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Sample records for abortifacient agents steroidal

  1. The first finding of Neospora caninum and the occurrence of other abortifacient agents in sheep in Slovakia.

    Spilovská, S; Reiterová, K; Kovácová, D; Bobáková, M; Dubinský, P

    2009-10-14

    Neosporosis is an infection of animals caused by an intracellular coccidian parasite, Neospora caninum, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is one of important abortifacient agents of bovine abortions worldwide. The aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of anti-Neospora antibodies in dairy aborting sheep from two eastern Slovak regions and to compare it with the occurrence of other potential abortifacient agents. Sera of 382 sheep, mainly the Improved Valachian and Merino breed, were tested for the presence of anti-Neospora and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA, anti-Leptospira sp. by micro-agglutination-assay and anti-Chlamydophila antibodies using the complement fixation test. The mean seroprevalence of N. caninum was 3.7% and of T. gondii, 24.3%. This phenomenon of higher susceptibility of sheep to T. gondii is in the opposite of N. caninum infection in cattle. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were observed in 2.9% of serum samples with titres from 800 to 1600, whereas IgG antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus were found in 13.6% with titres from 64 to 1024. Half of N. caninum positive sera were simultaneously positive for T. gondii and one sample for C. abortus. From examined abortifacient agents the most important, from the frequency point of view, were toxoplasmosis (24.3%) and chlamydiosis (13.6%). No significant association between the frequencies of the abortions and mean seroprevalence of the abortifacient agents in Kosice region was determined. Likewise, no significant differences between the mean seroprevalence of neosporosis and toxoplasmosis in the two regions were detected. The first survey of neosporosis in aborting sheep from eastern Slovakia revealed a low prevalence resulting in a lower impact on reproduction losses in these small ruminants. PMID:19540672

  2. Survey of nine abortifacient infectious agents in aborted bovine fetuses from dairy farms in Beijing, China, by PCR.

    Yang, Na; Cui, Xia; Qian, Weifeng; Yu, Shanshan; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    Abortion in dairy cattle causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry. Aborted fetuses and samples from the corresponding aborting dams from 12 dairy herds in Beijing were tested for 9 abortifacient infectious pathogens by PCR between 2008 and 2010. From a total of 80 abortion cases collected during this period, infectious agents were detected in 45 (56.3%) cases, 22 (48.9%) of which represented co-infections with two or three infectious agents. The detected pathogens included infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (36.3%) and Neospora caninum (31.3%), followed by bovine viral diarrhoea virus (7.5%), Brucella abortus (6.3%), Tritrichomonas foetus (5%) and Toxoplasma gondii (1.3%). Campylobacter fetus, Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci were not detected in any abortion case. Findings from this study indicated that infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Neospora caninum were the main potential causes of abortions in Beijing dairy herds, whereas the bacterial pathogens were not, in contrast to reports from other countries. This is the first study to test nine abortifacient infectious agents by PCR at the same time, and it is also the first time to report the involvement of a variety of infectious agents in bovine abortion cases in China. PMID:22366134

  3. A survey of abortifacient infectious agents in livestock in Luzon, the Philippines, with emphasis on the situation in a cattle herd with abortion problems.

    Konnai, Satoru; Mingala, Claro N; Sato, Misako; Abes, Nancy S; Venturina, Fe A; Gutierrez, Charito A; Sano, Takafumi; Omata, Yoshitaka; Cruz, Libertado C; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    In the Philippines, insufficient consideration has been given to the implementation of systematic control measures against major abortifacient infectious agents in livestock. To elucidate the epidemiology of abortifacient infectious agents in livestock, the prevalence of four abortifacient agents was assessed. Initially, a total of 96 cattle including 17 cows with history of abortion were examined in a herd in Luzon at the request of the farm owner. Six (35.3%) of the 17 aborting cows were found to be serologically positive for Neospora caninum (N. caninum), whereas the seroprevalence in non-aborting cows was 15.9% (10/63). Four of the 6 serologically positive aborting cows were also RT-PCR-positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two (12.5%) of the 16 bulls examined were also found to be infected with BVDV, suggesting a putative risk factor of transmission via semen. Based on sequence analysis, the isolates detected belong to BVDV type 1b group. Furthermore, an epidemiological survey of abortifacient infectious agents was conducted with various species of livestock from herds located in Luzon. Out of the 105 water buffalo samples collected, 4 (3.8%) were indicated positive to N. caninum, 2 (1.9%) to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and 2 (1.9%) to Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in goat and sheep were 23.6% (21/89) and 26.3% (10/38), respectively. BVDV was not detected in these herds. The findings of this exploratory study indicate a relationship between infection and bovine abortion and that a lager study is required to statistically confirm this relationship. PMID:18243149

  4. Steroids

    ... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

  5. Steroidal Ammonium Compounds as New Neuromuscular Blocking Agents.

    Rao, Zhigang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Jiazhi; Liu, Zhiying; Yang, Yue; Qiu, Guofu; Xiao, Yuling; Liu, Peng; Hu, Xianming; Zhou, Xiaoju; Hong, Xuechuan

    2016-05-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents are widely used as an anesthesia auxiliary in surgery, which induce relaxation of skeletal muscles by blocking signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Many neuromuscular blocking agents s were developed over the past decades, but none of them fully meets the needs of the clinic by various reasons. In this study, a series of quaternary ammonium steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents were synthesized and evaluated on isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms for their bioactivities. The initial separation of mono- and bis-quaternary ammonium compounds turned out to be very challenging on regular silica gel chromatography. Therefore, a facile purification method, in which the silica gel was pretreated with methanolic sodium bromide solution, was finally achieved. Compounds 3g (0.36 μm) and 4g (0.37 μm) exhibited excellent neuromuscular blocking activities, which were about sixfold to sevenfold higher in potency than that of rocuronium (2.50 μm). In addition, other bis-quaternized compounds also showed good potencies close to that of rocuronium. Furthermore, the preliminary structure-activity relationship of this series was also elucidated. Benzyl group was found to be a promising quaternary group in this series. PMID:26684806

  6. Abortifacient and antioxidant activities of different extracts of Musa rosacea

    M. Srikanth; T. Rajananda Swamy; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; B. Ganga Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate abortifacient and antioxidant activity of Musa rosacea (M. rosacea).Methods:Abortifacient activity was evaluated in rats, compared with standard drug (Mifepristone) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by using three free radicals (Superoxide, Hydroxyl and DPPH). Results: The extracts showed preimplantation loss, postimplantation loss of implantations and decreased the survival ration of foetuses. Among all extracts hydroalcoholic extract showed better activity. The selected plant extracts showed concentration dependent percentage inhibition of free radicals. Among four extracts hydroalcoholic extract showed better activity with IC50 values on superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH radicals were 180 µg, 218 µg and 116 µg. Conclusion:From the results obtained during the study it could be concluded that M. rosacea extracts have abortifacient and antioxidant components and the results support its folklore usage as abortifacient plant. Further is necessary for isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules which are responsible for these activities.

  7. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal injury and probiotic agents

    Mario Guslandi

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria play a role in the development of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury.Agents such as probiotics,able t omodify the gut ecology,might theoretically be useful in preventing small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs.The clinical studies available so far do suggest that some probiotic agents can be effective in this respect.

  8. Methotrexate: a useful steroid-sparing agent in recalcitrant chronic urticaria.

    Perez, A; Woods, A; Grattan, C E H

    2010-01-01

    Background Reports of methotrexate for chronic urticaria are anecdotal. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of methotrexate in steroid-dependent chronic urticaria, its impact on steroid reduction and any differences in response between patients with and without functional autoantibodies. Methods A retrospective case-note review of 16 patients with steroid-dependent chronic urticaria treated with methotrexate was carried out. Ten patients had chronic ordinary/spontaneous urticaria (CU), including three with associated delayed-pressure urticaria; four patients had normocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis (UV); and two patients had idiopathic angio-oedema without weals. Median disease duration before methotrexate was 48.5 months (range 12-164). All were unresponsive to antihistamines and second-line agents, except prednisolone. Eleven were assessed for autoimmune urticaria with the basophil histamine release assay (n = 5), autologous serum skin test (n = 5) or both (n = 1). Response to methotrexate was scored: no benefit; some benefit (fewer weals and symptomatic improvement but no steroid reduction); considerable benefit (improvement with steroid reduction); or clear (no symptoms, off steroids but on antihistamines). Results Twelve of 16 patients (eight CU, three UV, one idiopathic angio-oedema) responded. Three showed some benefit, seven considerable benefit and two cleared. Four of eight responders and three out of three nonresponders showed evidence of functional autoantibodies. The dose to achieve a steroid-sparing effect was 10-15 mg weekly (cumulative dose range 15-600 mg, median 135 mg). Methotrexate was well tolerated. Conclusions Methotrexate may be a useful treatment for steroid-dependent chronic urticaria. Functional autoantibodies do not correlate with response. The beneficial effects of methotrexate may be anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive. It may therefore benefit chronic urticaria independently of the pathogenic mechanism, whether autoimmune

  9. Plants used as abortifacients and emmenagogues by Spanish New Mexicans.

    Conway, G A; Slocumb, J C

    1979-10-01

    Individuals of Spanish and Mexican descent in New Mexico have used a number of plants as emmenagogues and abortifacients. Of the plants used, cotton root bark (Gossypium sp.), inmortal ((Asclepias capricornu Woodson), poleo chino (Hedeoma oblongifolia (Gray) Heller), rue Ruta graveolens L.), wormseed (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.), and three species of Artemesia seem to be used most widely. Of these, the cotton root bark, when used as an abortifacient, seems to exhibit the lowest toxicity. Rue is notable because of its use independently within different cultures, but may exhibit toxic side effects when used as an abortifacient. Seven other plants are outlined on the basis of anecdotal and folkloric reports. Investigations are underway to look at use effectiveness, side effects, impact on fertility, and acceptance among cultures of the Southwestern United States. PMID:232204

  10. The Efficacy of Tiotropium as a Steroid-Sparing Agent in Severe Asthma

    Anmol S Kapoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available People with severe asthma account for 5% to 10% of all asthmatic patients; however, this small group uses the majority of health care resources. Novel methods are needed to cope with the burden that this minority of patients places on the health care system. A severe asthma clinic patient, who was monitored through the University of Alberta’s Virtual Asthma Clinic (Edmonton, Alberta is presented. Despite optimization of his disease and individualized asthma education (provided by a certified asthma educator, the patient remained on oral glucocorticosteroids (OGS to control his disease. Following optimization and stabilization, a further reduction in the dose of his OGS by the addition of the long-acting anticholinergic agent tiotropium bromide, was demonstrated. The role of tiotropium as a potential ‘steroid-sparing agent’ in severe refractory asthma is discussed, noting that if patients who are on OGS are not monitored for active inflammation, they may overuse the amount of prescribed systemic steroids, which can result in long-term steroid-related sequelae.

  11. Steroids Versus Steroids Plus Additional Agent in Frontline Treatment of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Rashidi, Armin; DiPersio, John F; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Colditz, Graham A; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Despite extensive research in the last few decades, progress in treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), a common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), has been limited and steroids continue to be the standard frontline treatment. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have failed to find a beneficial effect of escalating immunosuppression using additional agents. Considering the small number of RCTs, limited sample sizes, and frequent early termination because of anticipated futility, we conducted a systematic review and an aggregate data meta-analysis to explore whether a true efficacy signal has been missed because of the limitations of individual RCTs. Seven reports met our inclusion criteria. The control arm in all studies was 2 mg/kg/day prednisone (or equivalent). The additional agent(s) used in the experimental arm(s) were higher-dose steroids, antithymocyte globulin, infliximab, anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (daclizumab and BT563), CD5-specific immunotoxin, and mycophenolate mofetil. Random effects meta-analysis revealed no efficacy signal in pooled response rates at various times points. Overall survival at 100 days was significantly worse in the experimental arm (relative risk [RR], .83; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74 to .94; P = .004, data from 3 studies) and showed a similar trend (albeit not statistically significantly) at 1 year as well (RR, .86; 95% CI, .68 to 1.09; P = .21, data from 5 studies). In conclusion, these results argue against the value of augmented generic immunosuppression beyond steroids for frontline treatment of aGVHD and emphasize the importance of developing alternative strategies. Novel forms of immunomodulation and targeted therapies against non-immune-related pathways may enhance the efficacy of steroids in this setting, and early predictive and prognostic biomarkers can help identify the subgroup of patients who would likely need treatments other than (or in addition to

  12. Identification of Novel Steroidal Androgen Receptor Degrading Agents Inspired by Galeterone 3β-Imidazole Carbamate.

    Purushottamachar, Puranik; Kwegyir-Afful, Andrew K; Martin, Marlena S; Ramamurthy, Vidya P; Ramalingam, Senthilmurugan; Njar, Vincent C O

    2016-07-14

    Degradation of all forms of androgen receptors (ARs) is emerging as an advantageous therapeutic paradigm for the effective treatment of prostate cancer. In continuation of our program to identify and develop improved efficacious novel small-molecule agents designed to disrupt AR signaling through enhanced AR degradation, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel C-3 modified analogues of our phase 3 clinical agent, galeterone (5). Concerns of potential in vivo stability of our recently discovered more efficacious galeterone 3β-imidazole carbamate (6) led to the design and synthesis of new steroidal compounds. Two of the 11 compounds, 3β-pyridyl ether (8) and 3β-imidazole (17) with antiproliferative GI50 values of 3.24 and 2.54 μM against CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cell, are 2.75- and 3.5-fold superior to 5. In addition, compounds 8 and 17 possess improved (∼4-fold) AR-V7 degrading activities. Importantly, these two compounds are expected to be metabolically stable, making them suitable for further development as new therapeutics against all forms of prostate cancer. PMID:27437082

  13. Morphological examination of the corpora lutea from pregnant bitches treated with different abortifacient regimes.

    Martin, N; Höftmann, T; Politt, E; Hoppen, H O; Sohr, M; Günzel-Apel, A R; Einspanier, A

    2009-07-01

    Different abortifacient regimes in dogs were analysed for their effect on the pregnancy corpora lutea (CL), namely, prostaglandin F2a analogue cloprostenol (CLO) combined with dopamine agonist cabergoline (CAB), or progesterone (P4) receptor antagonist aglepristone (AGL). Ovaries were collected after 6-10 days of treatment during first trimester. The CL of the control-group showed strong expression of relaxin (RLX), its receptor RXFP1 and enzymes of steroid biosynthesis (HSD) with high peripheral P4-levels. Whereas RXL, RXFP1 and HSD were lowest expressed in the CLO/CAB-group with a massive degeneration of CL and their blood vessels combined with low peripheral P4-level. The AGL-group showed less extensive CL degeneration and more intensive staining of the examined factors than CLO/CAB. In summary, all examined factors are associated with normal luteal function and are useful tools to stage luteolysis. Although both treatments have the same abortive action, their sequence of events on the CL is different. PMID:19754564

  14. Exposure to Zoonotic Abortifacients among Sheep and Goats in Grenada

    Keshaw Tiwari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of exposure to the zoonotic abortifacients Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus among sheep and goats in the Caribbean Tri-Island state of Grenada. Documentation of exposure to these important bacterial pathogens will facilitate instituting appropriate prevention and control measures. Serum samples were collected from 582 animals from the islands of Grenada and Carriacou during 2009-2010. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharides (s-LPS of B. abortus strain S-99, inactivated C. abortus antigens and to C. burnetii phase I and II purified antigens. None of the animals examined tested positive for antibody to C. burnetii. Evidence of Brucella exposure was noted in 13 (3.6% of 362 sheep, representing animals from both islands of Grenada and Carriacou, whereas none of the 220 goats examined tested positive. Exposure to either Brucella abortus or B. melitensis could account for the detected antibody to Brucella s-LPS antigens. Antibody to C. abortus was detected in 6.0% of animals tested (24 sheep and 10 goats, representing animals from Carriacou and all 6 parishes of Grenada. Taken together, our results indicate moderate widespread exposure of small ruminants to the zoonotic abortifacients Brucella spp and Chlamydophila abortus in the tri-island state of Grenada and is the first report documenting such exposures in any animal species in this region of the Caribbean.

  15. Palladium(II) Complexes of NS Donor Ligands Derived from Steroidal Thiosemicarbazones as Antibacterial Agents

    Abdullah M. Asiri; Khan, Salman A

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the antibacterial activity of some new steroidal thiosemicarbazones and their Pd(II) metal complexes were prepared by the reaction of the thiosemicarbazones with [Pd(DMSO)2Cl2]. The steroidal thiosemicarbazones were prepared by the reaction of thiosemicarbazides with a steroidal ketone. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FAB mass spectroscopic methods, elemental analyses and TGA analysis. The antibacterial activity of these compounds...

  16. Palladium(II Complexes of NS Donor Ligands Derived from Steroidal Thiosemicarbazones as Antibacterial Agents

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the antibacterial activity of some new steroidal thiosemicarbazones and their Pd(II metal complexes were prepared by the reaction of the thiosemicarbazones with [Pd(DMSO2Cl2]. The steroidal thiosemicarbazones were prepared by the reaction of thiosemicarbazides with a steroidal ketone. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FAB mass spectroscopic methods, elemental analyses and TGA analysis. The antibacterial activity of these compounds were tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that steroidal complexes are better inhibitors of both types of the bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative as compared to steroidal thiosemicarbazones. Compound Ia displays remarkable antibacterial activity as compared to amoxicillin.

  17. Serological Evidence of Selected Abortifacients in a Dairy Herd with History of Abortion

    Muhammad Zubair Shabbir*, Rana Khurram Khalid, Derek Matthew Freitas1, Muhammad Tariq Javed2, Masood Rabbani, Tahir Yaqub, Arfan Ahmad, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir1 and Muhammad Abbas3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is common among dairy herds in Pakistan. However, except for Brucella abortus, little is known about other prevalent abortifacients. Therefore, a sero-epidemiological study was conducted in a dairy herd with a history of abortion located in Lahore, Pakistan. Blood samples (3–5 mL were taken from each animal (cows, n = 43; buffaloes, n = 47 in the herd. Seropositivity to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, B. abortus, blue tongue virus (BTV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and Toxoplasma gondii was determined using commercially available kits. Among cows and buffaloes, seropositivity was most frequent for IBR (69.8 and 70.3%, P>0.05, followed by B. abortus (32.6 and 42.6%, P>0.05, BVDV (9.3 and 6.4%, P>0.05 and BTV (4.7 and 6.4%, P>0.05, whereas, all the animals were seronegative to T. gondii. With respect to age, there was a significant difference (P<0.05 in seropositivity to B. abortus, BTV, and to multiple infectious agents in buffaloes. Additionally, a history of prior abortion was found to be significantly associated with current abortion in buffaloes and cows (P<0.001. While several significant associations between seropositivity to various agents and abortion were initially found, further analyses showed no significant associations in cows or buffaloes. The study concludes that seropositivity to the studied infectious agents was not significantly associated with abortion when accounting for other covariates, while prior abortion was found to be significantly associated with current abortion in both cows and buffaloes. However, owing to the small preliminary nature of the study, small sample size, and small number of abortion events, further studies are needed to ascertain the validity of these results.

  18. Inhaled Steroids

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  19. ABORTIFACIENT ACTIVITY OF A MEDICINAL PLANT “MORINGA OLEIFERA” IN RATS

    Sethi, N; Nath, D.; Shukla, S.C.; Dyal, R

    1988-01-01

    Dried powder of leaf extract of common Indian plant Moringa Oleifera of Moringaceae family was tested experimentally in albino rats in our laboratory for its antifertility activity. Cant per cent abortifacient activity was found when administered orally in aqueous solution at dose of 175 mg/kg body weight daily to Charles foster strain albino rats from days 5-10 post mated.

  20. Novel Steroidal (6R)-Spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline Derivatives as Anti-bacterial Agents

    Khan Salman A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Novel steroidal (6R)-spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline derivatives have been synthesized by the cyclization of steroidal thiosemiearbazones. Thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized by the reaction of steroidal ketones with thiosemi- carbazide. All the compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activities of these compounds have been first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been determined with the reference of standard drug amoxicillin. The results showed that steroidal thiadiazoline de- rivatives exhibited better antibacterial activity than the steroidal thiosemicarbazone derivatives. Chloro and acetoxy substituents on the 3β-position of the steroidal thiadiazoline ring increased the anti-bacterial activity. Among all the compounds, compounds 7 and 8 were found better inhibitors as compared to the respective drug amoxicillin.

  1. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    ... Disease Medications > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  2. [Mefenamic acid and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in dental practice. A review of the literature].

    Künzel, André Rätzer; Haschke, Manuel; Surber, Christian; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2007-01-01

    There are no studies verifying that mefenamic acid is more effective than other NSAID (= non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). However, there are several notions in the literature that this drug is less well-tolerated than other NSAID because over a prolonged period of application more lesions of the upper gastro-intestinal tract are induced as well as occasionally renal insufficiency. Compared to other NSAID the systemic toxicity starts already with relatively low doses above the maximal daily dose. Considering current knowledge there is no reason to prefer mefenamic acid to other NSAID. PMID:17330662

  3. Anabolic Steroids

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  4. Anabolic Steroids

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  5. [Effects of lysine clonixinate on platelet function. Comparison with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents].

    Kramer, E H; Sassetti, B; Kaminker, A J; De Los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Di Girolamo, G

    2001-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of action of non steroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) consists of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. This explains many of the pharmacological effects and adverse events observed in medical practice. Administration of NSAIDs to patients with hemostatic disorders or perioperative conditions entails the risk of bleeding due to inhibition of platelet function. This study deals with platelet changes induced by lysine clonixinate vs diclofenac, ibuprofen and aspirin in classical tests such as platelet count, platelet factor 3 (PF3) activity and platelet aggregation with various inductors and more recent procedures such as P-selectin measurement by flow cytometry. Unlike control drugs, lysine clonixinate did not induce changes in platelet count or function when administered to healthy volunteers at the commonly used therapeutic doses. PMID:11474878

  6. Associação entre o Uso de Abortifacientes e Defeitos Congênitos Association of the Use of Abortifacient Drugs with Congenital Malformations

    Lilia Maria de Azevedo Moreira

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar a associação entre o uso de abortivos durante o primeiro trimestre de gestação e a ocorrência de defeitos congênitos em recém-nascidos (RN. Métodos: estudo caso-controle com amostra de 800 nativivos, em maternidade pública de Salvador, Bahia, pelo período de um ano. Eram selecionados os seis primeiros nascimentos ocorridos em um só dia, sendo feitas consultas aos prontuários para verificação do registro de defeitos congênitos. Nos casos positivos eram observados os bebês afetados e realizada entrevista com as puérperas para o levantamento de antecedentes gestacionais e genéticos, utilizando questionário como instrumento de coleta de dados. Posteriormente os dados eram inseridos em programa de computador Epi-Info 5.0 para análise estatística. Resultados: as puérperas estudadas foram predominantemente de classe socioeconômica baixa (74,8%, sem escolaridade ou apenas 1º grau (61,1%. A taxa geral de defeitos congênitos foi de 4,7%. Entre as puérperas, 16% relataram a ingestão de substâncias abortivas no primeiro trimestre de gestação e 10,9% destas tiveram filhos com malformações. Nas crianças em que as mães não utilizaram abortivos essa incidência foi 3,6%. Os principais agentes usados como abortifacientes foram os chás medicinais e o misoprostol (Cytotec. O alumã (Vermonia baiensis Tol e o espinho cheiroso (Kanthoxilum shifolium Lam foram as plantas mais utilizadas inadequadamente, pois não apresentam propriedades abortivas, justificando assim a sua ineficácia. Conclusão: o presente estudo evidencia que tentativas de abortamento são práticas muito usuais em populações de baixa renda. Revela ainda que o uso de abortivos provoca um percentual significativo de malformações congênitas em bebês nativivos.Purpose: to verify the association of the use of abortifacient drugs during the first 3 months of gestation with the occurrence of congenital malformations in live births. Patients

  7. Steroidal Saponins

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  8. Steroid osteopathy

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  9. Steroid osteopathy

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  10. The Architecture and Function of Monoclonal Antibody-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Mifepristone: Repurposing Abortifacient for Cancer Metastatic Chemoprevention.

    Gao, Yu; Gu, Songen; Zhang, Yingying; Xie, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting; Lu, Yusheng; Zhu, Yewei; Chen, Wenge; Zhang, Huijuan; Dong, Haiyan; Sinko, Patrick J; Jia, Lee

    2016-05-01

    The circulating tumor cells (CTCs) existing in cancer survivors are considered the root cause of cancer metastasis. To prevent the devastating metastasis cascade from initiation, we hypothesize that a biodegradable nanomaterial loaded with the abortifacient mifepristone (MIF) and conjugated with the epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (aEpCAM) may serve as a safe and effective cancer metastatic preventive agent by targeting CTCs and preventing their adhesion-invasion to vascular intima. It is demonstrated that MIF-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) coated with aEpCAM (aE-MSN-M) can specifically target and bind colorectal cancer cells in either cell medium or blood through EpCAM recognition proven by quantitative flow cytometric detection and free aEpCAM competitive assay. The specific binding results in downregulation of the captured cells and drives them into G0/G1 phase primarily attributed to the effect of aEpCAM. The functional nanoparticles significantly inhibit the heteroadhesion between cancer cells and endothelial cells, suggesting the combined inhibition effects of aEpCAM and MIF on E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression. The functionalized nanoparticles circulate in mouse blood long enough to deliver MIF and inhibit lung metastasis. The present proof-of-concept study shows that the aE-MSN-M can prevent cancer metastasis by restraining CTC activity and their adhesion-invasion to vascular intima. PMID:27027489

  11. The influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antithyroid agents on myeloperoxidase-catalysed activities of human leucocytes

    Viable leucocytes obtained fresh from normal human subjects were shown to be able to catalyse the in vitro iodination of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a H2O2-generating system. The rate and degree of iodination were greatly improved by sonication of the cells. A balanced salt solution was a more favourable medium than phosphate buffer for the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-catalysed iodination of whole cells and sonicated cells. Reactions known to be catalysed by other peroxidases (e.g. thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and lactoperoxidase) such as inorganic iodide exchange for organic iodine in di-iodotyrosine (DIT) and the de-iodination of thyroxine (T4), were also catalysed by the sonicated leucocyte suspension in the system used. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin, flufenamic acid and naproxen were far less effective inhibitors of MPO-catalysed BSA iodination of sonicated leucocytes at concentrations expected in blood with therapeutic dose levels than was observed earlier with TPO-catalysed in vitro iodination of BSA. The antithyroid drug methylmercapto-imidazole (MMI) inhibited in vitro MPO-catalysed 131I delabelling of 131I-DIT at all concentrations between 10-7 and 10-2M, whereas 131I-T4 delabelling was markedly stimulated at the same drug concentrations. On the other hand, 125I incorporation into 131I-DIT was not affected by increased concentrations of MMI up to 10-5M. At higher drug concentrations the drug caused inhibition of MPO-catalysed exchange of inorganic iodide for organic iodine in DIT

  12. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2016 What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male ...

  13. Antifungal Activity of C-27 Steroidal Saponins

    Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Li, Xing-Cong

    2006-01-01

    As part of our search for new antifungal agents from natural resources, 22 C-27 steroidal saponins and 6 steroidal sapogenins isolated from several monocotyledonous plants were tested for their antifungal activity against the opportunistic pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the steroidal saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties and the number and struct...

  14. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  15. Intralesional steroid induced histological changes in the skin

    Kaur S

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Intralesional steroids are commonly used in dermatology. Besides their strong anti-inflammatory effects, the long acting steroids and other preservative agents may induce interesting histopatholoical changes, which may simulate focal mucinosis or a granulomatous pathology. A variety of histopathological changes induced by Intralesional injection of steroid in a lesion of keloid are being described.

  16. UV-induced erythema model: a tool in dermatopharmacology for testing the topical activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in man.

    Torrent, J; Izquierdo, I; Barbanoj, M J; Moreno, J; Lauroba, J; Jané, F

    1988-05-01

    UV-induced erythema is a well known inflammatory model applied both in animal and human skin to test the activity of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds in a great variety of pharmaceutical formulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory efficacy of piroxicam in two different topical formulations (cream 0.5, 1 and 1.5% and gel 1%) as compared to three non-steroidal compounds, benzydamine, etofenamate and indomethacin (cream 5%), on erythema induced after UV-injury on the back of 5 healthy subjects. The results showed that piroxicam in cream formulation, indomethacin cream and etofenamate gel have a similar effect, decreasing the erythema size 7 h after irradiation. However, benzydamine cream and piroxicam gel showed no effect with this method. We may conclude that this model is adequate and precise for selecting the most appropriate galenic dosage form for an active compound in terms of its clinical efficacy when topically administered. PMID:3398651

  17. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  18. Amides of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with thiomorpholine can yield hypolipidemic agents with improved anti-inflammatory activity.

    Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Kourti, Malamati; Gavalas, Antonios; Rekka, Eleni A

    2016-02-01

    Novel amides of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), α-lipoic acid and indole-3-acetic acid with thiomorpholine were synthesised by a simple method and at high yields (60-92%). All the NSAID derivatives highly decreased lipidemic indices in the plasma of Triton treated hyperlipidemic rats. The most potent compound was the indomethacin derivative, which decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol by 73%, 80% and 83%, respectively. They reduced acute inflammation equally or more than most parent acids. Hence, it could be concluded that amides of common NSAIDs with thiomorpholine acquire considerable hypolipidemic potency, while they preserve or augment their anti-inflammatory activity, thus addressing significant risk factors for atherogenesis. PMID:26750253

  19. Fusobacterium necrophorum determined as abortifacient in sheep by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, Bent; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been extensively used for identification of individual microbial cells within their natural environment. The present work describes the identification of Fusobacterium necrophorum in formalin-fixed tissue samples from three sets of ovine twins aborted at...... late pregnancy by a technique that combines laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (LCM-FISH). Cultural bacteriological examination had failed to identify an infectious agent but by histological examination, large colonies of bacteria associated with tissue...... inflammation were seen. In situ hybridization visualized the bacteria in the tissue samples and microcolonies closely associated with lesions were isolated by LCM. PCR-amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene from the microdissected bacteria identified the organisms as Fusobacterium necrophorum. A r...

  20. Chemical proteomics strategies for elucidation of cellular steroid hormone targets

    Golkowski, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the given work was the development and improvement of affinity chromatography-based methodologies as a means to elucidate the cellular target structures of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones. Steroid hormones are among the most important regulators of physiological processes in mammals. Moreover, pharmacological agents based on or derived from steroid hormones are indispensable for the treatment of diseases related inflammation, the immune defense and the deregulation of the...

  1. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  2. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Hahn, Rita A.; Gordon, Marion K.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Young, Sherri C. [Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  3. Effect of oxidizing adulterants on human urinary steroid profiles.

    Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Fu, Shanlin

    2013-02-01

    Steroid profiling is the most versatile and informative technique adapted by doping control laboratories for detection of steroid abuse. The absolute concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids including testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol constitute the significant characteristics of a steroid profile. In the present study we report the influence of various oxidizing adulterants on the steroid profile of human urine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to develop the steroid profile of human male and female urine. Oxidants potassium nitrite, sodium hypochlorite, potassium permanganate, cerium ammonium nitrate, sodium metaperiodate, pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium dichromate and potassium perchlorate were reacted with urine at various concentrations and conditions and the effect of these oxidants on the steroid profile were analyzed. Most of the oxidizing chemicals led to significant changes in endogenous steroid profile parameters which were considered stable under normal conditions. These oxidizing chemicals can cause serious problems regarding the interpretation of steroid profiles and have the potential to act as masking agents that can complicate or prevent the detection of the steroid abuse. PMID:23238517

  4. The detection of endogenous steroid abuse in cattle: results from population studies in the UK

    Scarth, James Philip; Clarke, Adam; Teale, Phil; Mill, Aileen; Macarthur, Roy; Kay, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The use of steroids as growth-promoting agents in food production is banned under European Union legislation. Detecting the abuse of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, oestradiol and progesterone is complicated by the fact these steroids are known to be endogenous in certain situations. In this study, the concentrations of characteristic metabolites of each of these steroids have been quantified in populations of untreated steers and heifers. Steroid concentration p...

  5. Steroids (For Parents)

    ... by some athletes and bodybuilders. Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones that can boost the body's ability to ... doses every day can significantly increase levels of testosterone, which can lead to a number of health ...

  6. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months. PMID:11363845

  7. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Order Free Publication in: ... how drugs affect the brain and nervous system. Mind Over Matter is produced by the National Institute ...

  8. Azido analogs of neuroactive steroids

    Černý, Ivan; Vidrna, Lukáš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Chodounská, Hana; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    Chicago : -, 2011. P2.28-P2.28. [Congress on Steroid Research. 27.03.2011-29.03.2011, Chicago] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS10365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * NMDA receptor * steroid azide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Steroids facing emotions

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  10. Epidural Steroid Injections

    ... the spinal sac and provides cushioning for the nerves and spinal cord. Steroids (‘cortisone’) placed into the epidural space ... spinal segments and cover both sides of the spinal canal. With a transforaminal ESI, often referred to as a ‘nerve block’, the needle is placed alongside the nerve ...

  11. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  12. HPLC of Steroids

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2010, s. 679-708 ISBN 9781420092608. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 102) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : HPLC * sterols * ecdysteroids * steroidal saponins Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781420092608

  13. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  15. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

  16. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis. PMID:26587777

  17. Modification of behavioral effects of drugs in mice by neuroactive steroids

    Ungard, JT; Beekman, M; Gasior, M; Carter, RB; Dijkstra, D; Witkin, JM

    2000-01-01

    Rationale: Neuroactive steroids represent a novel class of potential therapeutic agents (epilepsy, anxiety, migraine, drug dependence) thought to act through positive allosteric modulation of the GABA(A) receptor A synthetically derived neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone (3 alpha-hydroxy-3 beta-methyl-

  18. Steroids facing emotions

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used are pictures of human facial expressions of emotion. The main interest was in establishing psychoneuronedocrine and psychological motivational predictors of biased processing of angry and fearful f...

  19. Steroid resistance in leukemia

    Shah, Darshan S; Kumar, Raj

    2013-01-01

    There are several types of leukemia which are characterized by the abnormal growth of cells from the myeloid or lymphoid lineage. Because of their lympholytic actions, glucocorticoids (GCs) are included in many therapeutic regimens for the treatment of various forms of leukemia. Although a significant number of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients respond well to GC treatment during initial phases; prolonged treatments sometimes results in steroid-resistance. The exact mechanism of this resi...

  20. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors

    Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migrat...

  1. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less th...

  2. Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy

    Hiren Patt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc. can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc., which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires careful consideration of the relative risk and benefit in each patient. The objectives of this study are to discuss monitoring of patients on GCs and management of the complications of GCs.

  3. Preparation of directly iodinated steroid hormones and related directly halogenated compounds

    The preparation of directly iodinated radioactive steroid hormones is described for use in radioimmunoassays or radiolocalization and treatment of human breast tumours. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by reacting a parent steroid hormone with an alkali metal iodide containing radioactive 123I, 125I, 130I or 131I in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or chloramine-T. The parent steroid hormones include the adrenal corticosteroids, the estrogens, the progestogens, the progestins and the diuretic and antidiuretic agents. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by iodinating the parent steroid hormone directly on the cyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormones have the same antigenicity and receptor site specificity as the parent steroid hormone. The invention is illustrated by 1) the method of iodination of estradiol-17β, 2) results for the percentage labelling of several steroids and steroid hormones, 3) results for the radioimmunoassay of 125I-estradiol and 4) results for the binding of directly iodinated estradiol-17β in an estrogen receptor assay of human breast cancer. (U.K.)

  4. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    ... warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids and how many ... but the truth is that the frequency of steroid use in this age group is far greater than ...

  5. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  6. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

    2011-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17α-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP

  7. Role of Steroids in COPD

    Vishnu Sharma

    2002-01-01

    There has been a lot of debate regarding the role of steroids in the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Now with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of COPD, the role of steroids in the management of COPD has become clearer.

  8. [Longterm effects of steroid therapy].

    Kuna, P

    1998-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways play. Anti-inflammatory drugs the fundamental role in the treatment of asthma and among them steroids are the most important. However, oral steroids may cause many serious side effects. A major breakthrough in the treatment of asthma was introducing inhaled steroids. Inhaled steroids have much less side effects than oral steroids, although they have the same anti-inflammatory activity. Long term effect of inhaled steroids can be divided into wanted and unwanted outcome. The desirable anti-inflammatory effect of steroids is reflected by lowering of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and a better control of asthma symptoms. Inhaled corticosteroid may have systemic side effects similar to those observed with oral steroids such as 1) adrenal suppression, 2) effect on bone metabolism, 3) growth suppression in children, 4) impaired skin collagen synthesis, 5) cataract, 6) metabolic disturbances, 7) effect on central nervous system. Topical side effects of inhaled corticosteroid such as oral candidiasis, dysphonia and cough effect about 10 to 30% of patients taking those drugs. Summing up it is advisable to use inhaled corticosteroid in the lower effective dose. PMID:9610231

  9. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  10. Sex steroids and bone: current perspectives.

    Balasch, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Although the process of bone remodelling or its control has not yet been fully elucidated there is, at present, sufficient information available to conclude that ovarian steroids (estrogens, androgens, progesterone) play an essential role in skeletal homeostasis. The mechanism of action of sex steroids on the skeleton is still not entirely clear, but it has traditionally included indirect effects on systemic hormones that regulate calcium balance and a direct receptor-mediated action. More recently, changes in cytokine production within the bone marrow, as well as pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic effects in the osteoblastic cells, have been proposed as new perspectives on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sex steroids influence adult bone homeostasis. Mechanical loading, when combined with estrogens or androgens, results in a greater osteogenic response than either condition separately. Women are especially at risk for osteoporosis if they have had a premature or surgical menopause and have not received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Other reproductive factors that can help to identify women with osteopenia and emphasize the role of sex steroids in preserving bone mass in premenopausal women include: age at menarche, menstrual history and irregularities (including those associated with excessive exercise), age at menopause, previous hysterectomy, hyperprolactinaemia, anorexia nervosa, scoliosis, ovarian dysgenesis, pregnancy and lactation, and pharmacological ovarian suppression. The prevention of osteoporosis starts with the onset of the menarche. A combination of exercise, appropriate nutrition and a healthy lifestyle all maximize bone mineral accrual and result in optimal peak bone mass; normal ovarian function is essential to this process. Unfortunately, many women actually become aware of the need for osteoporosis prevention much later in life, usually after they have already become menopausal. HRT, however, has important limitations for

  11. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome After Topical Steroid Therapy for Psoriasis.

    Sahıp, Birsen; Celık, Mehmet; Ayturk, Semra; Kucukarda, Ahmet; Mert, Onur; Dıncer, Nejla; Guldıken, Sıbel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of many diseases, such as inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. They can be used in the form of topical, oral, inhalable, rectal, and intra-articular agents. Many topical steroid-related iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome cases affecting especially children have been reported in the literature. Topical steroid-related Cushing's syndrome is rarely seen in adults. In this report, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome related to long-term clobetasol propionate treatment for psoriasis. In the context of such treatment, the glucocorticoid withdrawal problem has to be overcome. At present there is no consensus on steroid withdrawal. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment must be evaluated for potential adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms by their physician and their endocrinologist. PMID:26955131

  12. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  13. Steroid use in acute liver failure

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C; Chang, Matthew S;

    2014-01-01

    , survival without transplant). In all, 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61......% versus 66%, P = 0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of the Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) (>40, survival 30% versus 57%, P = 0.......03). In multivariate analysis controlling for steroid use and diagnosis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.37 per decade), coma grade (OR 2.02 grade 2, 2.65 grade 3, 5.29 grade 4), MELD (OR 1.07), and pH steroid use was associated with a marginal benefit...

  14. Steroid ulcers:Any news?

    Mario; Guslandi

    2013-01-01

    Steroid ulcers,although a common feature in experimental studies,seldom develop in clinical practice,as observed by the meta-analyses carried out in the 90s.Corticosteroids alone become ulcerogenic only if treatment lasts longer than one month and the total administered dose exceeds 1000 mg.On the other hand concomitant intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs results in a synergistic,highly damaging effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa.Thus,despite the survival of the steroid ulcer myth in the medical culture,pharmacological protection against steroid-induced peptic ulcers is a rare necessity while the best prophylactic strategy still remains to be determined.

  15. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  16. Treatment of severe steroid refractory ulcerative colitis

    Gert Van Assche; Séverine Vermeire; Paul Rutgeerts

    2008-01-01

    Although systemic steroids are highly efficacious in ulcerative colitis (UC),failure to respond to steroids sUll poses an important challenge to the surgeon and physician alike. Even if the life Lime risk of a fulminant UC flare is only 20%, this condition is potentially life threatening and should be managed in hospital. If patients fail 3 to 5 d of intravenous corticosteroids and optimal supportive care, they should be considered for any of three options: intravenous cyclosporine (2 mg/kg for 7 d, and serum level controlled),infliximab (5 mg/kg N,0-2-6 wk) or total colectomy.The choice between these three options is a medicalsurgical decision based on clinical signs, radiological and endoscopic findings and blood analysis (CRP, serum albumin).Between 65 and 85% of patients will initially respond to cyclosporine and avoid colectomy on the short term. Over 5 years only 50% of initial responders avoid colectomy and outcomes are better in patients naive to azathioprine (bridging strategy).The data on infliximab as a medical rescue in fulminant colitis are more limited although the efficacy of this anti tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibody has been demonstrated in a controlled trial. Controlled data on the comparative efficacy of cyclosporine and infliximab are not available at this moment. Both drugs are immunosuppressants and are used in combination with steroids and azathioprine, which infers a risk of serious, even fatal, opportunistic infections. Therefore,patients not responding to these agents within 5-7 d should be considered for colectomy and responders should be closely monitored for infections.

  17. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  18. Chinical Analysis of Steroid Glaucoma

    LingxunKong; ChengZhang

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:The authors accumulated 15cases(26eyes)of steroid glaucoma due to topical administration of dexamethasone or prednisolone.Methods:From1970to 1990,26eyesin 15cases were observed(Bilateral11cas-es,unilateral4cases)including 12right eyes and 14left eyes.10cases were male and 5cases female with age ranging from14to52years averaging 28years.25eyes had the manifestation of chronic open angle glaucoma in the clinical coures,and 1eye simulated an acute glaucoma attack.Results:All patents had taken antiglaucoma medication before coming to our ohs-pital,but theIOPwas over6.7kPa in9eyes.TheC/Dration was equal to or over0.6in 9cases(16eyes).and the values were inconsistent between both eyes in 55%of the patients.Treatment for glaucoma was immediate discontinuation of the steroids with antiglaucoma medication if necessary.Three eyes received filter-ing operations and 2eyes had the removal of subconjunctival residual steroid.Normal IOPwas restored in monyths up to a year.Conclusion:Dexamethasone of prednisolone were the easiest to induce steroid glaucoma when the patients had long0term use of steroid eyedrops.

  19. Steroidal Saponins in Oat Bran.

    Yang, Junli; Wang, Pei; Wu, Wenbin; Zhao, Yantao; Idehen, Emmanuel; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-02-24

    Saponins are one type of widespread defense compound in the plant kingdom and have been exploited for the production of lead compounds with diverse pharmacological properties in drug discovery. Oats contain two unique steroidal saponins, avenacoside A, 1, and avenacoside B, 2. However, the chemical composition, the levels of these saponins in commercial oat products, and their health effects are still largely unknown. In this study, we directly purified 5 steroidal saponins (1-5) from a methanol extract of oat bran, characterized their structures by analyzing their MS and NMR spectra, and also tentatively identified 11 steroidal saponins (6-16) on the basis of their tandem mass spectra (MS(n), n = 2-3). Among the five purified saponins, 5 is a new compound and 4 is purified from oats for the first time. Using HPLC-MS techniques, a complete profile of oat steroidal saponins was determined, and the contents of the two primary steroidal saponins, 1 and 2, were quantitated in 15 different commercial oat products. The total levels of these two saponins vary from 49.6 to 443.0 mg/kg, and oat bran or oatmeal has higher levels of these two saponins than cold oat cereal. Furthermore, our results on the inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 against the growth of human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29 showed that both had weak activity, with 2 being more active than 1. PMID:26852819

  20. Synthetic lipid nanoparticles targeting steroid organs

    Lipidots are original nano-particulate lipid delivery vectors for drugs and contrast agents made from materials generally regarded as safe. Here, we characterized the in vivo stability, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of lipidots. Lipidots 55 nm in diameter and coated with a phospholipid/poly(ethyleneglycol) surfactant shell were triply labeled with 3H-cholesteryl-hexadecyl-ether, cholesteryl-14C-oleate, and the 1,19-dioctadecyl-3,3,39,39-tetramethyl-indo-tri-carbocyanine infrared fluorescent dye and injected intravenously into immunocompetent Friend virus B-type mice. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of lipidots were analyzed quantitatively in serial samples of blood and tissue and with in vivo optical imaging and were refined by microscopic examination of selected target tissues. The plasmatic half-life of lipidots was approximately 30 min. Radioactive and fluorescent tracers displayed a similar nanoparticle-driven biodistribution, indicative of the lipidots' integrity during the first hours after injection. Lipidots distributed in the liver and, surprisingly, in the steroid-rich organs adrenals and ovaries, but not in the spleen. This tropism was confirmed at the microscopic level by histologic detection of 1,19-dioctadecyl- 3,3,39,39-tetramethyl-indo-tri-carbocyanine. Nanoparticle loading with cholesterol derivatives increased accumulation in ovaries in a dose dependent manner. This previously unreported distribution pattern is specific to lipidots and attributed to their nano-metric size and composition, conferring on them a lipoprotein-like behavior. The affinity of lipidots for steroid hormone-rich areas is of interest to address drugs and contrast agents to lipoprotein-receptor-over-expressing cancer cells found in hormone-dependent tumors. (authors)

  1. Actions of steroids in mitochondria.

    Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa P; Price, Thomas M

    2007-05-01

    Investigations of indirect and direct actions of steroids on the mitochondria are relatively new areas of research. In this review we provide brief background information regarding mitochondrial structure and function and then focus upon interactions of glucocorticoid, estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors with mitochondria. We evaluate the current evidence for steroid receptor localization in the mitochondria based on techniques of Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry. Steroid receptor-dependent interactions with mitochondria may include transcriptional regulation of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins, transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, or indirect effects on mitochondria due to interactions with cytoplasmic signaling peptides and non-genomic control of cation fluxes. These interactions may play a role in mitochondrial-dependent processes of oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis. Physiological examples of these interactions are discussed. PMID:17447205

  2. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  3. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented...

  4. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse.

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S

    2016-04-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  5. Local Control of Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis

    Hofland, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSteroids are essential for vertebrate physiology during pre- and postnatal life. Whereas the skeleton structure of cyclopenta[α]phenanthrene rings is common to all steroid molecules, differences occur in methyl- of ethylgroups attached to the four rings or the oxidation state of the carbon atoms in the rings (Figure 1).1 Endogenous production of steroids is realized in steroidogenic tissues. From these tissues, steroid molecules can be secreted into the circulation to act in an en...

  6. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

  7. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2012-01-01

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  8. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2002-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was p

  9. Synthesis of deuterated neuroactive steroids

    Kapras, Vojtěch; Slavíčková, Alena; Chodounská, Hana; Valeš, Karel

    Bergen, 2010. [International Conference on Organic Synthesis /18./. 01.08.2010-06.08.2010, Bergen] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1498; GA MZd(CZ) NS10528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * NMDA receptor * deuterium labeling * pharmacokinetics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  10. Recent advances in steroid radioimmunoassay

    The advances since 1974 in the techniques of measuring steroid molecules by radioimmunoassay are reviewed in this paper. They are considered under the following headings: preparation and use of antisera; preparation and use of tracers; preparation of biological samples before assay; dispensing of the reagents in the assay; separation of free and bound radioactivity; counting and data processing; quality control and standardization. (orig.)

  11. Structure and Nomenclature of Steroids

    Kasal, Alexander

    Heidelberg : Springer, 2010 - (Malkin, H.; Gower, D.), s. 1-25 ISBN 978-1-4020-9774-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroids * conformation and configuration * Fischer projection * R/S system Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry www.springer.com/chemistry/analytical chemistry/book/978-1-4020-9774-4 - 62k

  12. Steroids linked with amide bond

    Černý, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Drašar, P.; Pouzar, Vladimír

    Dublin : University Cillege Dublin, 2007. s. 115. [European Symposium on Organic Chemistry /15./. 08.07.2007-13.07.2007, Dublin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bis- steroids * etienic acid * cholesteryl amine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Efficacy of multimodal cocktail periarticular injection with or without steroid in total knee arthroplasty

    YUE De-bo; WANG Bai-liang; LIU Kun-peng; GUO Wan-shou

    2013-01-01

    Background Multimodal cocktail periarticular injection (MCPI) with a large volume of low concentration local anesthetics,adrenaline,and anti-inflammatory agents such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or steroids have shown good pain control and improvement in range of motion after surgery.This study compares the efficacy of pain control after total knee arthroplasty,using multimodal cocktail periarticular injection with steroid or without steroid.Methods This is a prospective,double-blinded,randomized and control study.Seventy-two patients with osteoarthritis that met clinical criteria for total knee arthroplasty were recruited into the study,and were randomized to receive either multimodal cocktail periarticular injection with steroid or without steroid.Pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) at preoperative and postoperative at rest,and during activity.The range of motion was recorded preoperatively and postoperatively.The amount of daily and cumulative morphine consumption were measured by patient-controlled analgesia in the first 72 hours postoperatively.The duration of celecoxib usage was also recorded at the last follow-up.Results There were no differences between the non-steroid and steroid groups with regard to VAS at rest and during activity,or range of motion,at any postoperative observation time.The postoperative Knee Society Knee Score in the steroid group improved significantly as compared with that in non-steroid group at the one-month (84.1±13.1 and 65.9±12.1; P <0.0045),three-month follow-up (90.2±16.3 and 72.5±16.6; P <0.0027),but after postoperative six-month the Knee Society Knee Score showed no significant difference between the groups.There was no significant difference in consumption of the morphine about daily or total consumption within 72 hours between the two groups.The duration of celecoxib usage in patients in the steroid group was significantly shorter than that in the non-steroid group ((7.2±0.7) compared with

  14. Steroid derivatives and their use in radioimmunoassays

    Radioimmunoassay techniques have been used to determine the concentration in body fluids of various endogenous and exogenous steroids. In the development of radioimmunoassays for the various steroids, the preparation of an antigen labelled with iodine-125 is of primary concern. The chemical structure of steroids is such that it is generally not possible to radioiodinate them directly. It is necessary to utilize as a precursor of the radiolabeled antigen a derivative of the steroid to be assayed which can be readily iodinatd. The process by which steroids are chosen and structurally modified is given

  15. Therapeutic potential of cationic steroid antibacterials.

    Salmi, Chanaz; Brunel, Jean M

    2007-08-01

    Antibiotics were one of the great health successes of the 20th century. Antibiotics, both naturally derived and synthetic, have resulted in huge decreases in both morbidity and mortality from bacterial infections. As a consequence, the 'antibiotic age' has changed public expectations about the results of infectious disease. However, this has led to high levels of inappropriate prescribing, where antibiotics may be administered to fulfil patient expectations rather than for clinical benefit. Along with unwise uses in agriculture and elsewhere, this has contributed to recent rises in numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. As a result, many commentators have described this as the end of the antibiotic age and the term 'superbug' has entered the common vocabulary for multi-drug-resistant bacteria such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this context, an attractive approach for the development of antibacterial agents is the use of a new class of cationic steroidal compounds mimicking polymyxin activities. The permeabilization properties of these agents of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria are reported in this review, as well as a discussion of literature results. PMID:17685865

  16. Detection of endogenous steroid abuse in cattle: results from population studies in the UK.

    Scarth, J P; Clarke, A; Teale, P; Mill, A; Macarthur, R; Kay, J

    2011-01-01

    The use of steroids as growth-promoting agents in food production is banned under European Union legislation. Detecting the abuse of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, oestradiol and progesterone is complicated by the fact that these steroids are known to be endogenous in certain situations. In this study, the concentrations of characteristic metabolites of each of these steroids were quantified in populations of untreated steers and heifers. Steroid concentration population data were then used by a statistical model (the Chebyshev inequality) to produce threshold concentrations for screening and confirming the abuse of these steroids in steer and non-pregnant heifer urine. In addition to thresholds based on testing one animal (a '1 out of 1' approach), new methods based on testing multiple animals from a herd (a 'y out of n' approach) allowed threshold concentrations to be significantly reduced and hence false compliances to be minimised. In the majority of cases, the suggested thresholds were found to be capable of confirming the abuse of endogenous steroids in steers and heifers. In the case of oestradiol abuse in the female, however, confirmation based on a threshold is not possible and alternative methods such as gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry are required. In addition to the steer and heifer populations, a small number of pregnant animals were also tested, yielding insights into the biosynthetic pathways of some of the steroids. PMID:21240827

  17. Steroidal saponins from Agave Attenuata

    The polar fraction of the extract of Agave Attenuata Solm (family Agavaceae) afforded two steroidal saponins identified on the basis of spectral data as (25S)-sarsasapogenin-3-b-Dglyconside and (25S)-3-b, 22-a, 26-trihydroxy-16, 22-oxycoprostane-3-26 diglyconside. The glyconsidic moiety in the first compound is a disaccharide consists of glucose and galactose while in the second compound, the glyconsidic moieties are glucose and arabinose. (author)

  18. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-01-01

    According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, ...

  19. Neuroactive steroids with perfluorobenzoyl group

    Černý, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Krausová, Barbora; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 12 (2012), s. 1233-1241. ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464; GA TA ČR TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * synthesis * perfluorobenzoates * NMDA receptor Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; ED - Physiology (FGU-C) Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  20. Radioimmunoassay for steroid hormones, 3

    A specific, sensitive and reliable radioimmunoassay for plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been developed. Anti-DHEA serum was obtained by immunizing rabbits with a DHEA-3-hemisuccinate-BSA conjugate. A useful range in the standard curve was from 10 pg to 500 pg. DHEA was separated from cross-reacting steroids by microcolumn chromatography. The coefficients of variation for within-assay and between-assay are 6.3% and 7.7%, respectively. (auth.)

  1. [New insights in steroid diabetes].

    Kurir, Tina Ticinović; Bozić, Josko; Markotić, Anita; Novak, Anela

    2012-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are the cornerstone in the treatment of numerous chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. GC treatment is accompanied by significant metabolic adverse effects, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. GCs are the most common cause of drug-induced diabetes mellitus. However, not everyone treated with glucocorticoids develops diabetes. Predictors of development of diabetes are age, weight, family history of diabetes mellitus, or personal history of gestational diabetes. There is evidence that patients with decreased insulin secretory reserve are much more likely to develop diabetes. Diabetes from topical steroid use is uncommon, but high-dose steroids have been associated with significant hyperglycemia, including development of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome and even diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms contribute to the development of hyperglycemia and steroid-induced diabetes, including decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, increased hepatic glucose production, and inhibition of pancreatic insulin production and secretion. Physicians treating patients with GCs should be aware of the induction of metabolic disturbances and should not solely rely on fasting measurements. In addition, our review indicates that insulin therapy could be considered when treating patients on GC therapy. PMID:23814973

  2. Antiangiogenic Steroids in Human Cancer Therapy

    Richard J. Pietras

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the early detection of tumors and in the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery for disease management, the worldwide mortality from human cancer remains unacceptably high. The treatment of cancer may benefit from the introduction of novel therapies derived from natural products. Natural products have served to provide a basis for many of the pharmaceutical agents in current use in cancer therapy. Emerging research indicates that progressive growth and spread of many solid tumors depends, in part, on the formation of an adequate blood supply, and this process of tumor-associated angiogenesis is reported to have prognostic significance in several human cancers. This review focuses on the potential application in antitumor therapy of naturally-occurring steroids that target tumor-associated angiogenesis. Squalamine, a 7,24 dihydroxylated 24-sulfated cholestane steroid conjugated to a spermidine at position C-3, is known to have strong antiangiogenic activity in vitro, and it significantly disrupts tumor proliferation and progression in laboratory studies. Work on the interactions of squalamine with vascular endothelial cells indicate that it binds with cell membranes, inhibits the membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and may further function as a calmodulin chaperone. These primary actions appear to promote inhibition of several vital steps in angiogenesis, such as blockade of mitogen-induced actin polymerization, cell–cell adhesion and cell migration, leading to suppression of endothelial cell proliferation. Preclinical studies with squalamine have shown additive benefits in tumor growth delay when squalamine is combined with cisplatin, paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, genistein or radiation therapy. This compound has also been assessed in early phase clinical trials in cancer; squalamine was found to exhibit little systemic toxicity and was generally well tolerated by treated patients with various solid tumor malignancies

  3. Antiangiogenic Steroids in Human Cancer Therapy.

    Pietras, Richard J; Weinberg, Olga K

    2005-03-01

    Despite advances in the early detection of tumors and in the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery for disease management, the worldwide mortality from human cancer remains unacceptably high. The treatment of cancer may benefit from the introduction of novel therapies derived from natural products. Natural products have served to provide a basis for many of the pharmaceutical agents in current use in cancer therapy. Emerging research indicates that progressive growth and spread of many solid tumors depends, in part, on the formation of an adequate blood supply, and this process of tumor-associated angiogenesis is reported to have prognostic significance in several human cancers. This review focuses on the potential application in antitumor therapy of naturally-occurring steroids that target tumor-associated angiogenesis. Squalamine, a 7,24 dihydroxylated 24-sulfated cholestane steroid conjugated to a spermidine at position C-3, is known to have strong antiangiogenic activity in vitro, and it significantly disrupts tumor proliferation and progression in laboratory studies. Work on the interactions of squalamine with vascular endothelial cells indicate that it binds with cell membranes, inhibits the membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and may further function as a calmodulin chaperone. These primary actions appear to promote inhibition of several vital steps in angiogenesis, such as blockade of mitogen-induced actin polymerization, cell-cell adhesion and cell migration, leading to suppression of endothelial cell proliferation. Preclinical studies with squalamine have shown additive benefits in tumor growth delay when squalamine is combined with cisplatin, paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, genistein or radiation therapy. This compound has also been assessed in early phase clinical trials in cancer; squalamine was found to exhibit little systemic toxicity and was generally well tolerated by treated patients with various solid tumor malignancies, including ovarian, non

  4. Synthesis of steroidal dimers: Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Shamsuzzaman; Mohd Gulfam Aalam; Tabassum Siddiqui

    2011-07-01

    Some new dimeric steroids namely cholest-5-en-3-spiro-[6',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-3'-one (2), cholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-7'-one (4a) and 3-substitutedcholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-3'-substituted-5'-cholestan-7'-ones (4b, c) are synthesized starting from cholest-5-en-3-one (1), cholest-5-en-7-one (3a) and 3-substituted-cholest-5-en-7-ones (3b, c) respectively by using DMAP and xylene. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, MS and 1H, 13C NMR spectral and elemental analysis.

  5. Neuroactive steroids and their role in epilepsy

    Chetan Y. Patil; Shamsundar A. Jadhav; Sudhakar M. Doifode; Mirza Shiraz Baig

    2012-01-01

    Neuroactive steroids are the certain steroids that alter neuronal excitability via the cell surface through interaction with certain neurotransmitter receptors. Neuroactive steroids regulate physiological functions of the central nervous system and have possible therapeutic potential in neurological diseases. They have been shown to affect neuronal excitability via their interaction with the ligand-gated ion channel family, such as the GABAA receptor by acting genomically as well as nongenomi...

  6. Radiommunoassay agents

    Novel steroid derivatives containing a tyrosine ester amide group linked to an 11-hydroxysteroid alkylene dicarboxylic hemi-ester are described, suitable for iodination with radioactive iodine, useful in radioimmunoassay

  7. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    Nibedita Pani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice.

  8. UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZUM NACHWEIS UND ZUR BIOTRANSFORMATION EINIGER ORAL WIRKSAMER 17α-ALKYL-STEROIDE MIT ANABOLER WIRKUNG BEIM PFERD

    Schoene, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study tried to investigate the metabolism of the anabolic steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), methandriol (MAD) and 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MT) in the Equine and to subsequently develop a gas-chromatographic / mass-spectrometric (gc/ms) screening method for the detection of the two latter orally-active anabolic agents. For each experiment 200 mg of the respective steroid were administered to two thoroughbred horses in training. The administered substances contained a ...

  9. Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell responsiveness to topoisomerase inhibitor drugs

    Ricchi, P; Matola, T Di; Ruggiero, G; D. Zanzi; Apicella, A; Di Palma, A; M. Pensabene; S. Pignata; Zarrilli, R; Acquaviva, A M

    2002-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the chemopreventive effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colon cancer is mediated through inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. For these effects non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been recently employed as sensitising agents in chemotherapy. We have shown previously that treatments with aspirin and NS-398, a cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, affect proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of the human colon aden...

  10. Effectiveness of steroid treatment in myasthenia gravis: a retrospective study.

    Cosi, V; Citterio, A; Lombardi, M; Piccolo, G; Romani, A; Erbetta, A

    1991-07-01

    The records of 142 patients with generalized autoimmune myasthenia gravis who had been treated with steroids as the single immunosuppressive agent, collected at regular intervals, were employed for a retrospective evaluation. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed after 24 months; the data from the 6th and 12th months were also considered. After 24 months, 63.4% of the whole sample had improved (33.8% were in clinical or pharmacological remission); 13.4% were unchanged or had worsened and 22.3% had moved to a different immunosuppressive treatment. The rate of positive outcome was higher in patients over the age of 40 at disease onset. PMID:1927259

  11. Prevalence of Topical Steroid Misuse Among Rural Masses

    Sinha, Amit; Kar, Sumit; Yadav, Nidhi; Madke, Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Background: A lot of cosmetic and Ayurvedic products containing unlabeled depigmenting agent and steroids are available readily over the counter sale. The side effects of these products are not documented and can lead to adverse effects of continuous usage. Objective: By this study, we aimed to find out the true nature of the above problem and it's implication in the Indian rural scenario. Methodology: All patients attending dermatology department during the period of 3 months from May to June 2013 for skin diseases were enquired about unsupervised use of any cosmetic product on their facial skin, duration of use, any side effect experienced through the prescribed questionnaire. Results: Total 50 patients were recruited for the study. Out of which, 48% were males and 52% were females. Seventy-four percent of people had applied topical products/steroids in an attempt of attainment of fair complexion, 14% for melasma, 8% for acne induced hyperpigmentation, and 4% for dark circles. About 80% people had obtained one or the other products over the counter sale, 8% had followed the attractive advertisements, 8% had started the application on the recommendation of friends/family while only 4% people had correctly gone through the proper channel to consult a dermatologist. Conclusion: The problem of topical products or steroids abuse is rampant and significant, and unless and until immediate steps are taken to root out this problem from our setup, the condition will become worse all the more. PMID:26955124

  12. Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2014-07-01

    Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 μm and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 μg steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid μg/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 μg/g DPP for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 μg/g DPP for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (Epotato peel waste. PMID:24582305

  13. Takayasu's arteritis on steroid therapy. Seven years follow-up.

    Del Corso, L; Moruzzo, D; Agelli, M; Pentimone, F

    1999-12-01

    The authors report a 7 year follow-up of Takayasu's arteritis (TA) type III, group 1, in a young Italian woman. At diagnosis, at the age of 25, the echotomographic and angiographic studies showed narrow subclavian arteries, narrow abdominal aorta (diameter of 0.6-0.8 cm) below the renal arteries, stenotic left common carotid and renal arteries, and occluded upper mesenteric artery. With steroid therapy, (prednisone 50 mg/day per os), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) normalized within 12 days. With a maintenance dosage of 7.5 mg/day per os, the patient achieved remission as documented by the absence of symptoms, the persistent normalization of ESR, and the improving of the diameter of the abdominal aorta (1.3-1.4 cm). On steroid therapy, the patient had a normal pregnancy and delivered a healthy baby girl. The disease has been stable for seven years. Recently, diabetes mellitus occurred and it has been treated with insulin therapy. The rising of ESR after tapering of steroid therapy (prednisone 5 mg per os on alternate days) suggests an alternative treatment with a cytotoxic agent. PMID:10705719

  14. Prevalence of topical steroid misuse among rural masses

    Amit Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of cosmetic and Ayurvedic products containing unlabeled depigmenting agent and steroids are available readily over the counter sale. The side effects of these products are not documented and can lead to adverse effects of continuous usage. Objective: By this study, we aimed to find out the true nature of the above problem and it′s implication in the Indian rural scenario. Methodology: All patients attending dermatology department during the period of 3 months from May to June 2013 for skin diseases were enquired about unsupervised use of any cosmetic product on their facial skin, duration of use, any side effect experienced through the prescribed questionnaire. Results: Total 50 patients were recruited for the study. Out of which, 48% were males and 52% were females. Seventy-four percent of people had applied topical products/steroids in an attempt of attainment of fair complexion, 14% for melasma, 8% for acne induced hyperpigmentation, and 4% for dark circles. About 80% people had obtained one or the other products over the counter sale, 8% had followed the attractive advertisements, 8% had started the application on the recommendation of friends/family while only 4% people had correctly gone through the proper channel to consult a dermatologist. Conclusion: The problem of topical products or steroids abuse is rampant and significant, and unless and until immediate steps are taken to root out this problem from our setup, the condition will become worse all the more.

  15. Azido analogs of neuroactive steroids

    Vidrna, Lukáš; Černý, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Chodounská, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, 10/11 (2011), s. 1043-1050. ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1498; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * synthesis * azides * NMDA receptor Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.829, year: 2011

  16. Efficacy of mycofenolate mofetil for steroid-resistant acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Yuichi Matsui; Junichi Kaneko; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as an immunosuppressant in steroid resistant rejection after liver transplantation. METHODS: The clinical records of 260 adult patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) were reviewed. Tacrolimus and methylprednisolone were used for primary immunosuppression. Acute rejection was first treated with steroids. When steroid resistance occurred, the patient was treated with a combination of steroids and MMF. Anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody was administered to patients who were not responsive to steroids in combination with MMF.RESULTS: A total of 90 (35%) patients developed acute rejection. The median interval time from transplantation to the first episode was 15 d. Fifty-four patients were steroid resistant. Forty-four patients were treated with MMF and the remaining 10 required anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody treatment. Progression to chronic rejection was observed in one patient. Bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common side effects associated with MMF use. There was no significant increase in opportunistic infections. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that MMF is a potent and safe immunosuppressive agent for rescue therapy in patients with acute rejection after LDLT.

  17. Anabolic steroids detected in bodybuilding dietary supplements - a significant risk to public health.

    Abbate, V; Kicman, A T; Evans-Brown, M; McVeigh, J; Cowan, D A; Wilson, C; Coles, S J; Walker, C J

    2015-07-01

    Twenty-four products suspected of containing anabolic steroids and sold in fitness equipment shops in the United Kingdom (UK) were analyzed for their qualitative and semi-quantitative content using full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), accurate mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), UV-Vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, X-ray crystallography enabled the identification of one of the compounds, where reference standard was not available. Of the 24 products tested, 23 contained steroids including known anabolic agents; 16 of these contained steroids that were different to those indicated on the packaging and one product contained no steroid at all. Overall, 13 different steroids were identified; 12 of these are controlled in the UK under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Several of the products contained steroids that may be considered to have considerable pharmacological activity, based on their chemical structures and the amounts present. This could unwittingly expose users to a significant risk to their health, which is of particular concern for naïve users. PMID:25284752

  18. Successful Rituximab Therapy in Steroid-Resistant, Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: A Case Series.

    Shitenberg, Dorit; Fruchter, Oren; Fridel, Ludmila; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2015-01-01

    Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is an interstitial lung disease that is usually responsive to corticosteroid treatment. The treatment of COP has not been studied in randomized controlled trials; thus, treatment decisions are based on practice guidelines. We herein present, for the first time, 4 cases of patients with biopsy-proven COP who did not respond to corticosteroids but benefited from rituximab therapy. This report consists of a retrospective case series of patients who experienced steroid-resistant, biopsy-proven COP. Patients included in this case series suffered from acute or chronic COP and did not respond to corticosteroid treatment for a few weeks to months but later responded to rituximab. In a series of 4 patients, 1 patient had a complete radiological and clinical response after rituximab therapy, and the steroids could be gradually tapered. Three patients had a chronic course but had been able to lower steroid dosage or even discontinue the drug after being treated with rituximab. Since 40% of the patients with COP do not respond to or stay dependent on steroids, we think that even the ability to lower the steroid dosage by using rituximab as a steroid-sparing agent with a good safety profile is worth the effort. However, further studies are warranted. PMID:26045243

  19. Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics

    ... physicians, the hardest decision is when to begin steroid use. Another major dispute involves the dosage regimen. A ... weeks may provide the same benefits as constant use. Medical studies of creatine and Duchenne continue. back to top Anabolic steroids These, which act to build tissues in the ...

  20. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    LaFee, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

  1. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  2. Naturally occurring steroids in Xenopus oocyte during meiotic maturation. Unexpected presence and role of steroid sulfates.

    Haccard, Olivier; Dupré, Aude; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Eychenne, Bernard; Jessus, Catherine; Ozon, René

    2012-10-15

    In the ovary, oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and arrested in prophase of meiosis I. Although steroidogenic activity of follicle cells is involved in oogenesis regulation, clear qualitative and quantitative data about the steroid content of follicles are missing. We measured steroid levels of Xenopus oocytes and follicles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We show that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is the main steroid present in oocytes. Lower levels of free steroids are also detected, e.g., androgens, whereas progesterone is almost undetectable. We propose that sulfatation is a protective mechanism against local variations of active steroids that could be deleterious for follicle-enclosed oocytes. Steroid levels were measured after LH stimulation, responsible for the release by follicle cells of a steroid signal triggering oocyte meiosis resumption. Oocyte levels of androgens rise slowly during meiosis re-entry whereas progesterone increases abruptly to micromolar concentration, therefore representing the main physiological mediator of meiosis resumption in Xenopus oocyte. PMID:22687883

  3. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  4. Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations.

    Taves, Matthew D; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A; Saldanha, Colin J; Soma, Kiran K

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for "steroid profiling." Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels). We also present reference values for a variety of steroids in different brain regions of adult rats. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other steroidogenic tissues, such as thymus, breast, and prostate. PMID:22654806

  5. Steroid use in Acute Liver Failure

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C.; Chang, Matthew S.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Schilsky, Michael; Lee, William M; Brown, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Drug-induced and indeterminate Acute Liver Failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS, survival without transplant). Results 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61% vs. 66%, p=0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of MELD (MELD > 40, survival 30% vs. 57%, p=0.03). In multivariable analysis controlling for steroid use and diagnosis, age (OR 1.37 per decade), coma grade (OR 2.02 grade 2, 2.65 grade 3, 5.29 grade 4), MELD (OR 1.07) and pHsteroid use was associated with a marginal benefit in SS overall (35% v. 23%, p=0.047), this benefit did not persistent in multivariable analysis; mechanical ventilation (OR 0.24), MELD (OR 0.93), and ALT (1.02) were the only significant predictors of SS. Conclusions Corticosteroids did not improve overall survival or SS in drug-induced, indeterminate or autoimmune ALF and were associated with lower survival in patients with the highest MELD scores. PMID:23929808

  6. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications

  7. HE3286, an oral synthetic steroid, treats lung inflammation in mice without immune suppression

    Frincke James M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17α-Ethynyl-5-androsten-3β, 7β, 17β-triol (HE3286 is a synthetic derivative of an endogenous steroid androstenetriol (β-AET, a metabolite of the abundant adrenal steroid deyhdroepiandrosterone (DHEA, with broad anti-inflammatory activities. We tested the ability of this novel synthetic steroid with improved pharmacological properties to limit non-productive lung inflammation in rodents and attempted to gauge its immunological impact. Methods and Results In mice, oral treatment with HE3286 (40 mg/kg significantly (p in vivo (ovalbumin immunization. When mice treated for two weeks with HE3286 were challenged with K. pneumoniae, nearly identical survival kinetics were observed in vehicle-treated, HE3286-treated and untreated groups. Conclusions HE3286 represents a novel, first-in-class anti-inflammatory agent that may translate certain benefits of β-AET observed in rodents into treatments for chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease.

  8. Comparative study between phenol and imidazole derivatives in radiolabeling of some steroid hormones

    A phenol or imidazole ring is rarely present in steroid hormones, So, the molecule of steroid hormone requires chemical modification by addition of an iodinable residue like phenol or imedazole. So that the comparative study between phenol derivatives, include tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and tyramine, and imidazole derivatives, like histamine and histedine methyl ester (HME), for radiolabeling of some steroid hormones include estradiol and testosterone is the aim of the present study. The conjugation step was carried using mixed anhydride method and followed by radioiodination using iodogen as an oxidizing agent. Purification step was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Optimization and validation of the tracer were carried out. Immunoreactivity of the all obtained tracers was check by using specific polyclonal antibodies. The results indicated that imidazols derivatives are more suitable from immunoreactivity view and storage period.

  9. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications.

  10. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  11. Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations

    MatthewDTaves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids. In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, behavior, neuroplasticity, and inflammation. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for “steroid profiling.” Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other tissues.

  12. Developmental reprogramming of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in sheep: native steroids vs. environmental steroid receptor modulators

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sarma, Hiren N.; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Steckler, Teresa L.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2010-01-01

    The inappropriate programming of developing organ systems by exposure to excess native or environmental steroids, particularly the contamination of our environment and our food sources with synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals that can interact with steroid receptors, is a major concern. Studies with native steroids have found that in utero exposure of sheep to excess testosterone, an estrogen precursor, results in low birth weight offspring and leads to an array of adult reproductive / m...

  13. Screening for anabolic steroids and related compounds in illegal cocktails by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Vissers, J.P.C.; Fuchs, R.E.M.; Velde, van J.W.; Lommen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Findings of illegal hormone preparations such as syringes, bottles, cocktails, and so on, are an important information source for the nature of the current abuse of anabolic steroids and related compounds as growth-promoting agents in cattle. A new screening method for steroids in cocktails is prese

  14. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of Steroid Concentrations in Brain Tissue: Methodological Considerations

    Taves, Matthew D.; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A.; Saldanha, Colin J.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain ti...

  16. Measurement of steroid concentrations in brain tissue: methodological considerations

    MatthewDTaves; ColinJSaldanha; KiranKSoma

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, behavior, neuroplasticity, and inflammation. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection an...

  17. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

  18. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  19. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4'-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit 3H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations

  20. Rapid steroid hormone actions via membrane receptors.

    Schwartz, Nofrat; Verma, Anjali; Bivens, Caroline B; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2016-09-01

    Steroid hormones regulate a wide variety of physiological and developmental functions. Traditional steroid hormone signaling acts through nuclear and cytosolic receptors, altering gene transcription and subsequently regulating cellular activity. This is particularly important in hormonally-responsive cancers, where therapies that target classical steroid hormone receptors have become clinical staples in the treatment and management of disease. Much progress has been made in the last decade in detecting novel receptors and elucidating their mechanisms, particularly their rapid signaling effects and subsequent impact on tumorigenesis. Many of these receptors are membrane-bound and lack DNA-binding sites, functionally separating them from their classical cytosolic receptor counterparts. Membrane-bound receptors have been implicated in a number of pathways that disrupt the cell cycle and impact tumorigenesis. Among these are pathways that involve phospholipase D, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. The crosstalk between these pathways has been shown to affect apoptosis and proliferation in cardiac cells, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes as well as cancer cells. This review focuses on rapid signaling by 17β-estradiol and 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 to examine the integrated actions of classical and rapid steroid signaling pathways both in contrast to each other and in concert with other rapid signaling pathways. This new approach lends insight into rapid signaling by steroid hormones and its potential for use in targeted drug therapies that maximize the benefits of traditional steroid hormone-directed therapies while mitigating their less desirable effects. PMID:27288742

  1. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17β-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage

  2. Steroid hormone secretion in inflammatory breast cancer cell lines.

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J; Monsalve, Beatriz; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Silvan, Gema

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is a special type of breast cancer with a poor survival rate. Though several IBC cell lines have been established, recently a first IMC cell line was established. The aims of this study were: (1) to validate a highly sensitive, reliable, accurate and direct amplified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure several cell-secreted steroid hormones: progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone sulfate (SO4E1) in the culture medium. (2) To assess whether hormone production profile by IPC-366 cells validates the IMC model for human IBC. We validated a non-competitive amplified EIA for inflammatory breast cancer cell lines based on the results of accuracy, precision, sensitivity and parallelism. The low detection limits of the technique were: P4=13.2 pg/well, A4=2.3 pg/well, T=11.4 pg/well, E2=1.9 pg/well and SO4E1=4.5 pg/well. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation percentages were 90%. In all hormones studied SUM149 have higher levels (1.4 times, but not significant) than IPC-366, and the correlation index between SUM149 and IPC-366 concentrations were >97%. We can coclude that cells of both cell lines, IPC-366 and SUM149, are capable to produce steroid hormone in culture media. The presented EIA methodology is very valuable for the detection of steroid production in culture media and could be used in hormone regulation studies and therapeutic agents in cell lines of inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary carcinoma or other cancer cell lines in preclinical studies. PMID:26495931

  3. Expression of glucocorticoid receptors α and ß in steroid sensitive and steroid insensitive interstitial lung diseases

    Pujols, L; Xaubet, A.; Ramirez, J.; Mullol, J; Roca-Ferrer, J; Torrego, A; Cidlowski, J.; Picado, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sensitivity to glucocorticoids may be related to the concentration of glucocorticoid receptors α (GRα) and ß (GRß). A study was undertaken to assess GRα and GRß expression in steroid insensitive interstitial lung disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)) and steroid sensitive interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis and cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)).

  4. Steroidal saponins from Chlorophytum deistelianum.

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Paululat, Thomas; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Dutartre, Patrick; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Chlorophytum deistelianum led to the isolation of four previously undescribed steroidal saponins called chlorodeistelianosides A-D with five known ones. Their structures were established mainly by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry as (25R)-3β-[(β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-5α-spirostan-12-one, (24S,25S)-24-[(β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3β-[(β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-5α-spirostan-12-one, (25R)-26-[(β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2α-hydroxy-22α-methoxy-5α-furostan-3β-yl β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside, and (25R)-26-[(β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3β-[(β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-5α-furost-20(22)-en-12-one. Cytotoxicity of most compounds was evaluated against one human cancer cell line (SW480) and one rat cardiomyoblast cell line (H9c2). Among them, three known spirostane-type glycosides exhibited cytotoxicity on both cell lines with IC50 ranging from 8 to 10μM. PMID:27012932

  5. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  6. Oral Adverse Reactions Caused by Over-the-Counter Oral Agents

    Vanja Vucicevic Boras

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over-the-counter products rarely cause unwanted reactions in the oral cavity. Oral reactions to these agents are not specific and might present with various clinical oral findings. Detailed medical history is a key to the proper diagnosis of these lesions and fortunately other diagnostic procedures are rarely needed. Lesions are usually managed with elimination of the offending agent and with topical steroids. In more severe cases systemic steroids should be applied.

  7. The steroid-sparing effect of long-term plasmapheresis in pemphigus

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Carstens, Jan; Jørgensen, Jan;

    1995-01-01

    Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents can induce remission in most patients with pemphigus, but mortality remains at 5 to 15% due to complications from these drugs. We reviewed the adjunctive effect of long-term plasmapheresis in 8 patients with pemphigus. Four cases had been resistant to ...... where cyclosporine was introduced. This first report of long-term plasmapheresis demonstrates clinical efficacy in pemphigus and a considerable steroid-sparing effect....

  8. Severe Cholestasis and Bile Acid Nephropathy From Anabolic Steroids Successfully Treated With Plasmapheresis.

    Flores, Avegail; Nustas, Rosemary; Nguyen, Hoang-Lan; Rahimi, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Severe cholestasis with anabolic androgenic steroids is well-known to cause acute liver injury. Treatment is usually supportive after withdrawal of the offending agent. Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently occurs in acute liver injury and may complicate management and prognosis. We highlight the use of plasmapheresis resulting in rapid improvement in cholestatic jaundice with resolution of AKI. Plasmapheresis should be considered in special cases in which there is progressive clinical decline despite supportive care. PMID:26958570

  9. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  10. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. PMID:27347888

  11. [Abortifacient effect of hormonal contraceptives: a review].

    Agulles Simó, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Most of the scientific community, as well as in a sector of international Law, when referring to the unborn embryo, pregnancy must be defined as the period extending from implantation to natural birth. This implies some novelty, such as the redefinition of abortion as the elimination of the embryo only within this period, and the extension of contraception to any means that impedes the union of the gametes as a consequence of a sexual intercourse, or also that which eliminates the product of conception prior to its implantation. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry markets, under the name of contraceptives, products that act also by means of an anti-implantation mechanism. This fact has great ethical implications regarding the respect for the embryo which require a reflection on the moral valuation of the prescription, dispensation and use of these means. One may ask: which of the contraceptive means actually present in the market include an anti-implantation effect? What mechanisms contribute to their pharmacological action and in what measure do they do this? This is what we have studied in this article, based on the available scientific bibliography. We have basically fulfilled a double objective: updating and completing the studies -few, partial or distant in time- that had this same subject matter; and offering a moral valuation on the use of hormonal contraceptives that may have an anti-implantation effect, from the point of view of the respect due to the embryonic life. PMID:26030015

  12. Optimal management of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis

    Khan HMW

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hafiz M Waqas Khan,1 Faisal Mehmood,1 Nabeel Khan2 1Department of Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Section of Gastroenterology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is variable in both extent and severity of disease as well as response to therapy. Corticosteroids (CSs were the first drugs used in the management of UC and are still used for induction of remission. However, because of their extensive side-effect profile, they are not utilized for maintenance of remission. In view of this, CS-free remission has become an important end point while evaluating therapeutic agents used in the management of UC. This review highlights the results of various studies conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different medications to attain CS-free remission in the setting of active UC. The drugs reviewed include established agents such as thiopurines, methotrexate, infliximab, adalimumab, vedolizumab, golimumab, and newer experimental agents, and if all else fails, colectomy will be performed. The efficacy of these drugs is evaluated individually. Our aim is to provide a synopsis of the work done in this field to date. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, steroid dependent, thiopurines, MTX, adalimumab, infliximab

  13. Three new steroidal saponins from Helleborus thibetanus.

    Zhang, Hui; Su, Yan-Fang; Yang, Feng-Ying

    2016-08-01

    Three new steroidal saponins including two spirostanol glycosides (1-2) and one furostanol glycoside 1-sulphate (3) were isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Helleborus thibetanus. Structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of extensive use of 1-D and 2-D NMR experiments, together with HR-ESI-MS and IR measurements, as well as the results of acid hydrolysis. Compounds 1-2 represented steroidal saponins with an unusual substitution pattern, which possessed a double bond at C-25 and were glycosylated at 1-OH. PMID:26821553

  14. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [3H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [3H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  15. Recent Developments in Nematode Steroid Biochemistry

    Chitwood, David J.; Lozano, Ruben; Lusby, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Current knowledge of steroid nutrition, metabolism, and function in free-living, plant-parasitic and animal-parasitic nematodes is reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigation of Caenorhabditis elegans. A number of 4-desmethylsterols with a trans-A/B ring configuration can satisfy the steroid nutritional requirement in C. elegans, but sterols with a cis-A/B ring configuration or trans-A/B sterols with a 4-methyl group cannot. C. elegans removes methyl or ethyl substituents at C-24 of the...

  16. Agent engineering

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

    2001-01-01

    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  17. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  18. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  19. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    ... PATIENTS and their FAMILIES BELL’S PALSY: TREATMENT WITH STEROIDS AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS This information sheet is provided to help you understand the role of steroids and antiviral drugs for treating Bell’s palsy. Neurologists ...

  20. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland;

    2015-01-01

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... the content of steroid hormones in separated manure solid fraction. This could potentially be achieved through composting or anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the solid fraction; however, the effects of these technologies on steroid hormones need to be verified....

  1. Responsibilities of the Nurse on Administration of Steroids

    ALPARSLAN, Arş.Gör.Dr. Güler BALCI; KAPUCU, Öğr.Gör.Dr. Sevgisun

    2008-01-01

    Steroid hormones, which are secreted from adrenal glands, are administered exogen as drugs for the treatment of some diseases. Long term and high dose steroid use may cause side effects such edema, hypertension and hyperglisemy. Person using steroid can face difficulties in daily life activity and has to make changes in life styles because of its side effects. It is necessary that health staff, particulary nurses provide properly nursing care and information for patients with steroid use...

  2. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Fogel, Curtis A.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. ...

  3. Improved Steroids Detection and Evidence for Their Regiospecific Decompositions Using Anion Attachment Mass Spectrometry.

    Dumont, Quentin; Bárcenas, Mariana; Dossmann, Héloïse; Bailloux, Isabelle; Buisson, Corinne; Mechin, Nathalie; Molina, Adeline; Lasne, Françoise; Rannulu, Nalaka S; Cole, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    Nonpolar anabolic steroids are doping agents that typically do not provide strong signals by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) owing especially to the low polarity of the functional groups present. We have investigated the addition of anions, in ammonium salt form, to anabolic steroid samples as ionization enhancers and have confirmed that lower instrumental limits of detection (as low as 10 ng/mL for fluoxymesterone-M) are obtained by fluoride anion attachment mass spectrometry, as compared to ESI(+)/(-) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)(+). Moreover, collision-induced decomposition (CID) spectra of precursor fluoride adducts of the bifunctional steroid "reduced pregnenolone" (containing two hydroxyl groups) and its d4-analogue provide evidence of regiospecific decompositions after attachment of fluoride anion to a specific hydroxyl group of the steroid. This type of charting of specific CID reaction pathways can offer value to selected reaction monitoring experiments (SRM) as it may result in a gain in selectivity in detection as well as in improvements in quantification. PMID:26926765

  4. 77 FR 44456 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol

    2012-07-30

    ... are approved for either human or veterinary use. Approved medical uses for anabolic steroids include... Act This rule regulates two anabolic steroids, which are neither approved for medical use in humans... the use of the designer steroid superdrol (methasteron): a case report and literature...

  5. SYNTHESIS OF 17-(ISOCYANOTOSYLMETHYLENE) STEROIDS - PRECURSORS TO PREGNANE DERIVATIVES

    VANLEUSEN, D; VANLEUSEN, AM

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis is described of a series of twenty 17-(isocyanotosylmethylene) steroids 5 from 17-oxo steroids and 4-tolysulfonylmethyl isocyanide (TosMIC). Furthermore, nine analogous 17-(isocyanosulfonylmethylene) steroids (15-21a) have been prepared using sulfonylmethyl isocyanides other than TosMI

  6. Physicochemical properties and transport of steroids across Caco-2 cells

    Faassen, F.; Kelder, J.; Lenders, J.; Onderwater, R.; Vromans, H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to study the relevant physicochemical properties for the absorption of steroids. Methods. Various physicochemical properties of steroids were calculated (molecular weight, ClogP, static polar surface area [PSA], etc.). Within this series of steroids, different p

  7. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  8. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  9. Steroids and Other Ergogenic Aids: A Resource Guide.

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    Steroids have become one of society's "short cuts" to athletic prowess and success. This guide includes information and teaching materials for educators and others who work with youth on how to teach that steroids are drugs, that drugs can harm and kill, and that a "no-use" policy applies to steroids as well as to alcohol and other drugs. It is…

  10. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Caryopteris terniflora

    Yong Hong ZHANG; Qing Yi WEI; Zhong Li LIU; Li YANG; Dong Liang CHENG

    2004-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from the Chinese medicinal plantCaryopteris terniflora. The spectroscopic and chemical evidences revealed that their structures tobe 6′-(β-sitosteroyl-3-O-β-glucopyranosidyl) hexacosanate 1 and 6′-(stigmasteroyl-3-O-β-glucopyranosidyl) linolenate 2, respectively.

  11. A Steroidal Glycoside from Cynanchum versicolor Bunge

    Zhao Guang ZHENG; Run Hui LIU; Ling Yi KONG; Wei Dong ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A new C21 steroidal glycoside, named cynanversicoside F (1), was isolated from the root of Cynanchum versicolor Bunge. Its structure was established as glaucogenin-A 3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  12. Residual ovarian activity during oral steroid contraception

    A.M. van Heusden; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSteroid drugs with contraceptive properties have been available in the clinical setting for over four decades and are still subject to improvement. Estrogens, progestins and anti-progestins have been used alone or in various combinations, regimens and routes of administ

  13. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C N

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  14. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  15. TLC of sterols, steroids, and related triterpenoids

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Vol. 17. New York : CRC Press, 2008 - (Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. - Sherma, J. - Kowalska, T.), s. 576-603 ISBN 978-1-4200-4677-9. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 99) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : TLC * sterols * steroids * ecdysteroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Steroidal ribbons for supramolecular and medicinal chemistry

    Černý, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Drašar, P.

    Tafila : Tafila Technical University, 2007 - (Ibril, I.). IL21 [Petra International Chemistry Conference and Transmediteranean Colloquium on Heterocyclic Chemistry. 25.06.2007-28.06.2007, Tafila] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroids * oligomers * amides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  17. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  18. Segregation of steroid receptor coactivator-1 from steroid receptors in mammary epithelium

    Shim, Woo-Shin; DiRenzo, James; DeCaprio, James A.; Santen, Richard J; Brown, Myles; Jeng, Meei-Huey

    1999-01-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) family members interact with steroid receptors, including estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR), to enhance ligand-dependent transcription. However, the expression of ERα and SRC-1 was found to be segregated in distinct subsets of cells within the epithelium of the estrogen-responsive rat mammary gland. This finding was in contrast to the finding for the stroma, where significant numbers of cells coexpressed ERα and SRC-1. Treatment of...

  19. Inhaled steroid/tobacco smoke particle interactions: a new light on steroid resistance

    Nicolini Gabriele; Mazza Roberto; De Marco Cinzia; Ruprecht Ario; Invernizzi Giovanni; Boffi Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Inhaled steroid resistance is an obstacle to asthma control in asthmatic smokers. The reasons of this phenomenon are not yet entirely understood. Interaction of drug particles with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) could change the aerodynamic profile of the drug through the particle coagulation phenomenon. Aim of the present study was to examine whether steroid particles interact with smoke when delivered in the presence of ETS. Methods Beclomethasone-hydrofluoralkane (BD...

  20. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Curtis A. Fogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. Vocational steroid users do not use steroids because of addictions or for recreation; they do so to increase their workplace abilities and productivity. Seven forms of documented vocational steroid use are described including use by: athletes, bodybuilders, police, actors, strength coaches, firefighters, and soldiers. While little research has examined the idea of vocational steroid use, even less attention has been given to issues related to examining the effectiveness of steroid prohibition strategies. This paper concludes with a discussion on the dangers of continued prohibition strategies on steroids, particularly in light of vocational steroid use. This study utilized an unobtrusive methodological approach. The unobtrusive data in this study involved media file collection, indexing, and analysis derived from online archives of newspapers throughout Canada and the United States.

  1. Antibiotic Agents

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  2. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies with a Newly Synthesized Steroid

    A. Ketuly, Kamal; A. Hadi, A. Hamid; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Synthetic steroids, such as 9α-bromobeclomethasonedipropionate, have shown gastroprotective activity. For example, the potent glucocorticoid steroid, beclomethasone dipropionate, has been used for treatment of bowel ulcerations. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a synthetic steroid, (20S)-22-acetoxymethyl-6β-methoxy-3α,5-dihydro-3′H-cyclopropa[3α,5]-5α-pregnane (AMDCP), on ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injuries in rats. Methodology/Principal Finding Rats were divided into 8 groups. The negative control and ethanol control groups were administered Tween 20 (10%v/v) orally. The reference control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg), was administrated orally. The experimental groups received 1, 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/kg of the AMDCP compound (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg). After 60 min, Tween 20 and absolute ethanol was given orally (5 mL/kg) to the negative control group and to the rest of the groups, and the rats were sacrificed an hour later. The acidity of gastric content, gastric wall mucus and areas of mucosal lesions were assessed. In addition, histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were also measured. The ethanol control group exhibited severe mucosal lesion compared with the experimental groups with fewer mucosal lesions along with a reduction of edema and leukocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining of Hsp70 and Bax proteins showed over-expression and under-expression, respectively, in the experimental groups. The experimental groups also exhibited high levels of PGE2 as well as a reduced amount of MDA. AMDCP decreased the acidity and lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion/Significance The current investigation evaluated the gastroprotective effects of AMDCP on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. This study also suggests that AMDCP might be useful as a

  3. Structure of the novel steroidal antibiotic squalamine determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

    Wehrli, S L; Moore, K S; Roder, H; Durell, S; Zasloff, M

    1993-08-01

    Squalamine is a novel aminosterol recently isolated from the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. This water-soluble steroid exhibits potent antibacterial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. In addition, squalamine is fungicidal and induces osmotic lysis of protozoa. We report here the structural determination of squalamine, 3 beta-N-1-[N(3-[4-aminobutyl])-1,3 diaminopropane]-7 alpha,24 zeta-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholestane 24-sulfate, which was deduced from the analysis of fast atom bombardment spectra and a series of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Squalamine is a cationic steroid characterized by a condensation of an anionic bile salt intermediate with the polyamine, spermidine. This molecule is a potential host-defense agent in the shark, and provides insight into a new class of vertebrate antimicrobial molecules. PMID:8212087

  4. Synergistic Effects of Calcineurin Inhibitors and Steroids on Steroid Sensitivity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Iwamoto, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Yuki; Hirano, Toshihiko; Konno, Osamu; Kihara, Yu; Chiba, Naokazu; Yokoyama, Takayoshi; Takano, Kiminori; Toraishi, Tatsunori; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Chie; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Soga, Akiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Unezaki, Sakae; Shimazu, Motohide

    2015-02-01

    The steroid receptor (SR) complex contains FKBP51 and FKBP52, which bind to tacrolimus (TAC) and cyclophilin 40, which, in turn, bind to cyclosporine (CYA); these influence the intranuclear mobility of steroid-SR complexes. Pharmacodynamic interactions are thought to exist between steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) on the SR complex. We examined the effect of CNIs on steroid sensitivity. Methylprednisolone (MPSL) sensitivity was estimated as the concentration inhibiting mitosis in 50% (IC50) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and as the area under the MPSL concentration-proliferation suppressive rate curves (CPS-AUC) in 30 healthy subjects. MPSL sensitivity was compared between the additive group (AG) as the MPSL sensitivity that was a result of addition of the proliferation suppressive rate of CNIs to that of MPSL and the mixed culture group (MCG) as MPSL sensitivity of mixed culture with both MPSL and CNIs in identical patients. IC50 values of MPSL and cortisol sensitivity were examined before and 2 months after CNI administration in 23 renal transplant recipients. IC50 and CPS-AUC values of MPSL were lower in the MCG than in the AG with administration of TAC and CYA. The CPS-AUC ratio of MCG and AG was lower in the TAC group. IC50 values of MPSL and cortisol tended to be lower after administration of TAC and CYA, and a significant difference was observed in the IC50 of cortisol after TAC administration. Steroid sensitivity increased with both TAC and CYA. Furthermore, TAC had a greater effect on increasing sensitivity. Thus, concomitant administration of CNIs and steroids can increase steroid sensitivity. PMID:26858893

  5. Cytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave sisalana.

    Chen, Pi-Yu; Chen, Chin-Hui; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Ching-Kuo

    2011-06-01

    Two new steroidal saponins, 8 and 10, along with 7 known steroidal sapogenins and saponins (1-7) and a furostanol saponin (9) were isolated from Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm. The structures of these two new compounds were identified and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In addition, acid hydrolysis and GC-FID were used to confirm the sugar moieties of 8 and 10. The cytotoxic effects of 1-10 on MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cancer cells were evaluated, and among them, compound 10 proved to be the most cytotoxic with IC₅₀ values of 1.2, 3.8, and 1.5 µM, respectively. PMID:21243587

  6. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  7. Steroid Analysis in Saliva: An overview

    Lewis, John G.

    2006-01-01

    The first report of steroid analysis in saliva was more than thirty years ago. Since that time its popularity has increased due to the attractiveness of non-invasive, repeated and simple stress-free sampling. It has proved a popular sampling fluid for psychobiology, sports medicine, pharmacology and paediatric studies as well as in the area of complementary medicine. In the diagnostic laboratory, salivary progesterone and oestradiol have been used for assessing ovarian function and 17α-OH pro...

  8. Childhood steroid-responsive ophthalmoplegic migraine

    Mahua Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM is characterized by recurrent attacks of headache with paresis of ocular cranial nerves. Previously, it was classified as a variant of migraine, but recently, International Headache Classification (IHCD-II has reclassified OM to the category of neuralgia. Presently, OM is considered a type of recurrent demyelinating cranial neuropathy. We report an adolescent girl with OM, who had been treated with steroid and showed dramatic improvement.

  9. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Siddiqui, Rafat A; Zaloga, Gary P; Mary Hise; Guy Dutot; Thomas Pavlina; Zhidong Xu; Harvey, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol conce...

  10. Adolescent Steroid Use and Intercollegiate Athletic Incentives

    Brad R. Humphreys; Jane Ruseski

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between college athletic scholarships and adolescent use of performance enhancing drugs. Annually, 4.5 million male high school athletes compete for about 132,000 athletic scholarships o_ered by NCAA Division I and II universities. Estimates from a probit model of self-reported steroid use among US adolescent males using data from the YRBSS suggest each sanction-related athletic scholarship reduction at NCAA institutions in a state increases the probability that hi...

  11. Synthesis of highly fluorescent neuroactive steroids

    Kapras, Vojtěch; Chodounská, Hana; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    Karpacz : Institute of Organic Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, 2009. P08-P08. [Conference on Advances in Organic Synthesis /22./ Conference on Isoprenoids. 08.07.2009-12.09.2009, Karpacz] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : steroid * fluorescent * labelling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  12. New steroid molecules affecting membrane proteins

    Kouřilová, Kateřina; Kudová, Eva; Chodounská, Hana; Navrátil, Michal; Konvalinka, Jan; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Krausová, Barbora

    Praha : Czech Chemical Society, 2014. s. 78. [Liblice 2014. Advances in Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry /49./. 07.11.2014-09.11.2014, Lázně Bělohrad] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMDAR * steroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    B. Haji Moradi; K. Fatahi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping) is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided ...

  14. Sex Steroid Signaling: Implications for Lung Diseases

    Sathish, Venkatachalem; Martin, Yvette N.; Y. S. Prakash

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) have biological and pathophysiological actions in peripheral, non-reproductive organs, including the lung. Clinically, sex differences in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and pulmonary hypertension have been noted, although intrinsic sex differences vs. the roles of sex steroids are...

  15. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  16. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:26855782

  17. Neuroactive steroids and their role in epilepsy

    Chetan Y. Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroactive steroids are the certain steroids that alter neuronal excitability via the cell surface through interaction with certain neurotransmitter receptors. Neuroactive steroids regulate physiological functions of the central nervous system and have possible therapeutic potential in neurological diseases. They have been shown to affect neuronal excitability via their interaction with the ligand-gated ion channel family, such as the GABAA receptor by acting genomically as well as nongenomically. Positive modulators of GABAA receptor have anticonvulsant action as they enhance GABAergic transmission thereby increasing the seizure threshold. By virtue of these properties, neurosteroids appear to be relevant to pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of many neurological diseases including catamenial epilepsy, stress induced epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy, alcohol withdrawal seizures, infantile spasm and status epilepticus. So far, only synthetic neurosteroid, ganaxolone has been tried in treatment of epilepsy and has shown good efficacy and tolerability. But, human data of trials are limited and hence, large double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials are required before their use. The paper reviews the biosynthesis and GABAA receptor modulation of neurosteroids and their potential role in epilepsy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 150-159

  18. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  19. Aspectos analíticos do controle da dopagem de agentes anabolizantes em urina de atletas: avaliação de critérios de positividade Positiviness criteria for analysis of anabolic steroids by GC/MS in the urine of athletes

    Eliane Granuzzio Castilho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O abuso dos esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA está em constante ascensão, tanto nos esportes profissionais como nos esportes praticados nas academias. Essas substâncias são banidas pelo Comitê Olímpico Internacional (COI, sendo que este comitê recomenda que a metodologia usada na detecção e quantificação desses compostos em amostras biológicas dos atletas seja a cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa (GC/MS. Nesse trabalho foram avaliados, por técnica de extração líquido/líquido e posterior identificação em GC/MS-SIM, 15 EAA, dos quais três foram quantificados. Os critérios de correlação entre os íons mais característicos dos EAA analisados foram definidos como segue: os de intensidade relativa maior que 20% podem apresentar uma variação de até 30%; os de intensidade relativa entre 10 e 20% podem apresentar uma variação de até 50% e os de intensidade relativa menor que 10% podem apresentar uma variação de até 90%. Com a aplicação dos critérios anteriores, foi possível confirmar os resultados obtidos em oito amostras de urina de atletas, nos quais foi constatado o uso dos EAA, ficando evidenciada a importância da aplicação desses critérios de positividade na comprovação inequívoca da presença de tais substâncias em amostras biológicas.The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS in sports is in a constant increase among professionals athlets and amateurs. These substances were banned by the International Olimpic Committee and the doping control of this steroids are to be performed analysing biological samples taken from this athletes using gas cromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. This paper evaluates 15 AAS by means of liquid extration and subsequent GC/MS identification. Three of these AAS were also quantified. Correlation criteria among the AAS most characteristic ions were stablished for the evidence of positive samples: when comparing these ions

  20. Novel Uses for the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone and Oxandrolone in the Management of Male Health.

    Wu, Christopher; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism. PMID:27535042

  1. Preparation, preliminary screening of new types of steroid conjugates and their activities on steroid receptors

    Jurášek, M.; Džubák, P.; Sedlák, David; Dvořáková, H.; Hajduch, M.; Bartůněk, Petr; Drasar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2013), s. 356-361. ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0616; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : click chemistry * steroid ribbons * cytotoxic activity * steroid receptor reporter assay * 2,6-bis((1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2013

  2. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  3. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ERα are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ERα in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  4. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Nlicole M Martin; Barham K Abu Dayyeh; Raymond T Chung

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half alter his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery.This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  5. Neuroactive steroids in depression and anxiety disorders: Clinical studies

    Eser, Daniela; Schuele, Cornelius; Baghai, Thomas C.; Romeo, Elena; Rupprecht, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Certain neuroactive steroids modulate ligand-gated ion channels via non-genomic mechanisms. Especially 3 alpha-reduced pregnane steroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor. During major depression, there is a disequilibrium of 3 alpha-reduced neuroactive steroids, which is corrected by clinically effective pharmacological treatment. To investigate whether these alterations are a general principle of successful antidepressant trea...

  6. Homicide and Associated Steroid Acute Psychosis: A Case Report

    G. Airagnes; C. Rouge-Maillart; J.-B. Garre; Gohier, B

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an old man treated with methylprednisolone for chronic lymphoid leukemia. After two months of treatment, he declared an acute steroid psychosis and beat his wife to death. Steroids were stopped and the psychotic symptoms subsided, but his condition declined very quickly. The clinical course was complicated by a major depressive disorder with suicidal ideas, due to the steroid stoppage, the leukemia progressed, and by a sudden onset of a fatal pulmonary embolism. This cli...

  7. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Tat'yana V. Voskoboinikova

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be ef...

  8. Intramolecular cyclization of steroidal semicarbazones to pyrazoles using Vilsmeier reagent

    Mahboob Alam; M.Mushfiq

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of hitherto unknown steroidal heterocycles containing pyrazole fused to 6,7-position of the steroidal nucleus is described.These heterocycles were prepared by the action of Vilsmeier reagent with steroidal semicarbazones in DMF.The slructure of the compounds has been established on the basis of their elemental analysis and spectral data.A general mechanistic scheme for these reactions is also suggested based on current and previous results.

  9. Role of neuroactive steroids in the peripheral nervous system

    Roberto Cosimo eMelcangi; Silvia eGiatti; Marzia ePesaresi; Donato eCarabrese; Nico eMitro; Donatella eCaruso; Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura

    2011-01-01

    Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they ...

  10. Role of Neuroactive Steroids in the Peripheral Nervous System

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Marzia; Calabrese, Donato; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they ...

  11. [Steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss with low tone loss].

    Toriya, R; Yamashita, H; Hisashi, K; Komune, S; Komiyama, S

    1995-11-01

    Five cases of sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset were reviewed. They were not responsive to administration of ATP and Vit. B12, but very responsive to steroid administration. All the patients were male and showed hearing loss in low frequencies in pure tone audiogram. Administration of steroid recovered hearing impairment immediately. However, cessation of steroid aggravated the recovered hearing. Serological and immunological examinations did not show any abnormal findings on all the patients. It was considered that these five patients had characteristics of both steroid-sensitive and low tone-loss type sensorineural hearing losses. PMID:8566929

  12. Is there a clinical interaction between low molecular weight heparin and non-steroidal analgesics after total hip replacement?

    Weale, A. E.; Warwick, D. J.; Durant, N; Prothero, D.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of parenteral non-steroidal analgesic drugs and low molecular weight heparin anticoagulants have been shown before, but there is concern that the use of these agents in combination may potentiate haemorrhagic side-effects because of simultaneous inhibition of the clotting cascade and platelet mechanisms of haemostasis. In a prospective controlled trial, 60 patients undergoing total hip replacement were randomised into two groups. Those in one group received intramuscular ketorola...

  13. Investigation of Anti-Dermatophytic Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Trichophyton Mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton Floccosum

    Abdul Hussein, Ali; Al-Janabi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most common pharmacological group that has three primary therapeutic effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-pyrexia, and analgesia. In this study, seven of NSAIDs were tested against two species of skin pathogenic fungi (dermatophytes). Percentage inhibition was determined for effective agents. Diclofenac, Aspirin and Naproxen showed much more ability to inhibit dermatophytes growth. Epidermophyton floccosum revealed susceptibility to ...

  14. Incidence of Serious Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients Taking Non-steroidal Anti-infl ammatory Drugs in Japan

    Fukuda,Yasuyo; Yokota,Hitomi; Kuzume,Toshiaki; Kuwaki, Kenji; Okada,Hiroyuki; Mizuno,Motowo; Inaba, Tomoki; ISHIKAWA, SHIGENAO; Takeda,Kou; Nagano, Hiroshi; Wato,Masaki; Kawai,Kozo

    2008-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a major adverse event of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and co-administration of proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists has been established as a means of preventing such an eff ect. However, the incidence of bleeding associated with NSAID-induced ulcers under conditions where such strong anti-acid agents are used for prevention has yet to be clarified. We aimed to determine the annual incidence of serious upper gastrointestinal ...

  15. Pain Relief for Acute Urolithiasis: The Case for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.

    Steinberg, Peter L; Chang, Steven L

    2016-07-01

    Pain from renal colic is often severe and incapacitating. Many patients require emergent hospitalization and aggressive analgesia to relieve such discomfort. For many years, the optimal analgesic strategy has been sought to manage such severe pain. One of the mainstays of therapy for acute renal colic is with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This paper reviews the mechanism by which NSAIDs allow pain relief in renal colic, the evidence for their use in this condition, and the use of NSAIDs combined with other agents in renal colic. PMID:27286841

  16. Rapid Resolution of Acute Fulminant Myocarditis after IVIG and Steroid Treatment

    Michael Barrie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with worsening dyspnea which rapidly progressed to severe heart failure. Coronary arteries showed no obstruction. Supportive measures stabilized the patient’s hemodynamics. Initially intravenous solumedrol was given, but when the patient’s condition continued to deteriorate, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG was added to the treatment regimen and her condition improved. Studies show no benefit to using immunosuppressive agents in viral myocarditis, but benefits have been demonstrated in other etiologies. Patients presenting with acute fulminant myocarditis with unknown etiology that continue to deteriorate with aggressive heart failure treatment may benefit from steroids and IVIG.

  17. Effects of mitotane treatment on human steroid metabolism: implications for patient management.

    Ghataore, L; Chakraborti, I; Aylwin, S J; Schulte, K-M; Dworakowska, D; Coskeran, P; Taylor, N F

    2012-07-01

    Mitotane (o,p'-DDD), an oral adrenolytic agent for treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), is reported to inhibit cortisol biosynthesis in vitro and enhance production from exogenous cortisol of urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol and unidentified polar unconjugated metabolites. We examined urinary steroid profiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of patients with histologically confirmed ACC following surgery, receiving a) hydrocortisone alone (three males and three females) and b) mitotane and hydrocortisone (six males and 11 females). Samples were collected after plasma mitotane had reached the therapeutic range of 14-20 mg/l. Increased excretion of polar unconjugated steroids during mitotane treatment was confirmed, with 6β-hydroxycortisol and 6β-hydroxy-20-dihydrocortisols predominating. The proportion of additionally hydroxylated metabolites was finasteride but different from those of patients on dutasteride, indicating specific inhibition of 5α-reductase 2. We conclude that mitotane causes consistent changes in cortisol catabolism, most of which have not been previously recognised. These need not interfere with early detection of ACC recurrence. Induction of 6β-hydroxylation offers an explanation for a reported decrease in cortisol bioavailability. Mitotane also has potential as a unique steroid metabolic probe for 20β-reduction. PMID:23781302

  18. Transition-Metal-Mediated or -Catalyzed Syntheses of Steroids and Steroid-Like Compounds

    Kotora, Martin; Hessler, F.; Eignerová, B.

    -, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-42. ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroids * synthesis design * synthetic methods * asymmetric synthesis * transition metals Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.344, year: 2012

  19. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    2011-11-23

    ... aggression, increased feelings of hostility, and psychological dependence and addiction (Brower, 2002... are described below. Ventral Prostate Assay, Seminal Vesicle Assay, and Levator Ani Assay: The classic... as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids. European Addiction Research, 15:...

  20. Release of Steroids from Plastibase Semisolid Bases

    D.Hassan-Zadeh S.Kararayar

    1991-01-01

    The present research is carried out in order to study the possibility of replacing the classic semisolid bases in steroidal commercial products with Plastibase."nAs regard to its high lipophilic properties, the plastibase alone is not a suitable base for hydrocortisone acetate and f.luocinolone acetonide. Addition of 5 and 7.5% of Propylene glycol to plastibase can increase the rate of drug release from vehicle. This change in drug release is related to decrease in drug-vehicle interacti...

  1. [Effect of anabolic steroid on immune response].

    Yamagishi, H; Kobayashi, M; Konosu, H; Kurioka, H; Naito, K; Sonoyama, T; Nishimoto, T; Hashimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Using lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts of the peripheral blood, PHA-blastoid transformation, immunoglobulin and beta 2-microglobulin, the influence of anabolic steroid on the immune reactivity of the host was dissected by administration of Deca-Durabolin ( nandrolone decanoate) to both tumor-bearing host and tumor-free host after operation for alimentary tract. The number of peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes, the PHA-blastoid transformation of peripheral lymphocytes and the IgG level were increased, and the beta 2-microglobulin level showed the tendency of decrease after the administration of Deca-Durabolin. PMID:6367663

  2. Epidural hematoma after routine epidural steroid injection

    Alkhudari, Azzam M.; Malk, Craig S.; Rahman, Abed; Penmetcha, Taruna; Torres, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are few reported cases of an epidural spinal hematoma following interventional pain procedures. Case Description: We report a case of a spinal epidural hematoma in a patient with no known risk factors (e.g. coagulopathy), who underwent an epidural steroid injection (ESI) in the same anatomic location as two previously successful ESI procedures. Conclusion: Early detection was the key to our case, and avoiding sedation allowed the patient to recognize the onset of a new neurological deficit, and lead to prompt diagnosis as well as surgical decompression of the resultant hematoma.

  3. Using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Sport

    Sefa Lök

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sportsmen especially youngers who engaged in athletism, weight lifting and body building sport have beenusing ‘‘Anabolic Androgenic Steroid’’ (AAS intensively for purpose of doping during world sport history. Used dopingsubstances to increase sport performance differ from sport branches. In some sport branches, it is used to diminish neuralstress while in other sport branches it is used to increase force, endurance and resistance against exhaustion. Today amongsportsmen using ergogenic substances to increase rivalry and physical performance for purpose of doping are increased. Inthis study using anabolic androgenic steroids in sports will be assessed.

  4. Steroid receptor phylogeny and vertebrate origins

    Baker, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    Vertebrates appear about 500 million years ago in the fossil record. This is only 25–50 million years after the great explosion of multicellular invertebrate body plans in the early Cambrian. On a geological time scale, this interval is a ‘blink of an eye’, suggesting that the evolution of regulatory genes is likely to be important in the origins of vertebrates. Here we present evidence for a role of steroid receptors in this process based on a phylogenetic analysis suggesting that recepto...

  5. Anthelmintic activity of steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla.

    Wang, G-X; Han, J; Zhao, L-W; Jiang, D-X; Liu, Y-T; Liu, X-L

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of crude extracts and pure compounds from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla. The methanol extract showed a promising anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (EC(50) value=18.06 mg l(-¹). Based on these finding, the methanol extract was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording two known steroidal saponins showing potent activity, dioscin and polyphyllin D. Both dioscin and polyphyllin D exhibited significant activity against D. intermedius with EC(50) values of 0.44 and 0.70 mg l(-¹), respectively, which were more effective than the positive control, mebendazole (EC(50) value=1.25 mg l(-¹)). The acute toxicities (LC(50)) of dioscin and polyphyllin D for goldfish were 1.37 and 1.08 mg l(-¹), respectively. These results indicated that P. polyphylla extract and the isolated compounds are potential natural agents for the control of Dactylogyrus infestation. This is the first report on in vivo anthelmintic investigation for P. polyphylla. PMID:20576414

  6. Changes in neuroactive steroid secretion associated with CO2-induced panic attacks in normal individuals.

    Brambilla, Francesca; Perini, Giulia; Serra, Mariangela; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Zanone, Stefano; Toffanin, Tommaso; Milleri, Stefano; Garcia, Cristina Segura; Biggio, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Neuroactive steroids modulate anxiety in experimental animals and possibly in humans. The secretion of these compounds has been found to be altered in panic disorder (PD), with such alterations having been suggested to be a possible cause or effect of panic symptomatology. Panic-like attacks can be induced in healthy individuals by administration of panicogenic agents or by physical procedures, and we have now measured the plasma concentrations of neuroactive steroids in such individuals before, during, and after panicogenic inhalation of CO2 in order to investigate whether abnormalities of neuroactive steroid secretion might contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Fifty-nine psychologically and physically healthy subjects, including 42 women (11 in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, 14 in the luteal phase, and 17 taking contraceptive pills) and 17 men, who experienced a panic-like attack on previous exposure to 7% CO2 were again administered 7% CO2 for 20min. Thirty-three of these individuals (responders) again experienced a panic-like attack, whereas the remaining 26 subjects did not (nonresponders). All subjects were examined with the VAS-A and PSL-III-R scales for anxiety and panic symptomatology before and after CO2 inhalation. The plasma concentrations of progesterone, 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THPROG=allopregnanolone), 3α,5α-tetrahydrodesoxycorticosterone (3α,5α-THDOC), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol were measured 15min and immediately before the onset of CO2 administration as well as immediately, 10, 30, and 50min after the end of CO2 inhalation. Neuroactive steroids were measured in the laboratory of Prof. Biggio in Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Neurosteroid levels did not change significantly in both responders and nonresponders before, during, or after CO2 inhalation. These data suggest that neuroactive steroid concentrations before, during, or after CO2 inhalation do not seem to correlate with panic symptomatology

  7. Comparison of interlaminar epidural steroid versus caudal steroid injection for low back pain with radiculopathy due to disc prolapse

    Sunil Nikose

    2015-12-01

    Results: The change in pain scores were rated as mild, moderate and excellent. The interlaminar epidural steroid injection fared excellent in earlier follow up, getting to moderate at 12 weeks' time. The caudal steroid injection produced moderate relief in early phase at 12 weeks' time. Conclusions: The caudal steroid injection is cost effective, easy to administer and is having much less complications as compared to interlaminar steroid injection. Both these procedures are safe, well tolerated procedures, and can be performed as outpatient procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3665-3671

  8. Agent, autonomous

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  9. Steroid sulfatase and sulfuryl transferase activities in human brain tumors

    Kříž, L.; Bičíková, M.; Mohapl, M.; Hill, M.; Černý, Ivan; Hampl, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2008), s. 31-39. ISSN 0960-0760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dehydroepiandrosterone * steroid sulfatase * steroid sulfuryl transferase * brain Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.827, year: 2008

  10. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  11. Study on two steroidal sex hormones in rice

    TAOYoubuo

    1998-01-01

    Steroidal sex hormones including androgens and estrogens are important in the reproductive development of mammals. A number of studies suggested that these steroids might have similar functions in plants, A latest research on Nongken 58s, a photoperiod-sensitive genie male sterile rice (PGMR),

  12. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  13. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  14. Clinical benefit of steroid use in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    Whitlock, Richard P; Chan, Simon; Devereaux, P J;

    2008-01-01

    We sought to establish the efficacy and safety of prophylactic steroids in adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials reporting the effects of prophylactic steroids on clinical outcomes after CPB. Outcomes examined were mortality, myo...

  15. Necrotising fasciitis as a complication of steroid injection.

    Birkinshaw, R; O'Donnell, J; Sammy, I

    1997-01-01

    Necrotising fasciitis is described as a complication of steroid injection of a painful shoulder in a previously well female. This case highlights a very rare life threatening emergency after steroid injection. Early recognition, resuscitation, and aggressive surgical management are essential to prevent mortality in this condition.

  16. Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex: a dose-finding and safety study

    Sorgenfrei, Iben F; Norrild, Kathrine; Larsen, Per Bo;

    2006-01-01

    Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block.......Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block....

  17. THE ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES IN LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Cristian Gurzu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient evidence has accumulated since the 1970s to support the hypothesis that gonadal steroids can influence processes that allow an organism to learn and remember new information. Although this conclusion quickly leads to exciting implications for our understanding of cognitive function and for the treatment of cognitive disability, it also raises questions regarding the nature, mechanism, and significance of the steroid modulation of learning and memory. In order to support the case that a steroid plays a meaningful role in cognition, several central issues must be addressed : adaptative value (the proposed effect of the steroid on learning and memory should have adaptive value to the organism; strenght of effect (empirical data supporting the role of the steroid in learning and memory should be sufficiently robust in magnitude and replicability; neural substrate (anatomical and physilogical substrates should exist to support the actions of the steroid on learning and memory ; and nonmnemonic processes (processes other than those directly mediating steroid effects on learning and memory systems should be identified (23. Sufficient evidence has accumulated since the 1970s to support the hypothesis that gonadal steroids can influence processes that allow an organism to learn and remember new information. Although this conclusion quickly leads to exciting implications for our understanding of cognitive function and for the treatment of cognitive disability, it also raises questions regarding the nature, mechanism, and significance of the steroid modulation of learning and memory. In order to support the case that a steroid plays a meaningful role in cognition, several central issues must be addressed : adaptative value (the proposed effect of the steroid on learning and memory should have adaptive value to the organism; strenght of effect (empirical data supporting the role of the steroid in learning and memory should be sufficiently robust

  18. Radioimmunoassay of steroids in Czechoslovakia - current state and prospects

    The experience is summarized with radioimmunoassay of steroids during the last 15 years, and the expected trends in this field are dealt with. The following problems connected with the radioimmunoassay of steroids are discussed: 1) ways leading to improved antisera specificity (choice of immunogen, use of the principle of immunological tolerance, use of antisera mixtures, preparation of monoclonal antibodies); 2) methods of ligand labelling (steroids labelled in the ring, radioiodine labelled derivative); 3) separation techniques of bound and free ligands; 4) sample preparation with regard to automation and 5) importance of and approaches to the determination of free, plasma protein non-bound steroids. The survey is complemented with a list of antisera to steroids, prepared in the laboratories of the authors. (author)

  19. Homicide and Associated Steroid Acute Psychosis: A Case Report

    G. Airagnes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an old man treated with methylprednisolone for chronic lymphoid leukemia. After two months of treatment, he declared an acute steroid psychosis and beat his wife to death. Steroids were stopped and the psychotic symptoms subsided, but his condition declined very quickly. The clinical course was complicated by a major depressive disorder with suicidal ideas, due to the steroid stoppage, the leukemia progressed, and by a sudden onset of a fatal pulmonary embolism. This clinical case highlights the importance of early detection of steroid psychosis and proposes, should treatment not be stopped, a strategy of dose reduction combined with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic treatment. In addition have been revised the risks of the adverse psychiatric effects of steroids.

  20. Long-term experience of steroid-free pediatric renal transplantation

    Wittenhagen, Per; Thiesson, Helle C; Baudier, François;

    2014-01-01

    Increased focus on the potential negative side effects of steroid usage in pediatric transplantation has led to steroid minimization or steroid-free transplantation. In this study, we report results after complete steroid avoidance in renal transplantation in the period 1994-2009. We evaluate the...... effects of complete steroid avoidance on allograft function, BMI, and linear growth. The majority of transplanted children were induced with antithymocyte globulin and immunosuppressed with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil. Steroids were given only when rejection occurred or due to...... the youngest (< six yr). Steroid-free immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplantation is safe and protects against steroid-induced obesity and short stature....

  1. Developmental reprogramming of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in sheep: native steroids vs. environmental steroid receptor modulators.

    Padmanabhan, V; Sarma, H N; Savabieasfahani, M; Steckler, T L; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2010-04-01

    The inappropriate programming of developing organ systems by exposure to excess native or environmental steroids, particularly the contamination of our environment and our food sources with synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals that can interact with steroid receptors, is a major concern. Studies with native steroids have found that in utero exposure of sheep to excess testosterone, an oestrogen precursor, results in low birth weight offspring and leads to an array of adult reproductive/metabolic deficits manifested as cycle defects, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine/ovarian defects, insulin resistance and hypertension. Furthermore, the severity of reproductive dysfunction is amplified by excess postnatal weight gain. The constellation of adult reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep is similar to features seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to result in similar phenotype suggesting that many effects of prenatal testosterone excess are likely facilitated via aromatization to oestradiol. Similarly, exposure to environmental steroid imposters such as bisphenol A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC) from days 30 to 90 of gestation had long-term but differential effects. Exposure of sheep to BPA, which resulted in maternal levels of 30-50 ng/mL BPA, culminated in low birth weight offspring. These female offspring were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and characterized by severely dampened preovulatory LH surges. Prenatal MXC-treated females had normal birth weight and manifested delayed but normal amplitude LH surges. Importantly, the effects of BPA were evident at levels, which approximated twice the highest levels found in human maternal circulation of industrialized nations. These findings provide evidence in support of developmental origin of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases and highlight the risk posed by exposure to environmental endocrine

  2. Steroid-sensitive mechanism of soluble immune response suppressor production in steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome.

    Schnaper, H W; Aune, T M

    1987-01-01

    Soluble immune response suppressor (SIRS), a lymphokine that suppresses antibody production and delayed type hypersensitivity in vivo, has been detected in urine and serum from certain patients with nephrotic syndrome. In the present paper, the relationship between SIRS production and nephrotic syndrome is further characterized. A striking correlation was found between detection of SIRS and the presence of steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). A potential mechanism of SIRS production ...

  3. Release of Steroids from Plastibase Semisolid Bases

    D.Hassan-Zadeh S.Kararayar

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research is carried out in order to study the possibility of replacing the classic semisolid bases in steroidal commercial products with Plastibase."nAs regard to its high lipophilic properties, the plastibase alone is not a suitable base for hydrocortisone acetate and f.luocinolone acetonide. Addition of 5 and 7.5% of Propylene glycol to plastibase can increase the rate of drug release from vehicle. This change in drug release is related to decrease in drug-vehicle interaction and consequently increasing its partition coefficient. It seems that these considerations can be applied to betamethasone and clobetasole ointments, which are the most utilized in Iranian commerce .

  4. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection.

    Lee, Yujin; Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-06-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  5. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22694659

  6. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Bond, Peter; Llewellyn, William; Van Mol, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused for decades by both professional and amateur athletes in order to improve physical performance or muscle mass. AAS abuse can cause adverse effects, among which are hepatotoxic effects. These effects include cholestatic icterus and possibly peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular carcinoma or adenoma. In particular, 17α-alkylated AAS appear to be hepatotoxic, whereas nonalkylated AAS appear not to be. The 17α-alkyl substitution retards hepatic metabolism of the AAS rendering it orally bioavailable. The mechanism responsible for the hepatotoxicity induced by 17α-alkylated AAS remains poorly understood. However, oxidative stress has been repeatedly shown to be associated with it. In this manuscript we present a hypothesis which describes a potential mechanism responsible for AAS-induced hepatotoxicity, based on several observations from the literature which suggest oxidative stress being a causal factor. PMID:27372877

  7. Pregnane steroidal glycosides and their cytostatic activities.

    García, Víctor P; Bermejo, Jaime; Rubio, Sara; Quintana, José; Estévez, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Four new steroidal glycosides such as 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-tigloyl-14-β-hydroxy-17-β-pregnane (1), 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-(2'-amino)-benzoyl-14-β-hydroxy-17-β-pregnane (2), 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-14-β-dihydroxy-17-α-pregnane (3) and 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-14-β-dihydroxy-17-β-pregnane (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Ceropegia fusca Bolle (Asclepiadaceae), a crassulacean acid metabolism plant, an endemic species to the Canary Islands that has been used in traditional medicine as a cicatrizant, vulnerary and disinfectant. The dichloromethane extract exhibited significant cytostatic activity against HL-60, A-431 and SK-MEL-1 cells, human leukemic, epidermoid carcinoma and melanoma cells, respectively. As shown in Table I, compounds 1 and 2 showed very similar IC(50) values. The acetylation of 1 to give the diacetate 5 increases 5-fold the cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells. Compounds 3 and 4 did not show cytotoxicity at the assayed concentrations. With respect to the compounds containing only the steroid ring (6-8), the presence of a charged O-amino-benzoyl but not a tigloyl group improved the cytotoxicity. PMID:21147757

  8. Antifungal agents.

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  9. Trading Agents

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  10. Hazards of steroid injection: Suppurative extensor tendon rupture

    Woon Colin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Local steroid injections are often administered in the office setting for treatment of trigger finger, carpal tunnel syndrome, de Quervain′s tenosynovitis, and basal joint arthritis. If attention is paid to sterile technique, infectious complications are rare. We present a case of suppurative extensor tenosynovitis arising after local steroid injection for vague symptoms of dorsal hand and wrist pain. The progression of signs and symptoms following injection suggests a natural history involving bacterial superinfection leading to tendon rupture. We discuss the pitfalls of local steroid injection and the appropriate management of infectious extensor tenosynovitis arising in such situations.