainer lines. The differentially expressed genes are associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolisms, or encode transcription factors, heat shock proteins and other stress proteins. Identification of these candidate genes provides a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism underlying CMS in cabbage. PMID:27116370

  19. Mapping of Rice Fertility-Restoring Genes for ID-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in a Restorer Line R68

    2008-01-01

    An F2 population derived from the cross Zhong 9NR68 was used to map the fertility-restoring (Rf) gene for ID-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS).Two bulks (a fertile bulk and a sterile bulk) were constructed by pooling equal amount of ten highly fertile lines and ten highly sterile lines,respectively.Four hundred and thirteen pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers,which evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes of rice,were selected for analyzing polymorphisms between the parents and between the two bulks.The primer RM283 on chromosome 1 and the primers RM5756,RM258,RM6100 and RM171 on chromosome 10 were found to be polymorphic between the parents and between the two bulks.These five SSR markers were linked to fertility-restoring genes.A total of 82 excessive sterile lines were selected from Zhong 9NR68 F2 population to estimate the genetic distance between five SSR markers and fertility-restoring genes respectively.The results indicated that one Rf gene was linked to RM283 located on chromosome 1 at a distance of 6.7 cM,and the other Rfgene was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 10 flanked by RM258 and RM6100 at the distances of 8.0 cM and 2.4 cM,respectively.

  20. Heritable effect of plant water availability conditions on restoration of male fertility in the ‘9E’ CMS-inducing cytoplasm of sorghum

    Lev Aleksandrovich Elkonin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable changes of phenotype arising in plant ontogenesis by the influence of environmental factors belong to the most intriguing genetic phenomena. Studying restoration of male fertility in the ‘9E’ type of CMS-inducing cytoplasm of sorghum and related CMS-inducing cytoplasms, A4 and M35-1A, in some hybrid combinations, we found an unusual inheritance pattern: the Rf-genes functioned in the self-pollinated progenies of F1 hybrids (up to F10 but did not or poorly expressed in backcrosses of these hybrids to CMS-lines with the same cytoplasm type. In experiments on parallel growing of the same F1 hybrid combinations in the ‘dry plot’ and in the ‘irrigated plot’, it was found that high level of plant water availability during panicle and pollen developmental stages significantly increased male fertility of F1 and testcross hybrid populations, in which fertility-restoring genes were in heterozygote state, whereas in F2 populations the influences of water availability conditions cause less pronounce effects. Similarly, male-sterile F1 plants, being transferred from the ‘dry plot’ to greenhouse, produced male-fertile panicles. In addition, male-sterile plants from F2 families, which segregated-out as recessives, being transferred to greenhouse also produced male-fertile panicles. In the progenies of these revertants that were grown in field conditions and in the ‘dry plot’, stable inheritance of male fertility for 3 cycles of self-pollination was observed, and a number of stable fertile lines in the ‘9E’ cytoplasm were obtained. However, in test-crosses of these fertile lines to CMS-lines with the ‘9E’ cytoplasm restoration of male fertility was not observed, except the progeny of one revertant that behaved as fertility-restorer line. These data suggest that the functional state of fertility-restoring genes for the ‘9E’ sorghum cytoplasm is epigenetically-regulated trait established by the influence of environmental

  1. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes between a wheat K-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS line and its maintainer line

    Liu Dongcheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondria, semiautonomous organelles that function as manufacturers of cellular ATP, have their own genome that has a slow rate of evolution and rapid rearrangement. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, a common phenotype in higher plants, is closely associated with rearrangements in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, and is widely used to produce F1 hybrid seeds in a variety of valuable crop species. Novel chimeric genes deduced from mtDNA rearrangements causing CMS have been identified in several plants, such as rice, sunflower, pepper, and rapeseed, but there are very few reports about mtDNA rearrangements in wheat. In the present work, we describe the mitochondrial genome of a wheat K-type CMS line and compare it with its maintainer line. Results The complete mtDNA sequence of a wheat K-type (with cytoplasm of Aegilops kotschyi CMS line, Ks3, was assembled into a master circle (MC molecule of 647,559 bp and found to harbor 34 known protein-coding genes, three rRNAs (18 S, 26 S, and 5 S rRNAs, and 16 different tRNAs. Compared to our previously published sequence of a K-type maintainer line, Km3, we detected Ks3-specific mtDNA (> 100 bp, 11.38% and repeats (> 100 bp, 29 units as well as genes that are unique to each line: rpl5 was missing in Ks3 and trnH was absent from Km3. We also defined 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 13 protein-coding, albeit functionally irrelevant, genes, and predicted 22 unique ORFs in Ks3, representing potential candidates for K-type CMS. All these sequence variations are candidates for involvement in CMS. A comparative analysis of the mtDNA of several angiosperms, including those from Ks3, Km3, rice, maize, Arabidopsis thaliana, and rapeseed, showed that non-coding sequences of higher plants had mostly divergent multiple reorganizations during the mtDNA evolution of higher plants. Conclusion The complete mitochondrial genome of the wheat K-type CMS line Ks3 is very different from that of

  2. Post-translational mechanisms are associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Arakawa, Takumi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Genetic conflict between cytoplasmically inherited elements and nuclear genes arising from their different transmission patterns can be seen in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the mitochondrion-encoded inability to shed functional pollen. CMS is associated with a mitochondrial open reading frame (ORF) that is absent from non-sterility inducing mitochondria (S-orf). Nuclear genes that suppress CMS are called restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. Post-transcriptional and translational repression of S-orf mediates the molecular action of Rf that encodes a class of RNA-binding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Besides the PPR-type of Rfs, there are also non-PPR Rfs, but the molecular interactions between non-PPR Rf and S-orf have not been described. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bvORF20, a non-PPR Rf from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), with preSatp6, the S-orf from sugar beet. Anthers expressing bvORF20 contained a protein that interacted with preSATP6 protein. Analysis of anthers and transgenic calli expressing a FLAG-tagged bvORF20 suggested the binding of preSATP6 to bvORF20. To see the effect of bvORF20 on preSATP6, which exists as a 250-kDa protein complex in CMS plants, signal bands of preSATP6 in bvORF20-expressing and non-expressing anthers were compared by immunoblotting combined with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The signal intensity of the 250-kDa band decreased significantly, and 200- and 150-kDa bands appeared in bvORF20-expressing anthers. Transgenic callus expressing bvORF20 also generated the 200- and 150-kDa bands. The 200-kDa complex is likely to include both preSATP6 and bvORF20. Post-translational interaction between preSATP6 and bvORF20 appears to alter the higher order structure of preSATP6 that may lead to fertility restoration in sugar beet. PMID:26031622

  3. R Region of S Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize Mitochondrial DNA is Transcribed in Both Directions and May Be Associated with Male Sterility

    ZHANGSai-Qun; ZHANGFang-Dong; XIAOHai-Lin; ZHENGYong-Lian

    2004-01-01

    It is well accepted that S type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in maize (Zea mays L.) isassociated with R region in mitochondrial genome. R region includes two open reading frames——orf355and orf77and it is speculated that orf77is an important candidate gene of CMS. RT-PCR showed that bothDNA strands of R region are transcribed. Nuclear background or developing stages of plant do not influencethe transcription of R region in the strand which also acts as template strand of cox Ⅰ/coxⅡ locating justupstream of R region, but they do influence the transcription of R region in the other strand (templatestrand of orf355-orf77). In tassel with nuclear background of rf3rf3, transcription of the template strand oforf355-orf77 is different from that in etiolated shoots with nuclear background of Rf3- or rf3rf3and tasselwith nuclear background of Rf3-. Compared to the same other three, it is truncated at about 238 base fromthe 5' end of R region. Rabbit antiserum against putative ORF77 expressed in Escherichia coliwas preparedbut Western blot did not detect ORF77 in plant materials. It seems that double-strand transcription of Rregion inhibits the translation of orf77and the transcribing mode of R region may be associated with malesterility.

  4. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  5. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  6. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  9. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array

    Qing-Shan Chang; Rong-Hua Zhou; Xiu-Ying Kong; Zeng-Liang Yu; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes;(iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii)another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW.

  10. Morphological Studies on the Development of Anther of Three Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines and Their Maintainer Lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp.%大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及保持系花药发育的细胞学观察

    王书强; 刘俊英; 崔辉梅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The development of anther microspore of three Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp. pekinensis were studied.[Method]The development of anther of three Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis were observed from the perspective of cytology.【Result]Microspore abortion of three Ogura CMS lines (OBY, OBK, OD5) have occurred in mononuclear microspore early, and anthers have aborted entirely before blossom.[Conclusion] Tapetum cell of three Ogura CMS lines formed vacuoles is earlier than their maintainer lines. Tapetum cell of three Ogura CMS lines has been degenerating at microsporocyte meiosis stage, and tapetum cell of their maintainer lines degenerated naturally, providing nutrients and space for microsporogenesis.%[目的]研究3个大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及保持系花药小抱子发育过程.[方法]对3对大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及其保持系花药发育进行细胞学观察.[结果]3个大白菜Ogura雄性不育系(OBY,OBK,OD5)的小孢子败育均发生在单核早期,在开花前完全败育.[结论]不育系绒毡层液泡化早于保持系,花粉母细胞减数分裂时不育系绒毡层细胞已开始退化,而保持系(BY,BK,D5)绒毡层自然解体,供给小孢子发育所需的营养物质和发育空间.

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A and Its Maintainer NJCMS1B in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr..

    Jiajia Li

    Full Text Available The utilization of soybean heterosis is probably one of the potential approaches in future yield breakthrough as was the situation in rice breeding in China. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays an important role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the molecular mechanism of CMS in soybean remains unclear.The comparative transcriptome analysis between cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS1A and its near-isogenic maintainer NJCMS1B in soybean was conducted using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 88,643 transcripts were produced in Illumina sequencing. Then 56,044 genes were obtained matching soybean reference genome. Three hundred and sixty five differentially expressed genes (DEGs between NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B were screened by threshold, among which, 339 down-regulated and 26 up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Gene Ontology (GO annotation showed that 242 DEGs were annotated to 19 functional categories. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG annotation showed that 265 DEGs were classified into 19 categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that 46 DEGs were assigned to 33 metabolic pathways. According to functional and metabolic pathway analysis combined with reported literatures, the relations between some key DEGs and the male sterility of NJCMS1A were discussed. qRT-PCR analysis validated that the gene expression pattern in RNA-Seq was reliable. Finally, enzyme activity assay showed that energy supply was decreased in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B.We concluded that the male sterility of NJCMS1A might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription factors, regulation of pollen development, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS, cellular signal transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD etc. Future research will focus on cloning and transgenic function validation of

  12. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf) on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    2008-01-01

    The seed samples of Yuetai A,a Honglian (HL) type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing,Jiangsu Province and Lingshui,Hainan Province during 2004-2006.The seed impurity of Yuotai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rt) after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability.All of the ten maintainer lines,five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants,directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating 'iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations'.Furthermore,high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination.After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A,the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  13. Homeotic-like modification of stamens to petals is associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression in cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura Brassica juncea

    Gargi Meur; K. Gaikwad; S. R. Bhat; S. Prakash; P. B. Kirti

    2006-08-01

    We have previously reported correction of severe leaf chlorosis in the cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura (also called Ogu) Brassica juncea line carrying Ogura cytoplasm by plastid substitution via protoplast fusion. Two cybrids obtained from the fusion experiment, Og1 and Og2, were green and carried the plastid genome of B. juncea cv. RLM198. While Og1 displayed normal flower morphology comparable to that of its euplasmic B. juncea counterpart except for sterile anthers, Og2 retained homeotic-like floral modification of stamens to petal-like structures and several other floral deformities observed in the chlorotic (Ogu) B. juncea cv. RLM198 (or OgRLM). With respect to the mitochondrial genome, Og1 showed 81% genetic similarity to the fertile cultivar RLM while Og2 showed 93% similarity to OgRLM. In spite of recombination and rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes in the cybrids, expression patterns of 10 out of 11 mitochondrial genes were similar in all the three CMS lines; the only exception was atp6, whose expression was altered. While Og1 showed normal atp6 transcript similar to that in RLM, in Og2 and OgRLM weak expression of a longer transcript was detected. These results suggest that the homeotic-like changes in floral patterning leading to petaloid stamens in Og2 and OgRLM may be associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression.

  14. Alterations of RNA Editing for the Mitochondrial ATP9 Gene in a New orf220-type Cytoplasmic Male-sterile Line of Stem Mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    Jing-Hua Yang; Ming-Fang Zhang; Jing-Quan Yu

    2007-01-01

    RNA editing for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene of encoding regions has been observed in both cytoplasmic malesterile and maintainer lines of stem mustard, where its editing capacity varied spatially and temporally in the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line. There were four RNA editing sites for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene according to its normal editing sites in mustard, of which three sites occurred as C-to-U changes and one as a U-to-C change.As a result, the hydrophobicity of deduced ATP9 protein was reduced due to the conversions at its 17th, 45th and 64th positions. Meanwhile, the conservation of deduced ATP9 protein was enhanced by changes at the 56th position.Loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 was observed in juvenile roots, senile roots, senile leaves and floret buds of the CMS line. Comparatively, complete RNA editing for ATP9 gene was retained in juvenile roots, juvenile leaves and floret buds of its maintainer line; however, the loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 gene occurred at senile roots and senile leaves in its maintainer line. These observations allow us to produce a hypothesis that the dysfunction of a specific mitochondrisl gene arising from RNA editing could probably be a factor triggering CMS and organ senescence through unknown cross-talk pathways during development.

  15. Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines

    Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

  16. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  17. Active oxygen metabolism in the floral buds and leaves of the new cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    YUAN Jianyu; HOU Xilin; ZHANG Changwei; YE Fan

    2007-01-01

    The cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of the newly-bred non-heading Chinese cabbage were taken as experimental materials.The production rate of superoxide anion radical(O2-),contents of malondialdehyde(MDA)and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2),and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT)as well as ascorbate peroxidase(APX)were determined in buds of different developmental stages and leaves during vegetative and florescence stages.As showed by the results,there were higher levels of MDA and H2O2 contents,higher 02- production rate and higher activities of SOD,POD,and CAT in the buds of the CMS lines than that in the buds of the fertile lines,while the APX activity was different from the other three enzymes above.There were differences in activities of protective enzymes in leaves but no significant differences in MDA contents and O2- production rate,which showed that the differences in metabolism of active oxygen between CMS and its maintainer were mainly apparent in reproductive organs.

  18. Development of molecular markers specific to petaloid-type cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    Yu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yapei; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Zhenning; Chen, Zhujun; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-02-01

    To establish a simple and rapid method for isolating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Brassica vegetables, the effects of different factors on mtDNA extraction were investigated firstly. A new protocol includes five steps: organelle isolation, deoxyribonuclease treatment, lysis, RNase treatment, and deproteinization. Results indicate that a 15 min-lysis time can achieve higher mtDNA yields from etiolated seedlings. Moreover, it is found that the inflorescence of the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line is unfit for the isolation of mtDNA. The mtDNA isolated using this method is intact and pure, and can be used for further molecular analysis. Subsequently, the genomic and transcriptional differences of atps and coxs genes on the mitochondria between the petaloid-type CMS line and its maintainer line have been identified. RFLP analysis revealed that out of the five atps and three coxs genes, except of atp4 and cox3, the others mtDNA protein coding genes exhibited polymorphisms, respectively. This results suggest that atps and coxs genes are located in a long mtDNA fragment, and the mtDNA evolves rapidly in structure between the CMS line and its maintainer line in tuber muster. Northern blot analysis showed that the expression level of these genes in flower bud is higher than that of leaf and flower, and that, alternative splicing have been found among the atp6, atp8 and cox3 genes, respectively. Our results modified a efficient protocol for isolating the mtDNA, and provided some novel molecular markers indicating the CMS trait in tuber mustard. The comparative analysis presented in this study allows a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism on CMS in Brassica crops. PMID:24385295

  19. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    A. Kumar; L. Hessini; E.M.H. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  20. 温光条件对胞质不育系V太911289a雄性育性影响的初步研究%Preliminary Studies on the Effect of Photoperiod and Temperature on Male Fertility of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Wheat

    王丰青; 巍荷; 何觉民; 何仪

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to reveal the effect of photoperied and temperature on male fertility of cytoplasmic male sterile line Vtai911289a in wheat and discuss the mechanism of male fertility alteration. [Method] The sowing-date tests and designed conditions were conducted during 2003 - 2005. [Result] Fertility of Vtai911289acould alter under specific photopefiod and temperature conditions. Temperature is one of the main factors influencing male fertility of the male sterile lines. Vtai911289a showed stable sterility under the condition of the mean of daily temperature at fertility sensitive stage lower than 19 ℃ and presented partial fertility when the mean of daily temperature at fertility sensitive stage lower than 20 -22 ℃. Photoperiod to some extent affects the male fertility of Vtai911289a, long-day condition is helpful for the male fertility of the sterile line. [Conclusion] The application of pbotoperiod tempera- ture-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterile line in production has a higher safety than that of temperature sensitive sterile line.

  1. Space Shuttle ascent aborts

    Schmidgall, Richard A.

    1989-09-01

    Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.

  2. Should abortion be legalized?

    Sodhy, L S

    1968-01-01

    Abortion is an important means of family planning, especially when contraception is unavailable or when it fails. Morbidity associated with legal abortion is low, though illegal abortion is a common cause of maternal mortality. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and the German Demogratic Republic all have laws legalizing abortion. Legalized abortion is the surest method of population control and should be promoted if the moral and religious objections can be overcome. PMID:12255647

  3. Abortion Before & After Roe

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  4. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage. PMID:25966098

  5. Abortion and psychiatric practice.

    Stotland, Nada L

    2003-03-01

    The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be. PMID:15985924

  6. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  7. Legalized abortion in Czechoslovakia.

    Zidovsky, J; Zwinger, A

    1972-01-01

    A law legalizing abortion was passed nearly 20 years ago in Czechosl ovakia. The law aimed to give women the freedom to decide for themselves whether they want to be pregnant and to decrease the dangers of illegal abortion. The law resulted in a decreased number of abortions and of complications and deaths associated with abortion. Fertility in the country also declined. In 1968 there were more abortions than live births in the country. Since 1957, the law has been modified. The law still aims to prevent the birth of defective children and to protect the life and health of mothers. Each application for abortion is now examined on its own merits. Favorable economic circumstances, prolife social policies adopted by the government, and the new stricter interpretation of the abortion law have resulted in a r ising birthrate since 1969. Contraception is still stressed as preferab le to abortion. PMID:12256872

  8. Comparative study between intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection versus intracytoplasmic sperm injection in patients with severe male factor infertility and repeated intra cytoplasmic sperm injection failure

    Yasser Ibrahim Orief

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The use of IMSI was proved to be of no evident role in improvement of outcome of pregnancy rate in infertile couples with severe male factor and repeated ICSI failure, as analyzed data didnt show any significant difference. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1102-1107

  9. Late-term abortion.

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  10. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  11. Breeding for Male-Sterility Line with G. barbadense Nuclear Background and Cytological Observation of Its Microsporogenesis

    ZHANG Xiao-quan; WANG Xue-de; ZHU Yun-guo; ZHU Wei; JIANG Pei-dong

    2007-01-01

    To study the feasibility of utilizing the heterosis of interspecific (Gossypium barbadense × G. hirsutum) hybrid cotton based on cytoplasmic male-sterility system, a G. barbadense male-sterility line HaiA with G. harknessii cytoplasm and its maintainer HaiB were developed by replacing nuclear genome from G. hirsutum to G. barbadense in a backcross breeding program. Its male cell abortion was observed using a light microscope through a paraffin slice for H.E staining technique.The results showed that the abortion characteristics in HaiA were not significantly changed at the cytological level,although G. hirsutum nuclear genome of sterile line was replaced by G. barbadense nuclear genome, and its abortion mainly took place at the stage of the microspore mother cell meiosis. HaiA sterility was very stable because of its early abortion and no-pollens in anthers. Hybrids between HaiA and G. hirsutum restorers were high in pollen viability, boll setting rate, boll weight and lint percentage which contributed to high yield heterosis. It is suggested that HaiA is of great value in the application of cotton interspecific hybrid seed production.

  12. Abortion in Ireland.

    Francome, C

    1992-08-22

    Substantial legal barriers to abortion persist in both the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, despite growing popular support for abortion under certain conditions. A 1983 amendment to the republic's constitution guarantees the fetus the same right to life s the mother and bans the provision of information on abortion. Although a recent well publicized case of a pregnant, suicidal 14-year-old who travelled to England for an abortion resulted in an Irish Supreme Court ruling that abortion was acceptable in cases of "real and substantial risk" to a woman's life, uncertainty still surrounds the right to travel to England for the procedure. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 Abortion Act does not apply and abortions are denied even in cases of rape and incest. A total of 1766 women from Northern Ireland and 4158 from the republic travelled to England for abortions in 1991. Public opinion seems to have shifted toward support for less restrictive abortion laws, however. Whereas 80% of those surveyed in a 1980 Irish poll supported to ban on abortion in all cases, this statistic had dropped to 30% by 1990. Similarly, a 1991 poll taken in Northern Ireland found 80% of respondents to be a favor of abortion in cases where the procedure is necessary to maintain a woman's physical or mental health. PMID:1392954

  13. The Application of ISSR Markers to Identify the Fertility Restorer Gene Rf6 in T.timopheevii Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Wheat(Triticum aestivum)

    GUAN Rong-xia; GUO Xiao-li; LIU Dong-cheng; CAO Shuang-he; ZHANG Ai-min

    2002-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was carried out on a F2 population of 147 plants derived from a cross between a wheat male fertility restorer line 2114 and a male sterile line ND44A. Out of 43 primers examined, 18 primers produced distinguishable, polymorphic bands between the two parents. Linkage analysis in the mapping population showed that two markers UBC-808 and UBC-848 were closely linked with the restorer gene R f6 of the Triticum timopheevii CMS system. The distance between the two markers and the restorer gene was 7.9 cM and 4.9 cM, respectively. Also two parents were screened with 181 pairs of SSR primers, of which, 34.3% showed polymorphisms. But no locus was found linked with the restorer gene.Compared with the SSR technique, the ISSR approach used in the experiment provided more information and proved to be a valuable method to identify alien fragments.

  14. The moral significance of spontaneous abortion.

    Murphy, T F

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is rarely addressed in moral evaluations of abortion. Indeed, 'abortion' is virtually always taken to mean only induced abortion. After a brief review of medical aspects of spontaneous abortion, I attempt to articulate the moral implications of spontaneous abortion for the two poles of the abortion debate, the strong pro-abortion and the strong anti-abortion positions. I claim that spontaneous abortion has no moral relevance for strict pro-abortion positions but that the ...

  15. Molecular classification of Maize cytoplasms in a breeding program

    Colombo. N * , Presello, D.A. , Kandus M. , G.E. Eyherabide and J.C. Salerno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is maternally inherited in most of higher plants species. Together with nuclear restorer genes (Rf, CMS cytoplasms contribute significantly to the efficient production of hybrid seed. Three main types of male sterile cytoplasms are known in maize: T, S and C, which can be distinguished by crossing with specific restorer lines. Recently, PCR markers have been developed allowing the identification of different cytoplasms quickly and accurately. Our objective was to classify the cytoplasm type of maize inbred lines used in our breeding program and F1s obtained from crosses between CMS lines and elite maize lines using PCR multiplex. A multiplex PCR protocol was optimized for our conditions. We obtained the molecular classification of the analyzed cytoplasms. The optimized protocol is a valuable tool to trace male sterile cytoplasms and determine hybrid seed purity in our maize breeding program.

  16. [Abortion law in Italy].

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  17. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  18. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  19. Abortion in Zambia

    Coast, Ernestina; Freeman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The poster, based on 112 in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 with women in Zambia who had recently had an abortion, shows the complex pathways that some women take despite safe abortion being legal under a wide range of circumstances in Zambia.

  20. Abortion: the new debate.

    Callahan, D

    1986-06-01

    The course of the debate on abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion has been marked by a variety of medical and scientific developments. Many of these new developments have important legal, psychologic, social, moral, and political implications. The cumulative impact of all these developments may pose a significant challenge to the social and legal foundations of Roe v. Wade. PMID:3523563

  1. Access to legal abortion.

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  2. Abortion; 1 : 2 000 000

    The cartogram represents the crude rate of abortions (number of abortions per 1,000 inhabitants) in the individual districts, crude abortion rate in Slovakia: 0.54 %, number of all abortions (average of 1996 - 1998) is presented. The complicated mosaics reveals two main spatial cores of the highest abortion rate. The first is in the south-west of Slovakia, from Malacky to Komarno, and the second, the largest, is from Ziar nad Hronom and Velky Krtis as far as Michalovce. In contrary, the rate of abortions is registered in the northern districts of the eastern Slovakia, almost the whole region Presov and in the northern districts of the region of Zilina. The size of the sign expresses the absolute number of abortions and simultaneously the structure of abortions: spontaneous and induced abortions. The higher share of the spontaneous abortions (more than a quarter) generally occurs in the districts with the lowest abortion rate. (authors)

  3. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  4. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  5. Unintended Pregnancies, Restrictive Abortion Laws, and Abortion Demand

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect restrictive state abortion laws have on the pregnancy resolution decisions of women with unintended pregnancies. The empirical results find that the abortion ratio and the abortion rate of unintended pregnancies are more sensitive to increases in the abortion price than previous estimates that analyzed total pregnancies (unintended and intended). A Medicaid funding restriction has very little effect on a state's abortion rate of unintended pregnancies, but cause...

  6. Abortion: the hidden plague.

    Tuckwell, S

    1974-05-01

    Abortion is called the invisible plague of all countries and cultures in the twentieth century. It is by far the most important method of birth control in the world today. For every 200 babies born there are at least 100 abortions. In the rich world, a woman who wants to end her pregnancy goes to an abortionist, but for millions of poor women, abortion happens spontaneously in their own homes induced by poor nutrition, sheer physical weakness, and too many pregnancies too close together. In countries where abortion is illegal, millions of women die each year as a result of severe illness or the botched handiwork of backyard operators. The most common complications are massive hemorrhaging, perforation of the uterus, laceration, sepsis, and renal failure. The experience of a great many countries shows that simply legalizing abortion can lead to a dramatic drop in death and illness. Relaxation of abortion laws can save lives, money, and misery for mothers and children. Illegal abortion has become a major problem in Africa there are 3 main types of women who enter hospitals with complications after abortions: 1) the teenager who is away from home; 2) the young woman, often educated, working, and with financial responsibilities, who is ambitious for herself, her husband, or her family; and 3) the woman in her thirties, illiterate, a rural worker, married most of her reproductive life, and pregnant most years. The third type of woman may abort because her system is utterly depleted. Such women must be shown that there is a good chance of survival for her children so that she will not have so many. PMID:12307249

  7. The politics of abortion and contraception

    Drezgić Rada

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author challenges several dominant positions that are relevant for understanding demographic trends and contraceptive practices as well as their mutual relationship. First, the author rejects the assumed direct connection between high abortion rates and low fertility. Second, the author challenges the thesis according to which abortions come about because of the lack of contraception and proposes that high abortion rates result from failing contraception i.e. from high failing rates of coitus interruptus which is a preferred method of birth control by men and women in Serbia. Finally, the author argues that giving control over reproductive risk to men does not make women passive victims of male domination. Rather women are, it is argued, active agents in reproducing hegemonic gender roles and relations. In addition, the author shows how gender power relations formed at the micro level may be consequential for macro level politics.

  8. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  9. [Interregional project concerning abortion].

    Jourdain, A; Pierotti, D; Vinclair, M

    1979-01-01

    The law legalizing abortion in France was passed in 1975. To group information of a social and medical nature and to publish reports on their activities, a questionnaire was designed to be filled by physicians and nurses working in centers and hospitals performing abortion. There were 19,000 abortions performed in 1976, and 30,000 are expected to be performed in 1979. The questionnaire contains 80 questions gathering information on socieconomic data, on medical history, on the procedure of the intervention, and on the follow-up visit. A study done on 5700 questionnaires filled between 1976 and 1977 show that most abortion seekers belong to the middle class, and that pregnancy was due in 20% of cases to pill failure, and in 34% of cases to failure of behavioral methods, or to lack of contraception. 88% of patients declared themselves satisfied with the procedure. PMID:12309432

  10. Abortion and Selection

    Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat; Jonathan Gruber; Phillip B. Levine; Douglas Staiger

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of legalized abortion in the early 1970s led to dramatic changes in fertility behavior. Some research has suggested as well that there were important impacts on cohort outcomes, but this literature has been limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms through which abortion access affects cohort outcomes, and use that framework to both address inconsistent past methodological approaches, and provide evidence on the long-run...

  11. Abortion in Present day Vietnam

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the abortion rate in Vietnam has been likely rising. In rural area, this rate is a bit higher than in urban one. Young age groups’ abortion rate is relatively high and ofter higher than older age groups. The main reason is due to their limited awareness of contraceptive methods. Low education level also affects the abortion. The abortion of people at low education level is relatively high, but people with elementary school graduation has the lowest rate of abortion. The Northwest had the highest abortion rate, the lowest rate belonged to the South Central Coast. The abortion rate depends on each couple’s number of alive children. The highest abortion rate is of couples with 1 or 2 alive children. The majority of couples only have one time of abortion for 12 months before research timepoint.

  12. 小麦K、V型细胞质雄性不育系线粒体基因的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genes from Wheat K-and V-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Lines

    王小庆; 阳文龙; 普明宇; 刘冬成; 孙家柱; 张卫东; 张爱民; 高庆荣

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), a maternally inherited phenotype of pollen sterility in higher plants, is associated with special mitochondrial genes. Wheat K- and V- type CMS, respectively produced by the introduction of Aegilops kotschyi and Ae. ventricosa or Ae. variabilis cytoplasts into common wheat, are believed to be the most useful CMS resources of wheat, but their mechanism of male sterility is still unknown. Based on the mitochondrial genome sequences of a wheat K-type CMS line and its maintainer line, 33 mitochondrial genes and 22 open reading frames (orfs , unique genes in wheat K-type CMS line and believed to be candidate CMS genes) between wheat K-, V-type CMS lines and their maintainer line were compared. The results showed that except for atp6, nad6 and rps3 which had obvious differences between the CMS lines and their maintainer line, the rest 30 mitochondrial genes had over 98%identity between K-, V-type CMS lines and their maintainer line, atp6 and nad6 were also highly conserved between K-and V-type CMS lines. While among the 22 orfs, only orf249 showed 91% identity between K- and V- type CMS lines, other orfs had over 98% identity. These results suggest that mitochondrial genes are highly conserved in wheat K-and V-type CMS lines, and they may have similar CMS gene or mechanism of male sterility. These results lay a foundation for the utility of wheat K-and V-type CMS lines in wheat hybrid production.%细胞质雄性不育(cytoplasmic male sterility, MS)是高等植物中普遍存在的一种母性遗传现象,跟线粒体基因密切相关。小麦K型和V型细胞质雄性不育性是由于粘果山羊草和偏凸山羊草或易变山羊草的细胞质导入普通小麦中产生的,被认为是最有利用潜力的小麦不育种质,但是其不育性产生的机理还不清楚。本研究在已知小麦K型细胞质雄性不育系和保持系线粒体基因组序列的基础上,比较分析了K型,V型不育系和保持系中33

  13. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N.; POMIANKOWSKI, A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males - 'mother's curse'. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individual...

  14. The Fertility Restoration Performance,Heterosis and Cytoplasm Effect of Nian-type Male Sterile Wheat Lines%粘类小麦细胞质雄性不育系恢复性能及其杂种优势和细胞质效应的研究

    李建超; 张改生; 孙瑞; 牛娜; 马守才; 李红霞

    2012-01-01

    In orde to reveal the fertility restoration performance,heterosis and cytoplasm effect of Nian-type male sterile wheat lines,and to promote the application of three-line hybrid wheat in production,nineteen male sterile wheat lines of four kinds of Nian-type alloplasms were used as female parents,248 hybrid F1 were obtained through crossing with series of restorer lines(r-line),which were either isonuclear-alloplasmic or isocytoplasmic-heteronuclear.The restoration,heterosis performance,as well as the cytoplasm effect of Nian-type wheat male sterile lines were investigated.The result indicated that,(1) the primary factors influencing the restoring degree of Nian-type male sterile wheat line were restorer line,karyotype of male-sterile line and the cytoplasm type of male-sterile line,in order.Among the restorer lines used,Abo,5166,xiaoyan22,xiaoyan6 and 518,the qinlong126 were the good r-lines for Nian-type male-sterile wheat lines.The karyotype of 90-110 had a higher restoring degree than the others.(2)Nian-type male-sterile wheat line was good breeding material with widespread and obvious heterosis in F1 with series r-line.Strong heterosis were observed in ear length,average tillering number of F1,which were 1.129 times and 1.273 times higher than the restorer line,respectively.(3) The haploid of Nian-type sterile wheat line by cytoplasm effect was the result of comprehensive interactions among the karyotype of male-sterile line,the cytoplasm types of male-sterile line and the r-line.Among which,the effect in order was karyotype of male-sterile line cytoplasm types of male-sterile line r-line.The degree of haploid were related with the karyotype of male-sterile line and the cytoplasm types of male-sterile line,but the frequency of haploid only directly related with the karyotype of male-sterile line.There was no correlation between the serious degree of haploid and the the frequency of haploid.The Ven cytoplasm type of male-sterile line had the

  15. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F2. Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  16. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  17. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  18. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  19. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A

    2015-02-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males - 'mother's curse'. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. 'reverse dominance') are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why 'mother's curse' is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025

  20. Abortion: sin or crime?

    Kulpys, Žydrūnas

    2005-01-01

    Abortą nagrinėja ir moralinė teologija, ir kanonų teisė. Moralinė teologija gvildeną abortą kaip didelį moralinį blogį ir sunkią nuodėmę. Kanonų teisė nagrinėja abortą ir kaip teisinį nusikaltimą, už kurį automatiškai skiriama griežta sankcija - ekskomunikavimas. Kokiomis aplinkybėmis abortas yra nuodėmė ir kada jis tampa ir teisiniu nusikaltimu, automatiškai užtraukiančiu atskyrimą nuo Bažnyčios - ekskomunikavimą? Vien tik aborto nuodėmė neužtraukia ekskomunikos. Nors abortas yra sunki nuodė...

  1. [Spontaneous abortion. Etiologic survey. Results].

    Baaklini, N; Anguenot, J L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The definition of repeated spontaneous abortions is subject to caution. For some, it corresponds to at least three repeated spontaneous abortions with no normal previous pregnancy; for others, it comprises the repeated spontaneous abortions occurring after a normal pregnancy. It is a frequent problem, especially if one tries to give a wider definition. The authors studied the frequency of repeated spontaneous abortions in a continuous series of 14,857 pregnancies which took place between January 1982 and December 1988. In the study of the aetiology of the repeated spontaneous abortions in the various groups of women defined according to the number of previous pregnancies and abortions, they find the classical causes of repeated spontaneous abortions in all the categories: therefore, it seems legitimate to them that a wider definition be given for repeated spontaneous abortions. PMID:2291048

  2. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...... are used and their potential effect.MethodsData were obtained among women admitted with incomplete abortion at Kagera Regional Hospital during the period January - June, 2006. The women underwent an empathetic interview to determine if they had experienced an unsafe abortion prior to their admission....... In all 125/187 women revealed having had an unsafe abortion. The women identified as having had an unsafe abortion underwent a questionnaire interview where information about abortion provider and abortion method used was obtained through open-ended questions. To get more detailed information about...

  3. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  4. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-01-01

    All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn t...

  5. CMA abortion survey.

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in t...

  6. College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion

    Maxwell, Joseph W.

    1970-01-01

    Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

  7. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  8. Pregnancy outcome following spontaneous abortions

    Swati Agrawal

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Previous history of spontaneous abortion is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. There is increased risk of abortion, preterm delivery, need for caesarean sections and fetal loss in cases of previous spontaneous abortions. These complications and fetal loss can be reduced by booking the patients and giving due antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1891-1893

  9. Haemophilus influenzae Septic Abortion

    Sharon L. Hillier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemophilus influenzae septic abortion is typically caused by nontypeable strains of the organism. Furthermore, nontypeable species with a special affinity for the genital tract are the most frequent isolates encountered, and an ascending vaginal or cervical infection is often the suspected route of transmission.

  10. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  11. Prematurity and Abortion

    Francisco Jover-Díaz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the pathogenic role of Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy is controversial, some cases of stillbirth and abortion occurring after an acute or chronic infection have been mentioned in the literature. Recently, Q fever has been advocated as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy

  12. Abortion health services in Canada

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  13. Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies with Cytoplasmic Fluorescence Pattern

    Chhabra, Seema; Minz, Ranjana Walker; Goyal, Lekha; Sharma, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    We report here two rare cases of myeloperoxidase–antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-positive Wegener's granulomatosis (limited variant) which deceptively produced a cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) pattern on indirect immunofluorescence.

  14. Cytoplasm Affects Embryonic Development

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recent studies by CAS researchers furnish strong evidence that a fertilized egg's nucleus isn't the sole site of control for an embryo's development. A research team headed by Prof. Zhu Zuoyan from the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology in Wuhan discovered that cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in cloned offspring created when nuclei from one fish genus were transplanted to enucleated eggs of another.

  15. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26057783

  16. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion. PMID:12340335

  17. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    Lima, Joana Madureira; Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-06-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190-9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  18. Abortion Performance and Politics

    Candelario, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    “Performing abortion” typically refers to what health care providers do in clinics, private offices, and (rarely) hospitals 1.21 million times per year,every year, in the United States. At the same time, the phrase indicates what performance artists, choreographers, and activists have been doing on stages, in galleries, and on the streets for decades. Candelario is intrigued by this double meaning that invites us to take seriously what abortion means at this political and historical moment, b...

  19. Immunologically mediated abortion (IMA).

    Giacomucci, E; Bulletti, C; Polli, V; Prefetto, R A; Flamigni, C

    1994-06-01

    Roughly 20% of all clinical pregnancies evolve into "spontaneous abortions". The causes of spontaneous abortion have been determined in under 60% of the total and comprise genetic, infectious, hormonal and immunological factors. In some cases the immune tolerance mechanism may be impaired and the foetus immunologically rejected (IMA, immunologically mediated abortion). The immunological mechanism implicated depends on the time in which pregnancy loss takes place. During preimplantation and up to the end of implantation (13th day) the cell-mediated immune mechanism (potential alloimmune etiologies) is responsible for early abortion. This mechanism involves immunocompetent decidual cells (eGL, endometrial granulated lymphocytes) already present during pre-decidualization (late luteal phase) and their production of soluble factors or cytokines. Once the implantation process is over, after blastocyst penetration of the stroma and the decidual reaction of uterine tissue, IMA could be caused by cell-mediated and humoral mechanism (anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies or autoantibody etiology), by the production of paternal anti major histocompatibility complex antibodies, or even by an autoimmune disorder leading to the production of autoantibodies (antiphospholipid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies or polyclonal B cell activation). The diagnostic work-up adopted to select IMA patients is crucial and includes primary (karyotype of both partners, toxo-test, hysterosalpingography, endometrial biopsy, thyroid function tests, serum hprolactin, luteal phase dating) and secondary (full hemochromocytometric test, search for LE cells, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, antinuclear antibodies, Rheumatoid factor, blood complement VDRL) investigations. Therapeutical approaches vary. If autoimmune disorders are demonstrated therapies with different combinations of corticosteroids, aspirin and heparin or intravenous immunoglobulin are administered. Otherwise, therapy with paternal

  20. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  1. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  2. Legal abortion and public health.

    Tietze, C

    1984-01-01

    Over 15 million abortions have been performed in the US since the process of abortion legalization began in 1967. Consequences of legalization have included a marked reduction of pregnancy-related mortality and the prevention in many cases of the birth of infants with major physical or mental defects. Prenatal diagnosis, backed up by selective abortion, has made procreation a possibility for many couples who might otherwise avoid childbearing. However, the number of abortions performed on the basis of prenatal diagnosis remains small, comprising only about .01% of all legal abortions. In recent months, the pro-choice movement in the US has been handed 2 important victories: the US Supreme Court reaffirmed the 1973 decision legalizing abortion and the US Senate defeated a constitutional amendment intended to reverse this decision. As a result of these victories, contributions to pro-choice groups have declined. Continued vigilance is needed to protect these victories. PMID:12267089

  3. The abortion debate in Australia.

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  4. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go. PMID:11660187

  5. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion *

    Doane, Benjamin K.; Quigley, Beverly G.

    1981-01-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, ...

  6. On abortion: exploring psychological meaning and attitudes in a sample of Mexican gynecologists.

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Álvarez del Río, Asunción; Campos, Zaira

    2014-04-01

    Elective abortion has become an issue of ethical and political debate in many countries including Mexico. As gynecologists are directly involved in the practice of abortion, it is important to know the psychological meaning that the term 'elective abortion' has for them. This study explores the psychological meaning and attitudes toward elective abortion of one hundred and twenty-three Mexican gynecologists. We used the semantic networks technique, which analyzed the words the participants associated with the term 'elective abortion'. The defining words most frequently used by participants implied a negative sanction. There were important differences by gender and religiosity: male gynecologists, as well as those with strong religious beliefs (mainly Catholics), revealed a more negative psychological meaning and more negative attitudes than females or physicians with weak religious beliefs. A contribution of the present study is that it highlights the importance of psychology to enhancing understanding of the issue of elective abortion. PMID:23170806

  7. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn the Shiite jurisprudence, the ensoulment occurs after about 4 months. Before this stage, all Shiite authorities regard abortion as forbidden (Hiram unless if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother's life in real danger or will be intolerable for her. But after that, they regard abortion as Hiram, unless in conditions in which continuing the pregnancy results in dying of both mother and fetus, but abortion will save the life of mother. However, the Shiite authorities have not accepted to legitimate abortion in unwanted pregnancies and even in pregnancies resulted from adultery (Zina or rape."nThe debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. There are some important and notable related Fatwas that make jurisprudical basis for some new and problem solving legal acts, showing the inherent and valuable flexibility of the Shiite jurisprudence in dealing with such important issues. Some related issues, such as the priority of saving the life of mother after ensoulment can be referred to jurisprudical authorities for more assessment.

  8. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  9. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    Donohue, John J, III; Steven D. Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  10. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    Donohue, John J.; Levitt, Steven D.

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legalization fa...

  11. Living through some giant change: the establishment of abortion services.

    Schoen, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women's health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  12. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    MN Jali

    2001-01-01

    The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the argumen...

  13. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  14. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  15. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  16. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  17. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  18. Cytoplasmic inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum L. autoradiography

    Tobacco pollen grains were labelled with leucine 14C, part then being used for artificial pollination of specific Nicotiana lines, while the rest were processed directly, as controls, for light and electron microscopy and autoradiography. The apparent differences in silver grain density observed in the controls may be related to the different physiological states of pollen grains during labelling. A radioactive precursor does not impair the viability and fertility of pollen grains. Samples taken and observed at successive intervals after pollination allowed the monitoring of cytoplasmic transmission to the embryo sac. The cytoplasmic materials remain confined within the micropylar canal and the embryo sac for several days after pollination. The tagged mitochondria found in the embryo sac are not necessarily of male origin, since the radioactive materials they contain might be products of metabolism. (author)

  19. Senate, 59-40, defeats move to strike limits on Medicaid abortion coverage.

    1993-10-01

    On September 24 1993, the US Senate voted to limit access to abortion services for poor women under Medicaid to cases of rape, incest, or where pregnancy poses a risk to a woman's health. The US House of Representatives had earlier adopted a similar amendment, so now the bill will be sent to the President. The original amendment limited abortion access under Medicaid to only poor women whose life was endangered. Its sponsor proposed to expand coverage to cases of rape and incest based on pragmatic political grounds and knowing that this expansion would include fewer than 100 abortions. Abortion rights groups considered this 1993 expansion of the amendment as a step toward restoring real equity in access to abortion. Nevertheless, like the antiabortion groups, they do not consider it progress. The 5 female Senators vowed to fight to obtain full abortion coverage under Medicaid. The also pointed out to their male colleagues that this amendment discriminates against poor women. Many senators voted for the amendment because they chose the lesser of 2 evils. Many people are concerned that this bill indicates how Congress will treat poor women when health care reform legislation arrives and its concern for all women's right to access to abortion services under government-sponsored programs. More than 40 Senators can clearly see the difference between direct federal funding of abortion and other forms of government involvement. Further, Congress did approve the bill granting federal employees access to abortion services, but it passed by only 1 vote. Abortion rights proponents and abortion opponents should consider these aforementioned facts when preparing for the debate over abortion coverage under health care reform. PMID:12286980

  20. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  1. New German abortion law agreed.

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  2. Fine Mapping of Fertility Restoring Gene for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Cotton (Gossypium spp. ) Using RAPD and SSR%棉花细胞质雄性不育恢复基因的SSR及RAPD标记与定位

    Li-wang LIU; Wang-zhen GUO; Xie-fei ZHU; Tian-zhen ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ The heterosis in cotton is much significant,especially in increasing yield andfiber quality.Comparing with hand-emasculation and pollination, and genetic male sterile lines,utilization of CMS lines is much more effective and economical in producing commercial hybrid seeds. Since 1965 in the world, several CMS lines have been developed, such as CMS lines with G.

  3. The Question of Abortion in Serbia

    Rasevic, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Induced abortion has for a long time been a predominant method of birth control in Serbia. With spreading of contraception, significance of induced abortion became to a decrease. Besides this positive trend, estimated number of induced abortions about 200000 abortions per a year shows that a significant number of women mostly, and a certain number of women exclusively, relies on this method of birth control.Research findings discovered a complex array of factors of abortion problem, including...

  4. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law ...

  5. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  6. Abortion and Crime: A Review

    Theodore J. Joyce

    2009-01-01

    Ten years have passed since John Donohue and Steven Levitt initially proposed that legalized abortion played a major role in the dramatic decline in crime during the 1990s. Criminologists largely dismiss the association because simple plots of age-specific crime rates are inconsistent with a large cohort affect following the legalization of abortion. Economists, on the other hand, have corrected mistakes in the original analyses, added new data, offered alternative tests and tried to replicat...

  7. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  8. Kvinners reaksjoner etter spontan abort

    2012-01-01

    Background: Approximately 15 percent of all verified pregnancies end in miscarriage. It is known that spontaneous abortion often cause psychological distress. The women are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, depression and other psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms could persist for years after the miscarriage and there is frequently no routine to identify psychiatric morbidity among the women. Research has been conducted to identify the consequences of abortion, but the stud...

  9. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    MN Jali

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.

  10. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:26305593

  11. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion

    Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in D...... intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss.......The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in...... conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared with no...

  12. Development of a New Excellent Cytoplasmic Type of CMS Line in Rice

    FAN Shu-guo; LIANG Cheng-ye; LIU Hong-xian

    2001-01-01

    A new excellent cytoplasmic type of CMS line Sl0-2A in rice with typical abortion type (TAT)from Minghui 63 was obtained by in vitro culture. It possesses high percentage of exerted stigma with strong vitality, big opening angle of spikelet, high flowering rate before noon and iow percentage of cleistogamous spikelet. The relationship between restoring and maintaining of S10-2A is completely different from that of WA type, HL type and BT type.

  13. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  14. House subcmte. tightens abortion language.

    1978-05-10

    Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion. PMID:12335662

  15. Study of karyotypes in Case of Recurrent Abortions in Gujarat

    N. Parikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - The biological definition of miscarriage is the expulsion of the conceptus before viability has been achieved. The definition of recurrent miscarriage is three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. The risk factors for recurrent miscarriage are epidemiological, genetic, anatomical disorders, endocrinal, reproductive tract infections, thrombophilic disorders, disorders of materno-fetal alloimmune relationships, environmental effects and psychological causes. About 50% to 60% of all first trimester abortions are associated with derangement of one or more chromosomal complements. Aim: - The aim of this study was to assess frequency and increasing the awareness of physician about the nature of chromosomal aberration that contribute to the occurrence of repeated abortions. Material & Methods: - Patient of recurrent abortion was investigated by history taking, examination and investigations. For present study 20 women having two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions, who attended outdoor & indoor patient department, were selected and karyotyping was done. In 10 of the above cases karyotype study of both partners was done. So in total 30 individuals (20 females & 10 males were selected for Cytogenetic study. In all cases relevant history and clinical findings and other investigations were noted. Blood samples were obtained and karyotype study was performed at Genetic Laboratory, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results and Conclusions: - Cytogenetic evaluation by karyotypes revealed robertsonian translocation in one (5% female; this patient had a history of 2 spontaneous abortions and two times IVF failure, she had history of chocolate cyst of ovary and family history of infertility. No numerical anomaly; mosaicism or inversions were found in this study; 23 cases had normal karyotype and remaining 6 cases came out inconclusive.

  16. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights. PMID:12348324

  17. Pregnancy Outcome with Intrauterine Insemination in Patients with Unexplained Recurrent Abortion Whose Partners Have Abnormal Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test

    Talie Kazerooni; Saeed Alborzi; Zohreh Tavana; Jaleh Zolghadri

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recurrent abortion is defined as three or moreconsecutive pregnancy losses. We aimed to determine the relationshipbetween male sperm parameters and hypo-osmoticswelling score and recurrent abortion. We also studiedwhether washing of spermatozoa and intrauterine inseminationin patients with recurrent miscarriage and low score hypoosmoticswelling test in male partners could improve the outcomeof pregnancy.Methods: Between February 2003 and September 2006 ingynecology clinics affilia...

  18. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol.

  19. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion.

    Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Kolstad, Henrik; Ernst, Erik; Giwercman, Aleksander; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-10-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in Denmark in 1992-1994, 430 couples without previous pregnancy attempts were enrolled when birth control was discontinued, and they were followed until a clinically recognized pregnancy or for six menstrual cycles. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in monthly questionnaires. Women collected morning urine for 10 days from the first day of vaginal bleeding in each cycle. The authors detected 186 pregnancies: 131 resulted in childbirth, and 55 resulted in spontaneous abortion (34 detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin). Depending on the intake in the cycle of conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared with no intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss. PMID:15383410

  20. Abortion counseling and the school counselor.

    Duncan, J A; Moffett, C F

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court decision of January 22, 1973, legalizing abortion now requires school counselors to examine both their personal and professional positions on abortion information and abortion counseling. To date a review of school counseling literature reveals a failure to deal with abortion as a counseling issue. Also, schools have failed to develop official policies regarding abortion counseling and the distribution of abortion information. The counselors who have provided abortion information to date have done so at the request of a student or parent rather than by making the information generally available. A study in 1973 in Virginia, however, revealed that Virginia counselor educators believed that there was a need for counselors in training to be exposed to abortion information as part of their formal training experience. Generally, today's present exposure to abortion information makes it impossible for counselors to continue to ignore a growing demand for both abortion information and counseling. School counselors must deal with the following questions: 1) What course of action should school counselors take when a pregnant young seeks counseling on alternatives to pregnancy continuation? 2) What is the counselor's professional role in abortion counseling with respect to his or her personal feelings and beliefs? 3) What kind of training if any should school counselors receive regarding abortion counseling? 4) Is there a need for in-service training on abortion counseling for school counselors? 5) Should various professional organizations develop materials that would assist their members in providing abortion counseling? 6) Should institutions such as schools, churches, and community agencies establish policies concerning abortion counseling? Although the answers are not simple, the school counselors and their professional organizations must begin to develop the answers in order to provide good counseling services to young women exercising their right to

  1. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Mahmoud Abbasi; Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki; Neda Allahbedashti

    2014-01-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) durin...

  2. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Cytoplasmic Staining of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

    Omar I. Saadah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unusual for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody with cytoplasmic pattern (cANCA to present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD without vasculitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence and characteristics of pediatrics IBD with cANCA. Methods. A retrospective review of pediatric IBD associated with cANCA serology in patients from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, between September 2002 and February 2012. Results. Out of 131 patients with IBD screened for cANCAs, cANCA was positive in 7 (5.3% patients of whom 4 had ulcerative colitis and 3 had Crohn's disease. The median age was 8.8 years (2–14.8 years. Six (86% were males. Of the 7 patients, 5 (71% were Saudi Arabians and 2 were of Indian ethnicity. The most common symptoms were diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding. None had family history or clinical features suggestive of vasculitis involving renal and respiratory systems. No difference in the disease location or severity was observed between cANCA positive and cANCA negative patients apart from male preponderance in cANCA positive patients. Conclusion. The occurrence of cANCA in pediatric IBD is rare. Apart from male preponderance, there were no peculiar characteristics for the cANCA positive patients.

  3. Remembering Aborted Foetuses in a Japanese Shrine

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a shrine beside a temple in Kyoto there are a large number of small effigies. They commemorate aborted foetuses. In the absence of proper contraception, the Japanese for centuries have had to use abortion and, in the past, infanticide to control their population. These 'water children' (who return to the water world at abortion) are a source of great sadness in Japan.

  4. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  5. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  6. 不同来源国家的三套棉花胞质雄性不育恢复基因的分子标记定位%Study on Three Sets of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Cotton from Different Countries:Locate the Molecular Markers of Restoring Genes

    尤春源; 聂新辉; 雷江荣; 冯国礼; 吕军; 华金平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究定位出来源于不同国家的棉花细胞质雄性不育恢复基因的分子标记,为棉花三系杂交育种提供恢复系分子标记辅助选育技术.[方法]对国内、以色列和美国引进的三套棉花胞质雄性不育系及相应恢复系,通过构建的三套BC1育性BSA-DNA池,利用1 000对SSR和STS、RAPD等分子标记的分析.[结果]来源于美国引进恢复系含恢复基因有2个,而来源于国内与以色列引进的恢复系,只含有1个恢复基因.定位出与恢复基因紧密连锁的两侧标记(美国、国内、以色列)分别为:Rf1位于BNL3535、CIR179间,两标记间5.3 cM.Rf2位于STS659、BNL1045间,两标记间4.8 cM;Rf位于CIR222、BNL632间,两标记间6.7 cM;Rf位于STS147、CIR179间,两标记间4.3 cM.[结论]初步获得三套来源于不同国家的细胞质雄性不育恢复基因的分子标记图谱.%[Objective]The main purpose of this research is to study sets of cytoplasmic male sterility cotton from different countries and locate the molecular markers of restoring genes in the hope of providing seed selection techniques for restoring line-assisted selection by the technology of molecular maker in cotton three -lines hybrid breeding.[Method] Three sets of BSA-DNA pools of BC1 fertility were constructed by three sets of cotton cytoplasmic male sterility lines corresponding to restorers from China,Israel and the United States,which were analyzed by 1 000 suits molecular markers of SSR,STS,and RAPD.[Result] Three sets of molecular marker maps linkage closely with restoring gene were obtained:there are two restoring genes from restorers that were derived from the United States,but only one restoring gene in restorers was derived from China and Israel.Marks (from the United States:Rf1 and Rf2,China and Israel:Rf) on both sides of the linkage closely restoring genes were separately located:Rf1 lies in between BNL3535 and CIR179,in which the distance was 5.3 cM ;Rf2 lies in

  7. 无痛人工流产和传统人工流产术式选择对重复流产的影响%Influence of Painless Induced Abortion and Traditional Induced Abortion on Repeat Abortion

    习辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究无痛人工流产和传统人工流产术式选择对重复流产的影响。方法:选择2011年6-12月在本院妇产科要求行人工流产术妇女共180例(无痛人工流产100例、传统人工流产80例)进行跟踪调查一年。调查内容涉及是否有重复流产,前后两次流产心理状态等。结果:前次行无痛人工流产者重复流产率明显高于传统人工流产组(P<0.05),两组半年内重复流产及前后两次流产的心理状态差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:无痛人工流产术虽然解决了术中妇女疼痛问题,但术后存在重复流产率较高的问题,在强调优质流产后计划生育服务时应着重于对无痛人工流产者的术后主动宣教,进行面对面咨询并提供辅助资料、免费药具,以及要求男伴参与,必要时转诊等。%Objective:To study the influence of painless artificial abortion and the traditional artificial abortion on repeat abortion. Method:From June to December 2011,a total of 180 cases of induced abortion women(100 cases of painless artificial abortion and 80 cases of traditional abortion)in the hospital maternity line were selected and followed up one year. The investigation related to whether there was a repeat abortion,both before and after the abortion mental state. Result:Repeat abortion rate of previous painless artificial abortion group was significantly higher than that of the traditional artificial abortion group(P<0.05),significant difference existed before and after six months of repeated abortion and two abortion mental state. Conclusion:Although induced abortion surgery pain problems for women,but duplicate after the higher abortion rate,the emphasis on quality abortion family planning services should focus on postoperative induced abortion initiative education,face-to-face consultation,and provide supporting information,free contraceptives,and the requirements of the male partner to

  8. Sundhedspersonales holdninger til sene provokerede aborter varierer

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Internationale undersøgelser viser, at sene provokerede aborter skaber en større bekymring hos sundhedspersonale end tidlige aborter. Den største bekymring er risikoen for, at det aborterede foster udviser livstegn efter fødslen. Undersøgelser peger desuden på, at indikationen for abort, religiøs...... tilknytning og fagligt tilhørsforhold påvirker holdningerne. Antallet af sene provokerede aborter stiger i takt med, at fosterdiagnostikken udvikles, og der er derfor behov for forskning, der kan kaste lys over, hvordan det danske sundhedspersonale forholder sig til sene provokerede aborter....

  9. Seventeen years of legalized abortion in Singapore.

    Saw, S

    1988-06-01

    "In this paper we first discuss the two-stage process of legalizing induced abortion in Singapore, the initial legalization to make it available on a restrictive basis in 1970 and the complete liberalization to make it available on demand from 1975 onwards. The incidence of abortions registered in the last seventeen years and the major characteristics of aborters are analysed. The impact of abortion on the rapid decline of fertility to below-replacement level is highlighted, and the need to reduce abortion by amending the more liberal aspects of the law are considered at the end of the paper." PMID:12341971

  10. Unsafe abortion in Tanzania and the need for involving men in postabortion contraceptive counseling

    Rasch, Vibeke; Lyaruu, Mathias A

    2005-01-01

    Targeting male partners involved in unsafe abortions for contraceptive counseling could be an important strategy for decreasing the incidence of unwanted pregnancies, yet few postabortion-care programs have attempted to involve these men. To assess the need for and determine the content of...... postabortion contraceptive counseling for men, this study examined the contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practices of male partners of women who have had an unsafe abortion. A survey was administered to 213 men accompanying female partners receiving hospital care after having undergone an unsafe abortion...... their wives and 83 percent accompanying their girlfriends. In general, the men wished to support their partners in practicing contraception, and the majority were willing to participate in contraceptive counseling. These findings suggest that male partners should be included in postabortion...

  11. SELF - INDUCED MEDICAL ABORTION: A RISING CHALLENGE

    Bindoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In India medical abortion has become acceptable to the masses. As per the MTP Act 2003 medical abortion can be provided by certified providers at approved places or centres which have referral linkages even though the Centre is not approved for MTP. Despit e this in India a large number of abortions are still illegal. People are resorting to abortion without any pre - abortion checkup or counseling which is contrary to the MTP Act. This study was carried out to determine the reasons for resorting to self - induc ed abortion, assess the associated complications and acceptance of contraception after abortion. 77.7% of women in this study included those who reported to hospital following self - administered abortion so did not have any checkup, investigation or counsel ing. 23% women got the prescriptions from RMP, 42.85% from chemists and 30% from friend even though 55% of them were not residing far from the hospital. Following self - administered abortion, women reported with pain abdomen, retained products, pelvic infla mmatory disease and heavy bleeding requiring emergency suction evacuation. These women were not aware about the need for contraception and mistook self - induced abortion as a method for family planning. They resorted to self - induced abortions because they b elieved it to be safe, and presumed that a visit to the hospital is avoidable. 45 % of these women had undergone abortions in the past without any side effect. It is feared that if self - induced medical abortions continues unheeded the health system will get overburdened with resultant complications besides losing an opportunity for contraceptive counseling . It is recommended that the private practitioners may be brought into the system besides ensuring that regulations regarding prescription of drugs and the MTP Act are followed. Besides this masses should be made aware of the legality of medical abortion by using handouts and posters.

  12. Fertility Inheritance of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line of Chinese Sorghum “Jinong 105”%中国高粱胞质雄性不育系“吉农105”育性遗传特性的研究

    贾恩吉; 邓邵华; 陈兴平

    2000-01-01

    以中国高粱胞质雄性不育系“吉农105”为研究试材,用9个常用高粱恢复系与之杂交,并对其杂种后代F1、F2及BC1的育性分离比例进行了统计调查。结果表明:供试杂种在F1代全部表现育性恢复,在F2代发生了育性分离,其比例为可育:不育=3:1,同时在BC1代也发生了育性分离,其比例为可育:不育=1:1。根据孟德尔的遗传分离规律,可以推断控制“吉农105”的细胞核内的雄性不育基因为1对隐性基因。%The separation of fertility in F1, F2 and BC1 from crosses between cytoplasmic male sterile line of Chinese sorghum “Jinong 105” and 9 restoring lines of sorghum were statistically analysed. The results showed that the fertility of all hybrids in F1 were restored. However, F2 and BC1 segregated in fertility with respectively 3:1 and 1: 1 fertile to sterile ratio. This indicated that the male sterility of Chinese sorghum “Jinong 105” was controlled by a pair of recessive gene.

  13. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010 offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  14. Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos.

    Purvis, Dara E

    2015-01-01

    One thread of abortion criticism, arguing that gender equality requires that men be allowed to terminate legal parental status and obligations, has reinforced the stereotype of men as uninterested in fatherhood. As courts facing disputes over stored pre-embryos weigh the equities of allowing implantation of the pre-embryos, this same gender stereotype has been increasingly incorporated into a legal balancing test, leading to troubling implications for ART and family law. PMID:26242955

  15. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Walter E. Block

    2010-01-01

    I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010) offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  16. [Request for abortion during the 2d pregnancy trimester].

    Treffers, P E; Van den Berg, G R; Jager-van Gelder, P A; Van Oenen, J J

    1976-12-18

    156 women, 12-20 weeks pregnant, applied for abortion at the Wilhelmo Clinic in Amsterdam; 102 abortions were granted. The 156 late-abortion seekers were compared with 282 early-abortion seekers and 490 pregnant women. The late-abortion seekers were significantly younger (P .05). A significantly greater number of women over 30 applied for early abortion (P .001). Unmarried or divorced women were more likely to apply to abortion (P .001). Nulliparae applied more frequently for late abortion, compared to early-abortion seekers (P .001). Women with only one child were more likely to be in the pregnancy group (p .05), with 2 children in the early-abortion group (p .001). Women from Surinam and the Antilles were more likely to be in the early abortion group (p .001). Of the late-abortion seekers, 9 had medical indications. Many had psychosocial problems; 91 had problems with partner relations. In 24 cases the delay in seeking abortion was due to a doctor. An ambivalent attitude toward the abortion existed in 22 of the patients. 83% of the late-abortion seekers and 11.3% of the early-abortion seekers had previously had an abortion. The contraceptive use of the late-abortion seekers was not regular. 1.3% of the late-abortion seekers and 9.9% of the early-abortion seekers were using IUDs at the time of conception. PMID:1012384

  17. Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae.

    Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Kimura, Kei

    2010-03-01

    Brown algae, together with diatoms and chrysophytes, are a member of the heterokonts. They have either a characteristic life cycle of diplohaplontic alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generations that are isomorphic or heteromorphic, or a diplontic life cycle. Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy have been recognized as the mode of sexual reproduction. Brown algae are the characteristic group having elaborated multicellular organization within the heterokonts. In this study, cytoplasmic inheritance of chloroplasts, mitochondria and centrioles was examined, with special focus on sexual reproduction and subsequent zygote development. In oogamy, chloroplasts and mitochondria are inherited maternally. In isogamy, chloroplasts in sporophyte cells are inherited biparentally (maternal or paternal); however, mitochondria (or mitochondrial DNA) derived from the female gamete only remained during zygote development after fertilization. Centrioles in zygotes are definitely derived from the male gamete, irrespective of the sexual reproduction pattern. Female centrioles in zygotes are selectively broken down within 1-2 h after fertilization. The remaining male centrioles play a crucial role as a part of the centrosome for microtubule organization, mitosis, determination of the cytokinetic plane and cytokinesis, as well as for maintaining multicellularity and regular morphogenesis in brown algae. PMID:20145971

  18. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  19. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  20. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime

    Ted Joyce

    2004-01-01

    The inverse relationship between abortion and crime has spurred new research and much controversy. If the relationship is causal, then polices that increased abortion have generated enormous external benefits from reduced crime. In previous papers, I argued that evidence for a casual relationship is weak and incomplete. In this paper, I conduct a number of new analyses intended to address criticisms of my earlier work. First, I examine closely the effects of changes in abortion rates between ...

  1. Abortion Counselling in Britain: Understanding the Controversy

    Hoggart, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews literature from a number of disciplines in order to provide an explanation of the political controversy attached to the provision of abortion counselling. It will show how this is an area of health policy debate in which women's reproductive bodies have become a setting for political struggle. The issue of abortion counselling in Britain has undergone a number of discursive shifts in response to political manoeuvring and changing socio-legal framing of abortion. In partic...

  2. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  3. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  4. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  5. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  6. Influence of A1 cytoplasmic substitution on the downy-mildew incidence of pearl millet.

    Yadav, O P; Manga, V K; Gupta, G K

    1993-12-01

    Large-scale cultivation of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. F1 hybrids in India has led to increased incidence of downy-mildew (Sclerospora graminicola). There is concern that the A1 male-sterile cytoplasm used in all the hybrids released so far is responsible for this increase. The influence of A1 malesterile cytoplasm on downy-mildew incidence in pearl millet was studied by comparing the disease reaction of 40 pairs of F1 hybrids, each pair carrying respectively a1 male-sterile and normal B cytoplasm. Mean downy-mildew incidence was similar in the hybrids carrying either A1 male-sterile or B cytoplasm. The general combining ability of lines with and without A1 cytoplasm was found to be similar for downy-mildew incidence. These results indicated that in pearl millet A1 cytoplasm is not associated with increased downymildew incidence. The possible danger of using only one source of cytoplasm has been briefly discussed. PMID:24190349

  7. Responses of alloplasmic (cytoplasm=Triticum timopheevii) and euplasmic wheats (Triticum aestivum) to photoperiod and vernalization.

    Ward, R W; Heyne, E G; Paulsen, G M

    1983-07-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the male sterility-inducing cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. on response of several common winter wheat (T. aestivum L.) nuclear genotypes to photoperiod and vernalization. Comparative studies of cytoplasmic substitution lines provide information on the role of the cytoplasmic genetic mechanism in growth and development. In the case of cytoplasmic male sterility-based hybrid production systems, ubiquity of sterility-inducing cytoplasm in derived hybrids warrants thorough characterization of its influence on plant phenotype. Factorial combinations of cytoplasm (T. timopheevii and T. aestivum), nuclear genotype, and photoperiod or vernalization treatments were evaluated under hydroponic conditions in controlled environment chambers. Interaction of cytoplasm, photoperiod, and nuclear genotype was significant in one or more experiments for days to anthesis and potential spikelet number, and interaction of cytoplasm, vernalization, and nuclear genotype was significant for days to spike emergence. Long day length was associated with increased percentage seed set in one study, but interactions of photoperiod and cytoplasm were not detected for percentage seed set. Interactions involving cytoplasm and photoperiod or vernalization were interpreted as evidence of the existence of genetic factors in cytoplsam of T. timopheevii which alter photoperiod or vernalization responses of alloplasmic plants relative to responses exhibited by euplasmic plants. Since photoperiod and vernalization responses are critical to adaptation, T. timopheevii cytoplasm can alter adaptability of T. aestivum. The specific effect would be nuclear genotype dependent, and does not appear to be of a magnitude greater than that induced by nuclear genetic variability at loci conditioning photoperiod or vernalization responses or other adaptation-determining characteristics. Normal multilocation/year testing of alloplasmic hybrids should

  8. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  9. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro; Debora Diniz

    2015-01-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of ...

  10. A Critical Appraisal of Laws on Second Trimester Abortion1

    Berer, Marge

    2013-01-01

    There will always be women who need abortions after 12 weeks of pregnancy, and their reasons are often compelling. Although second trimester abortions carry relatively more risks than first trimester abortions, abortion is still very safe throughout the second trimester if done in safe conditions. This paper is about law and policy on second trimester abortions, which are allowed on more restrictive grounds than first trimester abortions in most countries, if at all. It focuses on countries w...

  11. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  12. J-2X Abort System Development

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  13. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530

  14. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  15. Abortion Legalization and Lifecycle Fertility

    Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat; Jonathan Gruber; Phillip B. Levine

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has convincingly shown that abortion legalization in the early 1970s led to a significant drop in fertility at that time. But this decline may have either represented a delay in births from a point where they were have represented a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine data from the 1970 U.S. Census and microdata from 1968 to 1999 Vital Statistics records to calculate lifetime fertility of women in the 1930s through 1960s birth cohorts. We examine whether those women...

  16. Usual hospital care versus post-abortion care for women with unsafe abortion: a case control study from Sri Lanka

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Lalini C. Rajapaksa; Galwaduge, Chandani

    2014-01-01

    Background Good quality post-abortion-care (PAC) is essential to prevent death and long-term complications following unsafe abortion, especially in countries with restrictive abortion laws. We assessed the PAC given to women following an unsafe abortion, compared to the routine hospital care following spontaneous abortion or unintended pregnancy carried to term in Sri Lanka. Methods A case–control study was conducted in Sri Lanka among 171 cases following unsafe abortion, 638 controls followi...

  17. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  18. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion. PMID:26242952

  19. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2007-01-01

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  20. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  1. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied. PMID:24100828

  2. [Scope of the indications for abortion].

    Martella, E

    1976-09-01

    Legalization of abortion in Italy generates never ending discussions. The problem should have been solved years ago with a national campaign for family planning, with the setting up of well organized family centers, and with contraception available and free to all. If it seems right and proper to perform abortion under certain circumstances, it does not seem proper to take into consideration socioeconomic conditions, and certainly not abortion on request; a new life must not be wasted because a woman does not feel like having a new child. Abortion, on the other hand, is certainly to be considered in case of danger for the mother, in case of fetal abnormalities, or when the pregnancy is result of incest or of rape. Abortion for psychological reasons is very valid if the reasons are real, evident, and have been thoroughly evaluated. PMID:1012595

  3. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul [Cha Women' s Hospital of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Doo [Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies.

  5. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture. PMID:26106105

  6. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  7. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  8. An AFM Observation on Fossil Cytoplasm

    WANG Xin; YU Junping; FANG Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    Fossil cytoplasm is a new research topic of interest in paleobotany. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a new technology applied widely in physics and biology; however, it is rarely used in paleontology. Here we applied AFM for the first time to study fossil cytoplasm. The results indicate that the fossil cytoplasm is heterogeneous and full of ultrastructures, just like extant cytoplasm, and that the application of AFM, especially in combination with other techniques, can reveal the subcellular details of fossil plants with more confidence.

  9. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom. PMID:12222235

  10. Bills to decriminalize abortion in Brazil.

    1994-01-01

    The National Congress in Brazil is currently considering 9 abortion bills, 2 of which were introduced by women. In this interview, the women senators--Jandira Feghall of the Communist Party and Eva Blay of the Social Democrat Party--discuss the likely outcome of the abortion debate. Although the Roman Catholic Church has announced its intentions to oppose any liberalization of the abortion law, there are divisions within the Church as evidenced by the existence of groups such as Catholics for a Free Choice. Both senators agree that decriminalization of abortion will depend upon the societal response and an effort must be made to reach the many people who are confused and undecided about the issue. Although the present debate fits within the broader current debate on population policies, it has been the insistence of the feminist movement that put abortion reform on the agenda. Blay's bill calls for the legalization of abortion on demand until the 12th week of pregnancy and in cases of rape or risk to the woman's life after that point. A controversial aspect of Feghall's bill is the inclusion of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as a condition for abortion. Feghall notes that this is an option rather than a requirement, but she will eliminate this condition if it engenders discrimination against HIV-infected women. PMID:12318722