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Sample records for abortion incomplete

  1. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care

  2. Abortion.

    1993-09-01

    Vacuum aspiration, dilatation and curettage, hysterotomy, and, in some cases, hysterectomy comprise surgical methods of abortion. Oral administration of RU-486, epostane, prostaglandins E and F2 and vaginal suppositories of prostaglandins E and F2 are medical abortion methods. The traditional or clandestine methods are usually performed by unqualified persons and pregnant women themselves. These methods tend to be inefficient and harmful. They include oral preparations of herbs and drugs (e.g., quinine and ergot), introduction of fluids (e.g., household disinfectants) into the vagina, introduction of foreign bodies (e.g., twigs, stems, hollow tubes, needles, wire) into the uterus. Hospital records, death certificates, and community-based surveys are common sources of data on abortion. Worldwide, 40-70/1000 women of childbearing age undergo an abortion. 20-33% of all pregnancies are terminated. Abortion is always legal when it is performed to save a pregnant woman's life. In most countries, it is legal to protect the woman's physical or mental health against serious danger. The risk of death from a legal abortion is rare. On the other hand, when an abortion is performed by an unqualified, unskilled abortionist and/or under unhygienic conditions (all of which are common in countries who have a law against abortion) the risk of death is much higher. In fact, abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal death in many countries (25% and 86% of maternal deaths in Bangladesh and Romania, respectively). Common complications of abortion are incomplete abortion, trauma to pelvic organs (e.g., uterine perforation), tetanus, and infertility. In some developing countries, the cost of treating abortion complications account for up to 50% of maternity hospital budgets. Ways to reduce mortality from unsafe abortion include promoting contraceptive use, legalizing abortion, allowing trained practitioners to perform abortions for health reasons, and improving clinical management

  3. Effect of Wujia Shenghua capsule on uterine bleeding following medically-induced incomplete abortion in rats during early pregnancy

    Liu, Haiyang; Ma, Wei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Fashan; Cao, Ling; Li, TieNan; Zhang, Ning; Geng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The Wujia Shenghua capsule (WSC) is derived from Sheng-Hua-Tang, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine compound prescription that has been widely applied during the postpartum period in Chinese communities for a number of years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of WSC on uterine bleeding following medically-induced incomplete abortion in rats during early pregnancy. Incomplete abortions were induced in Wistar rats during early pregnancy using mifepristone combine...

  4. Acceptance and use of the female condom among women with incomplete abortion in rural Tanzania

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study describes the outcome of a postabortion care intervention aimed at introducing the female condom as a means of preventing women from having unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. METHODS: Postabortion contraceptive counseling and services were...... intended to use it again. CONCLUSION: Postabortion care programs provide an excellent entry point for introducing the female condom as a contraceptive method for the prevention of both repeat unwanted pregnancies and STI/HIV infection....... offered to 548 women admitted to the Kagera Regional Hospital for incomplete abortion. The counseling included information about STI/HIV and the use male or female condom. In total, 521 (95%) women accepted contraception. RESULTS: Contraceptive use was assessed 3 months after abortion among 475 (91...

  5. 社区人工流产术中人流不全常见原因、诊断及防治措施%Community abortion incomplete abortion common cause diagnosis and prevention measures

    姜美芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the community abortion incomplete abortion common cause diagnosis and prevention measures. Methods:59 patients with incomplete abortion were selected.We retrospective analyzed clinical data,while implementing curettage, curettage,or let the patients taking the drug.Results:Incomplete abortion patients were treated successfully,and the success rate of 100%.Conclusion:The reason for incomplete abortion has a variety of features,for incomplete abortion patients require prompt diagnosis and treatment.%目的:分析社区人工流产术后人流不全的常见原因、诊断方法与防治措施。方法:收治人工流产不全患者59例,回顾分析其临床资料,同时实施钳刮术、清宫术,或让患者服用药物。结果:人流不全患者均治疗成功,成功率100%。结论:人流不全的原因具有多样化的特点,对于人流不全患者需要及时诊断与治疗。

  6. Community abortion incomplete abortion common cause diagnosis and prevention measures%社区人工流产术中人流不全常见原因、诊断及防治措施

    姜美芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析社区人工流产术后人流不全的常见原因、诊断方法与防治措施。方法:收治人工流产不全患者59例,回顾分析其临床资料,同时实施钳刮术、清宫术,或让患者服用药物。结果:人流不全患者均治疗成功,成功率100%。结论:人流不全的原因具有多样化的特点,对于人流不全患者需要及时诊断与治疗。%Objective:To analyze the community abortion incomplete abortion common cause diagnosis and prevention measures. Methods:59 patients with incomplete abortion were selected.We retrospective analyzed clinical data,while implementing curettage, curettage,or let the patients taking the drug.Results:Incomplete abortion patients were treated successfully,and the success rate of 100%.Conclusion:The reason for incomplete abortion has a variety of features,for incomplete abortion patients require prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Abortion

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  8. CONSULTANT REPORT INCOMPLETE ABORTIONS TREATED AT JAHANSHAH SALEH HOSPITAL IN TEHRAN, IRAN FROM MAY 14, 1973

    Yahya Behjatnia

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from May, 1973 to April, 1974, one hundred patients were trea ted for incomple te abortion at the ]ahanshah Saleh Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients admitted to th e hospital were from 4 to 28 weeks' gestation and were routinely administered analgestics before the abortion was completed by D&C. The D&C took about 10 minutes and the patient was usually able to go home that same day: Twenty-four women (24 .0% experienced complicatio n(s including blood loss, fever requiring antibiotic treatment, and pelvic infection.

  9. Abortion

    1985-01-01

    The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) recognizes that there is justification for abortion on medical and nonmedical socioeconomic grounds and that such an elective surgical procedure should be decided upon by the patient and the physician(s) concerned. Ideally, the service should be available to all women on an equitable basis across Canada. CMA has recommended the removal of all references to hospital therapeutic abortion committees as outlined in the Criminal Code of Canada. The Criminal C...

  10. Abortion.

    Savage, A

    1979-09-15

    I refer for termination anyone who requests it for--pace Mr V Tunkel, (28 July, p 253)--the law is generally regarded as being one of "abortion on demand." I have some misgivings as I do not believe that women in early pregnancy are always in a fit state to make a considered decision, and they cannot in the nature of things be given time. I have, however, become increasingly worried about the morbidity arising from the procedure, and it is interesting that letters on the subject (25 August, pp 495 and 496) should be followed by one reporting rupture of the uterus during prostaglandin-induced abortion--yet another complication to add to those of cervical incompetence, pelvic sepsis, and permanent neurological damage. In so far as these tragedies usually follow late terminations Mr John Corrie's Bill is to be welcomed. A few further points. I am not so cynical as to think that every impregnation is the result of a thoughtless act of male lust. Unlike Professor Peter Huntingford (25 August, p 496), I listen to men as well as women, and many of them are deeply involved emotionally in the pregnancy they have helped to produce. Certainly I think a man should have the right to be consulted if his wife is to undergo a procedure that might damage her health. It is unfair contemptuously to dismiss as "whims" opinions that differ from ones own. These may result from genuine conscientious doubts or inability to cope from overwork and understaffing. Abortion is quite the most expensive form of contraception, and perhaps in these days of financial stringency this should be taken into account. "Bigotry" is defined in my dictionary as "blind zeal." This could be said of those who enthusiastically promote a course of action without regard to circumstances, safety, or cost. PMID:497770

  11. Women's Acceptability of Misoprostol Treatment for Incomplete Abortion by Midwives and Physicians - Secondary Outcome Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial at District Level in Uganda.

    Amanda Cleeve

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess women´s acceptability of diagnosis and treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives, compared with physicians.This was an analysis of secondary outcomes from a multi-centre randomized controlled equivalence trial at district level in Uganda. Women with first trimester incomplete abortion were randomly allocated to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1 was done in blocks of 12 and stratified for health care facility. Acceptability was measured in expectations and satisfaction at a follow up visit 14-28 days following treatment. Analysis of women's overall acceptability was done using a generalized linear mixed-effects model with an equivalence range of -4% to 4%. The study was not masked. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.org, NCT 01844024.From April 2013 to June 2014, 1108 women were assessed for eligibility of which 1010 were randomized (506 to midwife and 504 to physician. 953 women were successfully followed up and included in the acceptability analysis. 95% (904 of the participants found the treatment satisfactory and overall acceptability was found to be equivalent between the two study groups. Treatment failure, not feeling calm and safe following treatment, experiencing severe abdominal pain or heavy bleeding following treatment, were significantly associated with non-satisfaction. No serious adverse events were recorded.Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives and physician was highly, and equally, acceptable to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01844024.

  12. Abortion - medical

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  13. Abortion - surgical

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... problem. Your pregnancy is harmful to your health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event such ...

  14. Induced Abortion

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  15. Abortion - medical

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  16. Abortion - surgical

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  17. Effect of conservative treatments for incomplete induced abortion and the factors related to successful removal of the remnants%保守治疗人工流产术后残留效果及相关因素探讨

    诸葛听; 黄紫蓉; 李斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of conservative treatments for abortive remnants of induced abortion, and probe into the influencing factors related to the successful removal of the remnants. Methods: A total of 101 patients with abortive remnants after induced abortion were selected by simple random sampling, and randomly divided into 4 groups, with 3 groups treated with different dosages of mifepristone (50 mg/d ×28d, 100 mg/d × 14d, and 200mg/d ×7d)and 1 control group. Based on the treatment outcomes, the patients were subgrouped into cured group and uncured group. The parameters of age, weight, gravidity, parity, bleeding time after treatment, baseline β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) levels, and the size of abortive remnants measured by B - mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment were analyzed. Rank sum test and logistic regression method were used to analyze the correlated factors with successful treatment of abortive remnants of induced abortion with mifepristone. Results : The group with mifepristone 200mg/d × 7d showed the most effective results (P < 0. 05). Compared with the uncured group, cured group had lower levels of serum β -hCG, smaller abortive remnants, shorter bleeding time after treatment, greater resistance index of blood flow (P <0.05 for all above factors). Logistic regression analysis showed that dosage of mifepristone, baseline β - hCG, the average size of the abortive remnants, and resistance index of blood flow status of the remnant tissue were closely correlated to the treatment outcomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone was effective in the treatment of incomplete induced abortion, and it was most effective when used at a short - term high dose. The baseline β - hCG, size of the abortive remnants and resistance index of bleed flow of the abortive remnants could predict the treatment outcomes.%目的:探讨影响人工流产术后残留保守治疗的相关因素,为临床有效诊断提供和治疗依据.方法:采用

  18. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...... are used and their potential effect.MethodsData were obtained among women admitted with incomplete abortion at Kagera Regional Hospital during the period January - June, 2006. The women underwent an empathetic interview to determine if they had experienced an unsafe abortion prior to their admission....... In all 125/187 women revealed having had an unsafe abortion. The women identified as having had an unsafe abortion underwent a questionnaire interview where information about abortion provider and abortion method used was obtained through open-ended questions. To get more detailed information about...

  19. Ley de matrimonio igualitario y aborto en Argentina: notas sobre una revolución incompleta Egalitarian marriage law and abortion in Argentina: notes on an incomplete revolution

    Milagros Belgrano Rawson

    2012-04-01

    context, in appearance so favourable to sexual equality, I believe this new law does not match the sexual order that today regulates the bodies of Argentine women. As from 1920 abortion is illegal in Argentina and it is reckoned as a crime against human life. Nevertheless, abortion is still the major cause of death among women in this country. Given this situation, in this article I will analyze the gap I find between homosexual and reproductive politics in the country. Unlike Europe, where reproductive rights preceded homosexual rights, in Argentina the opposite situation is observed. In this country, the legal recognition of same sex couples matches measures taken by other democracies and aimed at reaching what certain authors call sexual citizenship. Nevertheless, as long as Argentina does not recognize the right to free and safe abortion, this notion, which legitimates the universal applicability of sexual rights, will continue to be problematic. I believe that without the right of self-ownership, which comprehends sexual freedom and the right to decide to terminate a pregnancy, in the current Argentine context the gay marriage act represents an isolated event.

  20. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime

    Ted Joyce

    2004-01-01

    The inverse relationship between abortion and crime has spurred new research and much controversy. If the relationship is causal, then polices that increased abortion have generated enormous external benefits from reduced crime. In previous papers, I argued that evidence for a casual relationship is weak and incomplete. In this paper, I conduct a number of new analyses intended to address criticisms of my earlier work. First, I examine closely the effects of changes in abortion rates between ...

  1. Clinical Observation of 58 Cases of Incomplete Abortion Estradiol Valerate Combined Treatment of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate%戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗58例流产不全的临床观察

    陈丽娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗58例流产不全的临床疗效。方法本研究于2009年1月至2011年12月采用戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮对58例流产不全者进行治疗,并与采用催产素治疗的对照组进行临床疗效对比研究。结果两组患者经过积极的治疗后,其中研究组患者中痊愈55例,占87.93%(51/58),而对照组患者中治愈29例,占50.00%(29/58);研究组的临床治愈率明显高于对照组,且差异具有统计学意义(χ2=19.49,P0.05)。结论戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗流产不全,提高了完全流产率,缩短了患者持续出血时间,值得临床推广使用。%Objective To pentanoic acid estradiol medroxyprogesterone acetate joint clinical curative effect for the treatment of 58 cases of incomplete abortion. Method This research in from January 2009 to December 2009 with pentanoic acid estradiol medroxyprogesterone acetate joint treatment of 58 cases of incomplete abortion, and with the use of oxytocin treatment control group in clinical effect comparison research. Results Two groups of patients after active treatment, of which the team patients recover 55 cases, 87.93%(51/58), while the control group were cured in 29 cases, accounting for 50.00%(29/58);Clinical cure rate of group was obviously higher than that of control group, and the difference is statistically signiifcant(chi-square=19.49, P0.05). Conclusion Pentanoic acid estradiol combined therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate abortion is not complete, improves the complete abortion rate, shorten the patients with continuous bleeding time, worthy of clinical use.

  2. Clinical observation of progynova and medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of 104 cases of incomplete drug abortion%补佳乐和安宫黄体酮用于104例药物流产不全的临床观察

    任成娥

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨补佳乐和安宫黄体酮应用于药物流产不全的临床效果。方法:2011年1月-2013年8月收治药物流产不全患者104例,随机分为观察组及对照组,各52例。观察组每天口服补佳乐片3 mg,10 d,后5 d每天加服安宫黄体酮片10 mg。对照组催产素针10 U,3 d,肌注;同时益母草冲剂20 g/次,2次/d,7 d,口服。比较两组临床疗效。结果:观察组治愈率90.38%,对照组治愈率28.84%,观察组优于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:补佳乐和安宫黄体酮在治疗药物流产不全时疗效显著,并具有安全、无痛苦的优点。%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of progynova and medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of incomplete drug abortion.Methods:104 cases of incomplete drug abortion were selected from January 2011 to August 2013.They were divided into the observation group and the control group with 52 cases in each.The observation group were given oral progynova 3 mg/d for 10 days.After 5 days,they were added with the medroxyprogesterone 10 mg oral.The control group were given oxytocin needle 10 U for 3 days,intramuscular injection.At the same time,they were given motherwort medicine 20 g/time oral,2 times/day for 7 days.We compared the clinical effects of two groups.Results:The cure rate of the observation group was 90.38%, and the cure rate of the control group was 28.84%.The effect of the observation group was better than that of the control group. There was significant difference between two groups(P<0.01).Conclusion:The curative effect of progynova and medroxyprogesterone in the treatment of incomplete drug abortion is remarkable,and it has the advantages of safety and no pain.

  3. 戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗流产不全的临床疗效分析%Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy of Estradiol Valerate Combined with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in the Treatment of Incomplete Abortion

    黄琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the clinical effect and untoward effects of estradiol valerate and medroxyproges-terone acetate in the treatment of incomplete abortion. Methods 200 patients with incomplete abortion diagnosed and treated in our hospital were selected and divided into two groups randomly. Estradiol valerate combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate was given to the observation group, and oxytocin was given to the control group for treatment. And the treatment effect of patients in the two groups was compared and analyzed. Results 88 patients are cured in the observation group, and the cure rate is 88.0%;48 patients are cured in the control group, and the cure rate is 48.0%. The difference between the two groups is obvious. The du-ration of colporrhagia of patients in the observation group is (7.22 ±3.11) d, which is significantly less than that of the control group's (12.33±3.79) d;and the difference in untoward effects between the two groups of patients has no significance. Conclusion The combination of estradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate has a significant treatment effect on incomplete abortion, by which the continuous bleeding time can be shortened obviously;the method is safe and reliable;the untoward effect is lighter, so it is worthy of being used widely.%目的:探讨分析戊酸雌二醇+醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗流产不全的临床效果及不良反应。方法选取该院确诊治疗的200例流产不全患者,以随机方式将其分为两组。观察组使用戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮进行治疗,对照组则使用催产素进行治疗,比较分析两组患者治疗效果。结果观察组共治愈88例患者,治愈率为88.0%,对照组共治愈48例患者,治愈率为48.0%,二者差异明显;观察组患者阴道出血持续时间为(7.22±3.11)d明显少于对照组(12.33±3.79)d;两组患者不良反应差异无统计学意义。结论戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕

  4. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    A. Kumar; L. Hessini; E.M.H. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  5. Space Shuttle ascent aborts

    Schmidgall, Richard A.

    1989-09-01

    Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.

  6. Should abortion be legalized?

    Sodhy, L S

    1968-01-01

    Abortion is an important means of family planning, especially when contraception is unavailable or when it fails. Morbidity associated with legal abortion is low, though illegal abortion is a common cause of maternal mortality. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and the German Demogratic Republic all have laws legalizing abortion. Legalized abortion is the surest method of population control and should be promoted if the moral and religious objections can be overcome. PMID:12255647

  7. Incomplete block designs

    Dey, Aloke

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a systematic, rigorous and comprehensive account of the theory and applications of incomplete block designs. All major aspects of incomplete block designs are considered by consolidating vast amounts of material from the literature - the classical incomplete block designs, like the balanced incomplete block (BIB) and partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs. Other developments like efficiency-balanced designs, nested designs, robust designs, C-designs and alpha designs are also discussed, along with more recent developments in incomplete block designs for special t

  8. Self-reports of induced abortion: an empathetic setting can improve the quality of data

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete aborti...... previously used clinical criteria were omitted, 30.9% to 60.0% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: An empathetic dialogue improves the quality of data collected among women with induced abortion.......OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete abortion...

  9. Abortion Before & After Roe

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  10. Abortion and psychiatric practice.

    Stotland, Nada L

    2003-03-01

    The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be. PMID:15985924

  11. Legalized abortion in Czechoslovakia.

    Zidovsky, J; Zwinger, A

    1972-01-01

    A law legalizing abortion was passed nearly 20 years ago in Czechosl ovakia. The law aimed to give women the freedom to decide for themselves whether they want to be pregnant and to decrease the dangers of illegal abortion. The law resulted in a decreased number of abortions and of complications and deaths associated with abortion. Fertility in the country also declined. In 1968 there were more abortions than live births in the country. Since 1957, the law has been modified. The law still aims to prevent the birth of defective children and to protect the life and health of mothers. Each application for abortion is now examined on its own merits. Favorable economic circumstances, prolife social policies adopted by the government, and the new stricter interpretation of the abortion law have resulted in a r ising birthrate since 1969. Contraception is still stressed as preferab le to abortion. PMID:12256872

  12. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  13. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  14. Late-term abortion.

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  15. Oligarchy and soft incompleteness

    Piggins, Ashley; Duddy, Conal

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that the social preference relation is complete is demanding. We distinguish between “hard” and “soft” incompleteness, and explore the social choice implications of the latter. Under soft incompleteness, social preferences can take values in the unit interval. We motivate interest in soft incompleteness by presenting a version of the strong Pareto rule that is suited to the context of a [0, 1]-valued social preference relation. Using a novel approach to the quasi-tr...

  16. Misoprostol and illegal abortion in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Coêlho, H L; Teixeira, A C; Santos, A P; Forte, E B; Morais, S M; La Vecchia, C; Tognoni, G; Herxheimer, A

    1993-05-15

    Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue indicated for ulcer treatment, has been widely used as an abortifacient by women in Brazil, where abortion is legal only in cases of rape or incest, or to save the woman's life. Because misoprostol is an inefficient abortifacient, many women who use it have incomplete abortions and need uterine evacuation. We reviewed the records of women admitted to the main obstetric hospital of Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state, Brazil, between January, 1990, and July, 1992, for uterine evacuation after induced abortion. The number of incomplete abortions induced by misoprostol increased substantially during the first half of 1990, and declined thereafter. Of the 593 cases in 1991, 75% were related to misoprostol, 10% to the use of other specified drugs, and 6% to unspecified drugs. For the remaining 9% the procedure used was not recorded; these included 3% in whom abortion had been induced by a clandestine abortionist. The number of uterine evacuations per month fell from 89 in August, 1990, to 62 in July, 1991, when sales of misoprostol in Ceará state were suspended. The fall continued after the sale of misoprostol ceased, to about 20 cases in December, 1991; numbers remained around this level until June, 1992, sustained by clandestine sales. The lack of access to contraception is the main reason for the large numbers of unplanned pregnancies and is a major public health issue for Brazilian women. The prohibition of abortion creates a void in which misuse of medicines is one extra complication, mainly because of the poor control of drug marketing. PMID:8098403

  17. Abortion in Ireland.

    Francome, C

    1992-08-22

    Substantial legal barriers to abortion persist in both the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, despite growing popular support for abortion under certain conditions. A 1983 amendment to the republic's constitution guarantees the fetus the same right to life s the mother and bans the provision of information on abortion. Although a recent well publicized case of a pregnant, suicidal 14-year-old who travelled to England for an abortion resulted in an Irish Supreme Court ruling that abortion was acceptable in cases of "real and substantial risk" to a woman's life, uncertainty still surrounds the right to travel to England for the procedure. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 Abortion Act does not apply and abortions are denied even in cases of rape and incest. A total of 1766 women from Northern Ireland and 4158 from the republic travelled to England for abortions in 1991. Public opinion seems to have shifted toward support for less restrictive abortion laws, however. Whereas 80% of those surveyed in a 1980 Irish poll supported to ban on abortion in all cases, this statistic had dropped to 30% by 1990. Similarly, a 1991 poll taken in Northern Ireland found 80% of respondents to be a favor of abortion in cases where the procedure is necessary to maintain a woman's physical or mental health. PMID:1392954

  18. The moral significance of spontaneous abortion.

    Murphy, T F

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is rarely addressed in moral evaluations of abortion. Indeed, 'abortion' is virtually always taken to mean only induced abortion. After a brief review of medical aspects of spontaneous abortion, I attempt to articulate the moral implications of spontaneous abortion for the two poles of the abortion debate, the strong pro-abortion and the strong anti-abortion positions. I claim that spontaneous abortion has no moral relevance for strict pro-abortion positions but that the ...

  19. Making legal abortion available in Brazil: partnerships in practice.

    Villela, W V; Araújo, M J

    2000-11-01

    This article describes the participation of feminist groups who work in the area of women's reproductive health and rights in campaigns for the provision of legal abortion in public hospitals in Brazil. Brazilian criminal law permits therapeutic abortion in cases where pregnancy is the result of rape or poses a serious risk to the life of the woman. Today, as a result of the combined efforts of feminists, health professionals and policymakers, more than 20 hospitals in Brazil are officially permitted to perform therapeutic abortions within the existing law. A model programme has also been developed to train service providers to do legal abortions, where the agreement of a hospital board can be obtained. This training has also improved care for illegally obtained, incomplete abortions in those hospitals but not in hospitals where doctors have not been trained. Problems with lack of access and concerns about the lack of public acceptance of abortion remain. Women not only need the right to abortion but also more services and health professionals who are trained to perform abortions across the whole country. PMID:11424253

  20. Decomposition of incomplete fusion

    The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV 28Si+100Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. [Abortion law in Italy].

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  2. Incomplete Delta Functions

    Gersten, A.

    1999-01-01

    By applying projection operators to state vectors of coordinates we obtain subspaces in which these states are no longer normalized according to Dirac's delta function but normalized according to what we call "incomplete delta functions". We show that this class of functions satisfy identities similar to those satisfied by the Dirac delta function. The incomplete delta functions may be employed advantageously in projected subspaces and in the link between functions defined on the whole space ...

  3. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  4. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  5. Abortion in Zambia

    Coast, Ernestina; Freeman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The poster, based on 112 in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 with women in Zambia who had recently had an abortion, shows the complex pathways that some women take despite safe abortion being legal under a wide range of circumstances in Zambia.

  6. Abortion: the new debate.

    Callahan, D

    1986-06-01

    The course of the debate on abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion has been marked by a variety of medical and scientific developments. Many of these new developments have important legal, psychologic, social, moral, and political implications. The cumulative impact of all these developments may pose a significant challenge to the social and legal foundations of Roe v. Wade. PMID:3523563

  7. Access to legal abortion.

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  8. Abortion; 1 : 2 000 000

    The cartogram represents the crude rate of abortions (number of abortions per 1,000 inhabitants) in the individual districts, crude abortion rate in Slovakia: 0.54 %, number of all abortions (average of 1996 - 1998) is presented. The complicated mosaics reveals two main spatial cores of the highest abortion rate. The first is in the south-west of Slovakia, from Malacky to Komarno, and the second, the largest, is from Ziar nad Hronom and Velky Krtis as far as Michalovce. In contrary, the rate of abortions is registered in the northern districts of the eastern Slovakia, almost the whole region Presov and in the northern districts of the region of Zilina. The size of the sign expresses the absolute number of abortions and simultaneously the structure of abortions: spontaneous and induced abortions. The higher share of the spontaneous abortions (more than a quarter) generally occurs in the districts with the lowest abortion rate. (authors)

  9. Incomplete fusion reactions

    Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

  10. Information-theoretic incompleteness

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1992-01-01

    In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

  11. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  12. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  13. Unintended Pregnancies, Restrictive Abortion Laws, and Abortion Demand

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect restrictive state abortion laws have on the pregnancy resolution decisions of women with unintended pregnancies. The empirical results find that the abortion ratio and the abortion rate of unintended pregnancies are more sensitive to increases in the abortion price than previous estimates that analyzed total pregnancies (unintended and intended). A Medicaid funding restriction has very little effect on a state's abortion rate of unintended pregnancies, but cause...

  14. Production in Incomplete Markets

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  15. Production in incomplete markets

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the...

  16. Abortion: the hidden plague.

    Tuckwell, S

    1974-05-01

    Abortion is called the invisible plague of all countries and cultures in the twentieth century. It is by far the most important method of birth control in the world today. For every 200 babies born there are at least 100 abortions. In the rich world, a woman who wants to end her pregnancy goes to an abortionist, but for millions of poor women, abortion happens spontaneously in their own homes induced by poor nutrition, sheer physical weakness, and too many pregnancies too close together. In countries where abortion is illegal, millions of women die each year as a result of severe illness or the botched handiwork of backyard operators. The most common complications are massive hemorrhaging, perforation of the uterus, laceration, sepsis, and renal failure. The experience of a great many countries shows that simply legalizing abortion can lead to a dramatic drop in death and illness. Relaxation of abortion laws can save lives, money, and misery for mothers and children. Illegal abortion has become a major problem in Africa there are 3 main types of women who enter hospitals with complications after abortions: 1) the teenager who is away from home; 2) the young woman, often educated, working, and with financial responsibilities, who is ambitious for herself, her husband, or her family; and 3) the woman in her thirties, illiterate, a rural worker, married most of her reproductive life, and pregnant most years. The third type of woman may abort because her system is utterly depleted. Such women must be shown that there is a good chance of survival for her children so that she will not have so many. PMID:12307249

  17. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  18. [Interregional project concerning abortion].

    Jourdain, A; Pierotti, D; Vinclair, M

    1979-01-01

    The law legalizing abortion in France was passed in 1975. To group information of a social and medical nature and to publish reports on their activities, a questionnaire was designed to be filled by physicians and nurses working in centers and hospitals performing abortion. There were 19,000 abortions performed in 1976, and 30,000 are expected to be performed in 1979. The questionnaire contains 80 questions gathering information on socieconomic data, on medical history, on the procedure of the intervention, and on the follow-up visit. A study done on 5700 questionnaires filled between 1976 and 1977 show that most abortion seekers belong to the middle class, and that pregnancy was due in 20% of cases to pill failure, and in 34% of cases to failure of behavioral methods, or to lack of contraception. 88% of patients declared themselves satisfied with the procedure. PMID:12309432

  19. Abortion and Selection

    Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat; Jonathan Gruber; Phillip B. Levine; Douglas Staiger

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of legalized abortion in the early 1970s led to dramatic changes in fertility behavior. Some research has suggested as well that there were important impacts on cohort outcomes, but this literature has been limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms through which abortion access affects cohort outcomes, and use that framework to both address inconsistent past methodological approaches, and provide evidence on the long-run...

  20. Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally

    Salehi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theory. Thus deduction...

  1. Informationally Incomplete Quantum Tomography

    Teo, Yong Siah; Rehacek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In quantum-state tomography on sources with quantum degrees of freedom of large Hilbert spaces, inference of quantum states of light for instance, a complete characterization of the quantum states for these sources is often not feasible owing to limited resources. As such, the concepts of informationally incomplete state estimation becomes important. These concepts are ideal for applications to quantum channel/process tomography, which typically requires a much larger number of measurement se...

  2. BIF. Balanced Incomplete Decomposition

    Tůma, Miroslav

    Liberec : Technical University, 2008. s. 129-130. ISBN 978-80-7372-298-2. [SNA '08 - Seminar on numerical analysis: modelling and simulation of challenging engineering problems. 28.01.2008-01.02.2008, Liberec] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415; GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioning * sparse linear systems * incomplete decomposition * iterative methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Abortion in Present day Vietnam

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the abortion rate in Vietnam has been likely rising. In rural area, this rate is a bit higher than in urban one. Young age groups’ abortion rate is relatively high and ofter higher than older age groups. The main reason is due to their limited awareness of contraceptive methods. Low education level also affects the abortion. The abortion of people at low education level is relatively high, but people with elementary school graduation has the lowest rate of abortion. The Northwest had the highest abortion rate, the lowest rate belonged to the South Central Coast. The abortion rate depends on each couple’s number of alive children. The highest abortion rate is of couples with 1 or 2 alive children. The majority of couples only have one time of abortion for 12 months before research timepoint.

  4. Over the counter sale of abortion pills - time to act now

    Ritu Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Results: 70 patients who bought abortion pills over the counter were included in the study group. 90% (63/70 patients were not using any kind of contraceptive method. Only 55.71% (39/70 patients took the abortion pills as per the recommended standard protocol. Gestational age was < 8 weeks in 45.71% (32/70 patients only. Most common presenting complaint was varying amount of bleeding per vaginum followed by abdominal pain met in 97.14% (68/70 and 30% (21/70 patients respectively. 7.14% (5/70 patients presented to emergency in shock. Final diagnosis was complete abortion in 21.42% (15/70 patients, incomplete abortion in 47.14% (33/70, missed abortion in 11.42% ( 8/70, septic abortion in 7.14% ( 5/70 , threatened abortion in 5.71% ( 4/70, ectopic pregnancy in 5.71% ( 4/70 and molar pregnancy in 1.42% ( 1/70 patients and they were managed accordingly as per standard guidelines. Conclusion: The women in India should be aware of their legal right to safe abortion. They should stop buying the drug without prescription as medical abortion facilities are being made easily available, accessible and affordable to all. However strict ban on over the counter availability of abortion pills can make the situation worse. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1053-1056

  5. Improved Balanced Incomplete Factorization

    Bru, R.; Marín, J.; Mas, J.; Tůma, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2010), s. 2431-2452. ISSN 0895-4798 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Source of funding: I - inštitucionálna podpora na rozvoj VO Keywords : preconditioned iterative methods * sparse matrices * incomplete decomposition s * approximate inverses * Sherman-Morrison formula * nonsymmetric matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2010

  6. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  7. Abortion: sin or crime?

    Kulpys, Žydrūnas

    2005-01-01

    Abortą nagrinėja ir moralinė teologija, ir kanonų teisė. Moralinė teologija gvildeną abortą kaip didelį moralinį blogį ir sunkią nuodėmę. Kanonų teisė nagrinėja abortą ir kaip teisinį nusikaltimą, už kurį automatiškai skiriama griežta sankcija - ekskomunikavimas. Kokiomis aplinkybėmis abortas yra nuodėmė ir kada jis tampa ir teisiniu nusikaltimu, automatiškai užtraukiančiu atskyrimą nuo Bažnyčios - ekskomunikavimą? Vien tik aborto nuodėmė neužtraukia ekskomunikos. Nors abortas yra sunki nuodė...

  8. [Spontaneous abortion. Etiologic survey. Results].

    Baaklini, N; Anguenot, J L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The definition of repeated spontaneous abortions is subject to caution. For some, it corresponds to at least three repeated spontaneous abortions with no normal previous pregnancy; for others, it comprises the repeated spontaneous abortions occurring after a normal pregnancy. It is a frequent problem, especially if one tries to give a wider definition. The authors studied the frequency of repeated spontaneous abortions in a continuous series of 14,857 pregnancies which took place between January 1982 and December 1988. In the study of the aetiology of the repeated spontaneous abortions in the various groups of women defined according to the number of previous pregnancies and abortions, they find the classical causes of repeated spontaneous abortions in all the categories: therefore, it seems legitimate to them that a wider definition be given for repeated spontaneous abortions. PMID:2291048

  9. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  10. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-01-01

    All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn t...

  11. CMA abortion survey.

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in t...

  12. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  13. College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion

    Maxwell, Joseph W.

    1970-01-01

    Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

  14. Pregnancy outcome following spontaneous abortions

    Swati Agrawal

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Previous history of spontaneous abortion is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. There is increased risk of abortion, preterm delivery, need for caesarean sections and fetal loss in cases of previous spontaneous abortions. These complications and fetal loss can be reduced by booking the patients and giving due antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1891-1893

  15. Haemophilus influenzae Septic Abortion

    Sharon L. Hillier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemophilus influenzae septic abortion is typically caused by nontypeable strains of the organism. Furthermore, nontypeable species with a special affinity for the genital tract are the most frequent isolates encountered, and an ascending vaginal or cervical infection is often the suspected route of transmission.

  16. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  17. Prematurity and Abortion

    Francisco Jover-Díaz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the pathogenic role of Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy is controversial, some cases of stillbirth and abortion occurring after an acute or chronic infection have been mentioned in the literature. Recently, Q fever has been advocated as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy

  18. Abortion health services in Canada

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  19. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion. PMID:12340335

  20. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26057783

  1. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    Lima, Joana Madureira; Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-06-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190-9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  2. Immunologically mediated abortion (IMA).

    Giacomucci, E; Bulletti, C; Polli, V; Prefetto, R A; Flamigni, C

    1994-06-01

    Roughly 20% of all clinical pregnancies evolve into "spontaneous abortions". The causes of spontaneous abortion have been determined in under 60% of the total and comprise genetic, infectious, hormonal and immunological factors. In some cases the immune tolerance mechanism may be impaired and the foetus immunologically rejected (IMA, immunologically mediated abortion). The immunological mechanism implicated depends on the time in which pregnancy loss takes place. During preimplantation and up to the end of implantation (13th day) the cell-mediated immune mechanism (potential alloimmune etiologies) is responsible for early abortion. This mechanism involves immunocompetent decidual cells (eGL, endometrial granulated lymphocytes) already present during pre-decidualization (late luteal phase) and their production of soluble factors or cytokines. Once the implantation process is over, after blastocyst penetration of the stroma and the decidual reaction of uterine tissue, IMA could be caused by cell-mediated and humoral mechanism (anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies or autoantibody etiology), by the production of paternal anti major histocompatibility complex antibodies, or even by an autoimmune disorder leading to the production of autoantibodies (antiphospholipid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies or polyclonal B cell activation). The diagnostic work-up adopted to select IMA patients is crucial and includes primary (karyotype of both partners, toxo-test, hysterosalpingography, endometrial biopsy, thyroid function tests, serum hprolactin, luteal phase dating) and secondary (full hemochromocytometric test, search for LE cells, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, antinuclear antibodies, Rheumatoid factor, blood complement VDRL) investigations. Therapeutical approaches vary. If autoimmune disorders are demonstrated therapies with different combinations of corticosteroids, aspirin and heparin or intravenous immunoglobulin are administered. Otherwise, therapy with paternal

  3. Abortion Performance and Politics

    Candelario, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    “Performing abortion” typically refers to what health care providers do in clinics, private offices, and (rarely) hospitals 1.21 million times per year,every year, in the United States. At the same time, the phrase indicates what performance artists, choreographers, and activists have been doing on stages, in galleries, and on the streets for decades. Candelario is intrigued by this double meaning that invites us to take seriously what abortion means at this political and historical moment, b...

  4. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  5. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  6. Legal abortion and public health.

    Tietze, C

    1984-01-01

    Over 15 million abortions have been performed in the US since the process of abortion legalization began in 1967. Consequences of legalization have included a marked reduction of pregnancy-related mortality and the prevention in many cases of the birth of infants with major physical or mental defects. Prenatal diagnosis, backed up by selective abortion, has made procreation a possibility for many couples who might otherwise avoid childbearing. However, the number of abortions performed on the basis of prenatal diagnosis remains small, comprising only about .01% of all legal abortions. In recent months, the pro-choice movement in the US has been handed 2 important victories: the US Supreme Court reaffirmed the 1973 decision legalizing abortion and the US Senate defeated a constitutional amendment intended to reverse this decision. As a result of these victories, contributions to pro-choice groups have declined. Continued vigilance is needed to protect these victories. PMID:12267089

  7. The abortion debate in Australia.

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  8. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go. PMID:11660187

  9. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion *

    Doane, Benjamin K.; Quigley, Beverly G.

    1981-01-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, ...

  10. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn the Shiite jurisprudence, the ensoulment occurs after about 4 months. Before this stage, all Shiite authorities regard abortion as forbidden (Hiram unless if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother's life in real danger or will be intolerable for her. But after that, they regard abortion as Hiram, unless in conditions in which continuing the pregnancy results in dying of both mother and fetus, but abortion will save the life of mother. However, the Shiite authorities have not accepted to legitimate abortion in unwanted pregnancies and even in pregnancies resulted from adultery (Zina or rape."nThe debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. There are some important and notable related Fatwas that make jurisprudical basis for some new and problem solving legal acts, showing the inherent and valuable flexibility of the Shiite jurisprudence in dealing with such important issues. Some related issues, such as the priority of saving the life of mother after ensoulment can be referred to jurisprudical authorities for more assessment.

  11. Prevention and Treatment of Vaginal Bleeding after Drug-induced Abortion by Yaoliuan Capsule and Its Effects on Menses Recovery

    JIN Zhichun; HUANG Guangying

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore the effect of Yaoliuan capsule in the prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion and menses recovery after drug-induced abortion, 323 cases of gestation period ≤ 49 days and without contraindication, were divided randomly into study group (168 cases, taking Yaoliuan capsule) and control group (155 cases, taking placebo capsule). The results showed that in the study group, there were 161 cases (95.8 %) of complete abortion, 7 cases (4.2 %) of incomplete abortion; In the control group, there were 146 cases (94.2 %) of complete abortion, 6 cases (3.9 %) of incomplete abortion, 3 cases (1.9 %) of abortion failure. The vaginal bleeding time was 5-25 days (mean 10.8 days) in study group, while that was 6-62 days (mean 19.1 days) in control group. The menstrual cycle was 30.5±5.2 days and 33.8 d±8.6 days respectively in study and control groups. The menstrual period was 6.1±3.5 days and 9.9±5.1 days respectively in study and control groups. Yaoliuan capsule is an effective drug to prevent and treat vaginal bleeding following drug-induced abortion, promote menstruation recovery and prevent pelvic infection.

  12. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  13. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    Donohue, John J, III; Steven D. Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  14. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    Donohue, John J.; Levitt, Steven D.

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legalization fa...

  15. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    MN Jali

    2001-01-01

    The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the argumen...

  16. Estimation of incomplete multinomial data

    Credeur, K. R.

    1980-01-01

    Program estimates cell probabilities for data observed to fall in one of two or more categories when exact category cannot be determined. Data are assumed to be randomly incomplete. Estimation minimizes risk of quadratic loss. Program should be useful in projects where multinomial data is analyzed, but where observations are sometimes incomplete. Program is in FORTRAN IV and Assembler for batch execution on CYBER 173.

  17. Altruistic Behavior Under Incomplete Information

    Bolle, Friedel; Kritikos, Alexander S.

    2004-01-01

    Models to the issue of altruism which rely on externalities of well-being are rarely used explicitly. In this paper we compare such utility-based approaches with the standard approach on altruism which is based on externalities of income. Testable differences of both types of models are derived in the case of incomplete information. More specifically, applied to the Dictator Game and the Impunity Game both played under incomplete information, the utility-based based approach predicts dictator...

  18. Incomplete information and correlated electrons

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2002-01-01

    Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomplete information. Th...

  19. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  20. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  1. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  2. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  3. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  4. New German abortion law agreed.

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  5. The Question of Abortion in Serbia

    Rasevic, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Induced abortion has for a long time been a predominant method of birth control in Serbia. With spreading of contraception, significance of induced abortion became to a decrease. Besides this positive trend, estimated number of induced abortions about 200000 abortions per a year shows that a significant number of women mostly, and a certain number of women exclusively, relies on this method of birth control.Research findings discovered a complex array of factors of abortion problem, including...

  6. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law ...

  7. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  8. Matriculation Research Report: Incomplete Grades; Data & Analysis.

    Gerda, Joe

    The policy on incomplete grades at California's College of the Canyons states that incompletes may only be given under circumstances beyond students' control and that students must make arrangements with faculty prior to the end of the semester to clear the incomplete. Failure to complete an incomplete may result in an "F" grade. While incompletes…

  9. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  10. Abortion and Crime: A Review

    Theodore J. Joyce

    2009-01-01

    Ten years have passed since John Donohue and Steven Levitt initially proposed that legalized abortion played a major role in the dramatic decline in crime during the 1990s. Criminologists largely dismiss the association because simple plots of age-specific crime rates are inconsistent with a large cohort affect following the legalization of abortion. Economists, on the other hand, have corrected mistakes in the original analyses, added new data, offered alternative tests and tried to replicat...

  11. Kvinners reaksjoner etter spontan abort

    2012-01-01

    Background: Approximately 15 percent of all verified pregnancies end in miscarriage. It is known that spontaneous abortion often cause psychological distress. The women are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, depression and other psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms could persist for years after the miscarriage and there is frequently no routine to identify psychiatric morbidity among the women. Research has been conducted to identify the consequences of abortion, but the stud...

  12. Incomplete Bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -Polynomials

    Dursun Tasci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials. In the case =1, =1, we obtain the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas -numbers. If =2, =1, we have the incomplete Pell and Pell-Lucas -numbers. On choosing =1, =2, we get the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal number and besides for =1 the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. In the case =1, =1, =1, we have the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. If =1, =1, =1, =⌊(−1/(+1⌋, we obtain the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Also generating function and properties of the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials are given.

  13. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    MN Jali

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.

  14. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  15. House subcmte. tightens abortion language.

    1978-05-10

    Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion. PMID:12335662

  16. Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design

    Sols, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

  17. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J.

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  18. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Yuan Gao; Kai Salomaa; Sheng Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  19. Therapeutic Efficacy of Misoprostol versus Ethacridine Lactate in Second Trimester Abortion – Randomised Controlled Study

    Kruti Deliwala

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is a major health and social issue in our country .Techniques for abortions are highly varied in different areas of country. Present study is to compare newer abortificient misoprostol versus traditionally used ethacridine lactate method. Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of misoprostol as a second trimester abortificient and to compare it with ethacridine lactate. Methods: This is a prospective study of 100 women with 12 – 20 weeks of gestation. Inclusions were according to MTP Act. 400ug misoprostol was inserted vaginally followed by 200ug every 4 hourly in study group (n=50.150-200ml of ethacridine lactate was injected extraamniotically in control group (n=50.Latent phase, active phase and induction abortion interval was noted and compared Results: Average induction abortion interval was 12.24 hours in misoprostol as compared to 27.6 hours in ethacridine lactate (P value <0.01. The women undergoing D & E due to incomplete abortion was higher with ethacridine group 12( 24% as compared to misoprostol group 8 (14% (P <0.05. Conclusion: Misoprostol is faster, convenient, and safer than ethacridine lactate for 2nd trimester abortion. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 16-18

  20. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights. PMID:12348324

  1. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol.

  2. Aborto e democracia Abortion and democracy

    Luis Felipe Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A luta pela legalização do aborto pouco tem avançado no Brasil. O artigo observa a importância política da questão. Por um lado, é um índice da laicidade do Estado, que, por sua vez, é condição necessária para a vigência da democracia. Por outro, na ausência desse direito a cidadania das mulheres é incompleta. O forte peso da Igreja Católica na vida política brasileira não é suficiente para explicar a paralisia no que se refere à questão.The struggle to legalize abortion in Brazil has advanced very little. The article focuses on the political importance of the issue. On the one hand, it is an index of the laicism of the State, which in turn is a necessary condition for the exercise of democracy. On the other hand, in the absence of this right, the citizenship of women is incomplete. The weight of the Catholic Church in Brazilian political life is not enough to explain the paralysis with regard to the question.

  3. Abortion counseling and the school counselor.

    Duncan, J A; Moffett, C F

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court decision of January 22, 1973, legalizing abortion now requires school counselors to examine both their personal and professional positions on abortion information and abortion counseling. To date a review of school counseling literature reveals a failure to deal with abortion as a counseling issue. Also, schools have failed to develop official policies regarding abortion counseling and the distribution of abortion information. The counselors who have provided abortion information to date have done so at the request of a student or parent rather than by making the information generally available. A study in 1973 in Virginia, however, revealed that Virginia counselor educators believed that there was a need for counselors in training to be exposed to abortion information as part of their formal training experience. Generally, today's present exposure to abortion information makes it impossible for counselors to continue to ignore a growing demand for both abortion information and counseling. School counselors must deal with the following questions: 1) What course of action should school counselors take when a pregnant young seeks counseling on alternatives to pregnancy continuation? 2) What is the counselor's professional role in abortion counseling with respect to his or her personal feelings and beliefs? 3) What kind of training if any should school counselors receive regarding abortion counseling? 4) Is there a need for in-service training on abortion counseling for school counselors? 5) Should various professional organizations develop materials that would assist their members in providing abortion counseling? 6) Should institutions such as schools, churches, and community agencies establish policies concerning abortion counseling? Although the answers are not simple, the school counselors and their professional organizations must begin to develop the answers in order to provide good counseling services to young women exercising their right to

  4. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Mahmoud Abbasi; Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki; Neda Allahbedashti

    2014-01-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) durin...

  5. Reconstruction tomography from incomplete projections

    In some instances, reconstruction radionuclide tomography must be carried out from projections that do not include projection values for all portions of the object to be reconstructed. This may occur, for example, when the field of view of the detector is limited, or when an opaque foreign body is present within the object. The effects of such incomplete projections upon reconstructions of computer-simulated phantoms were studied, using iterative and convolution methods. Several methods for reducing the resulting artifacts and inaccuracies are discussed

  6. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  7. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  8. Remembering Aborted Foetuses in a Japanese Shrine

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a shrine beside a temple in Kyoto there are a large number of small effigies. They commemorate aborted foetuses. In the absence of proper contraception, the Japanese for centuries have had to use abortion and, in the past, infanticide to control their population. These 'water children' (who return to the water world at abortion) are a source of great sadness in Japan.

  9. “Right tool,” wrong “job”: Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal

    Suh, Siri

    2015-01-01

    The “rightness” of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the “job” they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminat...

  10. Clinical Implications of Incomplete Pancreas Divisum

    Terumi Kamisawa; Yuyang Tu; Naoto Egawa; Kouji Tsuruta; Aatsutake Okamoto

    2006-01-01

    Context Incomplete pancreas divisum is a pancreatic anomaly that results in an inadequate communication between the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts. Although the relationship between complete pancreas divisum and pancreatitis has been contentious, clinical implications of incomplete pancreas divisum have not been noted. Objective This study was done to investigate the clinical significance of incomplete pancreas divisum. Patients and...

  11. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  12. Seventeen years of legalized abortion in Singapore.

    Saw, S

    1988-06-01

    "In this paper we first discuss the two-stage process of legalizing induced abortion in Singapore, the initial legalization to make it available on a restrictive basis in 1970 and the complete liberalization to make it available on demand from 1975 onwards. The incidence of abortions registered in the last seventeen years and the major characteristics of aborters are analysed. The impact of abortion on the rapid decline of fertility to below-replacement level is highlighted, and the need to reduce abortion by amending the more liberal aspects of the law are considered at the end of the paper." PMID:12341971

  13. Sundhedspersonales holdninger til sene provokerede aborter varierer

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Internationale undersøgelser viser, at sene provokerede aborter skaber en større bekymring hos sundhedspersonale end tidlige aborter. Den største bekymring er risikoen for, at det aborterede foster udviser livstegn efter fødslen. Undersøgelser peger desuden på, at indikationen for abort, religiøs...... tilknytning og fagligt tilhørsforhold påvirker holdningerne. Antallet af sene provokerede aborter stiger i takt med, at fosterdiagnostikken udvikles, og der er derfor behov for forskning, der kan kaste lys over, hvordan det danske sundhedspersonale forholder sig til sene provokerede aborter....

  14. Cryptococcemia Resulting in an Incomplete Abortion in an HIV-Positive Patient

    Kurosh Rahimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exotic infections and unusual presentations are the norm in immunocompromised patients. An unusual case of cryptococcemia resulting in a miscarriage is reported. This was the first presentation of the disease and the sentinel infection in the patient who was found to be HIV positive. Histological evaluation of the dilation and curettage specimen showed numerous typical organisms of cryptococcus present within the products of conception. There was a focal granulomatous response to the organisms. An accompanying cryptococcal endometritis was not noted. Other concomitant infections were not seen.

  15. Plasma β-Endorphin Levels in Women with Early Threatened Abortion before and after the Treatment of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine

    孙斐; 俞瑾

    1999-01-01

    To observe plasma β-endorphin(β-EP)and gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRM),human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG),progesterone (P4) levels in women with early threatened abortion and with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions(RSA).Twenty patients with threatened abortion at 7-8 weeks of gestation were re-cruited,all of them had a history of 3 or more recurrent unexplained abortions.They were treated with psychological consultation accompanied by traditional Chinese herbs.Blood samples were taken to measure β-EP,GnRM,hCG and P4 levels by radioim-munoassay(RIA).The treatments were continued till 10-12 weeks,blood was taken during this period to compare changes in these peptides/hormones.Twenty normal pregnant women at 7-8 and 10-12weeks and 20patients with incomplete abortion at 10- 12weeks were recruited for comparative studies.Results:(1)In normal pregnant women,plasma β-EP,GnRH,hCG and P4 levels at 10-12 weeks were significantly higher than that at 7-8 weeks(P0.05).(3)Plasma β-EP levels in patients with incomplete abortions at 10-12 weeks were dramatically higher and GnRH,hCG and P4levels were lower than in normal pregnant women(P<0.01).β-EP might play a role in the pathophysiology of spontaneous abortion.

  16. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs

  17. SELF - INDUCED MEDICAL ABORTION: A RISING CHALLENGE

    Bindoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In India medical abortion has become acceptable to the masses. As per the MTP Act 2003 medical abortion can be provided by certified providers at approved places or centres which have referral linkages even though the Centre is not approved for MTP. Despit e this in India a large number of abortions are still illegal. People are resorting to abortion without any pre - abortion checkup or counseling which is contrary to the MTP Act. This study was carried out to determine the reasons for resorting to self - induc ed abortion, assess the associated complications and acceptance of contraception after abortion. 77.7% of women in this study included those who reported to hospital following self - administered abortion so did not have any checkup, investigation or counsel ing. 23% women got the prescriptions from RMP, 42.85% from chemists and 30% from friend even though 55% of them were not residing far from the hospital. Following self - administered abortion, women reported with pain abdomen, retained products, pelvic infla mmatory disease and heavy bleeding requiring emergency suction evacuation. These women were not aware about the need for contraception and mistook self - induced abortion as a method for family planning. They resorted to self - induced abortions because they b elieved it to be safe, and presumed that a visit to the hospital is avoidable. 45 % of these women had undergone abortions in the past without any side effect. It is feared that if self - induced medical abortions continues unheeded the health system will get overburdened with resultant complications besides losing an opportunity for contraceptive counseling . It is recommended that the private practitioners may be brought into the system besides ensuring that regulations regarding prescription of drugs and the MTP Act are followed. Besides this masses should be made aware of the legality of medical abortion by using handouts and posters.

  18. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010 offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  19. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Walter E. Block

    2010-01-01

    I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010) offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  20. Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos.

    Purvis, Dara E

    2015-01-01

    One thread of abortion criticism, arguing that gender equality requires that men be allowed to terminate legal parental status and obligations, has reinforced the stereotype of men as uninterested in fatherhood. As courts facing disputes over stored pre-embryos weigh the equities of allowing implantation of the pre-embryos, this same gender stereotype has been increasingly incorporated into a legal balancing test, leading to troubling implications for ART and family law. PMID:26242955

  1. [Request for abortion during the 2d pregnancy trimester].

    Treffers, P E; Van den Berg, G R; Jager-van Gelder, P A; Van Oenen, J J

    1976-12-18

    156 women, 12-20 weeks pregnant, applied for abortion at the Wilhelmo Clinic in Amsterdam; 102 abortions were granted. The 156 late-abortion seekers were compared with 282 early-abortion seekers and 490 pregnant women. The late-abortion seekers were significantly younger (P .05). A significantly greater number of women over 30 applied for early abortion (P .001). Unmarried or divorced women were more likely to apply to abortion (P .001). Nulliparae applied more frequently for late abortion, compared to early-abortion seekers (P .001). Women with only one child were more likely to be in the pregnancy group (p .05), with 2 children in the early-abortion group (p .001). Women from Surinam and the Antilles were more likely to be in the early abortion group (p .001). Of the late-abortion seekers, 9 had medical indications. Many had psychosocial problems; 91 had problems with partner relations. In 24 cases the delay in seeking abortion was due to a doctor. An ambivalent attitude toward the abortion existed in 22 of the patients. 83% of the late-abortion seekers and 11.3% of the early-abortion seekers had previously had an abortion. The contraceptive use of the late-abortion seekers was not regular. 1.3% of the late-abortion seekers and 9.9% of the early-abortion seekers were using IUDs at the time of conception. PMID:1012384

  2. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  3. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  4. Abortion Counselling in Britain: Understanding the Controversy

    Hoggart, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews literature from a number of disciplines in order to provide an explanation of the political controversy attached to the provision of abortion counselling. It will show how this is an area of health policy debate in which women's reproductive bodies have become a setting for political struggle. The issue of abortion counselling in Britain has undergone a number of discursive shifts in response to political manoeuvring and changing socio-legal framing of abortion. In partic...

  5. Comparison of manual vacuum aspiration and sharp curettage in the treatment of first trimester abortions

    To compare the safety and efficacy of manual vacuum aspiration and sharp curettage in the treatment of first trimester abortions. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gynecology, Social Security Hospital Shahdra Lahore in collaboration with Family Health Hospital Johar Town Lahore, from May 2007 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: Six hundred women admitted with the diagnosis of first trimester less than or equal to 12 weeks abortions were randomly assigned, 300 to manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and 300 to traditional sharp curettage. Diagnosis of abortion was confirmed by last menstrual period, physical examination and ultrasonography. Results: In total of 600 patients, 300 randomly assigned to MVA and another 300 patients assigned to sharp curettage management were having mean age of 31.8 and 33 yrs respectively. Mean parity was in both groups, mean gestational age 8.9 and 8.2 weeks, mean duration of procedure was 6.4 and 5.8 minutes, duration of hospital stay was 4 and 40 hrs, missed abortion in 47% and 43% patients, incomplete abortion in 53% and 57% patients, cervical dilatation was needed in 1% against 53%, 10% against 8 % experienced mild pain in both groups, no patient of incomplete evacuation against 0.6%, uterine perforation in none against 0.3 %, excessive bleeding was experienced by 0.3% against 0.6% patients in both groups, and patient satisfaction rate was 99% against 99.4% in the two groups respectively. Conclusion: In the management of first trimester pregnancy loss, MVA offers a quick solution to the problem with reduced hospital stay and lower rate of complications. (author)

  6. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  7. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  8. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  9. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  10. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  11. Induction of abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy by intramuscular 15-methyl prostaglandin F 2 alpha (Prostin 15M).

    Novak-Antolic, Z; Assejev, V

    1982-01-01

    40 patients, pregnant clinically from 12 to 24 weeks in whom pregnancy termination for medical or medicosocial reasons was indicated, were given 250 micrograms Prostin 15M (15 methyl prostaglandin F 2 alpha, Upjohn) intramuscularly every three hours in total dose from 500 micrograms to 3000 micrograms. The Committee for Medical Ethics of the Committee for Medical and Social Security of SRS approved the study to be performed at the University Gynecological Hospital of Ljubljana using the drug and following the protocol of Upjohn (Tehnoservis). 36 patients (90%) aborted within 48 hours after the first injection (mean interval was 15.43 hours). In three out of 40 patients (7.5%) the abortion was complete, in 34 (85.0%) it was incomplete. In two patients, dilatation of cervical canal was complete, but the expected abortion did not take place. One patient aborted in 52 hours and 10 minutes. Only in a single case induction of abortion was completely unsuccessful. The drug is considered effective for induction of abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:7172431

  12. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  13. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  14. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro; Debora Diniz

    2015-01-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of ...

  15. A Critical Appraisal of Laws on Second Trimester Abortion1

    Berer, Marge

    2013-01-01

    There will always be women who need abortions after 12 weeks of pregnancy, and their reasons are often compelling. Although second trimester abortions carry relatively more risks than first trimester abortions, abortion is still very safe throughout the second trimester if done in safe conditions. This paper is about law and policy on second trimester abortions, which are allowed on more restrictive grounds than first trimester abortions in most countries, if at all. It focuses on countries w...

  16. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  17. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530

  18. J-2X Abort System Development

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  19. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  20. Abortion Legalization and Lifecycle Fertility

    Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat; Jonathan Gruber; Phillip B. Levine

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has convincingly shown that abortion legalization in the early 1970s led to a significant drop in fertility at that time. But this decline may have either represented a delay in births from a point where they were have represented a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine data from the 1970 U.S. Census and microdata from 1968 to 1999 Vital Statistics records to calculate lifetime fertility of women in the 1930s through 1960s birth cohorts. We examine whether those women...

  1. Usual hospital care versus post-abortion care for women with unsafe abortion: a case control study from Sri Lanka

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Lalini C. Rajapaksa; Galwaduge, Chandani

    2014-01-01

    Background Good quality post-abortion-care (PAC) is essential to prevent death and long-term complications following unsafe abortion, especially in countries with restrictive abortion laws. We assessed the PAC given to women following an unsafe abortion, compared to the routine hospital care following spontaneous abortion or unintended pregnancy carried to term in Sri Lanka. Methods A case–control study was conducted in Sri Lanka among 171 cases following unsafe abortion, 638 controls followi...

  2. Uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy: a case report

    Pourali L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In molar pregnancy, when hydatidiform changes are local and some embryonic components are observed, the term of partial mole is used. The risk of persistent trophoblastic tumor after partial mole is much lower than complete mole. In this persistent cases almost all are non metastatic. The aim of this study is to report a case of uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy.Case presentation: The patient was a 26 year old woman with obstetric history of an abortion and one molar pregnancy and no child. She was referred to emergency unit in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad, Iran in May 2011. She had an evacuation curettage following molar pregnancy three months before and without any follow up visit. The patient was referred to emergency unit with hemorrhagic shock. She immediately underwent laparotomy. The uterine fundal rupture was repaired and evacuation curettage performed. In post operative evaluation, she had a nine millimeter metastatic nodule in base of right Lung. As a patient in low risk stage III, she received weekly intramuscular methotrexate (40mg/m2 for six courses. In follow up visit -hCG titer was negative (<10miu/ml at 5th week. Conclusion: In cases of in complete molar pregnancy risk of metastasis is very low. Serial beta-hCG titer is the most accurate method for detection of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN. In neglected cases like this case preservation of ruptured uterus in GTN is possible.

  3. Medical Abortion Provided by Nurse-Midwives or Physicians in a High Resource Setting: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Kopp Kallner, Helena; Simeonova, Emilia; Madestam, Andreas; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of early medical abortion performed by nurse-midwifes in comparison to physicians in a high resource setting where ultrasound dating is part of the protocol. Non-physician health care professionals have previously been shown to provide medical abortion as effectively and safely as physicians, but the cost-effectiveness of such task shifting remains to be established. Study design A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted based on data from a previously published randomized-controlled equivalence study including 1180 healthy women randomized to the standard procedure, early medical abortion provided by physicians, or the intervention, provision by nurse-midwifes. A 1.6% risk difference for efficacy defined as complete abortion without surgical interventions in favor of midwife provision was established which means that for every 100 procedures, the intervention treatment resulted in 1.6 fewer incomplete abortions needing surgical intervention than the standard treatment. The average direct and indirect costs and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. The study was conducted at a university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Results The average direct costs per procedure were EUR 45 for the intervention compared to EUR 58.3 for the standard procedure. Both the cost and the efficacy of the intervention were superior to the standard treatment resulting in a negative ICER at EUR -831 based on direct costs and EUR -1769 considering total costs per surgical intervention avoided. Conclusion Early medical abortion provided by nurse-midwives is more cost-effective than provision by physicians. This evidence provides clinicians and decision makers with an important tool that may influence policy and clinical practice and eventually increase numbers of abortion providers and reduce one barrier to women’s access to safe abortion. PMID:27362270

  4. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion. PMID:26242952

  5. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2007-01-01

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  6. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  7. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  8. Interference Alignment with Incomplete CSIT Sharing

    De Kerret, Paul; Gesbert, David

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study the impact of having only incomplete channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT) over the feasibility of interference alignment (IA) in a K-user MIMO interference channel (IC). Incompleteness of CSIT refers to the perfect knowledge at each transmitter (TX) of only a sub-matrix of the global channel matrix, where the sub-matrix is specific to each TX. This paper investigates the notion of IA feasibility for CSIT configurations being as incomplete as possible, as...

  9. [Scope of the indications for abortion].

    Martella, E

    1976-09-01

    Legalization of abortion in Italy generates never ending discussions. The problem should have been solved years ago with a national campaign for family planning, with the setting up of well organized family centers, and with contraception available and free to all. If it seems right and proper to perform abortion under certain circumstances, it does not seem proper to take into consideration socioeconomic conditions, and certainly not abortion on request; a new life must not be wasted because a woman does not feel like having a new child. Abortion, on the other hand, is certainly to be considered in case of danger for the mother, in case of fetal abnormalities, or when the pregnancy is result of incest or of rape. Abortion for psychological reasons is very valid if the reasons are real, evident, and have been thoroughly evaluated. PMID:1012595

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  11. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied. PMID:24100828

  12. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul [Cha Women' s Hospital of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Doo [Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies.

  13. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture. PMID:26106105

  14. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  15. Practice of self-medication of mifepristone-misoprostol drug combination for medical abortion

    Sushila Godara

    2014-06-01

    However, the use of mifepristone and ndash; misoprostol combination for medical abortion used as self-medication, is rising due to changing socio-cultural practices and increased awareness among women for the termination of early pregnancy up to 63 days. It is observed that many women indulge in the practice of self-medication for termination of pregnancy. They take medicines either from local pharmacists, nurses, on advice of relatives, friends, husband, neighbors, newspaper articles, radio, television, magazines or any other such unauthorized sources for termination of pregnancy which mostly leads to incomplete abortion or many complications. It is observed that only few number of women have complete abortion with self-medication from an unauthorized source and moreover they suffer from pain and heavy bleeding when compared to normal menstrual flow. It is noticed that now-a-days, these drugs are used irrationally and nonjudiciously. Women are thus advised to take proper regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol under the guidance of an authorized practitioner and if they still fail to abort, then they have to undergo surgical evacuation that is, vaccum aspiration for termination of pregnancy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 572-573

  16. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  17. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.

  18. Incomplete albinism in Discoglossus pictus (Otth, 1837

    Filippo Spadola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an incomplete albinism case in a Discoglossus pictus subject found in Sicily. This is the first note for Italian territory, the second for the species and the third for Discoglossus genus.

  19. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

  20. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2005-05-13

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  1. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Qin, Gan; Chen, Xi; Sun, Min; Du, Jiangfeng

    2005-05-01

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  2. Epistemological Consequences of the Incompleteness Theorems

    Raguní, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    After highlighting the cases in which the semantics of a language cannot be mechanically reproduced (in which case it is called inherent), the main epistemological consequences of the first incompleteness Theorem for the two fundamental arithmetical theories are shown: the non-mechanizability for the truths of the first-order arithmetic and the peculiarities for the model of the second-order arithmetic. Finally, the common epistemological interpretation of the second incompleteness Theorem is...

  3. Incomplete Derivative Markets and Portfolio Insurance

    Charalambos Aliprantis; Brown, Donald J; J. Werner

    1997-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions on the asset span of incomplete derivative markets for insuring marketed portfolios. If the asset span is finite dimensional there exists a polynomial-time algorithm for deciding if every marketed portfolio is insurable, moreover this algorithm computes the minimum cost insurance portfolio. In addition, we extend the Cox-Leland characterization of optimal portfolio insurance in complete derivative markets to asset spans of incomplete derivative m...

  4. Incomplete Contracts and the Product Cycle

    Antras, Pol

    2005-01-01

    The incomplete nature of contracts governing international transactions limits the extent to which the production process can be fragmented across borders. In a dynamic, general-equilibrium Ricardian model of North-South trade, the incompleteness of international contracts is shown to lead to the emergence of product cycles. Because of contractual frictions, goods are initially manufactured in the North, where product development takes place. As the good matures and becomes more standardized,...

  5. Multi-View Learning With Incomplete Views.

    Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao

    2015-12-01

    One underlying assumption of the conventional multi-view learning algorithms is that all examples can be successfully observed on all the views. However, due to various failures or faults in collecting and pre-processing the data on different views, we are more likely to be faced with an incomplete-view setting, where an example could be missing its representation on one view (i.e., missing view) or could be only partially observed on that view (i.e., missing variables). Low-rank assumption used to be effective for recovering the random missing variables of features, but it is disabled by concentrated missing variables and has no effect on missing views. This paper suggests that the key to handling the incomplete-view problem is to exploit the connections between multiple views, enabling the incomplete views to be restored with the help of the complete views. We propose an effective algorithm to accomplish multi-view learning with incomplete views by assuming that different views are generated from a shared subspace. To handle the large-scale problem and obtain fast convergence, we investigate a successive over-relaxation method to solve the objective function. Convergence of the optimization technique is theoretically analyzed. The experimental results on toy data and real-world data sets suggest that studying the incomplete-view problem in multi-view learning is significant and that the proposed algorithm can effectively handle the incomplete views in different applications. PMID:26469202

  6. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom. PMID:12222235

  7. Bills to decriminalize abortion in Brazil.

    1994-01-01

    The National Congress in Brazil is currently considering 9 abortion bills, 2 of which were introduced by women. In this interview, the women senators--Jandira Feghall of the Communist Party and Eva Blay of the Social Democrat Party--discuss the likely outcome of the abortion debate. Although the Roman Catholic Church has announced its intentions to oppose any liberalization of the abortion law, there are divisions within the Church as evidenced by the existence of groups such as Catholics for a Free Choice. Both senators agree that decriminalization of abortion will depend upon the societal response and an effort must be made to reach the many people who are confused and undecided about the issue. Although the present debate fits within the broader current debate on population policies, it has been the insistence of the feminist movement that put abortion reform on the agenda. Blay's bill calls for the legalization of abortion on demand until the 12th week of pregnancy and in cases of rape or risk to the woman's life after that point. A controversial aspect of Feghall's bill is the inclusion of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as a condition for abortion. Feghall notes that this is an option rather than a requirement, but she will eliminate this condition if it engenders discrimination against HIV-infected women. PMID:12318722

  8. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  9. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  10. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF SEPTIC ABORTION

    Manoj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Septic abortion is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Termination of pregnancy, although a safe and easy procedure in trained hands, can produce catastrophic outcomes when performed by unauthorized or untrained people and in improper settings. OBJECTIVE: To find out the association of various socio-demographic factors with septic abortion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a longitudinal study, conducted in the indoor of obstetrics & gynaecology department of R.M.C.H & R.C, Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh from the period of Feb-2013 to April-2013, after selecting 100 septic abortion cases by simple randomization, who were admitted during the study period. Information of all these cases regarding their age, marital status, socio-economic status, literacy, parity and gestational age was obtained, and their association with septic abortion was studied accordingly. OBSERVATION: Out of the 100 cases of septic abortion studied, maximum percentage (66% of the cases was seen from the age group of 26 to 35 years. Most of the cases (97% were married, maximum (40% were belonging from low socio-economic status group (Group-IV, maximum (60% number of cases were illiterate, maximum (53% number of cases belonged to women group having parity five and above, and maximum (86% number of women were in the 1st trimester of pregnancy at the time of abortion. CONCLUSION: Present study confirms that unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected healthcare problems in India and more so in rural India. So, there is the need to strengthen quality abortion services to reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality due to septic abortion

  11. The abortion debate: measuring gestational age.

    Santee, B; Henshaw, S K

    1992-01-01

    Abortion statistics are flawed by the lack of consistency in reporting gestational age. Several methods are generally used, and the number of abortions occurring before 12 weeks changes considerably depending upon the method used to determine gestational age. Pregnancy can be measured from the beginning of last menstruation or from fertilization, which is 14 days after the 1st day of the last menstrual period. Neither method accurately records pregnancy as determined by specialists in embryology and fetal development. Pregnancy actually begins with implantation, which begins 6-7 days after fertilization and ends 10-14 days later. Completion of fertilization and implantation occurs as much as 28 days after the 1st day of the last menstrual period. A report of an 8-week pregnancy is actually 6 weeks from fertilization and 4-5 weeks from implantation. The Centers for Disease Control and other abortion data collecting agencies use the 1st day of the last menstrual period. Statistics generally show that 50% of abortions occur before 8 weeks of gestation and 90% by 12 weeks. When gestation is considered at fertilization, 78% of abortions occur under 9 weeks, while 52% of abortions under 9 weeks are performed with data beginning at the 1st day of the last menstrual period. For abortions occurring under 12 weeks, 95% beginning at fertilization and 90% occur at the 1st day of the last menstrual period. 2/1000 vs. 5/1000 abortions occur under 20 weeks for data beginning at fertilization vs. at the onset of the last period. It is important to report abortion data accurately and to specify the method used to determine the gestational time period. PMID:1526273

  12. Radical surgery in septic abortion.

    Chatterjee, P; Ghosh, M; Ghosh, S

    1979-08-01

    At R.G. Kar Medical College Hospital, Calcutta, 10 cases of septic abortion from 1975-1977 were studied. Hysterectomies were preformed on 4 cases due to emergency situations including traumatised uterine fundus and perforated cervix, and on 6 cases after conservative treatment. Upon performing laparotomy in 9 cases, a uterine rent was detected; in 1 case there was a perforation in the posterior wall of the cervix, and in 5 cases mechanical obstructions due to internal adhesions to the uterine rent were found. 4 patients died primarily because of the patients seeking help too late. It is suggested that under high risk circumstances, laparotomy is advantageous to conservative medical management since bowel injuries and mechanical obstructions can only be detected by laparotomy. Radical surgery, however, should be undertaken before the patients general condition deteriorates to the point that the patient cannot tolerate surgical intervention. PMID:12336028

  13. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act. PMID:3514547

  14. economics of abortion and children in care

    Bagaria, Manish

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between abortion and children in care. Data from 1967 to 1973 are used to test the hypothesis, whether or not legalisation of abortion in England had some effect on the number children in care. The motivation of this research comes from the negative association between abortion rates and reported crime found by Donohue and Levitt (2001) for the U.S. and replication of the same in the U.K in Kahane's, Paton's and Simmons research (2007). Although childr...

  15. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  16. Aborto. Responsabilidad compartida/Abortion. Shared responsibility

    David Ernesto Betancourt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The father and the mother are involved in the act of procreation, therefore in abortion should also be considered is the father figure in some way and not let you load psychological, emotional and physical exclusively women. Similarly, when she decides to have an abortion he is not observed or questioned integral form to family and society to which she belongs, in short, the stigmatization affects only to the woman in question when there are several actors and circumstances that come into the Act of abortion.

  17. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society. PMID:22920621

  18. Psychology Consequences of Abortion Among The Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    Abolghasem Pourreza; Aziz Batebi

    2011-01-01

    "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respo...

  19. Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    Pourreza, Abolghasem; Batebi, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Objective Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. Method 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and h...

  20. Therapeutic abortion in Siriraj Hospital: A 10-year review

    Chanon Neungton; Saifon Chawanpaiboon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess indications, methods of interventions and gestational age of women underwent therapeutic abortion. Method: A total of 1381 cases of pregnant women underwent therapeutic abortion with completed charts between 1st January, 2001 to 31st December, 2010, were enrolled in this study. The patient data including demographic data, gestational age of abortion, methods of abortion, dosage of cytotec usage, indications of abortion and length of hospital stay were recorded. RESULT: M...

  1. Sex-Selective Abortions to Be Outlawed

    2005-01-01

    China is to outlaw the selective abortion of female fetuses to correct an imbalance in the ratio of boys to girls that has grown since the family planning policy was introduced more than 20 years ago.

  2. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

  3. Access to abortion and secular liberties

    Roberto Arriada Lorea; Michele Andréa Markowitz

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil, facing an issue like abortion requires a secular perspective since the freedom of conscience assured by the Federal Constitution places upon the State the need to regard not only different viewpoints of different religions, but more specifically assure the right to diversity existing within a same religion, as well as the right to exercise different views from those of the hierarchy of his/her own religion. As such, there is no legal barrier for the decriminalization of abortion in...

  4. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.

    Abrams, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping. PMID:26242937

  5. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    裴培

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history.The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors: the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s healt

  6. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history. The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors:the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s health.

  7. South African parliament approves sweeping abortion reform.

    1996-11-22

    South Africa's National Assembly voted 209 to 87 for passage of the "Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act" on October 30; it was passed in the Senate, 49 to 21 (20 abstentions), on November 5. The African National Congress strongly supported the Act, while the National Party opposed it. Under the law, abortions during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy may to be performed by physicians or trained midwives. From week 13 through week 20, a physician, in consultation with the mother, may terminate the pregnancy after determining that continuing the pregnancy would threaten the woman's health (physical or mental) or circumstances (social or economic), or that the fetus is at substantial risk of suffering severe physical or mental abnormalities. Abortion is permitted after 20 weeks if two doctors (or midwives) decide continuing the pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or result in injury or severe malformation of the fetus. Only the pregnant woman's consent is required. Although an abortion provider must advise a young client to consult with parents, guardian, family members, or friends before the procedure, she is not required to comply. All women are to be informed of their rights under the Act; criminal penalties (up to 10 years) are mandated for unauthorized abortion providers, for persons who prevent a lawful abortion, or for those who obstruct access to an abortion facility. The new statute repeals the more restrictive Abortion and Sterilization Act of 1975, which permitted abortion only in cases of maternal life or health endangerment, severe fetal abnormality, rape, incest, or mental incapacity. PMID:12292092

  8. Abortion and anxiety: what's the relationship?

    Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F

    2008-07-01

    Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18468755

  9. The abortion debate in the Dominican Republic.

    1992-01-01

    Faced with a situation in which an estimated 60,000 illegal abortions (a major cause of maternal mortality) were performed annually, the Dominican Republic has adopted a new Health Code which contains a chapter dedicated to maternal health. Included in the new code are cases in which abortion is allowed: 1) when 2 specialists affirm that the pregnancy or childbirth constitutes a risk to the mother's health or life; 2) if the medical history of the parents and 2 doctors confirm the likelihood of the baby being born seriously disabled or deformed; or 3) if the mother's mental health is put in jeopardy by continuing the pregnancy. Despite the disapproval of church representatives, the legalization of abortion was unanimously approved by the Congress. The debate which surrounded the process was increased by a petition signed by more than 260 women decrying the lack of input that women had in the decision-making process. Women's action groups have been trying to widen the context in which the political discussion is taking place to stress the importance of viewing abortion from a reproductive rights perspective. The women's groups wish to prevent a situation in which the discussion surrounding the issue will be limited to legislators and church leaders. The women have pointed out that women should make the decisions about their lives and their bodies. In the meantime, the president of the Congress predicts that illegal abortion will continue in the Dominican Republic regardless of the current provisions for legal abortion. PMID:12286344

  10. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  11. SEPTIC ABORTION: AN AVOIDABLE TRAGIC COMPLICATION

    Neelam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to study the incidence, demographic factors, clinical features, management, maternal morbidity, maternal mortality, surgical interventions with special emphasis on various contributing factors and unmet needs of septic abortion. In this study, 153 cases of septic abortions during six years periods, from January 2009 to December 2014 in the department of obstetrics and gynecology in Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, were included. All patients were evaluated with special reference to incidence, age incidence, marital status, socio economic status, residential distribution, gravida incidence, causes of septic abortion, grades of infection, clinical presentation, and management. Incidence of septic abortion was 3.88 % . Criminal interference was in 74 % of cases. Most of the cases (65 % were from low socioeconomic group. Sixty percent were from rural area. Fifty eight percent were tribal. Sixteen percent were admitted in septic shock. Laparotomy was required in seventeen percent of cases. Hysterectomy was require in five cases. Unfortunately, maternal death was nine. Cause of maternal death was septic shock in six and haemorrhagic shock in three. This incidence of septic abortion can be reduced by increasing awareness and making “safe abortion services” easily available, free of coast and also by providing family planning services.

  12. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  13. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  14. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  15. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information

    We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

  16. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  17. OAM beams from incomplete computer generated holograms

    Zambale, Niña Angelica F; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we show that optical beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated even with incomplete computer generated holograms (CGH). These holograms are made such that random portions of it do not contain any information. We observe that although the beams produced with these holograms are less intense, these beams maintain their shape and that their topological charges are not affected. Furthermore, we show that superposition of two or more beams can be created using separate incomplete CGHs interspersed together. Our result is significant especially since most method to generate beams with OAM for various applications rely on pixelated devices or optical elements with imperfections.

  18. The empirical cost of optimal incomplete transportation

    del Barrio, Eustasio; Matrán, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal incomplete transportation between the empirical measure on an i.i.d. uniform sample on the $d$-dimensional unit cube $[0,1]^{d}$ and the true measure. This is a family of problems lying in between classical optimal transportation and nearest neighbor problems. We show that the empirical cost of optimal incomplete transportation vanishes at rate $O_{P}(n^{-1/d})$, where $n$ denotes the sample size. In dimension $d\\geq3$ the rate is the same as in classical op...

  19. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of...... providers present. Health professionals are prone to use instrumental procedures to induce the abortion, whereas traditional providers often make a brew of herbs to be drunk in one or more doses. In countries with restrictive abortion laws, high rates of maternal death must be expected and globally an...

  20. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the

  1. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma. PMID:26086582

  2. Quantum Games of Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    CHEN Xi; QIN Gan; ZHOU Xian-Yi; DU Jiang-Feng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study two-player quantum games of incomplete information in which both the sides have partial information.The previous results of Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 016124] are incorporated in our more general formalism.Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits many interesting features.

  3. PIC (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION) ANALYSIS METHODS

    The report gives results of method evaluations for products of incomplete combustion (PICs): 36 proposed PICs were evaluated by previously developed gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) methods. It also gives resu...

  4. CLAIM HEDGING IN AN INCOMPLETE MARKET

    SUN Wangui; WANG Chunfeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we compare the performance of the optimal attainable payoffs (of a general claim) derived by the variance-optimal approach and the indifference argument under the mean-variance preference in an incomplete market.Both payoffs are expressed by the signed variance-optimal martingale measure.Our results are applied to the claim hedging under partial information.

  5. Full and Incomplete Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features and hospitalization rates of children with full or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS were compared in retrospective case-controlled studies of affected Northern Plains American Indian children attending Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service hospitals, South Dakota.

  6. The Evolution of Conventions under Incomplete Information

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Mogens; Sloth, Birgitte

    We formulate an evolutionary learning process in the spirit of Young (1993a) for games of incomplete information. The process involves trembles. For many games, if the amount of trembling is small, play will be in accordance with the games' (semi- strict) Bayesian equilibria most of the time. Thi...

  7. Aesthetic plastic correction of incomplete testicular feminization.

    Hinderer, U T

    1979-12-01

    Surgery was performed for feminization of ambiguous (male) external genitalia in 1973 on a patient with incomplete testicular feminization (familial male hermaphroditism of mixed variety). Rhinoplasty and augmentation of the chin, the malar region, the breasts were also performed not only to improve the patient's sexual role but to enhance the aesthetic appearance, as an aid in better phychosocial adaptation. PMID:24173991

  8. Self Medication of Abortion Pill: Women’s Health in Jeopardy

    Rajal Thaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI recommends close monitoring of distribution of drugs that are used for medical abortion and that the medical profession and pharmaceutical industry should exercise due diligence in the promotion and usage of drugs that are used for medical abortion. Despite this, it has been perceived by the society that, medical abortions are extremely safe option even in hands of untrained personnel, leading to its over the counter dispensing and possibly increase in unsupervised terminations and life threatening complications. Objective: To study consequences of self medication of Abortion pill on women’s health Study Design: Retrospective Observational Study Duration of Study: One Year: August 2012 to July 2013 Material and Methods: After due permission from authority, data was collected from patients who had come for follow-up and treatment after self medication (purchased over the counter by self/family member without medical guidance/supervision for Medical method of Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP. Results: Data was collected in 37 patients, who had history of self medication of abortion pill. More than half, 20 (54% women were in age group of 20-29 years and married women were 35 (94.5%. Uneducated women were 12 (32.4%. Majority 33(89.1% of women had complaint of bleeding per vaginum. On Ultrasonography (USG, 26(70.2% women had incomplete abortion, 4 (10.8% women had intrauterine gestational sac with cardiac activity, 2(5.4% women had complete abortion and 1(2.7% woman had missed abortion. Surgical curettage was performed in 28(75.6% women. In 2(5.4% women, there was complete abortion after oxytocin and misoprostol. One woman (2.7% wanted to continue the pregnancy. Laparotomy was performed in 2 (5.4% women having ectopic pregnancy and in 1(2.7% woman who had perforation of uterus while undergoing surgical curettage at private hospital. Moderate and severe anaemia

  9. [Conscientious objection in the matter of abortion].

    Serrano Gil, A; García Casado, M L

    1992-03-01

    The issue of conscientious objection in Spain has been used by pro-choice groups against objecting health personnel as one of the obstacles to the implementation of the abortion law, a misnomer. At present objection is massive in the public sector; 95% of abortions are carried out in private clinics with highly lucrative returns; abortion tourism has decreased; and false objection has proliferated in the public sector when the objector performs abortions in the private sector for high fees. The legal framework for conscientious objection is absent in Spain. Neither Article 417 of the Penal Code depenalizing abortion, nor the Ministerial Decree of July 31, 1985, nor the Royal Decree of November 21, 1986 recognize such a concept. However, the ruling of the Constitutional Court on April 11, 1985 confirmed that such objection can be exercised with independence. Some authors refer to the applicability of Law No. 48 of December 16, 1984 that regulates conscientious objection in military service to health personnel. The future law concerning the fundamental right of ideological and religious liberty embodied in Article 16.1 of the Constitution has to be revised. A draft bill was submitted in the Congress or Representatives concerning this issue on May 3, 1985 that recognizes the right of medical personnel to object to abortion without career repercussions. Another draft bill was introduced on April 17, 1985 that would allow the nonparticipation of medical personnel in the interruption of pregnancy, however, they would be prohibited from practicing such in the private hospitals. Neither of these proposed bills became law. Professional groups either object unequivocally, or do not object at all, or object on an ethical level but do not object to therapeutic abortion. The resolution of this issue has to be by consensus and not by imposition. PMID:1565971

  10. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:11424252

  11. Access to abortion services: abortions performed by mid-level practitioners.

    Kowalczyk, E A

    1993-01-01

    Because the number of physicians available to perform abortions in the US is dwindling, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should be trained and permitted to perform abortions. Roadblocks to this change are the fact that the Supreme Court would likely allow states to prevent mid-level practitioners from performing abortions in the name of protecting the health of the mother. Also, existing statutes would probably not be interpreted by courts to allow mid-level practitioners to perform abortions. However, physician assistants have been performing abortions in Vermont since 1975, and a 1981-82 comparative study affirmed that physician assistants are well-equipped to perform abortions (of 2458 procedures, the complication rate/1000 was 27.4 for physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians). However, controversy surrounds the provision of abortion by these physician assistants in Vermont, since the relevant statute suggests that abortion is illegal unless performed by a physician. However, the statute has not been changed since Roe vs. Wade and is likely unconstitutional. Court cases in Missouri and Tennessee suggest that courts may be willing to include abortion within the scope of progressive nursing practice acts, but a recent similar case in Massachusetts resulted in a narrow interpretation of nursing practice statutes. Because the definition of professional nursing varies with each state statute, it will be a formidable task to convince every jurisdiction to include abortion as a permissible mid-level practice. Even in Vermont, the nursing practice statute defines in an exclusive list what services the professional nurse may perform (whereas the physician assistant regulations limit their scope of practice only to that delegated by a supervising physician). States could, of course, pass statutes which include abortion as a permissible practice for the mid-level practitioner. However, specific legislation would provide a clear

  12. Expression of AIF-1 and RANTES in Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion and Possible Association with Alloimmune Abortion

    Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and >8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.

  13. Quantum State Reconstruction From Incomplete Data

    Buzek, V; Derka, R; Adam, G; Wiedemann, H

    1998-01-01

    Knowing and guessing, these are two essential epistemological pillars in the theory of quantum-mechanical measurement. As formulated quantum mechanics is a statistical theory. In general, a priori unknown states can be completely determined only when measurements on infinite ensembles of identically prepared quantum systems are performed. But how one can estimate (guess) quantum state when just incomplete data are available (known)? What is the most reliable estimation based on a given measured data? What is the optimal measurement providing only a finite number of identically prepared quantum objects are available? These are some of the questions we address. We present several schemes for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from measured data: (1) We show how the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle can be efficiently used for an estimation of quantum states on incomplete observation levels. (2) We show how Bayesian inference can be used for reconstruction of quantum states when only a finite number ...

  14. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  15. "Right tool," wrong "job": Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal.

    Suh, Siri

    2015-06-01

    The "rightness" of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the "job" they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminate pregnancy. I explore how negotiations over the rightness of MVA as well as PAC unfold at the intersection of national and global reproductive politics during the daily treatment of abortion complications at three hospitals in Senegal, where PAC is permitted but induced abortion is legally prohibited. Although state health authorities have championed MVA as the "preferred" PAC technology, the primary donor for PAC, the United States Agency for International Development, does not support the purchase of abortifacient technologies. I conducted an ethnography of Senegal's PAC program between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included interviews with 49 health professionals, observation of PAC treatment and review of abortion records at three hospitals, and a review of transnational literature on MVA and PAC. While MVA was the most frequently employed form of uterine evacuation in hospitals, concerns about off-label MVA practices contributed to the persistence of less effective methods such as dilation and curettage (D&C) and digital curettage. Anxieties about MVA's capacity to induce abortion have constrained its integration into routine obstetric care. This capacity also raises questions about what the "job," PAC, represents in Senegalese hospitals. The prioritization of MVA's security over women's access to the preferred technology reinforces gendered inequalities in health care. PMID:25948127

  16. [Abortion as it is described to us].

    Six-Quivy, M; Macaigne, M; Playoust, D; Zylberberg, G

    1980-01-01

    The French law legalizing abortion provided for a meeting between patient and social counselor prior to the intervention. Aim of this provision was to allow a women to see more clearly into herself, and to allow a social worker to help the patient make a personal and wise decision. Most women come to this encounter with feelings of guilt, anxiety, and depression; most of them want abortion because they know they can have one, and medical reasons for abortion are practacally nonexistant. The emotional situation of the couple, more than their socioeconomic condition, does have a great importance in making a final decision. A discussion can sometimes help, but the responsibility of the decision is with the women's alone. PMID:7401902

  17. The politics of abortion and contraception

    Drezgić Rada

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author challenges several dominant positions that are relevant for understanding demographic trends and contraceptive practices as well as their mutual relationship. First, the author rejects the assumed direct connection between high abortion rates and low fertility. Second, the author challenges the thesis according to which abortions come about because of the lack of contraception and proposes that high abortion rates result from failing contraception i.e. from high failing rates of coitus interruptus which is a preferred method of birth control by men and women in Serbia. Finally, the author argues that giving control over reproductive risk to men does not make women passive victims of male domination. Rather women are, it is argued, active agents in reproducing hegemonic gender roles and relations. In addition, the author shows how gender power relations formed at the micro level may be consequential for macro level politics.

  18. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke;

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The...... difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age and that the...

  19. Diagnostic categorization of post-abortion syndrome.

    Gómez Lavín, C; Zapata García, R

    2005-01-01

    Some psychopathological characteristics are frequently observed in women who have voluntarily aborted. However, some resistance currently remains to their recognition as a differentiated nosological category, known as Post-Abortion Syndrome (PAS). We tried to assign a diagnostic category to women with PAS by determining the extent by which they fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of international classifications. Criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were met in the ten PAS cases studied. In addition, patients also showed other non-specific symptoms such as repeated and persistent dreams and nightmares related with the abortion, intense feelings of guilt and the "need to repair". PAS should be considered as an additional type of PTSD. It also has some specific characteristics that could help to understand the patient's life experience and to establish a psychotherapeutic intervention. PMID:15999304

  20. Access to abortion and secular liberties

    Roberto Arriada Lorea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, facing an issue like abortion requires a secular perspective since the freedom of conscience assured by the Federal Constitution places upon the State the need to regard not only different viewpoints of different religions, but more specifically assure the right to diversity existing within a same religion, as well as the right to exercise different views from those of the hierarchy of his/her own religion. As such, there is no legal barrier for the decriminalization of abortion in the country. It is up to legislators to reform the present law and decriminalize abortion, assuming the commitments Brazil has assumed with international human-rights organizations, thus assuring the efficacy of civil liberties.

  1. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at <37 weeks of gestation), and low birth...... weight (<2500 g) in the first subsequent pregnancy in women who had had a first-trimester medical abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women) or...... pregnancies, gestational age at abortion, parity, cohabitation status, and urban or nonurban residence, medical abortion was not associated with a significantly increased risk of ectopic pregnancy (relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.41), spontaneous abortion (relative risk, 0.87; 95...

  2. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  3. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  4. Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know

    ... Size Email Print Share Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know Page Content Article Body ... a handful of states grant minors access to abortion without their parents’ knowledge or permission. The majority ...

  5. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  6. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  7. Development of abort trigger system for SuperKEKB

    We have developed the new abort trigger system for SuperKEKB. The abort trigger system collects more than 130 abort signals and issues the abort kicker trigger signal. Since the response time of the system is required to be less than 20 μs, the abort signals are transmitted as optical signals. The system also has the timestamp function to record the abort signal received time with a 0.1 μs time resolution. Based on the performance tests, the response time of the modules is considered to be much shorter than cable delay. In the new system, the timestamp information gives the order of the received abort signals. This paper describes the design and the result of the performance test of the new abort trigger system. (author)

  8. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  9. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted the...... Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting for...

  10. Fuzzy sequential pattern mining in incomplete databases

    Fiot, Céline; Laurent, Anne; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2008-01-01

    Recent widening of data mining application areas have lead to new issues. For instance, frequent sequence discovery techniques that were developed for customer behaviour analysis are now applied to analyse industrial or biological databases. Thus frequent sequence mining algorithm must be adapted to handle particular characteristics of these data. Among these specificities one should consider numerical attributes and incomplete data. In this paper, we propose a method for di...

  11. Cooperation Breakdowns under Incomplete Property Rights

    Jean-Pierre Tranchant

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze conflict and cooperation between a State and a non ruling group in a general equilibrium, I unite pure rent-seeking models and economic models of conflict under an assumption of incomplete property rights. I show that a unique and globally stable Nash equilibrium exists in this game. Cooperation breakdowns appear to be twofold: generalized conflict driven by a collapse of the State and one- sided rebellion due to the coexistence between a strong State and a weak minority. ...

  12. Securitization and Real Investment in Incomplete Markets

    Vishal Gaur; Sridhar Seshadri; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of financial innovations on real investment decisions within the framework of an incomplete market economy comprised of firms, investors, and an intermediary. The firms face unique investment opportunities that arise in their business operations and can be undertaken at given reservation prices. The cash flows thus generated are not spanned by the securities traded in the financial market and cannot be valued uniquely. The intermediary purchases claims against these cash f...

  13. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  14. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Robison-Cox, James F.; Robert J. Boik

    1998-01-01

    The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q) is the beta function. Dutka (1981) gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  15. An Intuitively Complete Analysis of Godel's Incompleteness

    Steinmetz, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed and rigorous analysis of Godel's proof of his first incompleteness theorem is presented. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. The first is to reveal what Godel actually proved to provide a clear and solid foundation upon which to base future research. The second is to construct a coherent explication of Godel's proof that is not only approachable by the non-specialist, but also brings to light the core principles underlying Godel's proof.

  16. Phase Transitions for Gödel Incompleteness

    Weiermann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Gödel's first incompleteness result from 1931 states that there are true assertions about the natural numbers which do not follow from the Peano axioms. Since 1931 many researchers have been looking for natural examples of such assertions and breakthroughs have been obtained in the seventies by Jeff Paris (in part jointly with Leo Harrington and Laurie Kirby) and Harvey Friedman who produced first mathematically interesting independence results in Ramsey theory (Paris) and well-order an...

  17. Essential Incompleteness of Arithmetic Verified by Coq

    O'Connor, Russell

    2005-01-01

    A constructive proof of the Goedel-Rosser incompleteness theorem has been completed using the Coq proof assistant. Some theory of classical first-order logic over an arbitrary language is formalized. A development of primitive recursive functions is given, and all primitive recursive functions are proved to be representable in a weak axiom system. Formulas and proofs are encoded as natural numbers, and functions operating on these codes are proved to be primitive recursive. The weak axiom sys...

  18. Theory of Demand in Incomplete Markets

    Turner, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of demand for commodities and assets facing incompletely insurable uncertainty. First, a Slutsky matrix decomposes into substitution and income effects the derivative of demand with respect to prices and yield structure. Next, we identify the Slutsky matrix’s properties. The Slutsky matrix can be perturbed arbitrarily, subject only to preserving these properties, by perturbing the underlying utility’s Hessian, while fixing point demand and marginal utility. The key resul...

  19. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled. PMID:12178838

  20. Nurses and care of women seeking abortions, 1971 to 2011.

    McLemore, Monica; Levi, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In its first issue in 1972, JOGNN published a review article reporting surveillance data about abortions in the United States (Bourne, Kahn, Conger, & Tyler, 1972). This historical article predated Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion. Since this landmark decision, numerous articles have addressed nurses' role in abortion care. We review current literature on nurses and abortion care and use thematic categories to highlight areas of investigation. PMID:22273447

  1. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  2. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  3. Abortion Costs, Separation and Non-Marital Childbearing

    Andrew Beauchamp

    2012-01-01

    How do abortion costs affect non-marital childbearing? While greater access to abortion has the first-order effect of reducing childbearing among pregnant women, it could nonetheless lead to unintended consequences via effects on marriage market norms. Single motherhood could rise if lower-cost abortion makes it easier for men to avoid marriage. We identify the effect of abortion costs on separation, cohabitation and marriage following a birth by exploiting the "miscarriage-as-a-natural exper...

  4. Effectiveness of Family Planning Policies: The Abortion Paradox

    Nathalie Bajos; Mireille Le Guen; Aline Bohet; Henri Panjo; Caroline Moreau

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. Thi...

  5. Post-Abortion Syndrome: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Robins, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Unwanted pregnancy and abortion are common life events, with an estimated 1 in 5 women experiencing an abortion within their lifetime. Although abortion itself is a relatively minor, safe procedure with minimal physical impact, controversy exists regarding the psychological risks associated with the termination of a pregnancy. A key argument within this debate is whether or not there is such a phenomenon as post-abortion syndrome. Therefore, this study aimed to examine t...

  6. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita;

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  7. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  8. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date of...

  9. Social forces and the abortion law.

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    This research analyses the social and political forces underlying the 1aws of abortion in Britain and the United States. It sets out to explain the apparent paradox that the United States now has an abortion law which is more liberal than Britain despite the fact that in many ways it is a more conservative society. Furthemore it aims to set this recent situation in a historical context and to examine recent and likely future developments. It analyses the major social forces on either si...

  10. A comment on Tooley's Abortion and Infanticide.

    Tushnet, Mark; Seidman, Louis Michael

    1986-01-01

    Tushnet and Seidman attempt to show that, even if Michael Tooley is correct that fetuses have no right to life, others may have a right to their continued existence. Rights-bearing third parties with an interest in the fetus might be biological fathers, prospective adoptive parents, or even society as a whole. Criteria for assessing the legitimacy of claims of interest must be developed and then balanced against the claims of those who support abortion. The authors also discuss principles of bodily autonomy, the destruction as well as the removal of the fetus, and the question of whether legislation prohibiting abortion is mandatory, permissible, or optional. PMID:11653692

  11. Acute pancreatitis following medical abortion: Case report

    Amini Hashem

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pancreatitis rarely complicates pregnancy. Although most pregnant women with acute pancreatitis have associated gallstones, less common causes such as drugs have been reported. Case presentation We report the case of a 34-year-old woman who underwent medical abortion with mifepristone and gemeprost and received codeine as pain-relief during the induction of abortion. She developed a severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis which required 14 days of intensive care. Other possible etiological factors, i.e. gallstone, alcohol intake and hyperlipidemia, were excluded. Conclusions The reported case of acute pancreatitis was most likely drug-induced.

  12. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  13. ANTISPERM ANTIBODY IS A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    XUChong; CHENFu; LIULi; ZHAOFei-Sha

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the possible correlation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and spontaneous abortion, 68 women, aged 23-37, experienced 2-9 times of spontaneous abortion were tested for ASA by ELISA. 38 fertile women, aged 24-40, without history of abortion were employed as control.

  14. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  15. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  16. The Psychosocial Factors of the Abortion Experience: A Critical Review

    Shusterman, Lisa Roseman

    1976-01-01

    Due to faulty methodology no general statements can be made about psychosocial factors for women receiving illegal abortions. Women receiving therapeutic abortions experienced favorable psychological consequences more often than negative consequences. New abortion patients are mostly young, unmarried women who are not in a social position to care…

  17. Classification and data acquisition with incomplete data

    Williams, David P.

    In remote-sensing applications, incomplete data can result when only a subset of sensors (e.g., radar, infrared, acoustic) are deployed at certain regions. The limitations of single sensor systems have spurred interest in employing multiple sensor modalities simultaneously. For example, in land mine detection tasks, different sensor modalities are better-suited to capture different aspects of the underlying physics of the mines. Synthetic aperture radar sensors may be better at detecting surface mines, while infrared sensors may be better at detecting buried mines. By employing multiple sensor modalities to address the detection task, the strengths of the disparate sensors can be exploited in a synergistic manner to improve performance beyond that which would be achievable with either single sensor alone. When multi-sensor approaches are employed, however, incomplete data can be manifested. If each sensor is located on a separate platform ( e.g., aircraft), each sensor may interrogate---and hence collect data over---only partially overlapping areas of land. As a result, some data points may be characterized by data (i.e., features) from only a subset of the possible sensors employed in the task. Equivalently, this scenario implies that some data points will be missing features. Increasing focus in the future on using---and fusing data from---multiple sensors will make such incomplete-data problems commonplace. In many applications involving incomplete data, it is possible to acquire the missing data at a cost. In multi-sensor remote-sensing applications, data is acquired by deploying sensors to data points. Acquiring data is usually an expensive, time-consuming task, a fact that necessitates an intelligent data acquisition process. Incomplete data is not limited to remote-sensing applications, but rather, can arise in virtually any data set. In this dissertation, we address the general problem of classification when faced with incomplete data. We also address the

  18. Knowledge Level of Gynecologists and Midwives of Yazd Concerning Rules and Regulations of Therapeutic Abortion(Legal) and Criminal Abortion

    M Ghadipasha; N BASHARDOOST; A Ghodoosi; B Samadirad; Nikian, Y.; Roohparvar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Abortion has always been a controversial issue and all religions, humanistic and medical communities have opposed it . The complications of illegal abortion are one of the most common reasons of hospital admission in developing countries. W.H.O estimates that the one eight of all pregnancy deaths is due to illegal abortion. Lack of knowledge of the medical team about the abortion regulations and rules can endanger the pregnant mothers life and also create certain problems for me...

  19. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  20. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  1. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  2. [Putting decriminalization of abortion to a refendum].

    1997-09-01

    Surveys conducted in Mexico by GIRE in 1992, 1994, and 1995 reveal that over 80% of the national population believes only a woman or a woman and her partner should make abortion decisions. Neither the government, the Church, nor physicians should intervene. Public opinion and the documented social and public health consequences of illegal abortion demonstrate the obsolescence of laws penalizing abortion. Mexico does not have a direct means of converting the opinions of the population into votes and laws. In place of referendums, committees of specialists have been convened; they are limited in number and ability to represent diverse groups, and oriented above all to the losses and gains of political and parliamentary disputes. The electoral reform of 1995-96 was a good example of the question under debate getting lost in partisan maneuvering. The Federal District and four states have initiated development of the referendum process, but the procedures have been too cumbersome and the results disappointing. In the current day, opinions are often formed not by following a rational process, but by bombardment with advertising appealing to irrational emotions. The democratic effects of referendum should be furthered by guaranteeing fair and exhaustive exposure of all points of view before the vote is held. GIRE recommends that a referendum on decriminalization of abortion should be preceded by a period of at least two years for public debate and reflection, and that the Federal Electoral Institute should organize the debate and the referendum. PMID:12349540

  3. [Social hygiene aspects of abortion in Odessa].

    Zakharchenko, E M; Popov, V E

    1988-02-01

    The birth rate is a major concern in contemporary society today. Socialist countries having the material wherewithal and cultural wealth to maintain their populations have a genuine interest in population growth and maternity is therefore encouraged. The decision to have children lies with each individual family and does not involve society directly, except for the significant number of women who regulate their family size by having an abortion. In connection with the severity of such an intervention, a study of social and hygienic aspects of induced abortion was conducted in Odessa. The information was gathered anonymously among women who came to the gynecological department of a city hospital. 6.1% of the women were under age 20 and this figure may increase in the future. In the U.S. that figure already constitutes 1/3 of all abortions. 47.5% said they had had 3 previous abortions. 13.4% had no children, and 48.8% had 1 child. None of the women with no children thought of that as being the ideal. As reason for the abortion 31.7% gave irregular housing and living conditions, 12.2% unsatisfactory material well-being, 17.1% health reasons, 7.3% enough children already in the family, and 7.3% sickness of children and husband. In 24.4% of cases the husband was indifferent, and in 35.4% insisted on, and in 40.1% was against the woman having an abortion. 60% were thus probably poorly informed about the harmfulness of the operation. 39% of women did not use any contraception. Only 20% had received any information regarding contraceptives. Only 1/3 of obstetricians regularly instruct their patients about the use of contraceptives. Half of the nurses do not touch upon the subject due to lack of time and since instruction in birth control methods is not considered obligatory. Nevertheless it is important for women's health that during clinical examinations risk factors of abortion and the purposefulness of contraception are pointed out. PMID:3367727

  4. Review on abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    2010-01-01

    Abort trajectory is a passage that ensures the astronauts to return safely to the earth when an emergency occurs. Firstly,the essential elements of mission abort are analyzed entirely based on summarizing the existing studies. Then,abort trajectory requirement and rational selection for different flight phases of typical manned lunar mission are discussed specifically. Considering a trade-off between the two primary constrains of an abort,the return time of flight and energy requirement,a general optimizing method for mission abort is proposed. Finally,some suggestions are given for China’s future manned lunar landing mission.

  5. Legal abortions among teenagers in Canada, 1974 through 1978.

    Wadhera, A.; Nair, C.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA)

    1980-01-01

    Between August 1969, when the amendment to the Criminal Code went into effect, and December 1978 about 397 000 legal abortions were performed in hospitals with therapeutic abortion committees in Canada. During the 5-year period 1974-78 abortions in females under 20 years of age accounted for 30.9% of all the legal abortions performed in Canada on Canadian residents, and the abortion rate per 1000 women aged 15 to 19 years increased from 13.6 to 16.3. During 1974-77 the proportion of women in ...

  6. Visualising abortion: emotion discourse and fetal imagery in a contemporary abortion debate.

    Hopkins, Nick; Zeedyk, Suzanne; Raitt, Fiona

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a recent UK anti-abortion campaign in which the use of fetal imagery--especially images of fetal remains--was a prominent issue. A striking feature of the texts produced by the group behind the campaign was the emphasis given to the emotions of those viewing such imagery. Traditionally, social scientific analyses of mass communication have problematised references to emotion and viewed them as being of significance because of their power to subvert the rational appraisal of message content. However, we argue that emotion discourse may be analysed from a different perspective. As the categorisation of the fetus is a social choice and contested, it follows that all protagonists in the abortion debate (whether pro- or anti-abortion) are faced with the task of constructing the fetus as a particular entity rather than another, and that they must seek to portray their preferred categorisation as objective and driven by an 'out-there' reality. Following this logic, we show how the emotional experience of viewing fetal imagery was represented so as to ground an anti-abortion construction of the fetus as objective. We also show how the arguments of the (pro-abortion) opposition were construed as totally discrepant with such emotions and so were invalidated as deceitful distortions of reality. The wider significance of this analysis for social scientific analyses of the abortion debate is discussed. PMID:15893054

  7. Psychology Consequences of Abortion Among The Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    Abolghasem Pourreza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49 interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. "nResults: The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. "nConclusion: Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.

  8. On problem of optimization under incomplete information

    Volf, Petr

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Business Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 968-973 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : optimization * censored data * Fisher information * product-limit estimate Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/volf-on problem of optimization under incomplete information.pdf

  9. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    Chandre, C., E-mail: chandre@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  10. Some results on resolvable incomplete block designs

    LIU; Minqian; FANG; Kaitai

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the uniformity of a certain kind of resolvable incomplete block (RIB for simplicity) design which is called the PRIB design here. A sufficient and necessary condition is obtained, under which a PRIB design is the most uniform in the sense of a discrete discrepancy measure, and the uniform PRIB design is shown to be connected. A construction method for such designs via a kind of U-type designs is proposed, and an existence result of these designs is given. This method sets up an important bridge between PRIB designs and U-type designs.

  11. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  12. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified

  13. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    Vosmaer, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

  14. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. PMID:12807304

  15. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  16. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    J. Vosmaer

    2010-01-01

    Thomason [5] showed that a certain modal logic L⊂ S4 is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson [3] showed that L is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that L is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras wit

  17. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital. PMID:11050762

  18. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  19. Physician provision of abortion before Roe v. Wade.

    Joffe, C

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days. PMID:12317573

  20. Comparative study of patients undergoing check curettage for first trimester incomplete and inevitable abortion under paracervical block versus no anesthesia

    Nihita Pandey

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The mean pain scores of both the groups were on the lower spectrum of the pain scale with no difference in demand for higher anesthesia. In primary set ups where facilities of anesthesia are not available, curettage can be performed safely without anesthesia, which can prove to be life-saving. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 629-632

  1. Biblical views on abortion: an Episcopal perspective.

    Wilson-kastner, P; Blair, B

    1985-01-01

    Much scholarly work has been done to determine the biblical and traditional attitudes about abortion. One must ask what was said and why, what was its context, and inquire about what was not said as well. This discussion identifies some of the conclusions reached in scholarly literature. The word "abortion" is not mentioned in the Bible, but much in the Bible speaks to the issue. The most obvious passage is from Exodus 21:22-25. This part of the Covenant Code legislates the case of a pregnant woman who becomes involved in a brawl between 2 men and has a miscarriage. A distinction is then made between the penalty that is to be exacted for the loss of the fetus and injury to the woman. For the fetus, a fine is paid as determined by the husband and the judges. However, if the woman is injured or dies, "lex talionis" is applied -- life for life, eye for eye, etc. The story has somewhat limited application to the current abortion debate since it deals with accidental and not willful pregnancy termination. Even so, the distinction made between the woman and the fetus is important. The woman is valued as a person under the convenant; the fetus is valued as property. Its status is certainly inferior to that of the woman. This passage gives no support to the parity argument that gives equal religious and moral worth to woman and fetus. The bibilical portrait of person does not begin with an explanation of conception but with a portrayal of the creation of Adam and Eve. Thus, the biblical portrait of a person is that of a complex, many-sided creature with the god-like ability and responsibility to make choices. The fetus does not meet those criteria. When considering the issue of abortion, the one who unquestionably fits this portrait of personhood is the pregnant woman. The abortion question focuses on the personhood of the woman, who in turn considers the potential personhood of the fetus in terms of the multiple dimensions of her own history and the future. In biblical

  2. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual

  3. Medical abortion: Modern method for termination of pregnancy

    Kapamadžija Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Modern methods of medically induced abortions are being used in many countries all over the world. These methods are safe and effective when used in an appropriate way. Drugs used for medical abortion. The most widely used regimens for drug induced abortions include antiprogestogen mifepriston followed by administration of a synthetic prostaglandin analogue - gemeprost vaginally or misoprostol orally or vaginally. When used for abortions up to 9 and 7 weeks of pregnancy, this method has efficacy up to 98%. The regimen between 9 and 12 completed weeks is still under investigation. Methods for medical abortion after 12 completed weeks since last menstrual period include several regimens and medications - combination of mifepriston and repeated doses of misoprostol, misoprostol or gemeprost alone, methotrexate, synthetic prostaglandin analogues, oxytocin and some others. Medical abortions at our Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Novi Sad, Clinical Center Vojvodine, Serbia. Medical abortions in the second trimester were introduced at our Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Novi Sad, Serbia, in early 1980s using prostaglandin analogues. This method was improved in year 2000 introducing two dinoprostone gels intracervically/extraamnially instead of just one, for cervical preparation before intramuscular application of carboprost thrometamine, which led to significantly shorter abortion interval. During the years 2003/2004 we took part successfully in one of the multicentric WHO projects for investigating new regimens on early medical abortions with mifepriston and misoprostol. Conclusions. Modern methods of medical abortions are safe and effective for termination of unwanted pregnancies in the first and second trimester.

  4. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  5. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

  6. [On the question of the illegality of abortion].

    Salton, J A

    1985-08-01

    The illegality of abortion in Brazil is questioned more and more. It would seem obvious that the prohibition of abortion would result in a decrease in the number of abortions, but upon closer observation, the opposite is true. Abortion related legislation in Brazil is among the most severe in the world. Both the physician and the patient are equally punishable, but this did not stop Brazilian women from having 3.5 million abortions/year. Countries with less severe laws have a much lower abortion rate. There have been extreme physiological and social consequences in Brazil as a result of abortion's illegality. The woman is not only a criminal, she is also a sinner in the eyes of the Church. In most cases, especially in low-income areas, abortion can lead to complications and death. Although there are no statistical data on the number of deaths due to illegal abortion, they would no doubt be alarming. An unwanted, unterminated pregnancy can have disastrous effects upon the mother, the child, and their relationship. These negative effects have been well documented. Prohibition will keep abortion out of the mainstream of national debate and aggravate the situation. A person's sexuality cannot be suppressed and considered evil. In lower income levels, unwanted pregnancy should not be a punishment for being poor. The legalization movement will grow, as it has in developed nations. The members of the Brazilian Society for Scientific Progress must remain active in the debate, because they cannot ignore something of such national importance. PMID:12314816

  7. Competitive Spectrum Management with Incomplete Information

    Noam, Yair; Messer, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies an interference interaction (game) between selfish and independent wireless communication systems in the same frequency band. Each system (player) has incomplete information about the other player's channel conditions. A trivial Nash equilibrium point in this game is where players mutually full spread (FS) their transmit spectrum and interfere with each other. This point may lead to poor spectrum utilization from a global network point of view and even for each user individually. In this paper, we provide a closed form expression for a non pure-FS epsilon-Nash equilibrium point; i.e., an equilibrium point where players choose FDM for some channel realizations and FS for the others. We show that operating in this non pure-FS epsilon-Nash equilibrium point increases each user's throughput and therefore improves the spectrum utilization, and demonstrate that this performance gain can be substantial. Finally, important insights are provided into the behaviour of selfish and rational wireless us...

  8. Incomplete melting of the Au(100) surface

    We study the high-temperature disordering of the reconstructed Au(100) surface by molecular dynamics simulation using a many-body interatomic potential. We find that the surface deconstructs at 0.8Tm in good agreement with experimental data, but proper surface melting does not occur close to the bulk melting point. Instead there is an in-plane disordering of the two topmost layers. The thickness of the disordered region remains constant with increasing temperature, indicating blocked, or incomplete, melting of the (100) crystalline substrate. An analysis of the structure reveals that crystalline and disordered islands coexist on two first surface layers for temperature between deconstruction and bulk melting. (author). 24 refs, 10 figs

  9. Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions

    Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (α particles, protons, neutrons), while γ multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are α particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two α particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be → 2α: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one α particle. Accordingly, 2αxn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

  10. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. PMID:24064047

  11. Efforts underway to impose harsh regulations on abortion providers.

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    Legislators or regulators in Mississippi, South Carolina, and Missouri have imposed burdensome and unnecessary clinic requirements on abortion providers. In each case, the legislators or regulators designed the requirements to make abortions more difficult to obtain. Mississippi, a state with only two licensed abortion clinics, already had restrictive abortion laws. In August 1996, it implemented stringent regulations on private physicians who provide abortion services in their offices. Some requirements include purchasing specific equipment, widening hallways, and hiring more staff. Several physicians have filed a lawsuit to stop enforcement of the regulations because they make the provision of abortion services so cumbersome and expensive as to discourage physicians from offering abortions. Antiabortion groups testified before the legislature that the Department of Health had been negligent in monitoring private practices for compliance with Mississippi's many abortion laws, particularly counseling requirements. The Republican governor signed the legislation in March 1996. In July 1996, a federal judge prohibited the South Carolina Department of Health from enforcing a new regulation making physicians who perform as few as five abortions a month to meet strict specifications for their office (e.g., disclosure of patient records and medical agreements). The regulation was a response to a 1995 law targeting private physicians who perform abortions in their offices. The judge held that the substantial changes in terms of privacy and expense could bring an undue burden on women seeking abortions. The state denied that the regulation would close clinics or would increase costs so much as to make abortions inaccessible. In September 1996, the House did not override the Democratic governor's veto of a bill that would have required all facilities where abortions are done to be licensed and undergo annual inspections and that would have required all physicians to have

  12. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  13. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm

  14. [A glossary for discussion about abortion].

    Astete A, Carmen; Beca I, Juan Pablo; Lecaros U, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Abortion and its diverse possible legal regulations is one of the major and toughest social controversies. This debate is even more problematic due to biases, prejudgments, different ideologies, beliefs, religious doctrines and political pressures. Chile has recently begun a new national discussion with an evident confusion, both in juridical and clinical terminology, which makes very difficult to achieve the necessary plural debate for a social and political consensus. The authors structured an academic collaborative project to create a glossary as a contribution for a discussion based on clearly defined notions about the different terms used in the abortion debate. Twenty-two concepts were selected and their definitions were reviewed and discussed by more than 50 different specialists. The final version of this glossary in Spanish language is presented. PMID:25694291

  15. [Abortion: legal, deontological and ethical framework].

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy interruption before fetal viability limit is inherent to a multidisciplinary reflection, due to the conflicts involved. Portuguese laws have been altered along time in the way of women's health protection, allowing the needed information and support towards a free, informed and enlightened decision. Deontological determinants about health professionals towards abortion indicate the practice accordingly the law. Nevertheless, it is safeguarded their right to consciousness objection. Ethical discussion about abortion, in its different ways, includes the concern about the value of intrauterine human life, and also the respect for individual autonomy. Even though the debate about intrauterine human life moral status is viewed from different theories and points of view, it is concluded that different perspectives about this matter are acceptable, in an interpersonal diversity valorization point of view. PMID:22863486

  16. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  17. Residential Exposure to Traffic and Spontaneous Abortion

    Green, Rochelle S; Malig, Brian; Windham, Gayle C.; Fenster, Laura; Ostro, Bart; Swan, Shanna

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations between air pollution or traffic exposure and adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight. However, very few studies have examined the effect of traffic emissions on spontaneous abortion (SAB). Objective The goal of this study was to determine whether residential exposure to vehicular traffic was associated with SAB. Methods Pregnant women from a prepaid health plan in California were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 1990–1991. Three...

  18. Therapeutic abortion and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Qvigstad, E; Skaug, K; Jerve, F; Vik, I S; Ulstrup, J C

    1982-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the cervix of 30 of 218 (13.8%) women admitted for legal termination of pregnancy. During the first two weeks after the abortion seven of the 30 (23.3%) patients developed pelvic inflammatory disease. Four of these had serological evidence of recent active chlamydial infection. Thus, routine examination of patients for genital chlamydial infection before termination of pregnancy is recommended.

  19. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  20. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  1. Women and men’s psychological adjustment after abortion: a six months prospective pilot study

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Background: The psychological impact of abortion is a controversial issue. While some studies indicate that women who had elective abortions present lower psychological distress when compared with those who had spontaneous or therapeutic abortions, other studies found abortion to be associated with significant psychological distress. Objectives: To assess psychological adjustment (emotional disorder, trauma symptoms and couple relationship) one and six months after abortion,...

  2. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen;

    2006-01-01

    ) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a......BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study was to...... assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343...

  3. 25 years later, US abortion war still drags on.

    Rovner, J

    1998-01-31

    In the 25 years since the US Supreme Court's landmark Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing abortion, activists on both sides of the issue have drawn further apart as they have vied for the support of the majority of US voters who express ambivalence towards the law. These voters believe that abortion may be murder but that it must be legal. The Roe vs. Wade anniversary has sparked new legislative priorities on both sides. Abortion-rights activists will seek legislation that attempts to decrease the need for abortion by increasing funding for family planning services in the US and abroad, supporting funding for contraceptive research, and requiring health insurers to pay for contraceptives. Abortion opponents will continue to press for "partial birth" abortion bans and will support efforts to make it a federal crime for an adult to transport a minor across state lines to evade state parental notification or consent laws. PMID:9652629

  4. U.S. tries to defuse abortion debate.

    Struck, D

    1994-09-01

    In an apparent attempt to defuse acrimony at the International Conference on Population and Development, underway in Cairo, the US delegation is softening its stance on abortion decriminalization. US Vice President Al Gore, the head of the delegation, has stated, "The United States does not seek to establish a new international right to abortion, and we do not believe that abortion should be encouraged as a method of family planning." The Vatican and Muslim fundamentalists remain concerned, however, that the Cairo gathering represents an opportunity for the US to impose its abortion rights agenda on other countries. The draft prepared for presentation to the conference makes no explicit mention of legal abortion. Rather, it advocates safe motherhood, complete reproductive health care, and fertility control-- phrases the Vatican insists mask an intent to promote the use of abortion for family planning. PMID:12318927

  5. Measuring abortion-related mortality: challenges and opportunities.

    Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Ozge; Johnston, Heidi; Ganatra, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Two recent efforts to quantify the causes of maternal deaths on a global scale generated divergent estimates of abortion-related mortality. Such discrepancies in estimates of abortion-related mortality present an important opportunity to explore unique challenges and opportunities associated with the generation and interpretation of abortion-related mortality estimates. While innovations in primary data collection and estimation methodologies are much needed, at the very least, studies that seek to measure maternal deaths due to abortion should endeavor to improve transparency, acknowledge limitations of data, and contextualize results. As we move towards sustainable development goals beyond 2015, the need for valid and reliable estimates of abortion-related mortality has never been more pressing. The post-MDG development agenda that aims to improve global health, reduce health inequities, and increase accountability, requires new and novel approaches be tested to improve measurement and estimation of abortion-related mortality, as well as incidence, safety and morbidity. PMID:26377189

  6. How Danes evaluate moral claims related to abortion

    Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how Danish citizens evaluate four moral claims related to abortion issues, regarding the moral status of the fetus, autonomy, harm and possible negative consequences of allowing abortion and to explore the association between moral beliefs and attitudes towards abortion......-two responded to at least one moral claim. Two hundred and fifty-eight responded to all four claims without using the option 'neither agree nor disagree' and were classified as 'morally engaged responders'. A majority of these had a pro-abortion moral. The general relationship between moral beliefs and...... attitudes towards abortion was morally sound. Being 'morally engaged' did not increase the likelihood of reaching moral judgement on whether requests for abortion should be permitted. Education, religion and parenthood were statistically associated with the investigated issues. DISCUSSION: The direction of...

  7. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, L.; Agger, J. F.

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  8. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  9. Subclinical abortions in patients treated with clomiphene citrate

    Using radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit, 39 treatment cycles of clomiphene citrate therapy were studied prospectively for incidence of subclinical abortions. Eight treatment cycles resulted in clinically recognizable pregnancies and three other treatment cycles ended up with subclinical abortions. The plasma progesterone levels in patients with subclinical abortions at the 13th day after ovulation were lower than those in patients with normal pregnancies. (author)

  10. Abortions, Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: A Quantitative Evaluation

    Georgi Kocharkov

    2010-01-01

    In the last three decades over a million abortions are performed annually in the United States. Empirical studies such as Donohue and Levitt (2001) and Gruber, Levine and Staiger (1999) assess the impact of legalization of abortions on crime and living conditions of children. They argue that legalization of abortions provides better living conditions and human capital endowments to surviving children. This paper takes seriously the hypothesis that the improved living conditions of children du...

  11. Impossible floodgates and unworkable analogies in the Irish abortion debate.

    de Londras, Fiona; Graham, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the introduction and form of abortion legislation in Ireland is rife with floodgate arguments, suggesting (either implicitly or expressly) that the introduction of abortion legislation within current constitutional boundaries would only be a starting point, following which so-called ‘abortion on demand’ would flow. The recent discussions at the Oireachtas Committee on Health and Children showed little prospect of a break from this pattern. At those hearings, a number of parli...

  12. We Should Protect Women’s Right of Abortion

    李玉萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Many countries have legalized abortion such as China,America,Japan,France and Italy,but still about one third women cannot have a legal abortion around the world(Debate on Legality).Although two thirds women are protected by law on abortion,some of them cannot get support from others due to the bondage of religions and morality.Some people,especially

  13. Abortion among young women and subsequent life outcomes

    Casey, Patricia R.

    2010-01-01

    This article will discuss the nature of the association between abortion and mental health problems. Studies arguing about both sides of the debate as to whether abortion per se is responsible will be presented. The prevalence of various psychiatric disorders will be outlined and where there is dispute between studies, these will be highlighted. The impact of abortion on other areas such as education, partner relationships and sexual function will also be considered. The absence of specific i...

  14. Current abortion practices in India: a review of literature

    Naina Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Among issues related to reproductive health, none has more controversial connotations than abortion nor carries a heavier burden of stigmatization. Abortion, is a universal phenomenon and is defined as and has existed throughout recorded history, yet it continues to be a highly charged, controversial issue, raising extreme passions among lay people, as well as politicians, religious leaders, and health and rights advocates. Although abortion services in India were liberalized more than three ...

  15. Childhood adversities and subsequent risk of one or multiple abortions

    Steinberg, Julia R.; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have found an association between childhood adversities and mental health disorders, few have examined whether childhood adversities are linked to having abortions. This research investigates the association between a range of childhood adversities and risk of abortion in part to identify which adversities should be considered when examining the association between abortion and subsequent mental health. Using the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), we t...

  16. Why women seek abortion? a qualitative study on perspectives of rural women on abortion and contraception

    Fatima Shanthini Navis

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to improve rural women's knowledge of fertility and contraception. Media and service providers should use every possible opportunity to educate women regarding the legal status of abortion and to promote contraceptive usage by creating awareness regarding safety and free availability of various contraceptives thereby clearing misconceptions regarding contraception. There is a need to educate rural women that use of a regular contraceptive method is better than undergoing repeated abortions. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1153-1157

  17. The Role of Incompleteness in Commodity Futures Markets

    Takashi eKanamura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a convenience yield-based pricing for commodity futures, which embeds incompleteness of commodity futures markets in convenience yields. By using the pricing method, we conduct empirical analyses of the prices of WTI crude oil, heating oil, and natural gas futures traded on the NYMEX in order to assess the incompleteness of energy futures markets. We show that the fluctuation from the incompleteness is partly driven by the fluctuation from convenience yields. In addition, it is shown that the incompleteness of natural gas futures market is more highlighted than the incompleteness of WTI crude oil and heating oil futures markets. We apply the implied market price of risk from the NYMEX data to pricing an Asian call option written on WTI crude oil futures. Finally, we try to apply the market incompleteness analysis to the post-crisis periods after 2009.

  18. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins. PMID:9844843

  19. The abortion-crime link: evidence from England and Wales

    L H Kahane; Paton, D; Simmons, R.

    2005-01-01

    We use panel data from 1983 to 1997 for the 42 police force areas in England and Wales to test the hypothesis that legalizing abortion contributes to lower crime rates. We provide an advance on previous work by focusing on the impact of possible endogeneity of effective abortion rates with respect to crime. Our use of U.K. data allows us to exploit regional differences in the provision of free abortions to identify abortion rates. When we use a similar model and estimation methodology, we are...

  20. Do Induced Abortions Affect the First Birth Probability?

    Hansen, Marie-Louise H; Stage, Louise; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.;

    Objective: The focus of this paper is to study, on a national basis, how the event of an induced abortion modifies the transition to first birth for Danish women aged 20-39 years in the period 1982-2001, taking into account also educational level, family situation, and urbanisation. Data and...... abortion is examined by cumulative first birth probabilities, derived from a life table analysis. Main findings and conclusion: Previous abortions increased the first birth probability, though this effect was almost entirely confined to single women. For cohabiting and married women, previous abortions had...

  1. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but

  2. Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics

    Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

  3. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  4. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  5. Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.

    Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  6. Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

  7. Skyline Sets Queries for Incomplete Data

    Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of data volume, advanced query operators, such as skyline queries, are necessary inorder to help users to handle the huge amount of available data by identifying a set of interesting dataobjects. Skyline queries help us to filter unnecessary information efficiently and provide us clues forvarious decision making tasks.Most of the existing skyline algorithms cannot preserve individual’s privacy and are not well suited fordata with outliers and frequently updated data. Considering these issues, earlier we have proposed skylinesets queries from databases where all dimensions are available for all data items and considered anefficient algorithm for computing convex skyline sets. In this paper, we use that idea for skyline sets queriesfor incomplete data and propose a method, namely, RBSSQ. RBSSQ method uses a replacement-basedapproach and is applicable to the databases having any number of missing dimensions in the databaseobjects. We have conducted several experiments in terms of computational cost and found that ourproposed method can efficiently compute skyline sets from data items with missing values.

  8. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal. PMID:25846041

  9. Small-area variations in utilization of abortion services in Ontario from 1985 to 1992.

    L E Ferris; McMain-Klein, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess interregional differences in the utilization of abortion services in Ontario from 1985 to 1992. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of provincial therapeutic abortion database. SETTING: All hospitals conducting abortions between 1985 and 1992 and all free-standing abortion clinics conducting abortions between 1990 and 1992. POPULATION: All women in Ontario aged 15 to 44 years who underwent a therapeutic abortion in Ontario during the study period. OUTCOME MEASURES: Utilization...

  10. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  11. [Prevention of habitual abortion by buffycoat transfusions].

    Neumeyer, H; Kuhn, W; Götze, O; Hinney, B

    1985-01-01

    From an immunological point of view the product of pregnancy may be regarded as a haplo-different allotransplant. A system possibly closely linked to the HLA-region is postulated to lead to the immunological recognition of the fetus by the mother and, paradoxically, to a take of the "transplant". The postulated system apparently codes for antigens present on both trophoblast and adult lymphocytes (TLX = trophoblast-lymphocyte-crossreacting). The prevention of rejection is thought to be effected by blocking factors (BF) present in the serum or plasma of the mother. There may be different kinds of BF: a specific BF (detectable only in an autologous assay system), appearing late in pregnancy, which inhibits several lymphocyte-dependent reactions (e.g. production of MIF, MLC). This BF has been identified as an IgG-class antibody. a nonspecific BF, appearing early in pregnancy which inhibits the MLC in vitro. c) may be a third BF, also specific, which is found only in plasma but not in serum. All described BF-activities were absent in women with habitual abortions. HLA-identity or partial identity could imply TLX-identity. The consequence of such an identity could be: non-detection of the trophoblast by the immune system of the mother, no production of BF, abortion. However several investigators could not find any HLA-identity of the partners with habitual abortions. A protective effect on the fetus has been seen when pregnant women were immunised with adult leukocytes, using either buffycoats from various HLA-different but bloodgroup-compatible donors or isolated leukocytes from the spouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4072314

  12. Incomplete fusion in 16O+159Tb

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, S.; Singh, D. P.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    In heavy-ion induced reactions, incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be a process of greater importance and of distinct nature even at slightly above the barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be dominant. However, the studies are limited to a few projectile target combinations only. To confirm the distinctly different decay patterns observed in case of CF and ICF residues, and to understand the role of high ℓ-values in the onset of ICF, a particle-γ-coincidence technique has been employed to measure spin-distributions and feeding intensity profiles of CF and ICF residues populated via xn / pxn / αxn-channels in 16O+159Tb interactions at Elab ≈ 83.5 ± 1.5, 88.5 ± 1.5, 93.5 ± 1.5 and 97.6 ± 1.4 MeV. The Gamma Detector Array and the Charged Particles Detector Array have been used to detect prompt γ-rays in coincidence with charged particles (p and α). CF-α and ICF-α channels have been identified from backward (B)- and forward (F)-α-gated-γ-spectra, respectively. Reaction dependent decay patterns (thus, the feeding intensity profiles) have been observed in different α emitting channels. The CF channels are found to be widely populated and strongly fed over a broad spin range. In case of ICF-α channels, narrow range feeding was observed only for high-spin states or the low spin states were not populated. The mean ℓ-values involved in the production of ICF- αxn-channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of CF- αxn-channels associated with fusion-evaporation reactions.

  13. Decision making by single women seeking abortion.

    Quinn, M

    1980-01-01

    30 single women attending the Auckland Medical Aid Center (AMAC) for an abortion during a 3-week period in May 1977 were interviewed about the factors leading up to the pregnancy, the impact of the pregnancy on their relationships with relevant others, and the process of obtaining an abortion. The prospective subjects were divided into 2 age groups, 16-20 and 21-25 years and 2 residence groups, Auckland city area or beyond this area. The proportion of the sample selected from each category was intended to approximate proportions as reported for all AMAC clientele. Of the 30 women interviewed, half were aged less than 20 years and half were more than 20. 24 of the women were European and the remainder Polynesian. 3 women had previously been married, in 2 cases resulting in children. 3 women had given birth; 2 of these women were solo parents while 1 woman had had her child adopted. All those who had either married or given birth were in the 21-25 year age group. In 20 cases the women had decided on abortion either before pregnancy even occurred or as soon as it was confirmed. This along with the fact that only 2 women in this sample actually made the decision to seek an abortion after arriving at the clinic suggests that counseling directed at helping women decide the future of the pregnancy after arrival at the hospital is largely superfluous. Other major problems of the women which caused considerable stress included obtaining a doctor's referral to AMAC, the physical difficulties in getting to AMAC, changes the pregnancy precipitated in relationships between women and those they confided in. 2/3 of the younger group made little or no use of contraception. None gave ignorance as a reason for nonuse. Women in the older age group tended to use more sophisticated techniques, such as oral contraception (OC), IUD, or diaphragm; the younger women relied on condoms or used nothing at all. In addition to the 7 women who had never used contraception, a further 12 women

  14. [Abortion: a public health or a family planning problem].

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1991-01-01

    This work discusses various views of abortion and presents data on the legal aspects and incidence of abortion in Mexico as a contribution to a more productive dialogue on the problems of abortion. It is very difficult to deter women who have decided to seek an abortion, regardless of whether the procedure is legal or even safe. In the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, an abortion has not been punishable since 1939 if it caused by "imprudence", if the woman is a victim of rape, or if the woman's life is endangered by pregnancy. The penal codes of most Mexican states and the Federal District contain similar provisions. In October 1990, the state of Chiapas decriminalized abortion for most indications in the 1st 90 days of pregnancy on the basis that the fertility and growth rates were too high, many children were in situations of extreme poverty, and the widespread practice of illegal abortion led to high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. The decree legalizing abortion in Chiapas was suspended in early 1991 by the Congress of Chiapas and is currently under further study by the National Commission on Human Rights. UNICEF estimates that in 1990, some 100,000 illegal abortions occurred daily in the world. 150,000-200,000 women may die each year as a result of illegal abortions. Today some 300 million couples throughout the world do not want more children but lack access to family planning. UNICEF estimates that the world rate of population growth would decline by 30% if all couples not desiring children practiced effective contraception. A large number of illegal abortions are believed to occur annually in Mexico. Abortions in Mexico are most common among married women of lower or lower middle class who already have children and who wish to avoid the economic hardships of a new baby. Perhaps because of their illegality, abortions represent a significant expense for a household. Unsafe abortions may cause serious health and fertility problems for women. The Mexican

  15. The Grade of Incomplete: A Brief Review and Comment.

    Counelis, James Steve

    Current policy on the distribution of incomplete grades designates such grades as indicating postponement of an examination and/or other assignment for some serious reason. The current policy of converting a grade of incomplete to F after some stated time interval is open to question. Current university policy on the automatic conversion of…

  16. Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent; Fog-Larsen, Anne Marie;

    2006-01-01

    The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were...

  17. Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion

    To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

  18. International comparison of regulations on abortion after radiation exposure

    Possible factors to consider when assessing the necessity of an abortion are: 1) Exposure in the highly sensitive phase (e.g. organogenesis); 2) after intake of radioactive substances, accumulation of this radioactive substance in critical organs; 3) doses higher than the dose limit of 1 rem; 4) the wish of the pregnant woman to have an abortion. (orig.)

  19. Grief and Elective Abortion: Breaking the Emotional Bond?

    Peppers, Larry G.

    1988-01-01

    Used maternal-infant bonding as theoretical framework to examine grief and elective abortion in 80 women who terminated their pregnancies either by vacuum aspiration, dilitation and evacuation, or intrauterine induction. Found grief associated with elective abortion to be symptomatically similar to grief experienced following involuntary…

  20. The American abortion debate: culture war or normal discourse?

    Dillon, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates whether James Hunter's culture war thesis is an apt characterization of the American abortion debate. The author focuses on three arguments central to Hunter's analysis: 1) that the abortion debate involves two paradigmatically opposed world views; 2) that debate about abortion, since it involves moral discourse, is structurally different than other political debates; and 3) that the new alignments in abortion politics are culturally significant. Examining existing research in each of these three domains, the author finds that the debate over abortion is more complex than suggested by Hunter. World views of pro-life and pro-choice activists, for example, share a commitment to some overlapping values; the argumentative structure of abortion discourse has a pattern rather similar to that of political debate more generally, and new alignments on abortion, such as that between the Catholic Church and the Southern Baptist Convention, do not displace historically embedded differences in symbolic resources and cultural orientation. As suggested by the author, it may be more helpful, therefore, to think of the abortion debate as an ongoing public conversation about America's cultural tradition and how it should be variously expressed in contemporary laws and practices. PMID:12320388

  1. The incidence of gonorrhea in an abortion population

    Querido, L.; Haspels, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of gonorrhea was investigated in an abortion population. A total of 1021 women participated in this study. Three asymptomatic cases of gonorrhea were detected. None of these women had had gonorrhea before or had a previous abortion. No relation was found between the incidence of gonorr

  2. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  3. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  4. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  5. Contraception and Induced Abortion in the West Indies: A Review

    Boersma, A.A.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Most islands in the West Indies do not have liberal laws on abortion, nor laws on pregnancy prevention programmes (contraception). We present results of a literature review about the attitude of healthcare providers and women toward (emergency) contraception and induced abortion

  6. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  7. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today. PMID:25995361

  8. Space shuttle three main engine return to launch site abort

    Carter, J. F.; Bown, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort with three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) operational was examined. The results are trajectories and main engine cutoff conditions that are approximately the same as for a two SSME case. Requiring the three SSME solution to match the two SSME abort eliminates additional crew training and is accomplished with negligible software impact.

  9. Commercial availability of misoprostol and induced abortion in Brazil.

    Costa, S H

    1998-12-01

    In Brazil, abortion is only permitted to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. The principal effect of legal restrictions is not to make induced abortion practice less prevalent but to force poor women to resort to abortions performed under unhygienic conditions or attempt self-induced abortion. Within this context, misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, was introduced in the country in 1986. Purchased over the counter in pharmacies, misoprostol has became a popular abortifacient method among Brazilian women. By 1990, about 70% of women hospitalized with abortion-related diagnoses reported use of the drug. In 1991, the Ministry of Health restricted the sale of misoprostol, and in some states its use was totally banned. While the proportion of abortions induced with misoprostol has decreased, the drug continues to be sold on the black market at an inflated value. Research indicates that women have acquired more experience with the drug over time, resulting in lower doses and more effective administration. Several studies show that the rate and severity of complications are significantly less among women who used misoprostol compared with women who used invasive methods. Research also suggests that about half of the women have complete abortion with misoprostol, but seek medical care as soon as they have vaginal bleeding. The experience of Brazilian women with misoprostol is an example of how women when faced with unwanted pregnancy will resort to illegal abortion whatever the costs are to their health. PMID:10075223

  10. Social and psychological consequences of abortion in Iran.

    Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Glazebrook, Diana; McDonald, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Iran has had replacement fertility since 2000. Upholding a small family size has led some couples to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Abortion is, however, permitted only on medical grounds in Iran. Using data from the Iran Low Fertility Survey, this study assessed sociodemographic correlates of abortion among a random sample of 5526 ever-married women aged 15-54 years, and used in-depth interviews to explore reasons for and psychological consequences of abortion among 40 women who had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Although social and economic concerns were the main reasons cited for seeking abortion, women experienced anxiety and depression when seeking pregnancy termination and thereafter. Social stigmatization arose from a belief that abortion is sinful and that misfortune experienced thereafter is punishment. Inadequate knowledge and misunderstanding of relevant Sharia laws discouraged women from seeking care when they experienced complications. Iran's reproductive health policies should be revised to integrate pre- and postabortion counseling. PMID:22920623

  11. Self-management of medical abortion: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

    Wainwright, Megan; Colvin, Christopher J; Swartz, Alison; Leon, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Medical abortion is a method of pregnancy termination that by its nature enables more active involvement of women in the process of managing, and sometimes even administering the medications for, their abortions. This qualitative evidence synthesis reviewed the global evidence on experiences with, preferences for, and concerns about greater self-management of medical abortion with lesser health professional involvement. We focused on qualitative research from multiple perspectives on women's experiences of self-management of first trimester medical abortion (administration of medical abortion. We highlight particular considerations when offering self-management options, and identify key areas for future research. Further qualitative research is needed to strengthen this important evidence base. PMID:27578349

  12. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether women’s unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their abortion rates. The empirical results remain robust for the abortion rates of teens ages 15-17 and for teens ages 15-19. Conclusion: The empirical results suggest that the behavioral modification induced by the prevalence of AIDS accounted for 21% of the decrease in abortion rates over the time period 1992-2005.

  13. Stumbling on status: abortion, stem cells, and faulty reasoning.

    Lebacqz, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Common arguments from the abortion debate have set the stage for the debate on stem cell research. Unfortunately, those arguments demonstrate flawed reasoning-jumping to unfounded conclusions, using value laden language rather than careful argument, and ignoring morally relevant aspects of the situation. The influence of flawed abortion arguments on the stem cell debate results in failures of moral reasoning and in lack of attention to important morally relevant differences between abortion and human embryonic stem cells. Among those differences are whose interests are at stake and the difference between an embryo in and out of the womb. Stem cell research differs from abortion in morally relevant ways and should be freed from the abortion debate and its flawed reasoning. PMID:22209889

  14. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  15. Making legal abortion accessible in Brazil.

    Faúndes, Anibal; Leocádio, Elcylene; Andalaft, Jorge

    2002-05-01

    Abortion is legal in Brazil if it is the only means to save the woman's life or if the pregnancy is the result of rape. Although this has been the law for over 60 years, it has almost never been applied until recent years. In the past five years, the number of hospitals providing care to women victims of sexual violence has increased from 4 to 63, of which 40 are currently providing legal abortions. This paper describes a sensitization project and advocacy work carried out from within the obstetric and gynaecology establishment which has succeeded in motivating many key individuals and hospital staff to provide services for pregnancy termination in cases of rape. The dialogue between medical leaders and women's rights advocates and the emphasis on comprehensive care of women who have suffered sexual violence are key elements in the success of this initiative. The support of medical professionals, the organization and strength of the women's health and rights movement, the political support at federal, state and city government levels, including from the Federal Ministry of Health, and ongoing advocacy within the medical establishment have all been important elements in making the provision of services a reality. PMID:12369314

  16. Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma

    treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

  17. Characteristics of Induced Abortion in China in the 1990s

    Xiao-chun QIAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of induced abortion in China in the 1990s,and to find out the influential factors.Methods The overall number of induced abortions, calculate cohort induced abortion frequency, explore the impact of a child's sex and the number of previous children on induced abortions were estimated by using the data from the "National Population and Reproductive Health Survey" conducted by the National Family Planning Commission in November 1997.Results Induced abortions in China had their own characteristics, which were far different from other countries. The main difference was led by the fact that the country was driven by an implemented family planning program and nationwide population policies. The key cause of induced abortions was due to an inconsistency with the requirements of the family planning policy. However, as a result of effective and prevalent contraception, the rates of induced abortions were not quite high in the 1990s,when compared with other countries. Even though, in the early 1990s, the government had reinforced the family planning program through administration and legislation,unlike during the early 1980s when the one-child policy was implemented, the induced abortion rate and the number of induce abortions did not increase as the fertility rate substantially decreased.Concltsion This finding implies that the fertility declines in the 1990s were not caused by the number of induced abortions. The transition of the fertility ideology of the people has played an important role in the fertility decline, as institutional reform and socioeconomic development are implemented.

  18. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  19. House vote on Hyde changes dynamic of Congressional abortion debate.

    1993-07-27

    US Congressional action is summarized for actions taken on abortion amendments and abortion funding amendments during the month of July 1993. The Hyde Amendment was passed in the House on July 1, 1993; by a margin of 255 to 178; the Senate version will be voted on in August. The amendment was a victory for anti-abortion supporters, because it limited coverage of abortions under Medicaid to cases involving only life endangerment, rape, or incest. Both sides of the abortion debate were energized by the vote. The national Campaign for Abortion and Reproductive Equity (CARE) was launched on July 13 through support from a coalition of 130 organizations and Representatives Maxine Waters, Cynthia McKinney, and Nita Lowey. CARE aims to restore federal funding of abortion services for poor women and others using federally funded health care. The Freedom of Choice Act (FOCA) leaves abortion funding and parental involvement to the discretion of individual states. FOCA was characterized by Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, who withdrew her sponsorship of the bill, as not meeting the needs of the "marginalized, disrespected, and ignored population." 4 other Democratic women senators followed suit and promised to very strongly oppose all efforts to restrict abortions through amendments to appropriations bills. Senate appropriations bills were also considered during July. On July 15 the Senate Veterans Affairs (VA) Committee defeated an amendment that would have barred the use of federal funds for abortion services at VA hospitals, except in cases of rape, incest, or the saving of maternal life. Senate Committee members John Rockefeller and Tom Daschle contributed to the bill's defeat. Federal employee health insurance plans will continue to ban the coverage of abortion services due to passage by the Subcommittee on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government. An amendment introduced by Senator Bond to allow abortions in cases of rape, incest, or risk to maternal life was adopted

  20. The perspective of rural physicians providing abortion in Canada: qualitative findings of the BC Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Jennifer Dressler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of Canadian induced abortions are performed in large urban areas. For unknown reasons the number of rural abortion providers in Canadian provinces, such as British Columbia (BC, has declined substantially. This study explored the experiences of BC rural and urban physicians providing abortion services. METHODS: The mixed methods BC Abortion Providers Survey employed self-administered questionnaires, distributed to all known current and some past BC abortion providers in 2011. The optional semi-structured interviews are the focus of this analysis. Interview questions probed the experiences, facilitators and challenges faced by abortion providers, and their future intentions. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using cross-case and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty interviews were completed and transcribed, representing 13/27 (48.1% rural abortion providers, and 7/19 (36.8% of urban providers in BC. Emerging themes differed between urban and rural providers. Most urban providers worked within clinics and reported a supportive environment. Rural physicians, all providing surgical abortions within hospitals, reported challenging barriers to provision including operating room scheduling, anesthetist and nursing logistical issues, high demand for services, professional isolation, and scarcity of replacement abortion providers. Many rural providers identified a need to "fly under the radar" in their small community. DISCUSSION: This first study of experiences among rural and urban abortion providers in Canada identifies addressable challenges faced by rural physicians. Rural providers expressed a need for increased support from hospital administration and policy. Further challenges identified include a desire for continuing professional education opportunities, and for available replacement providers.

  1. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    Aleshkin, K R [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  2. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

    Anil Sharma; B Bindu Kumar; S Mukherjee; S Chakrabarty; B S Tomar; A Goswami; G K Gubbi; S B Manohar; A K Sinha; S K Datta

    2000-03-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O+165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

  3. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles

  4. Constructing the meaning of ultrasound viewing in abortion care.

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A

    2015-07-01

    As ultrasound scanning becomes increasingly routine in abortion care, scholars and activists have forwarded claims about how viewing the ultrasound image will affect pregnant women seeking abortion, speculating that it will dissuade them from abortion. These accounts, however, fail to appreciate how viewing is a social process. Little research has investigated how ultrasound workers navigate viewing in abortion care. We draw on interviews with twenty-six ultrasound workers in abortion care for their impressions and practices around ultrasound viewing. Respondents reported few experiences of viewing dissuading women from abortion, but did report that it had an emotional effect on patients that they believed was associated with gestational age. These impressions informed their practices, leading many to manage patient viewing based on the patient's gestational age. Other aspects of their accounts, however, undercut the assertion that the meaning of ultrasound images is associated with gestation and show the pervasiveness of cultural ideas associating developing foetal personhood with increasing gestational age. Findings demonstrate the social construction of ultrasound viewing, with implications in the ongoing contestation over abortion rights in the US. PMID:25688650

  5. Effectiveness of family planning policies: the abortion paradox.

    Nathalie Bajos

    Full Text Available The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use, followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates.Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i abortion rates, (ii unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest.The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p = 0.003. Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p = 0.000.

  6. [Abortion among female students and employees of a Brazilian university].

    Hardy, E; Rebello, I; Faúndes, A

    1993-04-01

    In Brazil, the subject of induced abortion is controversial and considered by some to be a serious public health problem. On the other hand there are little data available as to its frequency and general characteristics. The difficulty encountered in obtaining reliable information is to be explained by the illegality of abortion that inhibits women from talking about their experience, and most studies are carried out in hospitals and thus succeed in identifying only those women who have complications. A study was carried out in 1990, involving all the female graduate students and employees of a Brazilian university. Data was obtained through a questionnaire that was returned by mail, anonymously. This paper presents some of the results relating to the frequency of miscarriage and abortion in this population. Significantly more students than employees were less than 25 years old (85% and 13.7% respectively); fewer students were married or in a common-law union (11% of students as against 56% of employees) and four times fewer students than employees had never been pregnant (15% and 65%). Nine percent of the students and 14% of the employees had had at least one abortion. When only sometime pregnant women were taken into consideration, over half the students (59%) and 20% of the employees had had an abortion. Differences between the two groups were maintained when considered by age, both for miscarriage and abortion. Students of less than 25 years of age presented the highest percentage of abortion. PMID:8278778

  7. Legal abortion services in Brazil--a national study.

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2016-02-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed methods study of 68 legal abortion services in Brazil. The services were analyzed in two stages. The first stage was a census, in which all the institutions were sent an electronic questionnaire about the organization of the legal abortion services. The second stage was conducted in a sample of 5 reference services, one for each region of the country. In this stage, a form was used to collect data about the women and the abortions in the medical records, and 82 interviews with health professionals were conducted. Thirty-seven of the services informed they performed legal abortions, and the services were inactive in 7 states. Police reports, forensic reports, and court orders were required by 14%, 8% and 8% of the services, respectively. Women who underwent abortions were predominantly aged 15-29, single and Catholic. Most abortions were performed until 14 weeks in the case of rape-related pregnancy, by means of manual vacuum aspiration. According to the health professionals, the main difficulties faced in the services are the low availability of physicians to perform abortions and the insufficient training of the staff. The data reveal a discrepancy between the legal provision and the reality of the services. The implementation of more services and the strengthening of the existing services available are necessary. PMID:26910163

  8. THE OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN PATIENTS WITH THREATENED ABORTION

    Prathap

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the Outcome of pregnancy in patients with threatened abortion. METHODS: A Prospective observational study was done on 106 pregnant women with threatened abortion. Out comes in the form of antenatal complications, mode of delivery and postnatal co mplications were noted. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 13. RESULTS: In the study of 106 patients 18% had spontaneous abortion. Pre - labour rupture of membranes were seen in 20% of patients and 21% had preterm labour. Threatened abortion di d not affect mode of delivery. PPROM, preterm births were more in women presenting with first trimester bleeding; PIH, PROM, and postpartum complications were more in women presenting beyond 20 weeks gestation though statistically not significant. 13.2% of women had heavy bleeding at admission out of which 50% aborted subsequently – significantly higher than the light bleeding group. CONCLUSION: The overall maternal and perinatal outcome in women with threatened abortion is suboptimal. Women with heavy blee ding are more likely to abort than women with light bleeding. Among the prognostic factors, only the amount of bleeding had significant prognostic accuracy

  9. The individual level cost of pregnancy termination in Zambia: a comparison of safe and unsafe abortion.

    Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Parmar, Divya; Vwalika, Bellington

    2016-09-01

    Zambia has one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa. However, rates of unsafe abortion remain high with negative health and economic consequences. Little is known about the economic burden on women of abortion care-seeking in low income countries. The majority of studies focus on direct costs (e.g. hospital fees). This article estimates the individual-level economic burden of safe and unsafe abortion care-seeking in Zambia, incorporating all indirect and direct costs. It uses data collected in 2013 from a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, (n = 112) with women who had an abortion. Three treatment routes are identified: (1) safe abortion at the hospital, (2) unsafe clandestine medical abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital and (3) unsafe abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital. Based on these three typologies, we use descriptive analysis and linear regression to estimate the costs for women of seeking safe and unsafe abortion and to establish whether the burden of abortion care-seeking costs is equally distributed across the sample. Around 39% of women had an unsafe abortion, incurring substantial economic costs before seeking post-abortion care. Adolescents and poorer women are more likely to use unsafe abortion. Unsafe abortion requiring post-abortion care costs women 27% more than a safe abortion. When accounting for uncertainty this figure increases dramatically. For safe and unsafe abortions, unofficial provider payments represent a major cost to women.This study demonstrates that despite a liberal legislation, Zambia still needs better dissemination of the law to women and providers and resources to ensure abortion service access. The policy implications of this study include: the role of pharmacists and mid-level providers in the provision of medical abortion services; increased access to contraception, especially for adolescents; and elimination of demands for unofficial provider

  10. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  11. First-trimester medical abortion practices in Canada

    Guilbert, Edith R.; Hayden, Althea S.; Jones, Heidi E.; White, Katharine O’Connell; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; Norman, Wendy V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To understand the current availability and practice of first-trimester medical abortion (MA) in Canada. Design Using public sources and professional networks, abortion facilities across Canada were identified for a cross-sectional survey on medical and surgical abortion. English and French surveys were distributed by surface or electronic mail between July and November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures Descriptive statistics on MA practice and facility and provider characteristics, as well as comparisons of MA practice by facility and provider characteristics using χ2 and t tests. Results A total of 78 of 94 (83.0%) facilities responded. Medical abortion represented 3.8% of first-trimester abortions reported (2706 of 70 860) in 2012. Among the facilities offering MA, 45.0% performed fewer than 500 first-trimester abortions a year, while 35.0% performed more than 1000. More MAs were performed in private offices or ambulatory health centres than in hospitals. Sixty-two physicians from 28 of 78 facilities reported providing first-trimester MA; 87.1% also provided surgical abortion. More than three-quarters of MA physicians were female and 56.5% were family physicians. A preponderance (85.2%) of providers offered methotrexate with misoprostol. Nearly all physicians (90.3%) required patients to have an ultrasound before MA, and 72.6% assessed the completion of the abortion with ultrasonography. Most physicians (74.2%) offered MA through 49 days after the onset of the last menstrual period, and 21.0% offered MA through 50 to 56 days; 37.1% reported providing MA to patients who lived more than 2 hours away. Four physicians from 1 site provided MA via telemedicine. Conclusion In Canada, MA provision using methotrexate and misoprostol is consistent with best-practice guidelines, but MA is rare and its availability is unevenly distributed.

  12. Response to Wisniewski on Abortion, Round Two

    Walter E. Block

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The two main views on the abortion controversy are pro life and pro choice. In my many previous writings on this subject (Block, 1977, 1978, 2001, 2004, 2008, 2010A, 2010B, 2010C, forthcoming; Block and Whitehead, 2005 I have offered a third alternative, evictionism. Wisniewski (2010A has offered criticisms of this perspective. In Block (2010C I argued against Wisniewski (2010A, claiming that evictionism was the correct libertarian analysis of this vexing question. Wisniewski (2010B constituted a rejoinder to Block (2010C, insisting that evictionism constituted an incorrect analysis. The present paper is a response to Wisniewski (2010B, in which I again attempt to defend evictionism against his attacks on this doctrine.

  13. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates. PMID:25872616

  14. Shuttle abort landing site emergency medical services

    Mckenas, David K.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and DOD studies of medical-planning and logistical problems are reviewed as applicable to providing emergency medical care at remote transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites. Two options are analyzed including a modified surgical response team and a combination physician/medical technician team. The two concepts are examined in terms of cost-effectiveness, specific types of medical support such as blood procurement, and search-and-rescue requirements. It is found that the physician/technician team is more economically efficient, and the description of the concept permits the development of an effective TAL-site astronaut medical-support system. A balance is struck between the competing problems of cost and medical capability by planning for on-scene medical stabilization and air evacuation to DOD tertiary medical centers.

  15. Response to Block on Abortion, Round Three

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Block (2011 has offered a second round of counterarguments to my criticisms (Wisniewski 2010a, 2010b of the claim that his theory of evictionism is compatible with libertarianism. In this paper I attempt to demonstrate that my critique still stands. In particular, I focus on analyzing the argumentative weight of such issues mentioned in Block’s latest response as, among others, the distinction between proper ex post punishment and proper ex ante defense, the question of whether my causal analyses of trespass imply a commitment to positive obligations, Rothbard’s distinction between contracts and premises, the supposed irrelevance of the principle of pacta sunt servanda in the context of abortion, and the extent to which custom can qualify the ambit of applicability of the non-aggression principle.

  16. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  17. The 'more-abortions' objection to fetal tissue transplantation.

    Gillam, L

    1998-06-01

    One common objection to fetal tissue transplantation (FTT) is that, if it were to become a standard form of treatment, it would encourage or entrench the practice of abortion. This claim is at least factually plausible, although it cannot be definitively established. However, even if true, it does not constitute a compelling ethical argument against FTT. The harm allegedly brought about by FTT, when assessed by widely accepted non-consequentialist criteria, has limited moral significance. Even if FTT would cause more abortions to be performed, and abortion is taken to be a serious moral wrong, this is not sufficient in itself to make FTT wrong. PMID:9831285

  18. SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTIONS IN INDIA: A BEHAVIOURAL EPIDEMIC

    Suman Saurabh; Sitanshu Sekhar Kar; Dhruv Kumar Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Sex- selective abortions have been known to be a problem in India. A study titled “Trends in selective abortions of girls in India: analysis of nationally representative birth histories from 1990 to 2005 and census data from 1991 to 2011” by Jha P et al was published in Lancet in May 2011 presented the first nationally representative analysis of trends in sex-selective abortions in India. It came as an aftermath of the provisional 2011 census release which showed a fall in 0-6 year sex ratio ...

  19. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  20. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During the...... first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....

  1. Abortion Law Reform in Ireland: A Model for Change

    Enright, Máiréad; de Londras, Fiona; Conway, Vicky; Donnelly, Mary; Fletcher, Ruth; Murray, Claire; McGuinness, Sheelagh; Ring, Sinead; Ui Chonnachtaigh, Sorcha

    2015-01-01

    Ireland has some of the most restrictive abortion laws in the world. Abortion has been criminalised since 1861, and the passage of the 8th Amendment in 1983 introduced ‘the right to life of the unborn’ into the Constitution. The effects of the 8th Amendment are felt on a daily basis by women leaving Ireland for abortion, by pregnant women receiving maternal care, by doctors caring for pregnant women, and by lawyers working for the health service. As predicted by the then-Attorney General Pete...

  2. Correlates of Social Work Students' Abortion Knowledge and Attitudes: Implications for Education and Research.

    Begun, Stephanie; Bird, Melissa; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Massey Combs, Katie; McKay, Kimberly

    2016-07-01

    Researchers have established that individuals' abortion knowledge is positively associated with their support of abortion rights. However, social workers' personal beliefs regarding abortion are under-researched, even though social workers are often employed in health promotion and education roles in which the topic of abortion is encountered. The current study examines the results of a nationwide survey of social work students (N = 504) and explores the relationship between social work students' abortion knowledge and abortion attitudes. Less abortion knowledge was significantly associated with antichoice attitude endorsement. Implications for social work research, training, and education are subsequently discussed. PMID:27092856

  3. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    2010-07-01

    ... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.085-20 Incomplete...

  4. A characterization of incomplete sequences in $F_p^d$

    Nguyen, Hoi H

    2011-01-01

    A sequence $A$ of elements an additive group $G$ is {\\it incomplete} if there exists a group element that {\\it can not} be expressed as a sum of elements from $A$. The study of incomplete sequences is a popular topic in combinatorial number theory. However, the structure of incomplete sequences is still far from being understood, even in basic groups. The main goal of this paper is to give a characterization of incomplete sequences in the vector space $F_p^d$, where $d$ is a fixed integer and $p$ is a large prime. As an application, we give a new proof for a recent result by Gao-Ruzsa-Thangadurai on the Olson's constant of $\\F_p^2$ and partially answer their conjecture concerning $F_p^3$.

  5. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem

    Podnieks, Karlis

    1992-01-01

    Published as: K. Podnieks. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem. European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, Berlin, 1989. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 57, No. 1, March, 1992, pp.326-327

  6. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda. PMID:20640252

  7. Brazilians have different views on when abortion should be legal, but most do not agree with imprisoning women for abortion.

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Duarte, Graciana Alves; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Soares Camargo, Rodrigo Paupério; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Unsafe abortions remain a major public health problem in countries with very restrictive abortion laws. In Brazil, parliamentarians - who have the power to change the law - are influenced by "public opinion", often obtained through surveys and opinion polls. This paper presents the findings from two studies. One was carried out in February-December 2010 among 1,660 public servants and the other in February-July 2011 with 874 medical students from three medical schools, both in São Paulo State, Brazil. Both groups of respondents were asked two sets of questions to obtain their opinion about abortion: 1) under which circumstances abortion should be permitted by law, and 2) whether or not women in general and women they knew who had had an abortion should be punished with prison, as Brazilian law mandates. The differences in their answers were enormous: the majority of respondents were against putting women who have had abortions in prison. Almost 60% of civil servants and 25% of medical students knew at least one woman who had had an illegal abortion; 85% of medical students and 83% of civil servants thought this person(s) should not be jailed. Brazilian parliamentarians who are currently reviewing a reform in the Penal Code need to have this information urgently. PMID:24315072

  8. On general systems with randomly occurring incomplete information

    Z. Wang; Hu, J.; Dong, H.

    2016-01-01

    In the system and control community, the incomplete information is generally regarded as the results of (1) our limited knowledge in modelling real-world systems; and (2) the physical constraints on the devices for collecting, transmitting, storing and processing information. In terms of system modelling, the incomplete information typically includes the parameter uncertainties and norm-bounded non-linearities that occur with certain bounds. As for the physical constraints, two well-...

  9. Explaining the Incomplete Liberalization Reform of Italian Energy Market

    Rangoni Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an opportunity to test three regulatory capture theories against the incomplete liberalisation reform of the Italian energy markets. The incomplete privatisation of the incumbents ENEL and ENI set a trap to the liberalisation reform and at the same time offers an excellent test-bed for theories of regulatory capture, applied to decisions taken by the government rather than to the ones taken by the Independent Regulatory Agency (IRA). The conflict of interest arising from a...

  10. Less Risk, More Effort: Demand Risk Allocation in Incomplete Contracts

    Athias, Laure; Soubeyran, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the allocation of demand risk with in an incomplete contract framework. We consider an incomplete contractual relationship between a public authority and a private provider (i.e. a public-private partnership), in which the latter invests in non-verifiable cost-reducing efforts and the former invests in non-verifiable adaptation efforts to respond to changing consumer demand over time. We show that the party that bears the demand risk has fewer hold-up opportunities ...

  11. Theorems of Tarski's Undefinability and Godel's Second Incompleteness - Computationally

    Salehi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We show that the existence of a finitely axiomatized theory which can prove all the true $\\Sigma_1$ sentences may imply Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem, by incorporating some bi-theoretic version of the derivability conditions (first discussed by Detlefsen~2001). We also argue that Tarski's theorem on the undefinability of truth is Godel's first incompleteness theorem relativized to definable oracles; here a unification of these two theorems is shown.

  12. Aggregation in Incomplete Market with General Utility Functions

    Chenghu Ma; Jiankang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper tackles the "aggregation problem" for stochastic economies with possibly incomplete market. An "aggregation theorem" is proved towards an analytic construction of the representative agent’s utility function. This is done within a general time-state setup with general utility functions and without restrictions on the initial resource allocations. Welfare implications, concerning the social welfare loss resulting from market incompleteness, are readily reflected from the constructed ...

  13. Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices

    Crès, Hervé; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar; Tvede, Mich

    A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets are...... incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly....

  14. Dynamic Hedging in Incomplete Markets: A Simple Solution

    Georgy chabakauri; Suleyman Basak

    2011-01-01

    Despite much work on hedging in incomplete markets, the literature still lacks tractable dynamic hedges in plausible environments. In this article, we provide a simple solution to this problem in a general incomplete-market economy in which a hedger, guided by the traditional minimum-variance criterion, aims at reducing the risk of a non-tradable asset or a contingent claim. We derive fully analytical optimal hedges and demonstrate that they can easily be computed in various stochastic enviro...

  15. Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies

    In this paper, some of the important findings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., E(lab) ∼ 4-7 MeV/nucleon) in 12C,16O+169Tm systems are briefly summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, αxn/2αxn channels have been measured to probe entirely different γ-emission patterns (and feeding intensity profiles) during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay) to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been confirmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states. (authors)

  16. A Necessary Evil? : Continuity and Change in Russian and Soviet Abortion Discourse, 1910-1930

    2012-01-01

    The widespread reliance on abortion in the Soviet Union, occasionally even referred to as an “abortion culture”, has been documented in a number of studies. However, the notoriously high abortion rates are not the only reason why the Soviet case stands out in the global history of abortion. Having decriminalised abortion by decree in 1920, Soviet Russia became the first country in the world where the termination of pregnancy was discussed as a legalised phenomenon. Russian discussions on ...

  17. Orion Pad Abort 1 GN and C Design and Development

    Medina, Edgar A.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The first flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test project is scheduled to launch in Spring 2010. This flight test is known as Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) and it is intended to accomplish a series of flight test objectives, including demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System (LAS) to propel the Crew Module (CM) to a safe distance from a launch vehicle during a pad abort. The PA-1 Flight Test Article (FTA) is actively controlled by a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for much of its flight. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development, and analysis of the PA-1 GN&C system. A description of the technical solutions that were developed to meet the challenge of satisfying many competing requirements is presented. A historical perspective of how the Orion LAV compares to the Apollo Launch Escape Vehicle (LEV) design will also be included.

  18. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  19. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women...

  20. Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept

    Tartabini, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

  1. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2011-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort...... study that involved linking information from the Danish Civil Registration system to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Register of Patients. The information consisted of data for girls and women with no record of mental disorders during the 1995–2007 period who had a first......-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event...

  2. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  3. Study on Aerobic Bacterial flora in Canine abortions

    B.E Shambulingappa; G. Anand Manegar and K. J. Ananda

    2010-01-01

    Of the 125 bitches with reproductive disorder, 10 bitches which were aborted at different stages of gestation and presented to Veterinary hospitals for treatments were included in the present study. Total thirteen isolates were recovered from the aborted samples. The frequency of bacterial isolates in descending order were Escherichia coli (38.46%), Streptococcus canis (38.46%), Staphylococcus epidermedis (15.38%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.69%). [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000): 111-112

  4. Study on Aerobic Bacterial flora in Canine abortions

    B. E. Shambulingappa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Of the 125 bitches with reproductive disorder, 10 bitches which were aborted at different stages of gestation and presented to Veterinary hospitals for treatments were included in the present study. Total thirteen isolates were recovered from the aborted samples. The frequency of bacterial isolates in descending order were Escherichia coli (38.46%, Streptococcus canis (38.46%, Staphylococcus epidermedis (15.38% and Staphylococcus aureus (7.69%. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 111-112

  5. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether womens unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected) sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their a...

  6. The abortion debate: can this chronic public illness be cured?

    Callahan, D

    1992-12-01

    Abortion has provided one of the most noxious, disturbing, and unending of all American moral and legal struggles. The issue forces us to think about the most difficult kind of ethical issues, e.g., the moral status of the fetus and the meaning of human "life" and "personhood." The win-at-all-costs attitude among the leading advocacy groups has created gross stereotypes. While most arguments heard today were also heard prior to the Roe vs. Wade decision, the tone has radically changed. Better organization has meant hotter rhetoric and a nastier public style. We need to move the abortion debate along; it is now as stagnate as it is nasty. We need creative discussion and realistic compromise. The pre-Roe arguments in favor of choice have changed. Then, the movement to legalize abortion rested on the following: 1) illegal abortions were killing and maiming women; 2) women should have a backup to ineffective contraception; 3) the number of unwanted pregnancies should be reduced; only wanted children should be born, as a matter of child welfare; 4) women should have the right to make the abortion decision; 5) everything possible should be done to change the economic and domestic circumstances forcing women into unwanted pregnancies. The argument benefited women, children, and society. The many abortion myths that have since taken prominence cloud an already difficult issue. The ongoing tension rests with the conflict between the moral and legal issues. Is it possible to combine legal freedom and seriousness about the moral questions? Only if we recognize the equality of both positions' moral traditions, accept public discussion, the need for compromise, the need to do everything possible to change the economic and social circumstance leading to the abortion choice, and the need for meaningful counseling of women considering abortion. PMID:1451361

  7. Misperceptions about contraceptives keep abortion incidence high in Ghana.

    1994-01-01

    Only 13% of couples in Ghana practiced contraception in 1988. During the period of nursing following childbirth, it is traditional for the new mother to abstain from sexual intercourse. She is subject to considerable social scorn should she conceive too soon after a previous delivery. Conceiving in short order, nonetheless, women long resorted to clandestine, unsafe abortions during the postpartum interval. The government of Ghana legalized the practice of induced abortion in 1985 so that women could limit their fertility in safety with registered and certified medical practitioners. The author studied 900 women seeking an induced abortion or reporting complications resulting from induced abortion performed outside a hospital setting to see why, in spite of high knowledge of contraception, Ghanaian women resort to abortion instead of using contraception. Subjects were recruited from the KorleBu Teaching Hospital in Accra, the Tema General Hospital of Tema, the Nsawam Hospital of Nsawam, and two abortion clinics in Accra. 55% were married, 25% were teenagers, and 56% were residents of Accra, while the rest were from rural areas. Among those who were married, 45% were the third wives. Most of the women had some formal education and some degree of economic independence. 99% knew of at least one method of contraception, only 21% had ever used a modern method, 6% had used a condom, 4% had used withdrawal sometimes, and 3% had used the rhythm method. The women reported not using modern contraceptives mainly because of the belief that they cause harmful side-effects. For example, it was commonly thought that the oral contraceptive pill causes infertility and withdrawal causes stroke in men. Women also viewed contraceptives as messy, complicated, and/or difficult to use. 54% said they decided to abort their fetus because the pregnancy was out of wedlock; single parenthood is stigmatized in Ghana. 25% decided to abort to better space their children. PMID:12287987

  8. The abortion-crime link: evidence from England and Wales

    Simmons, R.; L H Kahane; Paton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from England and Wales, we test the hypothesis that legalizing abortion reduces crime. The timing of changes in crime rates in aggregate data is generally inconsistent with this hypothesis. Using panel data on recorded crime from 1983 to 2001, we are able to replicate the negative association between abortion rates and reported crime that J. J. Donohue and S. D. Levitt found for the United States. However, this association breaks down under the scrutiny of robustness checks and is ...

  9. Testing the Perturbation Sensitivity of Abortion-Crime Regressions

    Michał Brzeziński; Maria Halber

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that the legalisation of abortion contributed significantly to the reduction of crime in the United States in 1990s is one of the most prominent ideas from the recent “economics-made-fun” movement sparked by the book Freakonomics. This paper expands on the existing literature about the computational stability of abortion-crime regressions by testing the sensitivity of coefficients’ estimates to small amounts of data perturbation. In contrast to previous studies, we use a new da...

  10. Tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.

    2016-08-20

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:27550334

  11. Cytogenetic analysis in 61 couples with spontaneous abortions

    江静; 傅曼芬; 王德芬

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between spontaneous abortion and chromosomal abnormalities. Methods Couples who had one or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and had normal genitals were enrolled for cytogenetic karyotype analysis. Results In the 61 couples, the detected incidence was 11.5%, with five Robertsonian translocations, one reciprocal translocation, and one pericentric inversion of chromosome 7. Conclusion Chromosomal abnormalities may play an important role in fetal wastage.

  12. Abortion in America: A Consumer-Behavior Perspective.

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hill, Ronald Paul; Maloy, Kate

    1995-01-01

    Abortion is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in this country, yet its provision to consumers remains one of the most contentious issues within our society. The purpose of this article is to broaden our understanding of this problem by examining abortion from a consumer-behavior perspective. The phenomenological study described in this article revealed that (1) a wide gap exists between the language of the public debate and that of private decision making, (2) the language of p...

  13. The Abortion Issue in the Development Agenda of Latin American

    Marta Lamas

    2008-01-01

    This article, which offers a regional overview of the feminist struggle for abortion rights in Latin America, begins by reminding the reader of the context, characterized by poverty and marginalization, in which the region's women become mothers, as well as the deadly consequences of illegal abortion. It subsequently outlines the political tension between some state governments and feminists, particularly the friction that results from interference by the Catholic church hierarchy. The articl...

  14. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender a...

  15. Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangement in Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions: A Case Report

    Zarifian, Ahmadreza; Farhoodi, Zeinab; Amel, Roya; Mirzaee, Salmeh; Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    One of the major causes of spontaneous abortion before the fourth month of pregnancy is chromosomal abnormalities. We report an unusual case of a familial balanced chromosomal translocation in a consanguineous couple who experienced 4 spontaneous abortions. Chromosomal studies were performed on the basis of G-banding technique at high resolution and revealed 46, XX, t (16; 6) (p12; q26) and 46, XY, t (16; 6) (p12; q26) in both partners, which induced such pregnancy complications. Chromosomal ...

  16. Women's Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review.

    Anisa R Assifi

    Full Text Available Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women's access to safe, legal abortion services.To provide a synthesis of evidence of women's awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women's knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country's abortion law.A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980-2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women's awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis.Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women's correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3%-68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8%-98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8%-64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7%-94% and 0%-89.5% respectively.This systematic review synthesizes literature on women's awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary.

  17. Abortion in Brazil: Contending Discourses and Women's Experiences

    Tussi, Fernanda P.

    2010-01-01

    It is a common practice for anthropologists to explore connections where scholars from different disciplines do not expect to search and find them. This is the theoretical and methodological orientation in which I was trained as an anthropologist and from which I approach the practice of abortion in Brazil in hope to reach an understanding of the constituent dimensions of this social fact. Before I move on the to discussion, I would like to provide some background on the practice of abortion ...

  18. Child-bearing after induced abortion: reassessment of risk.

    Seidman, D S; Ever-Hadani, P.; Slater, P E; Harlap, S; Stevenson, D K; Gale, R.

    1988-01-01

    We reviewed 1791 singleton pregnancies of women with a history of previous induced abortion and compared them with 14,857 pregnancies in mothers with no previous induced abortions. Therapeutic termination of pregnancy was associated with a statistically significant increase in the incidence of low birth weight infants and bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. When other variables were examined, no significant differences were found between the two groups, except for a significantly hi...

  19. Screening for genetic disorders: therapeutic abortion and IVF.

    Michael, M.; Buckle, S

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines a proposal to make use of IVF techniques to provide an alternative to therapeutic abortion of fetuses with genetic abnormalities. We begin by describing the proposed procedure, and then show that, considered in itself, it is morally on a par with therapeutic abortion. However, once the wider practical implications are brought into view, the proposed new procedure loses its initial appeal. The pros and cons are not sufficiently clear-cut entirely to rule out the IVF procedu...

  20. Abortion in Islamic countries--legal and religious aspects.

    Asman, Oren

    2004-01-01

    The debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. As one of every four people in the world is of the Muslim religion, it is important to learn more about the Islamic point of view toward this dilemma in medical ethics. The first part of this paper gives a general view of the sources of Islamic law and discusses modern developments in Islamic medical ethics regarding abortion. The second part focuses on the legal aspects of abortion in different Islamic states, dealing with the need to supply solutions to women who for different reasons wish to abort and at the same time enact laws that would not contradict Islamic principles. A study of three Muslim states (Egypt, Kuwait and Tunisia) demonstrates three different approaches toward legalizing abortion--a conservative approach, a more lenient approach, and a liberal one--all within Islamic oriented states. This leads to a conclusion that a more liberal attitude regarding abortion is possible in Islamic states, as long as traditional principles are taken into account. PMID:15163077

  1. From pragmatism to politics: a qualitative study of abortion providers.

    Wear, Delese

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-eight years after the United State Supreme Court issued its landmark Roe v. Wade, the struggle continues to ensure that all women have the full range of reproductive choices, including abortion. While the struggle can be addressed through its political, religious, and medical dimensions, it also can be examined through the perspectives of those who actually provide abortions. This paper examines the perspectives of physician abortion providers to understand more fully their motivations, the quality of their personal and professional lives, their views on the future of abortion services, and their recommendations for undergraduate and residency medical education. Such questions are often best answered through qualitative inquiry, particularly when the subject at hand has had little interpretive scrutiny, lacks theoretical understandings, and remains in general an under-investigated phenomenon. Because abortion providers and the work they do fit those criteria, a qualitative study of physician providers in Ohio was undertaken. This paper is divided into the following sections: a literature review of abortion services in the United States, methods, interview data and discussion, and last, recommendations and conclusions. PMID:12555805

  2. Research on lidocaine in the application of induced abortion

    Hai-Tao Tong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of lidocaine in the application of induced abortion.Methods:A total of 120 pregnant women with 6-10 week gestational age and ASA I-II level who were volunteered to receive induced abortions from January, 2010 to January, 2013 were included in the study, among which 60 cases were given lidocaine during the operation and served as the observation group, while 60 cases were not given lidocaine during the operation and served as the control group. The heart rate, blood pressure, the change of oxygen saturation, pain, and the occurrence of abortion syndrome before and after operation between the two groups were compared.Results:The fineness rates of analgesia and anesthesia evaluation in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P0.05). The postoperative heart rate and blood pressure in the control group were significantly lower than those before operation and in the observation group with a slow recovery (P0.05). The occurrence rate of abortion syndrome in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Application of lidocaine in the induced abortion can relieve the pain and reduce the occurrence rate of abortion syndrome with a simple and safe operation; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  3. Nation's most onerous abortion restrictions challenged in Mississippi court.

    1994-02-25

    A lawsuit was filed in Mississippi on February 17, 1994, which challenges several aspects of Mississippi's abortion law. The case, Pro-choice Mississippi vs. Fordice, will seek to determine if the state's 24-hour delay and mandated information for abortion-seekers, 2-parent consent or court approval for young women, and licensing requirements for abortion providers violate the state Constitution both as written and as applied. At issue here are rights of privacy, bodily integrity, freedom of conscience, and the right to make a medical decision free from government interference. The 24-hour delay went into effect in August 1992. The parental consent was enacted in 1986 and went into effect in May 1993 because of another lawsuit, and the licensing requirements have been effective since their passage in November 1991 and have prevented qualified abortion providers from practicing in the State. The effect of these measures has been to reduce the number of abortions performed, especially for women with less than a high school education and to increase by an estimated 18% the number of second trimester abortions performed. PMID:12345514

  4. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  5. Five-Segment Booster (FSB) Abort to Orbit (ATO) Studies

    Tobias, Mark; Sauvageau, Donald R.; Hines, Mark; Geiser, Norman L.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Five Segment Booster (FSB) concept has been evolving for a number of years as a means to enhance the overall safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system by minimizing the need to fly the more challenging Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) abort profiles. The initial evaluation of the FSB concept was conducted in 1996 to determine the feasibility of the FSB in achieving transatlantic abort leading TAL from the pad, thus eliminating the return to launch site (RTLS) abort mode. The initial study was conducted by ATK Thiokol and did show the potential for the FSB to eliminate the RTLS abort mode. Later Rockwell (now Boeing) conducted a similar study utilizing FSB performance characteristics and verified that the FSB could indeed achieve TAL from the pad, thereby eliminating the necessity for the RTLS abort. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the details of the enhancements achieved through the internally funded study conducted by Boeing and ATK Thiokol. To better understand the enhancements that were addressed as part of this follow-on study, some background on what was achieved in the Phase A study is appropriate.

  6. [Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].

    Umaña, A O

    1973-01-01

    Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875

  7. Pesquisa sobre o aborto no Brasil: avanços e desafios para o campo da saúde coletiva Research on abortion in Brazil: gaps and challenges for the public health field

    Greice Menezes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta um panorama dos estudos sobre aborto no país, no campo da Saúde Coletiva, apontando lacunas e desafios para a investigação. A maioria das pesquisas está concentrada em hospitais públicos, com mulheres admitidas para tratamento do aborto incompleto, restringindo-se portanto aos abortos que apresentaram complicações. Descrevem o perfil das mulheres, métodos e razões para o aborto e conseqüências imediatas para a saúde física. Entretanto, permanecem limites relacionados à necessidade de estudos para mensuração da incidência do aborto; para investigação das especificidades dos óbitos por aborto e casos de morbidade grave; para análise da relação do aborto com anticoncepção; para investigação das repercussões do aborto na saúde mental das mulheres e para incorporação da perspectiva masculina. É urgente o desenvolvimento de pesquisas de avaliação da atenção ao aborto nos serviços públicos. Os resultados dos estudos devem ser divulgados, contribuindo para superar a visão ideologizada da discussão do direito ao aborto no país.This paper provides a review of abortion studies produced in the field of public health in Brazil, highlighting current research gaps and challenges. Most studies focus on women admitted to public hospitals for treatment of incomplete abortion, so their scope is limited to abortions presenting complications. Women's profiles, abortion methods, motives, and immediate consequences for women's physical health are also included. However, there remains a need for studies on the following aspects: measuring abortion incidence; investigating cases of post-abortion complications and death; analyzing the relationship between abortion and contraception; investigating the impact of abortion on women's mental health; and incorporating men's perspectives. There is an urgent need for evaluative research on abortion care in public services. Research results should be disseminated widely

  8. Why Governments That Fund Elective Abortion Are Obligated to Attempt a Reduction in the Elective Abortion Rate.

    Dumsday, Travis

    2016-03-01

    If elective abortion is publicly funded, then the government is obligated to take active measures designed to reduce its prevalence. I present two arguments for that conclusion. The first argument is directed at those pro-choice thinkers who hold that while some or all elective abortions are morally wrong, they still ought to be legally permitted and publicly subsidized. The second argument is directed at pro-choice thinkers who hold that there is nothing morally wrong with elective abortion and that it should be both legally permitted and publicly subsidized. The second argument employs premises that generalize beyond the abortion debate and that may serve to shed light on broader questions concerning conscience and the requirements of political compromise in a democracy. PMID:26715048

  9. Adolescent Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion Rates Across Countries: Levels and Recent Trends

    Sedgh, Gilda; Finer, Lawrence B.; Bankole, Akinrinola; Eilers, Michelle A.; Singh, Susheela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine pregnancy rates and outcomes (births and abortions) among 15- to 19-year olds and 10- to 14-year olds in all countries for which recent information could be obtained and to examine trends since the mid-1990s. Methods Information was obtained from countries’ vital statistics reports and the United Nations Statistics Division for most countries in this study. Alternate sources of information were used if needed and available. We present estimates primarily for 2011 and compare them to estimates published for the mid-1990s. Results Among the 21 countries with complete statistics, the pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year olds was the highest in the United States (57 pregnancies per 1,000 females) and the lowest rate was in Switzerland (8). Rates were higher in some former Soviet countries with incomplete statistics; they were the highest in Mexico and Sub-Saharan African countries with available information. Among countries with reliable evidence, the highest rate among 10- to 14-year olds was in Hungary. The proportion of teen pregnancies that ended in abortion ranged from 17% in Slovakia to 69% in Sweden. The proportion of pregnancies that ended in live births tended to be higher in countries with high teen pregnancy rates (p =.02). The pregnancy rate has declined since the mid-1990s in the majority of the 16 countries where trends could be assessed. Conclusions Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy rates remain high in many countries. Research on the planning status of these pregnancies and on factors that determine how teens resolve their pregnancies could further inform programs and policies. PMID:25620306

  10. Continuous Improvements to East Coast Abort Landings for Space Shuttle Aborts

    Butler, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    Improvement initiatives in the areas of guidance, flight control, and mission operations provide increased capability for successful East Coast Abort Landings (ECAL). Automating manual crew procedures in the Space Shuttle's onboard guidance allows faster and more precise commanding of flight control parameters needed for successful ECALs. Automation also provides additional capability in areas not possible with manual control. Operational changes in the mission concept allow for the addition of new landing sites and different ascent trajectories that increase the regions of a successful landing. The larger regions of ECAL capability increase the safety of the crew and Orbiter.

  11. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  12. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis.

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M

    2014-10-26

    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information. PMID:25348676

  13. Neighborhood Hypergraph Based Classification Algorithm for Incomplete Information System

    Feng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification in incomplete information system is a hot issue in intelligent information processing. Hypergraph is a new intelligent method for machine learning. However, it is hard to process the incomplete information system by the traditional hypergraph, which is due to two reasons: (1 the hyperedges are generated randomly in traditional hypergraph model; (2 the existing methods are unsuitable to deal with incomplete information system, for the sake of missing values in incomplete information system. In this paper, we propose a novel classification algorithm for incomplete information system based on hypergraph model and rough set theory. Firstly, we initialize the hypergraph. Second, we classify the training set by neighborhood hypergraph. Third, under the guidance of rough set, we replace the poor hyperedges. After that, we can obtain a good classifier. The proposed approach is tested on 15 data sets from UCI machine learning repository. Furthermore, it is compared with some existing methods, such as C4.5, SVM, NavieBayes, and KNN. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance via Precision, Recall, AUC, and F-measure.

  14. Knowledge Level of Gynecologists and Midwives of Yazd Concerning Rules and Regulations of Therapeutic Abortion(Legal and Criminal Abortion

    M Ghadipasha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abortion has always been a controversial issue and all religions, humanistic and medical communities have opposed it . The complications of illegal abortion are one of the most common reasons of hospital admission in developing countries. W.H.O estimates that the one eight of all pregnancy deaths is due to illegal abortion. Lack of knowledge of the medical team about the abortion regulations and rules can endanger the pregnant mothers life and also create certain problems for medical communities . Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted in 2007 and included 110 gynecologists and midwives in Yazd who were studied by census method. Data was collected via self-made questionnaire and data analysis was done by software SPSS program and statistical tests included square K and T test. Results : Of the total of 110 patients, 16.4% were gynecologists and 83.3% were midwives, 31.8% worked in academic centers and 68.2% were employed at other centers. The awareness level of 25.5% was good. There was a meaningful difference between the awareness level of academic employed and nonacademic employed and also between those who had studied abortion rules regulations. Conclusion: As 74.5% of the study population had low levels of awareness about the abortion rules, education of midwives & gynecologists about rules & regulations is strongly recommended as it not only helps women's health, but also decreases their legal problems.

  15. Structural determinants of the abortion rate: a cross-societal analysis.

    Trent, K; Hoskin, A W

    1999-01-01

    Data for a sample of 89 countries are used to examine societal-level predictors of the legal status of abortion and its incidence as indicated by abortion rates. Measures of socioeconomic development, women's labor force participation, and dominant religion are considered as predictors of abortion. Logistic regression analysis reveals that socioeconomic development has a positive effect on the probability of abortion being legal. Both a greater dominance of Catholicism and Islam in a society reduce the probability that abortion is legal. Results of tobit analyses show that development has curvilinear effects on abortion rates, with lower rates of abortion at both the lower and higher ends of development. Findings also indicate a positive effect of female labor force participation on the abortion rate that initially grows stronger with increases in socioeconomic development, but weakens with further increases. Finally, a greater proportion of Catholics in a population lowers the abortion rate. PMID:10842502

  16. [Toward constructing a research agenda: the threat posed by induced abortion in Latin America].

    Mundigo, A

    1994-01-01

    This work calls attention to the need for constructing a research agenda on induced abortion, which constitutes a serious pubic health problem in Latin America because of its illegality, clandestine practice, and ramifications for women's health, their families, and the health services. The incidence of abortion in Latin America is estimated, in the absence of reliable statistics, at 4-6 million annually. Over half the women in some countries are believed to resort to abortion during their reproductive lives. The concept of reproductive health emerged in the past decade from two distinct sources, the field of health and the feminist movement, as contraception became an increasingly accepted component of primary care. Reproductive aspects acquired a central role in the expanded concept of women's health, and reproductive health was converted into a new objective of service programs. The World Health Organization in 1988 for the first time unofficially defined reproductive health, and in 1994 an official definition was proposed. The definition did not mention abortion directly. Abortion is increasingly a topic of political debate in Latin America, where it is legal only in Cuba. The resolute opposition of the Catholic Church undoubtedly affects health policies. The feminist movement is perhaps alone in raising the issue and seeking means of legalizing abortion, based on human rights and public health considerations. The new definition of reproductive health challenges researchers from many disciplines to provide reliable information on poorly known aspects of abortion. The ultimate goal of the research is to reduce the frequency of abortion and eliminate morbidity and mortality caused by illegal abortions. Recommended topics for research include the incidence of abortion, undesired adolescent pregnancy and abortion, abortion and working women, the influence of cultural and social patterns on abortion, the role of men in reproductive decisions and abortion, the

  17. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  18. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms.

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  19. Fast assignment reduction in inconsistent incomplete decision systems

    Min Li; Shaobo Deng; Shengzhong Feng; Jianping Fan

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on fast algorithm for computing the assignment reduct in inconsistent incomplete decision systems. It is quite inconvenient to judge the assignment reduct directly ac-cording to its definition. We propose the judgment theorem for the assignment reduct in the inconsistent incomplete decision system, which greatly simplifies judging this type reduct. On such basis, we derive a novel attribute significance measure and construct the fast assignment reduction algorithm (F-ARA), intended for com-puting the assignment reduct in inconsistent incomplete decision systems. Final y, we make a comparison between F-ARA and the discernibility matrix-based method by experiments on 13 Univer-sity of California at Irvine (UCI) datasets, and the experimental results prove that F-ARA is efficient and feasible.

  20. [Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].

    Kalonda, J C Omba

    2012-01-01

    The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138

  1. Drug combination adds fuel to US abortion debate.

    Rutter, T L

    1995-09-16

    A recent study in the US showed that abortion was achieved in 171/178 women aged 18 to 47 with pregnancies of 63 days or less duration through the administration of an intramuscular injection of methotrexate (a drug used to treat cancer) followed five to seven days later with a dose of misoprostol (used to treat ulcers). The report of this study prompted the founder of the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue to threaten the report's author with being "hunted down and tried for genocide" should abortion ever be made illegal. While the National Abortion Rights Action League urged that the procedure be judged on medical not political terms, a spokesperson for the National Right to Life Committee expressed concern for the reproductive and psychological health of women undergoing medical abortions. The Population Council is currently completing clinical trials of the regimen which employs RU-486 to achieve medical abortion and expects to file a new drug application with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. The methotrexate/misoprostol combination would be much less expensive than RU-486 (approximately $10 compared to $250 at current prices), and a pharmaceutical company is currently attempting to raise the six million dollars necessary to fund the large-scale clinical trials which must precede FDA approval. While the availability of medical abortions would make the procedure much more accessible and private for women, proper counseling must be given to the women to avoid unwanted side effects and so that the women know what to expect. PMID:7549678

  2. States, Congress confront abortion services under Medicaid, health care plan.

    1994-01-13

    Abortion coverage under various health care reform proposals has dominated the political reproductive rights debate, while poor women's access to abortion under Medicaid presents a current practical concern. Under the Clinton administration's proposed Health Security Act, abortion would be covered under "services for pregnant women," and Medicaid would eventually be incorporated into the national health plan. A final version is a long way off. For now, the Hyde amendment, limiting Medicaid coverage of abortion, controls the issue. Congress has made only negligible progress in freeing federal funds for Medicaid abortions: only in situations of life endangerment, rape, or incest. States are required to cover abortions that are medically necessary under the new guidelines, which now include pregnancy arising from rape and incest. The federal policy defers to state law on the definition of rape and incest, allowing for reasonable reporting or documentation requirements, while disallowing unduly burdensome regulations by allowing the treating physician reimbursement when the physician certifies that the patient was unable for physical or psychological reasons to comply with the requirement. States disagreeing with the new abortion policy immediately registered their opposition. Utah's health department, which has a "life only" law, has pledged not to implement the new federal policy until there is further clarification. The Health Care Financing Administrator responded by writing that "the decision to implement this policy nationwide was not discretionary." Congress chose not to add statutory language deferring to the states, and under U.S. Constitutional law, where state law or policy conflicts with federal law, federal law takes precedence. The next battle will certainly center on attempts to amend the Hyde amendment itself as well as health care legislation along the "states' option" lines. PMID:12345518

  3. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  4. Exploring abortion knowledge and opinion among lawyers, an important yet overlooked stakeholder group in Mexico.

    Wilson, Kate S; Garcia, Sandra G; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; McMurtrie, Stephanie M; Valencia, Jorge Armando; Diaz de Leon, Fernanda; Sanchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Lawyers are important actors shaping the abortion debate in Mexico. Of 250 private and public sector criminal lawyers surveyed from four regions, the majority knew about abortion laws in their states. At least 80% agreed with abortion in cases of rape, risk to a woman's life or health, and fetal malformations. Overall, 61% agreed with the Mexico City law and 84% would defend a woman denied a legal abortion. In multivariate analysis, being very knowledgeable of abortion laws was a significant predictor of more "progressive" abortion opinions, support for the Mexico City law, and support for the health indication. PMID:23066966

  5. Incomplete chromosome exchanges are not fingerprints of high LET neutrons

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique combining whole chromosome specific DNA libraries with pan-centromeric DNA and telomeric PNA probes was introduced to investigate the induction of chromosome exchanges in human lymphocytes after exposure to low (4 Gy X rays) and high (1 Gy neutrons) linear energy transfer radiation. This combination of probes allowed accurate detection of exchange aberrations involving the painted chromosomes and an unambiguous discrimination between complete and incomplete exchanges, as well as terminal and interstitial deletions. Data obtained in the present study using combined FISH assay with telomeres detection showed no differences between two types of radiation regarding the induction of incomplete exchanges. (author)

  6. Effect of the Target Deformation on Incomplete Fusion Dynamics

    Singh D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of target deformation on incomplete fusion dynamics, a particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of 16O with 124Sn at 6.3MeV/nucleon have been measured. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with fast α and 2α-emission channels observed in forward cone are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for evaporation residues produced through xn channels (complete fusion products is found to be J0≈ 7ħ, while the mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the residues produced through direct αxn and 2αxn channels (incomplete fusion products in forward cone, are found to be J0 ≈ 9ħ and ≈ 12ħ respectively for 16O + 124Sn (spherical system [7]. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the system 16O + 169Tm (deformed reported in ref. [8], are found to be ≈10ħ for xn-channels (complete fusion products and for direct αxn and 2αxn channels (incomplete fusion products the value of J0 approaches to ≈ 13ħ and ≈16ħ, respectively. The mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products, αxn and 2αxn (incomplete fusion products in 16O + 124Sn (spherical system are smaller than that of the mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products, αxn and 2αxn (incomplete fusion products in 16O + 169Tm (deformed system. The comparison of data inferred that the mean values of the input angular momentum are smaller in case of spherical target than that of deformed target at same projectile energy of 16O-ion beam. It means that the target deformation affect the incomplete fusion dynamics.

  7. A Revision to Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem by Neutrosophy

    Fu, Yuhua

    2008-01-01

    According to Smarandache’s neutrosophy, the G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem contains the truth, the falsehood, and the indeterminacy of a statement under consideration. It is shown in this paper that the proof of G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem is faulty, because all possible situations are not considered (such as the situation where from some axioms wrong results can be deducted, for example, from the axiom of choice the paradox of the doublin...

  8. Toward a redefinition and contextualization of the abortion issue.

    Hartman, A

    1991-11-01

    The current condition of the abortion issue is that of an ideological stalemate. Each side has retreated to defend positions that will tolerate compromise of consideration of the other's viewpoint. The result is that both sides fail to see the implications of their views. 1 reason for this current state of affairs is the effect of Roe v Wade. The decision is based in privacy rights, rather than bodily integrity, which means that women are to be left alone when it comes to abortion. This can be seen with the Harris v McRae decision which ended federal funding for abortion services and the Rust v Sullivan decision which further limited doctors to counsel, inform, or refer women about abortion if they take federal money. Both sides of the issue defended absolute, immutable rights which do not leave room for personal, civic, and collective responsibility. Both sides have inconsistencies: the pro-choice side does not recognize that while abortion as a backup to birth control is okay, abortion as a primary means of birth control is not. Yet this is the case in many countries today. The pro-life side maintains that the fetus has the right to be born, yet the conservative administration and its supporters do not want to pay for social and health programs that will give these fetuses a descent quality of life. If they care so much for life, how can they stand by while 20% of children live in poverty? The pro-life side continues to ignore that fact that the majority of Americans support the right to chose. The pro-choice side continues to ignore the fact that 40% of those that favor choice, also feel that abortion is immoral. The final result of these arguments about right, is that they do not exist in the context of the real world. They are formed without looking at the social, economic, and personal contexts in which abortion occurs. The right to abortion should not stand alone, it should be a fail safe combined with family planning education and universal contraception

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of Myoma, H-mole and Missed abortion

    Ultrasonography is very important in the diagnosis of various kinds of diseases in Obsterics and Gynecology. It has high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of pelvic masses and widely used for the detection of normal orpathologic pregnancy. But still it is difficult to differentiate degenerated myoma, H-mole and missed abortion by ultrasonography. So the authors analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of 81 patients with myoma(29 cases), H-mole(23 cases), and missed abortion(29 cases) and the results are as follows; 1. Diagnostic accuracy was 8.6% in myoma, 87% in H-mole and 89% in missed abortion. 2. The most typical ultrasonographic finding of myoma was obulated mass contour with nonhomogenous internal echo. 3. The most characteristic finding of H-mole was fine vesicular pattern internal echo with globular enlargement of uterus. 4. The most frequent finding of missed abortion was deformed gestational sac with or without remained fetal echo. 5. Clinical correlation was very important for accurate diagnosis, especially when differential diagnosis was very difficult between myoma with marked cystic degeneration, missed abortion with large distorted gestational sac and H-mole with severe degeneration

  10. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  11. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897

  12. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  13. Living through some giant change: the establishment of abortion services.

    Schoen, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women's health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  14. ACLU: strict anti-abortion law could also ban contraceptives.

    1991-09-01

    In states that pass very restrictive abortion laws, contraceptives may be outlawed as well. A Louisiana law prohibits abortion, even to save the life of the mother, and defines the moment of conception to be contact between a spermatozoan and an ovum. The law carries a maximum 10 year prison sentence and a $100,000 maximum fine. According to this definition, oral contraceptives, IUDs and Norplant would all be considered abortifacient and would thus be illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has filled a suit on behalf of the women seeking abortions, the physicians performing abortions, and abortion clinics. There appear to be some problem with banning the contraceptives because the law stipulates that you must terminate the pregnancy with intent and if you don't know you are pregnant, then you can't have intent. Thus contraceptives work without knowledge of pregnancy and should not be included. The ACLU also claims that the definition of conception is not medically or scientifically accepted and as such it is faulty. PMID:12317309

  15. The benefits of progesterone therapy in imminent abortion

    A. Abadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of imminent abortion are multi-factorial. The biggest causal factor is the low level of serum progesterone level. The lowest critical level of serum progesterone for survivability of pregnancy is 10 ng/ml. Eighty percent of patients experiencing abortion showed that their progesterone level was < 10 ng/ml. Patients who realized that their pregnancy would experience hemorrhage generally would suffer from depression. Stress was one of the factors responsible for the occurence of abortion. Administration of natural progesterone substitution (not  progestogen accelerates the disappearance of uterine contractions, and speeds up the stoppage of bleeding. In addition, progesterone has the effect of anti-anxiety. Adminstration of oral progesterone would result in metabolism in the intestine and liver, such that physiological level of serum progesterone could not be reached, while administration of suppositoria progesterone would result in physiological level of serum, such that it was effective to prevent imminent abortion. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:258-62Keywords: progesterone, imminent abortion

  16. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis

    Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. METHODS We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. RESULTS The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. CONCLUSIONS Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence. PMID:27007684

  17. [Full-term pregnancy following failed induced abortion].

    Pirhonen, J; Hulkko, S

    1986-01-01

    This study introduces a case of an 18 year old student who developed a full-term pregnancy following failed induced abortion. The abortion was performed during the 7th week of pregnancy by dilating the cervix and suctioning with the tip of a number 8 aspirator. A regular amount of pregnancy material was obtained, and the uterus was checked with a normal curette. After 3 months, when the patient's period did not recommence, a diagnosis of normal pregnancy was made. Delivery was performed by section after 2 inductions because of weak contractions, maternal exhaustion and threatening fetal asphyxia. The baby was normal and satisfactorily developed on follow-up. In conclusion, it is rare for pregnancy to continue after an abortion by aspiration. In a previous study by Fielding (1978), only 3 cases similar to this were followed. 2 of them miscarried and 1 delivered a defective baby. Among the causes of failed abortion are severely retrograded uterus, growth and developmental problems of the uterus and defective cervix. The risks are greater in the earlier weeks of pregnancy. Inexperience and technical difficulties are also reported as factors in failed abortion, as well as aspiration on only 1 fetus in cases of twin pregnancy. The authors recommend consideration of the mentioned risk factors, using sonography in suspicious cases, examining the amount of pregnancy material an always performing a follow-up examination. PMID:3757838

  18. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  19. Insights from an expert group meeting on the definition and measurement of unsafe abortion.

    Sedgh, Gilda; Filippi, Veronique; Owolabi, Onikepe O; Singh, Susheela D; Askew, Ian; Bankole, Akinrinola; Benson, Janie; Rossier, Clementine; Pembe, Andrea B; Adewole, Isaac; Ganatra, Bela; MacDonagh, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, WHO operationally defined unsafe abortion as illegal abortion. In the past decade, however, the incidence of abortion by misoprostol administration has increased in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Access to safe surgical abortions has also increased in many such countries. An important effect of these trends has been that, even in an illegal environment, abortion is becoming safer, and an updated system for classifying abortion in accordance with safety is needed. Numerous factors aside from abortion method or legality should be taken into consideration in developing such a classification system. An Expert Meeting on the Definition and Measurement of Unsafe Abortion was convened in London, UK, on January 9-10, 2014, to move toward developing a classification system that both reflects current conditions and acknowledges the gradient of risk associated with abortion. The experts also discussed the types of research needed to monitor the incidence of abortion at each level of safety. These efforts are urgently needed if we are to ensure that preventing unsafe abortion is appropriately represented on the global public health agenda. Such a classification system would also motivate investment in research to accurately measure and monitor abortion incidence across categories of safety. PMID:27062249

  20. Incomplete Andreev reflection in a clean SFS junction

    We study the stationary Josephson effect in a ballistic superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction for arbitrarily large spin polarizations. Due to the exchange interaction in the ferromagnet, the Andreev reflection is incomplete. We describe how this effect modifies the Josephson current in the crossover from a superconductor/normal metal/superconductor junction to a superconductor/half metal/superconductor junction

  1. Excess demand functions with incomplete markets, a global result

    Momi, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a global characterization of excess demand functions in a two period exchange economy with incomplete real asset markets. We show that continuity, homogeneity and Walras� law characterize the aggregate excess demand functions on any compact price set which maintains the dimension of the budget set.

  2. 10 CFR 782.7 - Incomplete notice of infringement.

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAIMS FOR PATENT AND COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT Requirements and Procedures § 782.7 Incomplete notice of infringement. (a) If a communication alleging patent or copyright infringement is received that does not meet the requirements set forth above in § 782.5, the sender shall...

  3. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem...

  4. Study of incomplete fusion dynamics: analysis of excitation functions

    With a view to study complete fusion and incomplete fusion in several projectile target combinations, a programme of precise measurements of cross-sections and analysis of excitation functions has been undertaken. As a part of the ongoing programme, excitation functions for six reactions in 16O + 169Tm system have been measured

  5. Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finit...... markets. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles....

  6. CT brainscan in incomplete Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    Holdeigel, M.

    1987-03-01

    The CT brain scan of a 17-year-old patient with primary hyperuricaemia and mental retardation is presented. The examination demonstrates subcortical and cortical atrophy of the brain. The HGPRTase level was below normal. Clinical evidence of selfmutilation or tophi was not found. This patient's condition was interpreted as an incomplete Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

  7. The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficult...

  8. Pulsed exoemission of electrons under incomplete reversal of ferroelectric polarization

    A possibility of using the phenomenon of incomplete switching in ferroelectric samples made of ceramics for producing nanosecond duration electron beams with current densities exceeding the densities of current in thermoemission sources and comparable to the ones obtained in the photoemission guns with laser illumination, is demonstrated

  9. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly

    Bajic, Dragan; Wang, Chen; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Child Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

  10. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly

    Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

  11. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  12. Incomplete nonextensive statistics and zeroth law of thermodynamics

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the zeroth law of thermodynamics holds within an alternative version of nonextensive statistical mechanics based on {\\it incomplete probability distribution}. The generalized zeroth law leads to a generalized definition of thermodynamic functions which are possible to be used for systems with important nonextensivity (nonadditivity) in energy, volume or other external variables.

  13. Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability

    Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finit

  15. Image reconstruction for transmission tomography when projection data are incomplete

    Snyder, Donald L [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); O' Sullivan, Joseph A [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Murphy, Ryan J [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Politte, David G [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Whiting, Bruce R [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Williamson, Jeffrey F [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-11-07

    Two iterative methods are developed for forming a maximum-likelihood estimate of the attenuation density in a patient or object for transmission tomography when projection data are incomplete. The methods converge monotonically to the same limit points. Results of testing the methods with both simulated and real data are given.

  16. Image reconstruction for transmission tomography when projection data are incomplete

    Two iterative methods are developed for forming a maximum-likelihood estimate of the attenuation density in a patient or object for transmission tomography when projection data are incomplete. The methods converge monotonically to the same limit points. Results of testing the methods with both simulated and real data are given

  17. Pareto Improving Price Regulation when the Asset Market is Incomplete

    Herings, P.J.J.; Polemarchakis, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    When the asset market is incomplete, competitive equilibria are constrained suboptimal, which provides a scope for pareto improving interventions. Price regulation can be such a pareto improving policy, even when the welfare effects of rationing are taken into account. An appealing aspect of price r

  18. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

  19. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  20. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ∼ 4-7 MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, the fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry. (authors)