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Sample records for aboriginal children living

  1. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  2. Dietary habits of Aboriginal children.

    Langlois, Kellie A; Findlay, Leanne C; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-04-01

    Based on the results of Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey, this article presents an overview of how often First Nations children living off reserve, Métis children and Inuit children aged 2 to 5 consume various types of food, including foods considered traditional or country among Aboriginal people. The frequency with which First Nations children living off reserve and Métis children consumed items from major food groups tended to be similar. While lower percentages of Inuit children were reported to regularly consume items from these food groups, relatively high percentages of Inuit children consumed traditional or country foods. Around two-thirds of all Aboriginal children ate fast food and processed foods at least once a week, and just over half had salty snacks, sweets and desserts at least once a day. Consumption patterns varied, depending on whether children lived in a Census Metropolitan Area/Census Agglomeration. PMID:24258058

  3. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2010-01-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children...

  4. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form is reliable in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lililwan Project is the first population-based study to determine Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) prevalence in Australia and was conducted in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia. The diagnostic process for FASD requires accurate assessment of gross and fine motor functioning using standardised cut-offs for impairment. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) is a norm-referenced assessment of motor function used worldwide and in FASD clinics in North America. It is available in a Complete Form with 53 items or a Short Form with 14 items. Its reliability in measuring motor performance in children exposed to alcohol in utero or living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities is unknown. Methods A prospective inter-rater and test-retest reliability study was conducted using the BOT-2 Short Form. A convenience sample of children (n = 30) aged 7 to 9 years participating in the Lililwan Project cohort (n = 108) study, completed the reliability study. Over 50% of mothers of Lililwan Project children drank alcohol during pregnancy. Two raters simultaneously scoring each child determined inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by assessing each child on a second occasion using predominantly the same rater. Reliability was analysed by calculating Intra-Class correlation Coefficients, ICC(2,1), Percentage Exact Agreement (PEA) and Percentage Close Agreement (PCA) and measures of Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were calculated. Results Thirty Aboriginal children (18 male, 12 female: mean age 8.8 years) were assessed at eight remote Fitzroy Valley communities. The inter-rater reliability for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from 0.88 (95%CI, 0.77 – 0.94) to 0.92 (95%CI, 0.84 – 0.96) indicating excellent reliability. The test-retest reliability (median interval between tests being 45.5 days) for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from

  5. Prevalence of asthma and risk factors for asthma-like symptoms in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in the northern territories of Canada

    Zhiwei Gao; Rowe, Brian H; Carina Majaesic; Cindy O’Hara; Senthilselvan, A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms, as well as the risk factors for asthma-like symptoms, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the northern territories of Canada.METHODS: Data on 2404 children, aged between 0 and 11 years, who participated in the North component of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were u...

  6. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  7. Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature

    Brewster David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is

  8. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    Stokes Annette

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51 of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121 of non-Aboriginal children aged Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78 in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95 in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing loss. In view of the frequently silent nature of OM, every opportunity must be taken to screen for OM. Measurement of TEOAEs at age 1–2 months to identify children at risk of developing OM should be evaluated in a routine health service setting.

  9. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    Stokes Annette; Finucane Janine; Elsbury Dimity; Jacoby Peter; Weeks Sharon; Lehmann Deborah; Monck Ruth; Coates Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed ...

  10. Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

  11. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  12. Learning Mathematics: Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Children and Their Teachers

    Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…

  13. Prevalence of and risk factors for asthma in off-reserve Aboriginal children and adults in Canada

    Hsiu-Ju Chang; Jeremy Beach; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan

    2012-01-01

    Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those wit...

  14. A Pedagogical Model for Engaging Aboriginal Children with Science Learning

    Hackling, Mark; Byrne, Matt; Gower, Graeme; Anderson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal children experience social and educational disadvantage and many are not engaged with schooling or learning, which results in significantly lower levels of educational attainment. The Aboriginal Education Program delivered by Scitech to remote Western Australian schools has been shown to significantly increase student ratings of their…

  15. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  16. Anthropometric measurements of Australian Aboriginal adults living in remote areas: comparison with nationally representative findings.

    Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Briganti, Esther; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Chadban, Steven; Shaw, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    To compare body size measurements in Australian Aboriginals living in three remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia with those of the general Australian population. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and derivative values of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHT), and waist-weight ratios (WWT) of adult Aboriginal volunteers (n = 814), aged 25 to 74 years were compared with participants in the nationally representative 'AusDiab' survey (n = 10,434). The Aboriginal body habitus profiles differed considerably from the Australian profile. When compared to Australian females, Aboriginal females were taller and had lower hip circumference but had higher WC, WHR, WHT, and WWT (P Australian counterparts, Aboriginal males were shorter, had lower body weight, WC, hip circumference, BMI, and WHT but had higher WHR and WWT (P Aboriginal females were classified as overweight and or obese using cutoffs defined by WC and by WHR than by BMI. Aboriginal males were less often overweight and/or obese by BMI than their counterparts, but were significantly more often overweight or obese by WHR. There were significant variations in body size profiles between Aboriginal communities. However, the theme of excess waist measurements relative to their weight was uniform. Aboriginal people had preferential central fat deposition in relation to their overall weight. BMI significantly underestimated overweight and obesity as assessed by waist measurements among Aboriginals. This relationship of preferential central fat deposition to the current epidemic of chronic diseases needs to be explored further. PMID:18203125

  17. Early chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian children: remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage or race?

    Haysom, L; Williams, R; Hodson, E; Roy, L P; Lyle, D; Craig, J C

    2007-04-01

    Indigenous people suffer substantially more end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), especially Australian Aboriginals. Previous work suggests causal pathways beginning early in life. No studies have shown the prevalence of early markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children or the association with environmental health determinants--geographic remoteness and socioeconomic disadvantage. Height, weight, blood pressure, and urinary abnormalities were measured in age- and gender-matched Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children from elementary schools across diverse areas of New South Wales, Australia. Hematuria was defined as>or=25 red blood cells/microl (>or=1+), proteinuria>or=0.30 g/l (>or=1+), and albuminuria (by albumin:creatinine)>or=3.4 mg/mmol. Remoteness and socioeconomic status were assigned using the Accessibility and Remoteness Index of Australia and Socio-Economic Indexes For Areas. From 2002 to 2004, 2266 children (55% Aboriginal, mean age 8.9 years) were enrolled from 37 elementary schools. Overall prevalence of hematuria was 5.5%, proteinuria 7.3%, and albuminuria 7.3%. Only baseline hematuria was more common in Aboriginal children (7.1 versus 3.6%; P=0.002). At 2-year follow-up, 1.2% of Aboriginal children had persistent hematuria that was no different from non-Aboriginal children (P=0.60). Socioeconomic disadvantage and geographical isolation were neither significant nor consistent risk factors for any marker of CKD. Aboriginal children have no increase in albuminuria, proteinuria, or persistent hematuria, which are more important markers for CKD. This suggests ESKD in Aboriginal people may be preventable during early adult life. PMID:17311073

  18. Reflecting the Lives of Aboriginal Women in Canadian Public Library Collection Development

    Barbara Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some, but not all, the core titles needed for developing a public library collection that would reflect the diversity and complexity of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada. The titles include major authors, essential titles, journals, magazines, indexes, databases, reference books, websites, film, music, and spoken word as well as some recommended collection sources. The works reveal an emerging literature and cultural production for, by, and about Aboriginal women that steers away from pathologizing their lives as discussed in the l998 Status of Women in Canada report Aboriginal Women in Canada: Strategic Research Directions for Policy Development. Library customers who are seeking a better understanding of the lives of Aboriginal women in Canada, or Aboriginal women who are seeking materials that reflect the strengths, challenges, reality, and dreams of their lives, should be able to expect a core collection in the public libraries of the communities in which they live. This paper will outline some of the arguments for developing a core collection of work for, and about, Aboriginal women in Canada, and will suggest some criteria and selection sources critical for this collection. For this paper, Aboriginal women in Canada include women who identify themselves as First Nation, Inuit and Metis.

  19. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  20. Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS

    Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; MacLean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face...

  1. The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia

    Dona Tomlin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design: A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs. Methods: We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC, aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run, physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry, healthy eating (dietary recall and cardiovascular risk (CV risk. Results: zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05. No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01. There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05 but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions: While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.

  2. Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada

    Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Miller, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; McDonald, Sarah; Morrison, Katherine M; Teo, Koon K; Anand, Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns...

  3. Expressions of shame in investigative interviews with Australian Aboriginal children.

    Hamilton, Gemma; Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine B

    2016-01-01

    This study inspected a sample of 70 interview transcripts with Australian Aboriginal children to gain a sense of how frequently verbal shame responses were occurring in investigative interviews regarding alleged sexual abuse. Transcripts were examined to determine how children articulated shame, how interviewers reacted to these responses, and how shame related to children's accounts. Examination of frequencies revealed that verbal shame responses occurred in just over one-quarter of the interviews. One-way analyses of variance indicated that children who expressed shame within the interview spoke the same amount as children who did not express shame, however, they required more interviewer prompts before a disclosure was made. Interviews where children expressed shame also included a greater number of interviewer reminders compared to interviews without shame responses. Results emphasize the importance of interviewer awareness of shame, and also point to the value of reassurance, patience, and persistence with non-leading narrative prompting when interviewing children who express shame during discussions of sexual abuse. PMID:26654863

  4. Health inequities experienced by Aboriginal children with respiratory conditions and their parents.

    Stewart, Miriam; King, Malcolm; Blood, Roxanne; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; Bearskin, Lisa Bourque

    2013-09-01

    Asthma and allergies are common conditions among Aboriginal children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the health and health-care inequities experienced by affected children and by their parents. Aboriginal research assistants conducted individual interviews with 46 Aboriginal children and adolescents who had asthma and/or allergies (26 First Nations, 19 Métis, 1 Inuit) and 51 parents or guardians of these children and adolescents. Followup group interviews were conducted with 16 adolescents and 25 parents/ guardians. Participants reported inadequate educational resources, environmental vulnerability, social and cultural pressures, exclusion, isolation, stigma, blame, and major support deficits. They also described barriers to health-service access, inadequate health care, disrespectful treatment and discrimination by health-care providers, and deficient health insurance. These children, adolescents, and parents recommended the establishment of culturally appropriate support and education programs delivered by Aboriginal peers and health professionals. PMID:24236369

  5. Social Integration of Fringe-Dwelling Aboriginal Children and Their Families in Selected Townships of South Australia.

    Ebbeck, F. N.

    This paper discusses the problems faced by young Australian Aboriginal families and particularly their children as they attempt to find a satisfactory solution to being Aboriginal in a dominant white urban society. The paper is restricted to a consideration of country-urban Aborigines categorized as 'fringe dwellers,' because they live…

  6. Does a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program reduce smoking intentions among Aboriginal children? A pilot study.

    McKennitt, Daniel W; Currie, Cheryl L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. A grade 4 classroom in the second school received a standard smoking prevention program delivered in this jurisdiction. Children in each classroom were tested pre- and post-intervention to measure attitude changes about smoking. There was a significant reduction in intentions to smoke among Aboriginal children who received the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. The small overall sample size precluded a direct comparison of the efficacy of the culturally sensitive and standard programs. The present findings suggest a smoking prevention program that has been culturally adapted for Aboriginal children may reduce future smoking intentions among Aboriginal grade 4 students. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which school smoking prevention programs adapted to respect the long-standing use of tobacco in Aboriginal cultural traditions may be more effective than standard programs in reaching Aboriginal youth. PMID:22875472

  7. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    Misan, G.; Jamieson, L. M.; L. Richards; H. Mills; A. Russell; Shearer, M.; Parker, E J

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencin...

  8. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities. PMID:26066816

  9. Risk factors and comorbidities for invasive pneumococcal disease in Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people

    Faye Janice Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Australian Aboriginal people have among the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD worldwide. We investigated clinical diagnosis, risk factors, comorbidities and vaccine coverage in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal IPD cases. Using enhanced surveillance, we identified IPD cases in Western Australia, Australia, between 1997 and 2007. We calculated the proportion with risk factors and comorbidities in children (<5 years and adults (≥15 years, as well as adults living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. We then calculated the proportion of cases eligible for vaccination who were vaccinated before contracting IPD. Of the 1,792 IPD cases that were reported, 355 (20% were Aboriginal and 1,155 (65% were adults. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (61% of non-Aboriginal and 49% of Aboriginal adult IPD cases in 2001-2007. Congenital abnormality was the most frequent comorbidity in non-Aboriginal children (11%. In Aboriginal children, preterm delivery was most common (14%. Ninety-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 96% of Aboriginal adults had one or more risk factors or comorbidities. In non-Aboriginal adults, cardiovascular disease (34% was the predominant comorbidity whilst excessive alcohol use (66% was the most commonly reported risk factor in Aboriginal adults. In adults, comorbidities were more frequently reported among those in metropolitan regions than those in non-metropolitan regions. Vaccination status was unknown for 637 of 1,082 cases post-July 2001. Forty-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 60% of Aboriginal children were eligible for vaccination but were not vaccinated. Among adults with risk factors who were eligible for vaccination and with known vaccination status, 75% Aboriginal and 94% non-Aboriginal were not vaccinated. An all-of-life immunisation register is needed to evaluate vaccine coverage and effectiveness in preventing IPD in adults.

  10. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal ...

  11. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  12. The Aboriginal Motif in Children's Literature. Proceedings of a National Seminar Held at the University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia, September 25-27, 1981).

    Herr, Twila A. J., Ed.

    This seminar on the Aboriginal motif in children's literature was opened by critic Walter McVitty with a paper entitled "The Presentation of Australian Aborigines and Their Culture in Children's Literature: A Brief Overview." In "Some Thoughts on the Aborigine as Presented in Children's Literature," Queensland author Bill Scott stressed the need…

  13. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…

  14. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

  15. Boyfriends, Babies and Basketball: Present Lives and Future Aspirations of Young Women in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    Senior, Kate A.; Chenhall, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their…

  16. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    E. J. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1 quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2 identifying factors influencing participation, and (3 planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children’s dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  17. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  18. Self-Beliefs and Behavioural Development as Related to Academic Achievement in Canadian Aboriginal Children

    Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…

  19. Re-Presenting Urban Aboriginal Identities: Self-Representation in "Children of the Sun"

    Lumby, Bronwyn; McGloin, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    Teaching Aboriginal studies to a diverse student cohort presents challenges in the pursuit of developing a critical pedagogy. In this paper, we present "Children of the Sun" (2006), a local film made by Indigenous youth in the Illawarra region south of Sydney, New South Wales. We outline the film's genesis and its utilisation in our praxis. The…

  20. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice. PMID:25040582

  1. Successful Transition to School for Australian Aboriginal Children: The 2005 International Focus Issue of Childhood Education Focused on the Education of Aboriginal and Indigenous Children

    Dockett, Sue; Mason, Terry; Perry, Bob

    2006-01-01

    Aboriginal people have been described as the most educationally disadvantaged group of people within Australia. Their participation rates at all levels of education are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. In an effort to enhance the learning and teaching of Aboriginal students, education systems are seeking appropriate strategies and…

  2. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews and cultural safety transforming sexual assault service provision for children and young people.

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-09-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  3. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  4. Preventing Obesity in Canada’s Aboriginal Children: Not Just a Matter of Eating Right and Getting Active

    Melanie A. Ferris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing issue for all children. Many experts say that preventing obesity is largely a matter of eating the right foods and getting enough physical activity. This advice doesn’t recognize the fact that First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children face unique barriers to growing up healthy and strong simply because of theiridentity. This paper discusses how the social determinants of health impact the ability of Aboriginal children to grow up free of obesity. The paper highlights results from a community-based research project conducted amongst Aboriginal parents and service providers in Ontario who wish to prevent obesity amongst their ownyoung children and clients. Research was carried out over two years to help develop a “toolkit” and training program to help service provides increase efforts to prevent obesity amongst First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children from the ages of 2 to 6 in Ontario.

  5. Development of the Physical Activity Interactive Recall (PAIR) for Aboriginal children.

    Lévesque, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon

    2004-03-29

    BACKGROUND: Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk) children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). METHODS: During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8) from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR). In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. RESULTS: Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was judged to be adequate

  6. Development of the Physical Activity Interactive Recall (PAIR for Aboriginal children

    Salsberg Jon

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP. Methods During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8 from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR. In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. Results Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was

  7. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  8. Diverse living arrangements of children.

    1993-01-01

    In the United States, over the past few decades, the prominence of the traditional two-parent family has gradually faded, with its place usually being taken by homes headed by a mother. Relatively few children are raised by single fathers. The pattern of this ongoing development varies considerably by major racial groups as well as by age of child. Current living arrangements for children by three classes of age, race and presence of parents were analyzed by four parental characteristics--age, educational attainment, labor force participation and existence of other siblings. Racial similarities and differences--some significant--are noted. For example, among white children, 36 percent of those under age six had a parent under age 30. Among black children, the proportion was 57 percent and among Hispanics, 46 percent. In all groups, educational attainment was higher in families with two parents. Parents' educational levels were parallel with their employment rates. PMID:8211668

  9. Cohabitation and children's living arrangements

    Sheela Kennedy; Larry L. Bumpass

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the 1995 and 2002 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine recent trends in cohabitation in the United States. We find increases in both the prevalence and duration of unmarried cohabitation. Cohabitation continues to transform children’s family lives, as children are increasingly likely to be born to a cohabiting mother (18% during 1997-2001) or to experience their mother’s entry into a cohabiting union. Consequently, we estimate that two-fifths of all chi...

  10. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The st...

  11. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR ASYMPTOMATIC INTESTINAL MICROSPORIDIOSIS AMONG ABORIGINAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PAHANG, MALAYSIA.

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Bakar, Nur Hazirah Abu; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Osman, Emelia

    2016-05-01

    The epidemiology and environmental factors affecting transmission of human microsporidiosis are poorly understood. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis among aboriginal school children in the Kuala Krau District, Pahang State, Malaysia. We collected stool samples from 255 school children and examined the samples using Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun stain. We also collected demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and personal hygiene information using a pre-tested questionnaire. Sixty-nine of the children was positive for microsporidia: 72.5% and 27.5% were low (1+) and moderate (2+) excretions of microsporidia spores, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed being aged 10 years (p = 0.026), using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water (p = 0.044) and having close contact with domestic animals (p = 0.031) were all significantly associated with microsporidial infection among study subjects. Our findings suggest asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis is common in the study population, more than previously reported. In the study population, control measures need to be implemented, such as good personal hygiene, proper sanitation and safe drinking water supply. PMID:27405127

  12. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  13. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  14. The clinical course of acute otitis media in high-risk Australian Aboriginal children: a longitudinal study

    Skull Susan A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. Methods We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of the tympanic membrane (TM and tympanometry was done every weekday if possible. We followed children for either two weeks (AOM without perforation, or three weeks (AOM with perforation, or for longer periods if the infection persisted. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at study entry and then weekly. Results We enrolled 31 children and conducted a total of 219 assessments. Most children had bulging of the TM or recent middle ear discharge at diagnosis. Persistent signs of suppurative OM (without ear pain were present in most children 7 days (23/30, 77%, and 14 days (20/26, 77% later. Episodes of AOM did not usually have a sudden onset or short duration. Six of the 14 children with fresh discharge in their ear canal had an intact or functionally intact TM. Perforation size generally remained very small (Streptococcus pneumoniae (82%, Haemophilus influenzae (71%, and Moraxella catarrhalis (95%; 63% of swabs cultured all three pathogens. Conclusion In this high-risk population, AOM was generally painless and persistent. These infections were associated with persistent bacterial colonisation of the nasopharynx and any benefits of antibiotics were modest at best. Systematic follow up with careful examination and review of treatment are required and clinical resolution cannot be assumed.

  15. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  16. Is there an Aboriginal bioethic?

    Garvey, G; Towney, P; McPhee, J R; Little, M; Kerridge, I H

    2004-12-01

    It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate. In doing so the authors consider how the ethics, values, and beliefs of the dominant white Australian culture have framed the treatment and delivery of services that Aboriginal people receive, and whether sufficient effort has been made to understand or acknowledge the different ethical predispositions that form the traditions and identity of Aboriginal Australia(ns). PMID:15574447

  17. Educational Failure or Success: Aboriginal Children's Non-Standard English Utterances

    Dixon, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Within the Australian education system, Aboriginal students' use of non-standard English features is often viewed simplistically as evidence of non-attainment of literacy and oral-English milestones. One reason for this is the widespread use of assessment tools which fail to differentiate between native-English speakers and students who are…

  18. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  19. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  20. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  1. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  2. Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Blue: Australian Aboriginal Students' Schematic Repertoire

    Malcolm, Ian G.; Sharifian, Farzad

    2005-01-01

    Learning a second dialect entails learning new schemas, and in some cases learning a whole new set of language schemas as well as cultural schemas. Most Australian Aboriginal children live in a bicultural and bidialectal context. They are exposed, to a greater or lesser extent, to the discourse of Australian English and internalise some of its…

  3. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  4. How Aboriginal Peer Interactions in Upper Primary School Sport Support Aboriginal Identity

    Kickett-Tucker, Cheryl S.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study tested the hypothesis that positive social interactions in sport will contribute positively to the Aboriginal identity of urban, Australian Aboriginal children. Nine male and female children aged 11-12 years were observed and interviewed. Significant responses were extracted and meanings were identified and grouped into…

  5. Memory, Space and Time: Researching Children's Lives

    Moss, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the research approach in "Pathways through Childhood", a small qualitative study drawing on memories of childhood. The research explores how wider social arrangements and social change influence children's everyday lives. The article discusses the way that the concepts of social memory, space and time have been drawn on to…

  6. Screening for rheumatic heart disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Rémond, Marc Gerard Wootton; Wark, Emma Kathleen; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2013-07-01

    Rheumatic heart disease is preventable but causes significant morbidity and mortality in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander populations. Screening echocardiography has the potential to detect early rheumatic heart disease thereby enabling timely commencement of treatment (secondary prophylaxis) to halt disease progression. However, a number of issues prevent echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease satisfying the Australian criteria for acceptable screening programs. Primarily, it is unclear what criteria should be used to define a positive screening result as questions remain regarding the significance, natural history and potential treatment of early and subclinical rheumatic heart disease. Furthermore, at present the delivery of secondary prophylaxis in Australia remains suboptimal such that the potential benefits of screening would be limited. Finally, the impact of echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease on local health services and the psychosocial health of patients and families are yet to be ascertained. PMID:23638751

  7. Healthy active living for children and youth

    2002-01-01

    Poor lifestyle habits, such as unhealthy eating and physical inactivity, are major contributors to increased adult morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Over the past decade there has been an increase in sedentary lifestyle and obesity in children and adolescents, both in North America and worldwide. Physicians need to be aware of the scope of this problem, provide anticipatory guidance to families and promote healthy active living in their practices.

  8. The Structure of Aboriginal Child Welfare in Canada

    Vandna Sinha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal children are currently overrepresented in out-of-home care in Canada; this extends a historical pattern of child removal that began with the residential school system. The overrepresentation of Aboriginal children persists despite legislative and structural changes intended to reduce the number of Aboriginal children in care. Several recent developments suggest potential for improvement in services for Aboriginal children and families in the near future. However, greater information about the structure of Aboriginal child welfare in Canada is needed to support program and policy development. We present a broad overview of the variation in Aboriginal child welfare legislation and standards, service delivery models, and funding formulas across Canadian provinces and territories. We draw on this review to suggest specific priorities for future research.

  9. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  10. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  11. Coming, Ready or Not: Aboriginal Children's Transition to School in Urban Australia and the Policy Push

    Taylor, Anthea Jo

    2011-01-01

    Concern that too many Australian children, particularly Indigenous children, are not ready to start school has spurred a series of changes to the pre-school sector. Included among these changes are nationwide mass surveying and the introduction of a unified curriculum framework together with moves towards standardised entry assessment. Focusing on…

  12. Giardiasis and poor vitamin A status among aboriginal school children in rural Malaysia.

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Surin, Johari; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Ariffin W; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 241 primary schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia to update their vitamin A status and to investigate the association of poor vitamin A status with their health and socioeconomic factors. All children were screened for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood samples were collected and vitamin A status was assessed. Socioeconomic data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires. The results showed that 66 (27.4%) children had low serum retinol level...

  13. Aboriginal Pygmalion in Australia: An Open and Closed Case.

    Davies, B.

    1978-01-01

    Racism in Australian schools is indicated by an attitude survey which reveals that teachers from traditional classrooms believe that Aboriginal students will do less well than White students, whereas teachers from an open school predict that Aboriginal children should do as well as White children, given equal ability. (Author/EB)

  14. Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159656.html Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children Kids ... 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The world's most promising malaria vaccine appears to offer short-lived protection, fading ...

  15. Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159656.html Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children Kids ... 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The world's most promising malaria vaccine appears to offer short-lived protection, fading ...

  16. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  17. Elements in the Sera of Preschool Children Living in Central Taiwan

    CHEN,Chien-Yi; LIN,Ding-Bang; CHEN,Wen-Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed elemental concentrations in the serum of 154 preschool children in central Taiwan via instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA).A total of eight elements,Br,Cl,Fe,Na,Rb,Sc,Se and Zn of sera for Taiwanese preschool children living at four residential areas:Taichung city,Taichung urban townships and in a remote area inhabited by two groups of aborigines,Atayal and Bunun were determined.Standard reference materials(tomato leaves,NIST-SRM 1570a,and lichen,IAEA-336)were used as quality control standards to crosscheck the accuracy.Residential area.socioeconomic status and gender were shown to significantly influence serum levels of the eight trace elements.Statistical analysis revealed several different gender patterns via the two-tailed student's test.A quantified index of agreement(AT)was used to classify these elements.Small AT indicated a close consistency,while large AT indicated a larger fluctuation,or less agreement,such that the correlation between the elements could be interpreted using a series of quantified indices at the serum levels of preschool children.

  18. Placement Decisions and Disparities among Aboriginal Children: Further Analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part A: Comparisons of the 1998 and 2003 Surveys

    Fallon, Barbara; Chabot, Martin; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fluke et al. (2010) analyzed Canadian Incidence Study on Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) data collected in 1998 to explore the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place Aboriginal children in an out-of-home placement at the conclusion of a child maltreatment investigation. This study…

  19. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  20. Young Children's Interest in Live Animals

    LoBue, Vanessa; Bloom Pickard, Megan; Sherman, Kathleen; Axford, Chrystal; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2013-01-01

    Animals are important stimuli for humans, and for children in particular. In three experiments, we explored children's affinity for animals. In Experiment 1, 11- to 40-month-old children were presented with a free-play session in which they were encouraged to interact with several interesting toys and two live animals--a fish and a hamster.…

  1. Cultures and Transitions--Aboriginal Art Now and Then.

    Barrowcliffe, Rosemary; Miller, Olga

    This paper discusses the pre-colonial aboriginal societies that in part established laws, customs, and history through art. The paper cites their artistic mediums and methods and explains that art among the aborigines was used for learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be. The paper describes the role of art…

  2. Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan

    James M. Raymo; Park, Hyunjoon; IWASAWA, MIHO; Zhou, Yanfei

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers’ time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers cor...

  3. Strategies in Aboriginal Adult Education

    Duncan, Alan T.

    1973-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal practices render traditional adult education programs futile. Aboriginal adult education must be concerned with the growth and development of the total personality. Adopted strategies must motivate Aborigines as individuals and as members of the community. (AG)

  4. The lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow

    Chris Myburgh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of daily abuse and hardship on the streets lead to poor mental health in children living on the streets, resulting in them choosing ineffective and self-destructive coping strategies that impact their physical health and overall sense of wellbeing. The facilitation of the mental health of children living on the streets who are subjected to daily threats to their survival is thus crucial.Objectives: The aim of this research was to explore and describe the lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow, Johannesburg.Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample was selected through a temporary shelter in Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa and consisted of 14 male children living on the streets. Data were collected using drawings, in-depth phenomenological interviews and field notes. The central interview opening statement was: ‘Tell me about your life on the street’.Results: The results obtained indicated that children living on the streets are threatened, exploited and exposed to physical, sexual and emotional abuse on a daily basis by the community, the authorities and other street dwellers. This leads to feelings of sadness, fear, anxiety, misery, despair, hopelessness, helplessness and suicide ideation, which in turn lead to drug abuse and criminal activities. In contrast, positive feelings of sympathy for other children living on the streets emerged and these children also displayed perseverance, resilience and a striving for autonomy.Conclusion: Street life exposes children to a variety of experiences, both positive and negative. A striving after autonomy is clearly depicted by these children, who are able to tap into a range of responses, both on- and off-street.

  5. Emotions in the Lives of Children.

    Herbert, Wray

    Several related studies of empathy and altruism in children were conducted to answer such questions as: (1) What are the very early signs of empathy and altruism in children? (2) What kinds of transformations in these behaviors take place during development? and (3) How do rearing experiences influence these behaviors? Data related to these…

  6. Reading Beyond: Children's Lived Spiritual Experiences of Fantasy Literature

    Posey, Catherine Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe four children's lived spiritual experiences of literary texts as generated through their responses to two toy fantasy novels for children, "The Miraculous Journey of Edward Tulane" by Kate DiCamillo (2006) and "The Mouse and his Child" by Russell Hoban (1967). The…

  7. Robots and Rodents: Children's Inferences about Living and Nonliving Kinds

    Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…

  8. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs from Video?

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30-42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social…

  9. Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan.

    Raymo, James M; Park, Hyunjoon; Iwasawa, Miho; Zhou, Yanfei

    2014-08-01

    The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers' time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers coresiding with parents spend less time with children and eat dinner together less frequently than either married mothers or their unmarried counterparts not living with parents, net of (grand)parental support, work hours, income, and stress. The findings suggest that rising divorce rates and associated growth in single-mother families may have a detrimental impact on parents' time with children in Japan and that the relatively high prevalence of intergenerational coresidence among single mothers may do little to temper this impact. PMID:25125704

  10. Reactogenicity to a Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine in Canadian Children

    Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Halperin, Scott A.; Scheifele, David

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reactogenicity and safety of a thermostable, high titre, varicella vaccine in healthy infants and children.DESIGN: Open study of 505 children monitored for 42 days after vaccination.SETTING: Three urban Canadian centres (Halifax, Ottawa and Vancouver).PARTICIPANTS: 505 healthy children one to 12 years of age were enrolled and 504 completed the study. All were susceptible to varicella by history.INTERVENTIONS: All participants received one dose of live attenuated varic...

  11. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs From Video?

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30–42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social interaction. Study 2 tested whether children could learn verbs from video alone. Study 3 clarified whether the benefits of social interaction remained w...

  12. The lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow

    Chris Myburgh; Aneesa Moolla; Marie Poggenpoel

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of daily abuse and hardship on the streets lead to poor mental health in children living on the streets, resulting in them choosing ineffective and self-destructive coping strategies that impact their physical health and overall sense of wellbeing. The facilitation of the mental health of children living on the streets who are subjected to daily threats to their survival is thus crucial.Objectives: The aim of this research was to explore and describe the lived experien...

  13. Evaluating a handwashing with soap program in Australian remote Aboriginal communities: a pre and post intervention study design

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods A survey questionnaire t...

  14. Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS protocol: a cohort study investigating the significance of minor echocardiographic abnormalities in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander children

    Rémond Marc Gerard Wootton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, rheumatic heart disease (RHD is almost exclusively restricted to Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander people with children being at highest risk. International criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of RHD have been developed but the significance of minor heart valve abnormalities which do not reach these criteria remains unclear. The Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS aims to clarify this question in children and adolescents at high risk of RHD. Methods/design RhFFUS is a cohort study of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and adolescents aged 8–17 years residing in 32 remote Australian communities. Cases are people with non-specific heart valve abnormalities detected on prior screening echocardiography. Controls (two per case are age, gender, community and ethnicity-matched to cases and had a prior normal screening echocardiogram. Participants will have echocardiography about 3 years after initial screening echocardiogram and enhanced surveillance for any history suggestive of acute rheumatic fever (ARF. It will then be determined if cases are at higher risk of (1 ARF or (2 developing progressive echocardiography-detected valve changes consistent with RHD. The occurrence and timing of episodes of ARF will be assessed retrospectively for 5 years from the time of the RhFFUS echocardiogram. Episodes of ARF will be identified through regional surveillance and notification databases, carer/subject interviews, primary healthcare history reviews, and hospital separation diagnoses. Progression of valvular abnormalities will be assessed prospectively using transthoracic echocardiography and standardized operating and reporting procedures. Progression of valve lesions will be determined by specialist cardiologist readers who will assess the initial screening and subsequent RhFFUS screening echocardiogram for each participant. The readers will be blinded to the initial assessment and

  15. Traditional Urban Aboriginal Religion

    Kristina Everett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a group of Aboriginal people who claim traditional Aboriginal ownership of a large Australian metropol is. They have struggled for at least the last 25 to 30 years to articulate and represent the ir contemporary group identity to the wider Australian society that very often does not take th eir expressions seriously. This is largely because dominant discourses claim that ‘authentic’ Aboriginal culture only exists in remote, pristine areas far away from western societ y and that urban Aboriginal traditions, especially urban religious traditions are, today, d efunct. This paper is an account of one occasion on which such traditional Aboriginal relig ious practice was performed before the eyes of a group of tourists.

  16. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  17. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    BOUCHER, Alexandre; Guimond. Éric; Robitaille, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Abor...

  18. [Kidney transplant from living donors in children?].

    Ginevri, Fabrizio; Dello Strologo, Luca; Guzzo, Isabella; Belingheri, Mirco; Ghio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    A living-donor kidney transplant offers a child at the terminal stages of renal disease better functional recovery and quality of life than an organ from a deceased donor. Before starting the procedure for a living-donor transplant, however, it is necessary to establish if it is really safe. There are diseases, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, atypical HUS and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with dense deposits, for which living donation is not recommended given the high incidence of recurrence of the disease but also the frequent loss of the graft. Regarding the selection of the donor, an increased risk of acute rejection has been reported for donors older than 60-65 years and a worsening of the renal outcome if the donor's weight is equal to or less than the recipient's. Finally, it is necessary to take into consideration that complications may arise in the donor both in the perioperative period and in the long term. In conclusion, kidney transplant from a living donor is a natural choice within the pediatric setting. The parents, usually young and highly motivated to donate, are the ideal donors. However, although the risks associated with donation are minimal, they are not totally absent, and consequently it is mandatory to follow standardized procedures according to the guidelines issued by the Centro Nazionale Trapianti. PMID:21341241

  19. The Living Arrangements of Children of Immigrants

    Landale, Nancy S.; Thomas, Kevin J. A.; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children of immigrants are a rapidly growing part of the U.S. child population. Their health, development, educational attainment, and social and economic integration into the nation's life will play a defining role in the nation's future. Nancy Landale, Kevin Thomas, and Jennifer Van Hook explore the challenges facing immigrant families as they…

  20. Consulting Whom? Lessons from the Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy

    Mai T. Nguyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted here looks at the current Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS in Toronto. The purpose of this Strategy is to provide long-term investments to support Aboriginal communities in urban settings by focusing on three priority areas: improving life skills; promoting job training, skills, and entrepreneurship; and supporting Aboriginal women, children, and families. This article seeks to answer the following question: Does the UAS provide Aboriginal participants with the ability to effectively participant in the consultation process? It argues that the UAS process of consulting with the urban Aboriginal community does not allow for the effective participation of Aboriginal peoples because of problematics related to consulting in an urban setting and despite the language of partnership, the federal government still reserves the right to make final decisions. These problems diminish the ability to build renewed Aboriginal-State relations based on mutual respect and trust, which has been absent within the Aboriginal-State apparatus and resulted in the political exclusion of Aboriginals in Canada. Though consultation can be a vehicle for empowering participants with decision-making authority, this is not the case in Toronto. The lack of a common vision, political buy-in, and the aura of secrecy leads to a political relationship built on mistrust. Mistrust between members and government renders the consultation process ineffective. This article combines the literature on public consultations with official government documents to identify critical components that must be evident for consultations to be fruitful and participation effective. These criteria are the benchmarks upon which to measure effectiveness. Based on interviews with the Steering Committee, this article finds that the UAS process of consulting with the Toronto Aboriginal community does not enable Aboriginal participants to effectively participate in the democratic process.

  1. Tooth use in Aboriginal Australia

    Anna Clement

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of dental casts taken from living people avoids the ethical problems of research into human remains, while providing valuable information about diet and life styles. This article describes a study of tooth wear in dental casts of three different groups of Australian Aborigines. The authors describe their methods of recording and report differential patterns of wear in the different groups. Preliminary interpretation relates the wear patterns both to diet and to the use of teeth as tools in a range of cultural activities, results which are potentially relevant to other groups of hunter-gatherers, past and present.

  2. Aboriginal Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

    Melissa Tremblay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining an understanding of how best to support the development of Aboriginal children is important in promoting positive social, emotional, educational, and health outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the most important elements of healthy development for Aboriginal children, with a particular focus on social-emotional development. Focus groups were conducted with 37 Aboriginal Canadians, including parents, service providers, adolescents, and young adults. Five inter-connected themes emerged: cultural wellness, emotional wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, and strong identity, with strong identity described as central and foundational to the other themes. This study strengthens the assertion that Aboriginal children require an additional set of social-emotional skills to successfully navigate different cultural contexts during development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  3. Why are children living in poverty getting fatter?

    Pagani, Linda S.,; Huot, Céline

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a dramatic increase in unhealthy weight for both children and adults. The Canadian standard of living has changed in favour of more easily prepared, calorie-dense foods and sedentary practices. Many family characteristics have also changed over the past 50 years. More Canadian families are living in disadvantaged situations, forecasting a host of unhealthy behaviours and attitudes in adults. The poor are not only getting poorer, they are also becoming heavier...

  4. Aboriginal Review 2003/2004

    This report presents information on Syncrude's efforts and achievements in working with Aboriginal communities and leaders in Alberta since 2002 through its Aboriginal Development Program. The report discusses the six key commitment areas of the Program. First, the report provides an overview of Syncrude's achievements in the area of corporate leadership including participation in the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Industry Advisory Committee; recognition by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business as a leader in Aboriginal relations through the Aboriginal Relations program; supporting the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation; championing the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Council of Canada; membership of the Alberta Chamber of Resources Aboriginal Programs Project; Conference Board of Canada's Council on Corporate Aboriginal Relations; and, chairing the Mining Association of Canada. The report discusses business development of Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business owners including Syncrude's employment targets for Aboriginal employment in the Syncrude workforce. It discusses community development in Aboriginal communities such as long distance learning; the Fort Chipewyan day care centre; the Chipewyan Prairie Dene First Nation Multi-Purpose Community Centre in Janvier; and, an elder care facility in Fort McKay First Nation community. It discusses education and training including the Alberta Aboriginal Apprenticeship Project; Syncrude Aboriginal/Women Education Awards Program; University of Alberta Aboriginal Careers Initiative; and, the Aboriginal Financial Management Internship. The report also discusses Syncrude's consultations with Aboriginal communities on environmental issues such as end-land use, air quality and how further expansion can occur without long-term impacts on traditional land uses. The report also contains questions and answers with Aboriginal leaders to discuss the impact of oil sands development. figs

  5. Emplotting children's lives: developmental delay vs. disability.

    Landsman, Gail

    2003-05-01

    While it is increasingly possible to envision "perfect" babies, it is not always the case that reproduction actually proceeds according to individual will; for example, there has been no recent reduction in rates of childhood disability. Nevertheless, in most studies of new reproductive technologies, the birth of those children whom few would actively choose-"defective" or disabled infants-is presented only in hypothetical terms. This paper argues for expanding the domain of reproduction to include research on the parenting of children with disabilities. Based on a qualitative research project carried out at a hospital-based newborn follow-up program that serves as an evaluation site determining eligibility for early intervention services for infants and young children with disabilities, this paper focuses on a particular part of women's experience of acquiring new knowledge about personhood and disability, that is, on the period of time when a woman has recently had confirmed that reproduction has, in her case, gone awry. Disability in many cultures, including the United States, diminishes personhood. I suggest that American mothers' narratives, by utilizing the concept of developmental delay, can assert personhood, or rather, the potential for its future attainment; in doing so, they justify ongoing nurturance of a disabled child in spite of negative attitudes about disability. A particular case of one mother's emplotment of her child's life within a story of developmental delay, in competition with the physician's story of disability, is analyzed. The paper concludes with reflections on how stories of developmental delay told by mothers just encountering a diagnosis of disability may differ from the stories told by those who have experienced mothering a disabled child over time, and on the implications of these differences for the cultural construction of personhood in the United States. PMID:12650731

  6. The determinants of fertility among Australian Aborigines.

    Cowlishaw, G

    1981-06-01

    This paper concerns the determinants of fertility of precontact Australian Aborigine women. Emphasis is placed on social organization as well as the physical environment and considerations of adaptation. The key to understanding the fertility of Australian Aborigines is the structural tension evident in male-female relations. Ethnographic data on hunter-gatherers fertility indicate a low fertility rate, e.g. 4.7-5.2 live births/woman for the Kung. Traditional Aboriginal physiological fertility was also low if infant mortality is separated from infertility. Past studies of population and transition theory in pre-contact situations have attributed increase in population to reduction in mortality. This paper suggests that there must have been an increase in the birth rate. Factors affecting ovulation, conception, and parturition are examined for traditional Aboriginal populations. Ovulation is affected by nutrition, lactation, and introcision. Lack of body fat in women causes anovulation due to insufficent energy reserves. Increased fertility appears to be a greatly reduced energy expenditure and an increased carbohydrate intake leading to a build up of body weight. Pre-contact Aboriginal fertility was low because of a low caloric intake and a high energy expenditure. Prolonged lactation does not seem to cause birth spacing. The actual length of time after parturition appears to be an independent cause of reduced prolactin, and of reestablishment of ovulation. Stress and anxiety are factors which could reduce fertility by causing anovulation in women and/or reduced sperm counts in men. Contraception is affected by coital frequency and male fertility. Aboriginal coital frequency may have been affected by the lack of privacy and competition of a co-wife. Gestation is affected by spontaneous abortion, sterility, and foetal wastage. Harsh conditions of traditional Aborigines may have affected their ability to conceive. Voluntary controls on fertility for Aborigines

  7. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  8. Using Mobile Phone Diaries to Explore Children's Everyday Lives

    Plowman, Lydia; Stevenson, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach to experience sampling as a response to the challenges of researching the everyday lives of young children at home. Parents from 11 families used mobile phones to send the research team combined picture and text messages to provide "experience snapshots" of their child's activities six times on each of three…

  9. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  10. Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families. PMID:25053144

  11. Aboriginal review 1997

    The relationship between Syncrude Canada Ltd., and the aboriginal people of Northeast Alberta was discussed. In 1970, Syncrude began development of its oil sands mega-project in the Fort McMurray region. Since then, the company has worked in partnership with the aboriginal communities to maximize their productive participation in the oil sands. Syncrude has provided opportunities in employment, education, and business and community development. Their goals for aboriginal employment are: (1) to attain 10 per cent aboriginal employees in the Company's direct workforce, and (2) to attain 13 per cent aboriginal employees in the overall workforce, including contractors. Currently, Syncrude Canada employs 315 aboriginal people in various career positions. The Company is also committed to the protection of the environment. As proof of this commitment, when a mine site is reclaimed, the Company does all that is required to ensure that the land can support both industry and traditional land uses such as hunting, fishing and trapping. Syncrude also works on air quality issues dealing with odors and sulfur dioxide emissions as shown by a two million dollar company-sponsored program to examine local air quality and its effect on people and their health. figs

  12. LIVED DIALOGUE BETWEEN NURSE AND MOTHERS OF CHILDREN WITH CANCER

    Nailze Figueiredo Souza de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The progressive increase of cases of children with cancer in Brazil has stimulated many health professionals to develop researches which contribute to a better quality of health assistance to this clientele and their families. This study consists of a qualitative design of field research which aim to understand the lived dialogue between nurse and mothers of children with cancer grounded in Paterson and Zderad’s Humanistic Nursing Theory. The study participants were six mothers who accompanied their children with cancer in the hospital pediatric unit. The lived dialogue was developed based on the phases of Phenomenological Nursing (Preparing the nurse knows; Nurse knowing of the other intuitively. In this phase, the data emerged from the meeting between nurse and mothers using the technique of interview and were recorded in the field diary. The other phases served as a basis to data analysis, which constituted in the moments of the relation I-This: Nurse knows the other scientifically; Nurse complementarily synthesizing known others and Sucession within the nurse from the multiple to the paradoxical one. From data analysis emerged the following categories: Mothers front of the diagnosis discovering; Mothers front of the child treatment; Mothers front of the adaptation to the hospital environment; Mothers information needing; Mothers with problems in the family context; Mothers with physical and emotional health affected; Mothers searching ways of coping; Mothers living happiness moments. The dialogue intuitive and scientifically lived made it possible for the mothers to receive care which would promote their well-being and more-well--being in that lived situation with their children. It was, then, made possible the reflection, conceptualization and description of a phenomenon which revealed the nurse being-with and doing-with in a humanistic relation with mothers of children with cancer. KEY WORDS: Nursing Care; Oncologic Nursing

  13. Children's Everyday Lives Shadowed by Stalking: Post separation Stalking Narratives of Finnish Children and Women.

    Nikupeteri, Anna; Laitinen, Merja

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study discusses post separation stalking and its implications in children's everyday lives. Based on narratives of 13 Finnish children and 20 women, the research fills a gap in the knowledge regarding the psychosocial, emotional, and physical impacts of stalking on children when their mothers are stalked by a former partner. It identifies four forms of impact: (a) an atmosphere of fear and feelings of insecurity; (b) disguised acts of stalking and the father's performance of care, love, and longing; (c) exploitation of children in stalking; and (d) physical abuse, acts of violence, and threats of death. The findings indicate that stalking severely constrains children's everyday lives and strengthens, yet often distorts, the mother-child bond. The study concludes that in cases where mothers are stalked, professionals in the social and health services, law enforcement, and criminal justice should view the children, too, as victims and construct supportive social relationships for women and children facing threatening life situations. PMID:26299800

  14. How Do Young Children Deal with Hybrids of Living and Non-Living Things: The Case of Humanoid Robots

    Saylor, Megan M.; Somanader, Mark; Levin, Daniel T.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, we tested children's intuitions about entities that bridge the contrast between living and non-living things. Three- and four-year-olds were asked to attribute a range of properties associated with living things and machines to novel category-defying complex artifacts (humanoid robots), a familiar living thing (a girl), and a…

  15. A Place for Children? Children in Families Living in Emergency Accommodation: The Perspectives of Children, Parents and Professionals

    Halpenny, Ann Marie; Keogh, Anna Fiona; Gilligan, Robbie

    2002-01-01

    Homelessness affects the lives of an increasing number of children in Dublin. Research by Focus Ireland indicated that 1,262 children were living with their parent(s) in Bed and Breakfast (B&B) emergency accommodation in 1999 (Houghton & Hickey, 2000). More recent figures from the Northern Area Health Board (NAHB) Homeless Service show that 20% of first time referrals to emergency accommodation in the past year were families with 827 children. Much of the available information on these child...

  16. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994-1996

    Jennifer Shield

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods: Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%; hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%; Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni (25%; S. stercoralis (19%; Rodentolepis nana (16%; and Giardia duodenalis (10%. Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87 than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41, while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91. Discussion: Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species.

  17. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994–1996

    Aland, Kieran; Kearns, Thérèse; Gongdjalk, Glenda; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Prociv, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%); hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%); Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni) (25%); S. stercoralis (19%); Rodentolepis nana (16%); and Giardia duodenalis (10%). Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87) than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41), while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91). Discussion Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species. PMID:25960921

  18. Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship

    McBride, John Edward

    2004-01-01

    Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

  19. Is aboriginal food less allergenic? Comparing IgE-reactivity of eggs from modern and ancient chicken breeds in a cohort of allergic children.

    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. METHODOLOGY: Egg allergic children (n = 25 were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1-5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3-5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family.

  20. Living Arrangements of Ever-Married Older Lebanese Women: Is Living with Married Children Advantageous?

    Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Tohme, Rania A.

    2016-01-01

    In many Middle Eastern countries including Lebanon, the family as a social institution is greatly valued and local norms regarding family ties and living arrangements are especially important for older adults, in particular older women. While the presence of an adult child is often seen as responsive to the financial, health and social needs of older parents, it is not clear whether co-residence with married children offers a similar advantage as in the case of co-residence with unmarried children. Using data from a national Population and Housing Survey, this study examines associations of co-residence with adult children among ever-married women aged 65 years and older in Lebanon. Results showed a considerable proportion of elderly women who were living alone (18%) at the time of the survey. Co-residence was more frequent with unmarried than married children, but the gender ratio of the co-residing child varied with the marital status of both the older woman and the child. Moreover, among those co-residing with married children, results indicate a greater likelihood of co-residence with married sons over married daughters. Co-residence with an adult child associated positively with the availability of surviving children and negatively with the socioeconomic status of the woman and her spouse. Compared to other living arrangements, co-residence with a married child entailed the least advantageous Household Socioeconomic Status (HSES) score in terms of housing characteristics, infrastructure, and material possessions, for both married and unmarried women. PMID:18283537

  1. Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

  2. Mercury Exposure in Young Children Living in New York City

    Rogers, Helen S.; Jeffery, Nancy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Fritz, Pat; Spliethoff, Henry; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Kass, Daniel E.; Caldwell, Kathy; Eadon, George; Rubin, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Residential exposure to vapor from current or previous cultural use of mercury could harm children living in rental (apartment) homes. That concern prompted the following agencies to conduct a study to assess pediatric mercury exposure in New York City communities by measuring urine mercury levels: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene’s (NYCDOHMH) Bureau of Environmental Surveillance and Policy, New York State Department of Health/Center for Environmental Health (NYSDOHCEH), ...

  3. Forensic pediatric radiology: studies in living and deceased children

    Hoogendoorn, T.

    2014-01-01

    Radiology is an important tool in establishing the diagnosis of physical abuse, as one can objectively depict fractures or internal injuries. In this thesis we have tried to provide some insight into the possibilities and impossibilities of (forensic) pediatric radiology in establishing a diagnosis of physical child abuse, in both living (part 1) and deceased (part 2) children. In the first part we have given an overview of imaging techniques in child abuse, risk factors for and radiological ...

  4. Why are children living in poverty getting fatter?

    Pagani, Linda S; Huot, Céline

    2007-10-01

    In recent decades, there has been a dramatic increase in unhealthy weight for both children and adults. The Canadian standard of living has changed in favour of more easily prepared, calorie-dense foods and sedentary practices. Many family characteristics have also changed over the past 50 years. More Canadian families are living in disadvantaged situations, forecasting a host of unhealthy behaviours and attitudes in adults. The poor are not only getting poorer, they are also becoming heavier. Children from disadvantaged families seem to be leading the trend in increasing prevalence of unhealthy weight. Because they live in neighbourhoods that are perceived as unsafe, these children are likely spending more time indoors. This is associated with watching more television, which not only displaces other forms of educational and active entertainment but also places them at risk of learning inaccurate information about proper eating. Social science research helps identify factors contributing most to the rise in excess weight within this population, thus providing essential clues for effective approaches to its eradication. PMID:19030449

  5. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  6. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  7. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  8. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001-2009.

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  9. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  10. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266

  11. A review of life expectancy and infant mortality estimations for Australian Aboriginal people

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant variation exists in published Aboriginal mortality and life expectancy (LE) estimates due to differing and evolving methodologies required to correct for inadequate recording of Aboriginality in death data, under-counting of Aboriginal people in population censuses, and unexplained growth in the Aboriginal population attributed to changes in the propensity of individuals to identify as Aboriginal at population censuses. The objective of this paper is to analyse variation in reported Australian Aboriginal mortality in terms of LE and infant mortality rates (IMR), compared with all Australians. Methods Published data for Aboriginal LE and IMR were obtained and analysed for data quality and method of estimation. Trends in reported LE and IMR estimates were assessed and compared with those in the entire Australian population. Results LE estimates derived from different methodologies vary by as much as 7.2 years for the same comparison period. Indirect methods for estimating Aboriginal LE have produced LE estimates sensitive to small changes in underlying assumptions, some of which are subject to circular reasoning. Most indirect methods appear to under-estimate Aboriginal LE. Estimated LE gaps between Aboriginal people and the overall Australian population have varied between 11 and 20 years. Latest mortality estimates, based on linking census and death data, are likely to over-estimate Aboriginal LE. Temporal LE changes by each methodology indicate that Aboriginal LE has improved at rates similar to the Australian population overall. Consequently the gap in LE between Aboriginal people and the total Australian population appears to be unchanged since the early 1980s, and at the end of the first decade of the 21st century remains at least 11–12 years. In contrast, focussing on the 1990–2010 period Aboriginal IMR declined steeply over 2001–08, from more than 12 to around 8 deaths per 1,000 live births, the same level as Australia overall in

  12. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  13. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  14. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  15. Living arrangements of older adults in Lebanon: correlates of living with married children.

    Shideed, O; Sibai, A; Tohme, R

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in the proportion of older adults in the population present major challenges to policy-makers worldwide. Using a nationally representative sample from the PAPFAM survey in Lebanon, this study examined the living arrangements of older adults (aged > or = 65 years), and their correlates, with a focus on co-residence with married children. Of 1774 older adults 17.1% co-resided with their married children: 28.1% of the 559 unmarried (widowed/divorced/single) and 11.3% of the 1071 married older adults. Among both the married and unmarried, the likelihood of co-residence was significantly lower in regions outside the capital and decreased with increasing socioeconomic status. Among the unmarried elderly, co-residence with a married child was also significantly associated with increasing age and availability of sons, as well as presence of a vascular disorder and speech problems. While solitary living has traditionally been the focus for policy-makers, older people living with a married child may also be a vulnerable group. PMID:24684101

  16. Aboriginal Family Education Centres

    Grey, A.

    1970-01-01

    The Department of Adult Education of the University of Sydney (Australia) has been conducting an action-research project in family education for the Aborigines. The staff is to be available on request to visit communities, listen to expressed needs, and find ways of translating professional knowledge into media that can be understood. Gradually,…

  17. How Does Homework "Work" for Young Children? Children's Accounts of Homework in Their Everyday Lives

    Farrell, Ann; Danby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Homework is an increasing yet under-researched part of young children's everyday lives. Framed by the international agendas of starting strong and school accountability, homework in the lives of young children has been either overlooked or considered from the perspective of adults rather than from the perspective of children themselves. This…

  18. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    Boucher, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevailsover the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive”identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations ofexogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada wouldbe significantly smaller.RésuméCet article examine en quoi la mobilité ethnique intergénérationnelle contribueà la reproduction démographique des groupes autochtones du Canada; c'est-àdire: Les Amérindiens, les Métis et les Inuits. Pour ce faire, l’article tented’examiner si les enfants de familles de recensement époux et épouse gardentl'identité de leurs parents. Tel que prévu, les enfants issus de couples endogènesont tendance à garder l'identité de leurs parents. Cependant, pour la plupart desenfants issus de couples exogènes se composant d’une personne autochtone etd’une personne non-autochtone, l’identité autochtone l’emporte sur l’identiténon-autochtone. Si l'identité autochtone n'était pas une identité qui semble"attrayante" au moment de la déclaration de l’affiliation ethnique des enfantsdans le cas d’unions exogènes, la population autochtones du Canada serait bienmoindre.

  19. Aboriginal secondary education: Non completion and returns

    Donders, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    I use 2001 Canadian Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) Census data to assess two dimensions of Aboriginal educational attainment: (1) what proportion of Aboriginals fail to complete high school; and (2) what is the return to different levels of education for Aboriginals. I find that Aboriginals, for certain age groups, are two times more likely than non Aboriginals to leave high school before completion. Further, I find that in terms of high school completion within the Aboriginal population, ...

  20. High Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Non-Vaccine Serotypes in Western Australian Aboriginal People Following 10 Years of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination

    Bowman, Jacinta; Jones, Jade; Stemberger, Natalie A.; Richmond, Peter C.; Leach, Amanda J.; Lehmann, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA) since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. Methods We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried pneumococci. A large proportion of circulating serotypes are not covered by any currently licensed vaccine. PMID:24349245

  1. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  2. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

    2012-01-01

    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school plac...

  3. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  4. A case study of physical and social barriers to hygiene and child growth in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Grace Jocelyn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Australia's wealth, poor growth is common among Aboriginal children living in remote communities. An important underlying factor for poor growth is the unhygienic state of the living environment in these communities. This study explores the physical and social barriers to achieving safe levels of hygiene for these children. Methods A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach included a community level cross-sectional housing infrastructure survey, focus groups, case studies and key informant interviews in one community. Results We found that a combination of crowding, non-functioning essential housing infrastructure and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children in this remote community. Conclusion There is a need to address policy and the management of infrastructure, as well as key parenting and childcare practices that allow the high burden of infection among children to persist. The common characteristics of many remote Aboriginal communities in Australia suggest that these findings may be more widely applicable.

  5. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  6. Identification of risk factors for obesity in children and adolescents living in Tashkent city

    Rakhimov Bakhodir

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the identification of risk factors for obesity in children and adolescents living in Tashkent city in order to form the following prophylactic measures to prevent obesity in children and adolescents at an early age.

  7. Aboriginal Knowledge Infusion in Initial Teacher Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto

    Angela Mashford-Pringle; Angela G. Nardozi

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the Aboriginal socio-political history in Canada has historically been excluded from public education. In Ontario, public school children learn about Aboriginal people at specific times in the curriculum. However, teachers frequently only teach the bare essentials about Aboriginal people in Canada because they do not have adequate knowledge or feel that they lack the ability to teach about this subject. The Ontario Institute of Studies in Education at the University of Toronto ha...

  8. Corporate social responsibility and aboriginal relations

    All of Canada's uranium mining activity occurs in the northern half of the province of Saskatchewan in western Canada. This region has a total population of 38 000 people living in many small communities scattered over 250 000 square kilometres. Demographically, the north's population is 75% aboriginal representing the Woodland Cree, Dene, and Metis Nations. The majority of the aboriginal population of northern Saskatchewan are treaty Indians (First Nations). The dominant first nations group in the north is The Lac La Ronge Indian Band, also Saskatchewan's largest Woodland Cree First Nation. Despite the fact that the Lac La Ronge Band and other First Nations of the region do not have surface or mineral rights, other than those on their reserve lands, they have significant influence in the development process. The extraction of the mineral resources of Canada are now undertaken with very considerable input from first nations groups and with sensitivity to their treaty rights and aboriginal traditional rights. Treaty rights in Canada include, among other things, hunting and fishing, access to post secondary education and special taxation considerations. This presentation will introduce participants to a unique perspective on northern Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry. This perspective will be provided by Harry Cook, Chief of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.In his presentation, Chief Cook will provide a first nation's perspective on industrial development generally and uranium development specifically. He will begin by outlining the challenges facing aboriginal people in Canada and will provide an insightful view of the historical conflict between industrial developers and first nations people. He will describe the aspirations of his people and the importance they place on preservation of the natural environment. He will also speak to the critical need now emerging for aboriginal people to seek a balance between retaining traditional culture and participating in the

  9. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  10. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  11. Aboriginal Literacy and Power: An Historical Case Study.

    Christie, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The struggle of Aborigines in Australia in the 1870s highlights the importance of literacy in cross-cultural relations and argues that literacy enables individuals and groups to retain greater control of their lives and respond more effectively when that control is threatened. (Author/SK)

  12. “There’s a housing crisis going on in Sydney for Aboriginal people”: focus group accounts of housing and perceived associations with health

    Andersen, Melanie J.; Williamson, Anna B.; Fernando, Peter; Redman, Sally; Vincent, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor housing is widely cited as an important determinant of the poor health status of Aboriginal Australians, as for indigenous peoples in other wealthy nations with histories of colonisation such as Canada, the United States of America and New Zealand. While the majority of Aboriginal Australians live in urban areas, most research into housing and its relationship with health has been conducted with those living in remote communities. This study explores the views of Aboriginal pe...

  13. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  14. What Do They Do at Home? The Literacies of Children Living in Residential Care in Malaysia

    Tan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic study of the out of school literacy practices of children living in residential care in Malaysia. Although residential homes generate much publicity, especially during the festive seasons, not much is known about the children living within the confines of these homes. Even more lacking is research on their…

  15. Sensitization pattern of inhalant allergens in children with asthma who are living different altitudes in Turkey

    Ozkaya, Emin; Sogut, Ayhan; Küçükkoç, Mehmet; Eres, Mustafa; Acemoglu, Hamit; Yuksel, Hasan; Murat, Naci

    2015-11-01

    Variability in children's allergic sensitization has been detected not only among different countries but also among cities within the same nation but yet different climatic areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization pattern of asthmatic children who lived in different altitude areas: the two largest Turkish cities, Istanbul (sea level) and Erzurum (high altitude). Five hundred and twelve asthmatic children (6-15 years old) from Istanbul (western Turkey, at sea level) and 609 from Erzurum (eastern Turkey, at an altitude of 1800 m) were included in the study. All participants underwent skin testing with common inhalant allergens, spirometry, total IgE level, and clinical examination. The positive sensitization ratio to aeroallergens in children with asthma living at sea level was statistically higher than that in children living in the high altitude group [ p = 0.001, OR (odds ratio) 4.9 (confidence interval (CI) 3.67-6.459)]. However, pollen sensitization in asthmatic children living in high altitudes was significantly higher than that in children living at sea level [ p = 0.00, OR 2.6 (CI 1.79-3.87)]. Children with asthma who live at high altitudes are characterized by higher pollen but lower mite sensitization rates than those living at sea level in Turkey. Different climatic conditions and altitudes may affect aeroallergen sensitization in children with asthma.

  16. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    AIMS: The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. METHODS: 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark...... collected urine samples Monday to Friday morning. Each day, the family filled in a printed diary that included questions about the time and activity patterns of the child. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of the excreted 1-hydroxypyrene level. RESULTS: During the week, the...

  17. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  18. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  19. Bullying and Violence Issues in Children's Lives: Examining the Issues and Solutions

    Harlin, Rebecca P.

    2008-01-01

    Today's children may be exposed to violence in their environment, through the media, at home, and in school. Some children live in countries at war, while others survive in neighborhoods where street gangs prevail. Most parents and children used to assume they could depend upon schools to be safe places, free from abuse and violence. Now it seems…

  20. The Living Arrangements of Children in Immigrant Families in the United States.

    Brandon, Peter David

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and a multivariate approach, compared living arrangements of immigrant children to those of U.S.-born white children with U.S.-born parents. Findings show the "downward assimilation" among some second- and third-generation immigrant children fits a theory of segmented assimilation. Discusses…

  1. Increasing the Percentage of Children Living in Two-Parent Families. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Married couples with children, on average, have a higher standard of living and greater economic security than one-parent families (Thomas & Sawhill, 2005). Parents raising children together tend to have more money, more flexibility and more time to supervise their children, offer emotional support, take an active part in their education, and…

  2. The School Readiness of Children Living in a Disadvantaged Area in Ireland

    Kiernan, Gemma; Axford, Nick; Little, Michael; Murphy, Cliona; Greene, Sheila; Gormley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the multiple factors that contribute to the school readiness and early school progress of children living in an urban disadvantaged area. Structured interviews were undertaken with parents of children who had recently started school to elicit information about those aspects of children's health, and their home and neighbourhood…

  3. Adjusting for under-identification of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births in time series produced from birth records: Using record linkage of survey data and administrative data sources

    Lawrence David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical time series derived from administrative data sets form key indicators in measuring progress in addressing disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. However, inconsistencies in the reporting of Indigenous status can cause difficulties in producing reliable indicators. External data sources, such as survey data, provide a means of assessing the consistency of administrative data and may be used to adjust statistics based on administrative data sources. Methods We used record linkage between a large-scale survey (the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey, and two administrative data sources (the Western Australia (WA Register of Births and the WA Midwives’ Notification System to compare the degree of consistency in determining Indigenous status of children between the two sources. We then used a logistic regression model predicting probability of consistency between the two sources to estimate the probability of each record on the two administrative data sources being identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in a survey. By summing these probabilities we produced model-adjusted time series of neonatal outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. Results Compared to survey data, information based only on the two administrative data sources identified substantially fewer Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. However, these births were not randomly distributed. Births of children identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in the survey only were more likely to be living in urban areas, in less disadvantaged areas, and to have only one parent who identifies as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, particularly the father. They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing outcomes. Applying an adjustment model based on the linked survey data increased

  4. Surface rights on Aboriginal lands

    Several issues regarding access and activity by petroleum industry on Aboriginal and Metis lands are discussed. Some alternative means by which both industry and Aboriginal groups can approach the matter of surface rights are presented. A historical account of how surface rights have been interpreted in the past was given. It was emphasized that the approach to surface rights compensation and negotiation for both aboriginal and industry parties must begin with adequate consultation. Rigid adherence to the usual past practice of geologically identifying locations, surveying and requesting a lease will no longer suffice. The aboriginal community must be consulted with as much lead time as possible, even assisted financially to identify traditional use areas that require protection, or cannot be disturbed, or require particular mitigation measures. Once this has been done, the operator can proceed to outline the scope of his project, detailing the timing, location, business and employment opportunities and other economic opportunities to the community. 21 refs

  5. The Possible Impact of Teachers and School Nurses on the Lives of Children Living with Sickle Cell Disease

    Knight-Madden, Jennifer M.; Lewis, Norma; Tyson, Esther; Reid, Marvin E.; MooSang, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that for people living with a chronic disease, the largest impact on preserved health may come from persons other than medical professionals. This may be especially true for children for whom the actions of parents and school professionals have significant importance. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one such disease. Although…

  6. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): a long-term platform for closing the gap.

    Wright, Darryl; Gordon, Raylene; Carr, Darren; Craig, Jonathan C; Banks, Emily; Muthayya, Sumithra; Wutzke, Sonia; Eades, Sandra J; Redman, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The full potential for research to improve Aboriginal health has not yet been realised. This paper describes an established long-term action partnership between Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs), the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AH&MRC), researchers and the Sax Institute, which is committed to using high-quality data to bring about health improvements through better services, policies and programs. The ACCHSs, in particular, have ensured that the driving purpose of the research conducted is to stimulate action to improve health for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This partnership established a cohort study of 1600 urban Aboriginal children and their caregivers, known as SEARCH (the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health), which is now having significant impacts on health, services and programs for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper describes some examples of the impacts of SEARCH, and reflects on the ways of working that have enabled these changes to occur, such as strong governance, a focus on improved health, AH&MRC and ACCHS leadership, and strategies to support the ACCHS use of data and to build Aboriginal capacity. PMID:27421347

  7. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    David N Durrheim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  8. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    The paper describes how the Syncrude relationship with Aboriginal communities in the region came about, and how Syncrude maintains that relationship and share in the community at its oil sands operation in Alberta, Canada. Syncrude is a world leader in oil sands development and in promoting the quality of the working life and employment of native peoples. The remainder of the presentation is devoted to that particular achievement. The partnerships Syncrude has built are based on mutual respect, a sustainable capability, a professional relationship, support of community, and self-reliance. Syncrude recognized very early on that Aboriginal people would have a major interest in the company's future and sought to integrate the company's program into operations as a normal way of doing business. Today, Aboriginal people play a vital role in the oil sands industry, working at a variety of skilled occupations. The education component of Syncrude's program is designed to equip Aboriginal people with the training they need to claim their fair share of the employment pie at Syncrude. Contractors servicing Syncrude are about one-fifth Aboriginal-owned and run operations and they are in turn encouraged to hire Aboriginal employees. There are three direct elements of the program: employment, education and business development, but partnerships go beyond just that: they extend to the community such that Syncrude is dedicated to working with local people, when requested, to help them define and meet their needs and to achieve self-reliance

  9. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills

  10. Children orphaned by AIDS who live in orphanages in Uganda : What enables them to Thrive?

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out what enables children orphaned by AIDS who live in orphanages to thrive. In Africa, many orphaned children are looked after by relatives in their extended families. Currently, these traditional safety nets have been weakened by the increasing number of orphaned children mainly caused by AIDS and related diseases. Other factors like poverty and unemployment have also contributed to relatives' inability to continuously care for extra children. This has resulted i...

  11. Occurrence and genotype of Giardia cysts isolated from faecal samples of children and dogs and from drinking water samples in an aboriginal area of central Taiwan.

    Liang, Chao-hua; Tsaihong, John Chin; Cheng, Ya-yin; Peng, Shih-yi

    2012-06-01

    To investigate some aspects of Giardia infection, we performed a cross-sectional study on schoolchildren from an aboriginal area of Nantou County in central Taiwan. Faecal samples from 209 participants and samples of dog faeces and of water from mountain springs found in the area were collected. The participants also filled a questionnaire pertaining to demographic data. Giardia duodenalis was detected in eight of the 209 participants, and all positive isolates belonged to assemblage A. In addition, assemblage A isolates were obtained from four of the 22 water samples, and assemblage C or D isolates were obtained from four of the 42 canine faecal samples. Our results suggest that the risk of Giardia transmission is greater from waterborne than canine transmission in this study area. PMID:22542987

  12. A framework for understanding culture and its relationship to information behaviour: Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour

    Nei-Ching Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. This article proposes a model of culture and its relationship to information behaviour based on two empirical studies of Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour. Method. The research approach is ethnographic and the material was collected through observations, conversations, questionnaires, interviews and relevant documents. In 2003-2004, the author lived with two Taiwan aboriginal tribes, the Yami tribe and the Tsau tribe and conducted forty-two theme-based interviews. An...

  13. Mapping Students' Lives: Children's Geographies, Teaching and Learning

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2009-01-01

    The relatively new field of children's geographies builds on the theoretical foundations of human geography, critical geography, and spatial theories to examine the places and spaces children inhabit and create. This article reviews four major themes in children's geographies relevant to education: exclusion and agency, the social construction of…

  14. Maternal health, breast-feeding and infant nutrition in Australian aborigines.

    Gracey, M

    1989-08-01

    Undernutrition is widespread in Australian Aboriginal infants and children and is associated with high rates of infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Maternal ill-health and undernutrition seem to be neglected factors which contribute to the high incidence of low birthweight in Aboriginal babies and to their poor growth in the first five years of life. More effective preventive programmes are needed to help overcome these problems. PMID:2514558

  15. How can aboriginal boys be helped to do better in school?

    Campbell, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses obstacles to aboriginal attainment in the BC K- 12 system. Among the causes of the relatively poor performance of aboriginal children are several which would be addressed by the development of magnet schools specialising in a culturally-resonant ethos, curriculum, instructional techniques, and institutional structure. Though such schools I-isk intensifying negative peer externalities which are found to help explain underachievement, they promise to be effective on balance....

  16. Children of the "Sug": A Study of the Daily Lives of Street Children in Khartoum, Sudan, with Intervention Recommendations

    Kudrati, Mustafa; Plummer, Mary L.; Yousif, Nassrin Dafaalla El Hag

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study examines street children's daily lives in Khartoum, Sudan to recommend ways to improve their conditions and to successfully assist them off the streets. Methods: In 2000-2001, eight researchers conducted participant observation for 7 weeks; 20 groups of children engaged in role-plays and drawing activities; over 500 children…

  17. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  18. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  19. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws on an...... ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have...... impacts on the relation and interaction between parents and children. Parenting in that way reaches far beyond the family and includes taking into account various issues in the other places where the children spend their time. The children's developmental possibilities are shaped by the relations and...

  20. Revealing lives: a qualitative study with children and young people affected by parental alcohol problems

    Hill, Louise Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been recognition that children and young people have considerable knowledge about their own lives that merits academic attention. The overall aim of this study is to reflexively engage with children and young people who have been affected by parental (or significant carer) alcohol problems and to explore, from their perspectives, the perceived impact on their lives and their experiences of support. Given the common secrecy and potential stigma of pr...

  1. Personal hygiene among primary school children living in a slum of Kolkata, India

    Sarkar, M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction and objectives. For children, maintenance of personal hygiene helps to improve the quality of life and longevity. This is of particular importance in a slum community with compromised living situation. This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge and practice of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in a slum area, to identify any misconception among them regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene, to find out their morbidity pattern, and als...

  2. Oral Health Status of Children with Disability Living in Albania

    Gaçe, Eno; Kelmendi, Manola; Fusha, Enika

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out at nine (9) special schools for disabled children in Albania. The aim of the study is to determine the caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of children with different disabilities attending different schools for disabled at Albania. Methods: Participants are grouped according disability Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retarded, Blind, Deaf-Mute and age group (0-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-18 years old children). Caries and...

  3. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    Syncrude's program designed to maintain good relations with Aboriginal communities in all areas where Syncrude operation impact upon Aboriginal peoples and their traditional ways of life are described. The program extends from employment through education to business and community development, the preservation of traditional lifestyles, and the protection of the environment. As examples, some 13 per cent of Syncrude's workforce is made up of Aboriginal people, at an average annual salary of $58,000. The company offers $ 2,000 each, specifically to Aboriginal persons, wanting to further their education particularly in disciplines related to oil sands. A five-year $ 500,000 program has been established by Syncrude at the University of Alberta specifically for Aboriginal people to pursue careers in engineering, medicine , education and business. Other career programs are also offered through Keyano College, Athabasca University and the Northern Alberta Development Council, and there is a strong commitment by the company to encouraging adults to go back to school and for kids to stay in school. Last year the company spent $ 54 million with Aboriginal-owned and operated businesses; the company also support several programs to foster the appreciation of Aboriginal culture not only in Alberta but throughout the country. Environment is the fifth and final element of the Aboriginal Development Program. It involves consultation and working with local communities on environmental matters involving issues ranging from land reclamation to emission reduction. Some six million dollars are spent annually on reclaiming land and reintroducing native animal and plant species wherever possible. An outstanding example of this is the Wood Bison Trail on 210 hectares of reclaimed land managed by the Fort McKay First Nations. It is readily acknowledged that dealing with Aboriginal concerns has not been an easy road to travel and that there are still many things to do. Nevertheless, there

  4. The Educational Needs of Children Living with Violence.

    Craig, Susan E.

    1992-01-01

    Abuse is an environmental factor influencing some children's emergent metacognitive processes and perceptions. Because abused children most often remain in regular classrooms, they rely on teachers' ability to apply interventions responsive to their needs. This is accomplished by combining knowledge of educational best practices with knowledge…

  5. Robbed of Humanity: Lives of Guatemalan Street Children.

    Tierney, Nancy Leigh

    The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and remarkable…

  6. The Multi-Dimensional Lives of Children Who Are Homeless

    Grineski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is widely reported that children who are homeless are victimized by overwhelming challenges like poverty and ill-advised policy decisions, such as underfunding the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This act is the only federal legislation devoted to this marginalized group. Children who are homeless, however, should not be characterized…

  7. Animals in the Lives of Young Maltese Children

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Gatt, Suzanne; Agius, Catherine; Pizzuto, Sue Anne

    2008-01-01

    Young Maltese children have experience and knowledge of animals. We explored the range of animal with which they are familiar and the origin of this knowledge. The children interviewed were in Pre School, aged 4 years, and in the first year of compulsory education, aged 5 years Verb l questions and photographs were used as the probe to access…

  8. Epidemiological Survey of Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children Living in Transylvania

    Gyergyay Réka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims The objectives of the present survey were: 1 a systematic epidemiological investigation of dental fear and anxiety among children living in the central part of Romania and 2 to identify the most fearful aspects of dental care perceived by these children.

  9. The Well Being of Children Living in Chronic War Zones: The Palestinian-Israeli Case

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive review and integration of available studies on the effects of severe traumatic experiences on children, especially in the context of short and enduring exposure to harsh events and adversities, as they relate to children who live in violent war zones, in particular in Israel and the Palestinian territories. The…

  10. Teachers' Perceptions of the Importance of Stories in the Lives of Children in Myanmar

    Tin, H. W.; Nonis, Karen P.; Lim, Swee Eng Audrey; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Children's active involvement in storytelling develops diverse lifelong skills for critical thinking, cognitive, social, and emotional skills. Central to the success of attracting the attention of students for storytelling are the social-emotional roles that teachers play in children's lives. This study investigated 23 kindergarten…

  11. Do Live versus Audio-Recorded Narrative Stimuli Influence Young Children's Narrative Comprehension and Retell Quality?

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether different ways of presenting narrative stimuli (i.e., live narrative stimuli versus audio-recorded narrative stimuli) influence children's performances on narrative comprehension and oral-retell quality. Method: Children in kindergarten (n = 54), second grade (n = 74), and fourth…

  12. Being Relaxed and Powerful: Children's Lived Experiences of Coping with Stress

    Kostenius, Catrine; Ohrling, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to describe and develop an understanding of children's lived experiences of coping with stress. Twenty-three Swedish children, ages 10-12, wrote open letters and were interviewed. The phenomenological analysis resulted in three main themes: (i) depending on oneself, others and the world around, (ii) choosing to be a doer and (iii)…

  13. Wind power projects and Aboriginal consultation

    Isaac, T. [McCarthy Tetrault LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined some of the legal aspects related to Aboriginal involvement in wind power development consultation processes and disputes. Aboriginal rights are rights held by Aboriginal people that are an element of a practice, custom, or tradition integral to the culture of groups claiming such rights. Wind power developers should understand that Aboriginal rights claims may include fishing; whaling; transportation; and cultural and spiritual activities. Aboriginal title is a subcategory of Aboriginal rights, and is a right to land itself, and an encumbrance on the Crown's underlying title to land. Weak Aboriginal claims where potential infringement by energy developers is minor may only require notice and information. Strong prima facie cases for Aboriginal rights and title where the potential for infringement is of high significance may result in more extensive consultation involving interim solutions; formal Aboriginal participation in decision-making processes; and written responses demonstrating how Aboriginal concerns have been considered. There are a number of circumstances requiring a case-by-case approach, and the Crown may make decisions in the face of Aboriginal disagreement. However, energy developers should ensure that consultation processes are fair and reasonable. Conflicting interests can often be successfully resolved through consultation, and accommodation to Aboriginal rights may include mitigation, avoiding interference, and agreeing to as little infringement as possible. Aboriginal title may attach to private land but only to the Crown's underlying title. The Crown has no duty to consult respecting Aboriginal title on private land because title has already been infringed. In these cases, duty to consult and accommodate may be discharged through other regulatory processes such as environmental impact assessments. It was concluded that wind power project proponents should build a relationship with the Crown, as avoiding

  14. Parents, children and their families : living arrangements of old people in the XIX century, Sundsvall region, Sweden

    Fusè, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with the intergenerational coresidence during the nineteenth century. The main focus is placed on the possible differences in the coresidences among parents and children and whether demographic transition and industrialization changed this relation. Were parents and children living in the same household? It was also important to study the children network; if the children did not live with their parents, where did they live? In the neighbourhoods, in the parish or in another ...

  15. ABORIGINALITY AND TOURISM

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism seems to be a buzz-word applied on a widest contexts and studies. The importance West has given to this term is linked to a new process of acceptance of diversity as never before. However, in the core of this discourse, the spirit of colonialism remains. In this conceptual paper, not only the main assumptions of cultural tourism are discussed in depth, but also its connection with colonization. One of main problems of cultural tourism is the conceptual basis on where this theory lies. For one hand, this term is strictly applied on local communities (aboriginals or ethnic minorities that have not sustained the progress on their own. On another one, this type of new paternalism closes the door for a real opportunity of dialogue between centre and periphery. As things being, cultural tourism not only is a concept very hard to be applied on research but also follow to nourish the ethnocentrism of nineteen-century racism.

  16. Children with learning disabilities: A phenomenological study of the lived experiences of Iranian mothers

    Kermanshahi, S. M.; Z. Vanaki; Ahmadi, F.; A KAZEMNEJAD; Azadfalah, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nursing as a family-oriented profession involves supporting mothers of children with learning disabilities to gain an awareness of their role. However, few studies have explored the whole experience of such mothers. This study embarks on an understanding of lived experiences of Iranian mothers who have children with learning disabilities. A qualitative approach was adopted using the phenomenology of semi-structured interviews carried out with six Iranian mothers whose children attended a spec...

  17. Anemia, diet and therapeutic iron among children living with HIV: a prospective cohort study

    Shet, Anita; Bhavani, PK; Kumarasamy, N; Arumugam, Karthika; Poongulali, S.; Elumalai, Suresh; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background Children living with HIV have higher-than-normal prevalence of anemia. The beneficial effect of therapeutic iron has been questioned in the setting of high prevalence of infections. This study examines anemia prevalence and effect of standard therapeutic iron on HIV disease progression among children. Methods Perinatally-infected children aged 2–12 years were enrolled at three sites in southern India, and were followed for 1 year with clinical assessments, dietary recall and anthro...

  18. The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia

    Norris, Ray P

    2009-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.

  19. Do Factors Other than SES Explain Differences in Child Outcomes Between Children of Teenage and Older Mothers for Off-Reserve First Nations Children?

    Anne Guèvremont; Dafna Kohen

    2013-01-01

    This study used data from the Aboriginal Children’s Survey (ACS) to explore differences in behavioural outcomes for First Nations children born to teen and older mothers living off-reserve in Canada. Of particular interest was an examination of socio-economic and contextual influences, and their contributions to differences in child outcomes. Findings from this study demonstrate that off-reserve First Nations children born to teen mothers (aged 12 - 19 years when they started childbearing) ha...

  20. Determinants of Nutritional Status in Children living in Mashhad, Iran

    T Shafieian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age.   Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package.   Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study.   Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition.   Keywords:Malnutrition Prevention, Nutritional Intake, Nutritional Status, Preschool Children.  

  1. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  2. Adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Remote Aboriginal Australia.

    D'Aprano, Anita; Silburn, Sven; Johnston, Vanessa; Robinson, Gary; Oberklaid, Frank; Squires, Jane

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge to providing quality developmental care in remote Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centers has been the absence of culturally appropriate developmental screening instruments. This study focused on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), with careful attention to language and culture. We aimed to adapt the ASQ-3 for use with remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal children, and to investigate the cultural appropriateness and feasibility of the adapted ASQ-3 for use in this context. We undertook a qualitative study in two remote Australian Aboriginal communities, using a six-step collaborative adaptation process. Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) were trained to use the adapted ASQ-3, and follow-up interviews examined participants' views of the cultural acceptability and usefulness of the adapted instrument. The adapted ASQ-3 was found to have high face validity and to be culturally acceptable and relevant to parents, AHWs, and early childhood development experts. PMID:25488936

  3. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  4. Aboriginal Art: Who was interested?

    Daniel Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the common assumption that Aboriginal art has been absent from Australian art histories and demonstrates how this is not so. It criticises the notion that art history should be represented by specialised art-history books and argues for the important of art museum displays as texts. It also examines the ways in which Aboriginal art has been examined in literature devoted to Australian history and anthropology. It foregrounds the idea that arts history is not necessarily best represented by official art historical texts.

  5. A Study on Anxiety Levels of Children Having Fatherless and Living With Mother and Father

    Funda ÖZDAL

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned with the aim of determining the anxiety level of children who live with their parents and children who live with only their mother and of analysing whether or not some variables make difference on the anxiety level. Participants of the study were primary school students (age level is ten-eleven years. The sampleincludes 300 children in order to represent different socioeconomical conditions. Two questionnaires were administered to the participants: “General Information Form” and “Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory” which is developed by Spielberger et.al. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The findings of the study show that those children without father have higher levels of stait and trait anxiety in contrast to those living with parents. Furthermore, it is found that age leads to significannt differences on the stait anxiety scores and that lack of father leads to significant differences on the trait anxiety scores.

  6. Determinants of Nutritional Status in Children living in Mashhad, Iran

    Tahereh Shafieian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age.   Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package.   Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study.   Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition.  

  7. Living with disabled children in Malawi: Challenges and rewards

    Grete Barlindhaug

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rehabilitation personnel need to be sensitive to the cultural aspects that constitute the environment of a disabled child’s family life.Objectives: The aim of this study was to gain insight on how families experience parenting of disabled children and how the families experience the support provided by the rehabilitation system in Malawi.Method: An anthropological field study combining interviews and observations was conducted in a rural district of Malawi in 2011. Permission was granted to follow four families, and this study presents the stories of two families, whose children have severe disabilities. We used phenomenological and narrative analyses to make sense of the stories. Results: The findings indicate that families with disabled children invest time and emphasise care for their disabled children. They feel enriched by their experience despite challenging situations with little support from the rehabilitation services. High standards of care demonstrating positive and moral attitudes have earned these families respect in their communities. Storytelling has created an opportunity for the families to understand and interpret their challenging situation with inherent contextual meaning.Conclusion: This study shows that families with disabled children draw on cultural and structural strengths that rehabilitation professionals should be aware of in their support to mothers and other caregivers of children with disabilities.

  8. LATERAL PSYCHOCORRECTION OF ANXIETY IN CHILDREN LIVING IN DEPRIVATION CONDITIONS

    Evgeniya Valerievna Markova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of anxiety - one of the most pressing problems in today's society. Especially important is the development of this problem in relation to teenage children, reared without parental care. Urgency of the problem stems from the fact that the number of disadvantaged children suffering from anxiety, catastrophic increases. Guidelines on child-rearing and training on management of anxiety, as a rule, do not take into account the child's psycho-physiological characteristics; intervention programs have low efficiency, which ultimately affects the mental health of the child.The purpose of the study was the development and testing of the original program of the lateral psychocorrection,  aimed at reducing anxiety in children, brought up in the deprivation conditions.Methods: The study included 27 teenage boys from children's community. The children were divided into two groups in accordance with their lateral phenotype. Psychocorrection on the original program that takes into account the lateral organization of the brain was provided. Before and after psychocorrection assessed the level of anxietyResults:  It was shown the effectiveness of the original lateral psychocorrection program of anxiety in teenagers, brought up in the deprivation conditions.  Because the program is aimed mainly at the right hemisphere of the brain, the most pronounced effect was registered in children – ambidextrous.Conclusion: Presented results suggest the need for a differentiated approach to the correction of anxiety depending on the functional asymmetry of the brain.

  9. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AS UNIVERSAL PROBLEM AND CHILDREN WORKING AND LIVING OUTDOORS

    Mehmet GÜNGÖR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to define the children who work and/or live in the streets and to emphasize that they form a risky group in society. There is a meaningful relationship between their standards of life and crime rate. The literature about crime and children states various reasons for children to commit a crime. The reasons of why children live and/or work in the street are also valid for why they commit crimes. The research about the so called children explains the reasons for living and/or working in the street are economical, social and cultural basis. They also state ‘the family’ as another reason. Criminal literature supports these explanations. This research studies the relationship between the tendency of street children to commit a crime and their social environment and ıt includes the analysis of questionnaires and interviews with 510 children who live and work in the streets of Mersin.

  10. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  11. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  12. Dynamics of state of Belarus children health living under ecologically unfavorable conditions

    The outcomes of a cohort prospective complex clinico-laboratory examination of children living on the Republic of Belarus territories varying by their radiation levels and ecologic characteristics were analyzed. The morbidity relative risk was determined to be higher in those children. The data stratification by the time factor confirmed that the risk remained permanent in various age groups. The studies fulfilled allowed to suppose that the children's endoecologic status worsening was one of the major causes of the children morbidity increase for it led to changes in the cellular membranes structural and functional state of the systems and organs activity regulation neurohumoral mechanisms violation resulting in development of ecologic disadaptation syndrome (authors)

  13. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  14. Diabetic Children Need Care but Can Lead Normal Lives.

    PTA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Children with diabetes can take part in normal school activities as long as they maintain control over their blood sugar level through a technique called self blood-glucose monitoring. Parents can work with teachers to see that dietary and medicinal needs are accommodated. (PP)

  15. Lonely or Bored: Children's Lived Experiences Reveal the Difference

    Kirova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of research on loneliness, the relationship between the phenomena of loneliness and boredom has not been sufficiently addressed, especially in respect to children. The question, "How does the child's experience of boredom stand phenomenologically in relation to the experience of loneliness?" is explored from a…

  16. Living and Learning: An Annotated Bibliography for Those Who Live and Learn with Young Children.

    Boggan, Lucille B.; Ackerman, Satoko I.

    This annotated bibliography reports on 52 essays, books, compilations, reports, speeches, handbooks, and magazine articles on the education of young children. Education, as used here, covers the entire spectrum of a child's experience. The viewpoints taken are psychological, educational, and sociological and deal with issues of deprived youth and…

  17. Healthy active living: Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity is rising globally. Although the risk factors for obesity are multifactorial, many are related to lifestyle and may be amenable to intervention. These factors include sedentary time and non-exercise activity thermogenesis, as well as the frequency, intensity, amounts and types of physical activity. Front-line health care practitioners are ideally suited to monitor children, adolescents and their families’ physical activity levels, to evaluate lifestyle choice...

  18. Training nurses to save lives of malnourished children

    T. Puoane; Sanders, D.; Ashworth, A; M Ngumbela

    2006-01-01

    A qualitative study with a pre- and post-intervention component was undertaken among 66 professional nurses at 11 hospitals in the Eastern Cape to assess their perceptions and attitudes towards severely malnourished children and their mothers/ caregivers. Nurses’ attitudes were compared before and after attending a 5-day training course to improve the management of malnutrition along with implementing World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Severe malnutrition is a major cause of death am...

  19. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events. PMID:22730152

  20. Asylum support for children and young people living in Kirklees: Stories of mothers

    Smith, Kate; Lockwood, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The report is based on a one-year pilot study by academic practitioners at WomenCentre, Kirklees, funded by the Nationwide Children’s Research Centre. This study has taken a localised approach to the Parliamentary Inquiry (2013) into asylum support for children and young people. We have placed the views of mothers of children who live or have lived in receipt of asylum support in Kirklees at the heart of the study. All of the mothers interviewed said that asylum support (accommodation and/or ...

  1. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  2. Real standards of living and public support for children: A cross-national comparison

    Smeeding, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Most cross-country comparisons of living standards focus on real Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) adjusted Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person. These measures provide no variance in living standards within the nation, nor do they account for the amount of real incomes that families actually have to spend for themselves and their children. The Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) household microdata for 13 nations and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) PPP's and noncash b...

  3. Parenting Deficits of Mothers Living with HIV/AIDS who have Young Children

    Murphy, Debra A.; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of the relationships between parenting deficits and skills, along with child outcomes, in a sample of mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their 6 to 14 year old children. Sixty-two MLH (61% Latina, 26% black, 3% white, & 10% multiracial) and their well children (age 6 – 14) were recruited from the greater Los Angeles, California, region to participate in an intervention (IMAGE: Improving Mothers’ parenting Abilities, Growth, and Effectiveness) de...

  4. Teaching daily living skills to children with autism in unsupervised settings through pictorial self-management.

    Pierce, K L; Schreibman, L

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of pictorial self-management to teach daily living skills to 3 low-functioning children with autism. Stimulus and response generalization, stimulus control of self-management materials, and maintenance of behavior change were also assessed. Results showed that children with autism could successfully use pictures to manage their behavior in the absence of a treatment provider, generalize their behavior across settings and tasks, and maintain behaviors at follow-up....

  5. Iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah; Ayed Yaghi; Yaghi, Abdallah R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of nutritional anemia; it has been recognized as an important health problem in Palestine. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify possible risk factors of iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip and to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing oral iron formula in the anemic children. Methods: the study included 735 (384 male and 351 female)...

  6. Streetism: The Lived Experiences of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and their Rights.

    Eshia, Owusuaa

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to explore both the pre-street and the current lived experiences ofunaccompanied migrant children on the streets of Accra and the motivations, contributions,perceptions and the challenges these children face at the point of destination. The study furtherexplores street children‟s views on their rights in terms of their schooling, health care andeconomic participation.The overarching perspective of the study is based on the philosophy and tenets of the socialstudies of chil...

  7. From the children's point of view : power, pragmatism and rights in children's lives in Buganda

    1999-01-01

    I left for Uganda in 1996 with two issues I wanted to consider: One, people's comprehension of children's rights; and two, children's perspective of their daily life. As Redd Barna had been working in this particular area of Uganda since the early 1990's I had heard that almost everybody knew about children's rights - or eddembe ly'abaana in Luganda (a translation which literally could mean, and often understood as children's freedom or liberty, and even children's peace). Now, when sumarizin...

  8. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson; Terri Farrelly; Ryan Frazer; Fiona Borthwick

    2015-01-01

    Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insight...

  9. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. B...

  10. Living on the Margins of Life: A Study about Street Children in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Pokharel, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    This thesis entitled ‘Living on the Margins of Life: A Study about Street Children in Kathmandu, Nepal’ is based on the idea that children rights, the most basic of human rights need to be discussed and promoted, since children are the future of the community, nation and the world. Indigenous peoples and their struggle for human rights is now a significant force, as the movement moves in a new era. In such a context, the main interest of this research work is the current situation of indigeno...

  11. Investigation on Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area

    After the survey in 1975 and 1979 of Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area, we made a follow-up investigation in 1985 and 1986. All the obtained data are analysed. 25258 children in high background radiation area were examined and 22 children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity rate being 0.87%. 21837 children in control area were examined and four children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity being 0.18%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. It was noted that the occurrence of Down's syndrome was related to the maternal age but there was no evidence suggesting a close relationship between high background radiation and the development of Down's syndrome

  12. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  13. The Lives of Sesame Street: The Impact of Foreclosures on Young Children and Families

    Davis, Danne E.; Shin, Minsun

    2009-01-01

    While significant attention has been paid to Wall Street investors and families impacted by the current subprime mortgage crisis in the USA, the lives of Sesame Street are minimally discussed. Children and their families are enduring a variety of consequences of foreclosures. The consequences can be hugely disruptive to the approximately 2 million…

  14. Circulating epstein-barr virus in children living in malaria-endemic areas

    Rasti, N; Falk, K I; Donati, D;

    2005-01-01

    Children living in malaria-endemic regions have high incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), the aetiology of which involves Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Acute malarial infection impairs the EBV-specific immune responses with the consequent increase in the...

  15. Selected Resources on Adult Children Living at Home: An Annotated Bibliography for Researchers, Educators, and Consumers.

    Frazier, Billie H.; Hayes, Kathleen C.

    The resources in this annotated bibliography were selected to help readers better understand what is known about adult children living at home. Data on this subject are scarce. The bibliography is a literature review--a State-of-the-Art report--which is applicable to many professionals and students in the social sciences. It was developed by…

  16. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  17. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  18. [Oral health status in children with intellectual disability living in organized groups].

    Avraamova, O G; Pakhomova, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess oral health status in in children with intellectual disability (ID) living in Moscow Orphanage №15. The study involved 91 children aged 12 (39 children) and 15 (52 children). Caries incidence and DMFT index, periodontal disease incidence, OHI-S and PMA index, malocclusions incidence were assessed at baseline examination. Caries incidence in 12 and 15 y.o. was moderate (53.85% and 56.0%, correspondingly), as well as DMFT (2.77±0.52 и 2.94±0.53 correspondingly). In 2 children with rumination syndrome all teeth were affected by caries and these children received dental treatment under general anesthesia 7 times during last 60 months. Periodontal disease incidence in 12 and 15 y.o. was 89.74% и 86.58%, correspondingly with very high OHI-S indicating unsatisfactory oral hygiene. Malocclusions incidence was 95% and 98%, correspondingly. Thus the main oral problem in children with ID is periodontal disease and poor oral hygiene. Differentiated oral hygiene education approach according to children's physical and intellectual abilities should be considered. Children with rumination syndrome should be addressed by neurologist prior to dental treatment which needs more radical approach. PMID:27367200

  19. Hygienic assessment of microelementosis in primary school children living on geochemical territory

    Kuzminov B.P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider methods of solving urgent issues of prevention of violations of children’s health those who live in technologically contaminated areas. Content of pollutants in environmental objects of Sosnivka town as geochemical province was conducted. We made a comparative analysis of pre-pathological health indicators of children living on this territory, as well as "conditionally clean territory" by the elemental composition of children’s hair and blood content, intensity of lipid peroxidation and activity of antioxidant enzymes, parameters of physical development and condition of their actual nutrition. Correlations between exposure to toxicants of the environment and changes in the health of children was revealed. There was developed integrated scheme of measures for the prevention of technogenic microelementosis among children.

  20. Multipathway organophosphorus pesticide exposures of preschool children living in agricultural and nonagricultural communities

    Environmental measurements of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides were conducted in the homes of 13 children, who lived either in the Seattle metropolitan area or in the agricultural region of Washington State, to ascertain exposure through multiple pathways. Each home was sampled for two 24-h periods during two seasons, summer and fall. Samples included 24-h indoor air, drinking water, soil, house dust, and hand and toy wipes and 24-h duplicate diets. At least one OP pesticide was found in each of the matrices sampled except for drinking water. Half of the indoor air samples contained detectable levels of chlorpyrifos or diazinon. Detectable levels of diazinon and azinphosmethyl in house dust were found in most of the agricultural homes, whereas only diazinon was found in the Seattle homes in the summer. Quantifiable chlorpyrifos and azinphosmethyl were found on either agricultural children's hands or their toys. These findings suggest different exposure pathways for children living in agricultural and nonagricultural regions

  1. Improving the accuracy of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal disease notification rates using data linkage

    Watkins Rochelle E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routinely collected infectious disease surveillance data provide a valuable means to monitor the health of populations. Notifiable disease surveillance systems in Australia have consistently reported high levels of completeness for the demographic data fields of age and sex, but low levels of completeness for Aboriginality data. Significant amounts of missing data associated with case notifications can introduce bias in the estimation of disease rates by population subgroups. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the use of data linkage to improve the accuracy of estimated notification rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs and blood borne viruses (BBVs in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups in Western Australia. Methods Probabilistic methods were used to link disease notification data received in Western Australia in 2004 with core population health datasets from the established Western Australian Data Linkage System. A comparative descriptive analysis of STI and BBV notification rates according to Aboriginality was conducted based on the original and supplemented notification datasets. Results Using data linkage, the proportion of STI and BBV notifications with missing Aboriginality data was reduced by 74 per cent. Compared with excluding notifications with unknown Aboriginality data from the analysis, or apportioning notifications with unknown Aboriginality based on the proportion of cases with known Aboriginality, the rate ratios of chlamydia, syphilis and hepatitis C among Aboriginal relative to non-Aboriginal people decreased when Aboriginality data from data linkage was included. Conclusion Although there is still a high incidence of STIs and BBVs in Aboriginal people, incompleteness of Aboriginality data contributes to overestimation of the risk associated with Aboriginality for these diseases. Data linkage can be effectively used to improve the accuracy of estimated disease notification rates.

  2. [Unequal living conditions and health chances in preschool children: support protective factors - limit risk factors].

    Horstkotte, E; Zimmermann, E

    2008-11-01

    Manifestations of an aggravation of social antagonisms and increased reports about childhood poverty and child abuse have unleashed a broad debate about the situation of children in risk-laden circumstances. More and more children are affected by relative poverty and disadvantage. An increase in the number children under 15 who receive social assistance can also be registered in Bremen, this share even increased to 60% in especially burdened districts. Against this background, the Bremen Health Department used a socio-spatial analysis to determine whether the utilisation of health examinations and the social and cultural participation chances of preschool children differed according to their living conditions. To this end, selected data from the school entrance examinations from 1998 to 2005 were analysed in regard to their relevance for the participation chances in different child-related dimensions of the life situation. Contradictory developments could be found, both in the dimension of the utilisation of health examinations and in the dimension of social and cultural participation chances. Children from disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibited a lower utilisation of health examinations and less chances for social and cultural participation than children from more well-to-do residential areas. Trend calculations for the years 1998 to 2005 show an increasing discrepancy between children from disadvantaged and those from well-to-do neighbourhoods. Disadvantaged life situations - with the danger of increasing exclusion - appear to be establishing themselves in Bremen. The resources of children and families for dealing with risk-laden life situations have to be strengthened. Effective and long-lasting prevention approaches have to be developed and implemented at the local level. Kindergartens and schools could serve as centres for community networking strategies. Integrated concepts for action in the respective social areas are necessary to protect children and

  3. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  4. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  5. Fitzgerald factor deficiency in an Australian aborigine.

    Exner, T; Barber, S; Naujalis, J

    1987-05-18

    This case reports the first description of Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) deficiency in Australia. Since this homozygous abnormality was found in an Aborigine it is suggested that the defective gene may be prevalent in some tribes and that abnormal results of clotting tests in Aborigines should be investigated carefully. PMID:3574180

  6. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    Joseph Pamela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  7. Saving children's lives: a communication campaign in Egypt.

    Hirschhorn, N

    1985-01-01

    There are 2 features of Egypt's National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Project (NCDDP) that are central to its effective management: the NCDDP enjoys a certain degree of autonomy to the extent that it can reach beyond the Ministry of Health to bring in specialists through grants and contracts, and it has the power to manage its own budget and personnel; and the NCDDP is not a group of separate program elements but an integration of elements -- training of health workers; production, distribution, and marketing of oral rehydration salts (ORS); monitoring and evaluation of the project; and education and promotion via television, radio, and other public media. These aspects are all concurrently active, and all are maintained and coordinated through the Secretariat, the technical arm of NCDDP. The goal of the communications element, the focus of this discussion, is to teach, persuade, and change the behaviors of all Egyptian mothers of children under 3 years and other specific target groups, especially health personnel, pharmacists, mass media reporters, and decisionmakers involved with the management of diarrhea and dehydration programs. Data acquired through target audience research provides program planners with the most useful and valid information upon which to build a communication campaign. This holds true whether the activity is to select an appropriate logo to call attention to the campaign or to determine the most effective channels through which to communicate social messages. Regarding the logo, 4 designs were selected from among 10 submitted by independent artists and advertising agencies. Focus groups and brief interviews in public places on these 4 logos were carried out to determine audience response. Questioning the mothers who participated in focus groups helped project staff determine what amount of fluid a mother would find believable to give to a child with diarrhea. In addition, surveys showed that a 200cc packet of salts would be the most

  8. Teacher Awareness and Understandings about Aboriginal English in Western Australia

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Vanderford, Samantha; Grote, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Repeated assessments of literacy skills have shown that Aboriginal students do not achieve at the same level as their non-Aboriginal peers. Many Aboriginal students speak Aboriginal English, a dialect different from the Standard Australian English used in schools. Research shows that it is crucial for educators in bidialectal contexts to be aware…

  9. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure in School-Aged Children Living in Rice and Aquacultural Farming Regions of Thailand

    Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Tunsaringkarn, Tanasorn; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G.; Fiedler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural sectors in Thailand. Previous studies have documented that children residing in agricultural areas have higher exposure to OPs than children living in other residential areas. The objective of this study was to quantify urinary biomarkers of OP exposure and determine the environmental conditions and activities that predict their levels among children living in Central Thailand farming regions. In October 2011, 53 6–8-year-old pa...

  10. Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study

    Golle, Kathleen (Diplom Sportwissenschaftlerin); Granacher, Urs; Hoffmann, Martin; Wick, Ditmar; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 6...

  11. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Doubova Svetlana V; Santos José; Castillo Raúl; Sandoval Araceli; Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo; Reyes Hortensia; Gutiérrez Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one ur...

  12. Effect of Organic Diet Intervention on Pesticide Exposures in Young Children Living in Low-Income Urban and Agricultural Communities

    Bradman, Asa; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive ...

  13. Mining information kit for Aboriginal communities

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The opportunities for building relationships between Aboriginal communities and the mining industry were discussed, along with opportunities for communities to build capacity and to participate in the mining cycle. With nearly 1200 Aboriginal communities located within 200 km of minerals and metals activities in Canada, there is potential for significant economic and business growth in the communities. This educational tool informs Aboriginal communities across Canada about all the stages of the mining cycle, from early exploration to mine closure. Its purpose is to help Aboriginal people to better understand mining activities and identify the many opportunities that mining can bring to their communities. The information kit contains 4 modules corresponding to the main stages of the mining cycle. It provides examples of community experiences, positive relationships, and partnerships with mining companies. It also outlines the regulatory process to ensure Aboriginal peoples are well informed of the economic, social and environmental effects, benefits and opportunities in making decisions. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  15. Giardia duodenalis infection: risk factors for children living in sub-standard settlements in Brazil

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize Giardia duodenalis infection among children living in sub-standard settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cross-sectional epidemiological study included 590 children from 1 to 5 years of age. Data were collected from one child per selected family through home interviews with the parent or guardian and parasitological examination of stool samples. Thirty-one putative risk factors concerning family structure, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 18% (106 children. Four potential risk factors were heavily associated with G. duodenalis infection: number of under-five children in the same household, index child's birth order, existence of a bathroom in the home, and drinking water source.

  16. Stories from Lake Volta: the lived experiences of trafficked children in Ghana.

    Hamenoo, Emma Seyram; Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa

    2015-02-01

    Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of child maltreatment and is often difficult to recognize when it happens intra-country. This paper presents the narratives of children on their experiences as victims of trafficking in fishing communities along the Volta Lake in the Volta region of Ghana. The narratives were co-constructed with the children through child-friendly participatory approaches which involved drawings, writing, and in-depth interviews. The stories reflect the magnitude of maltreatment trafficked children suffer, which ranges from physical to psychological and emotional. The authors recommend commitment by the government to the implementation of the Human Trafficking Act to deter child traffickers. Further studies on the living conditions of rescued children and the need to implement strategies to prevent re-trafficking are suggested. PMID:25015268

  17. Future desire for children among women living with HIV in Atlanta, Georgia.

    Haddad, Lisa B; Machen, Leah Kathleen; Cordes, Sarah; Huylebroeck, Brian; Delaney, Augustina; Ofotokun, Igho; Nguyen, Minh Ly; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-04-01

    Little is known regarding family planning desires among women living with HIV in the United States. This study aimed to identify factors influencing desire for children in the future among HIV-infected women in Atlanta, Georgia. HIV-infected women ages 18-45 completed an ACASI (audio computer-assisted self-interview) questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests, and multivariate logistic regression evaluated factors associated with desire for future children. Of 181 participants, 62 (34.3%) expressed desire for children in the future, with increased desire among younger women (age knowledge of transmission risk was low. Over a third of women desiring a child never discussed their desire with a physician. Misinformation regarding HIV transmission risks persists and is a notable concern influencing desire for children. Providers should reassess family planning desires regularly through integrated HIV care. PMID:26702869

  18. Anthropometric measures of 9-to 10-year-old native tibetan children living at 3700 and 4300m above sea level and han Chinese living at 3700m

    Bianba, B.; Yangzong, Y.; Gonggalanzi, G.;

    2015-01-01

    school children aged 9 to 10 years were conducted in Lhasa in 2005 and Tingri in 2007. Conventional age-And sex-specific cutoff values were used for defining underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obesity, whereas stunting was defined from sex-specific height-for-Age z-scores (2.0). The prevalence of...... found in 14.6%and 35.7%, respectively, of Tingri children, and near null among Han Chinese and native Tibetans in Lhasa. In logistic regression analyses, socioeconomic status and diet did not substantially change the observed crude association (total effect) (odds ratio [OR]=3.3; 95% confidence interval...... Tibetan children living at a higher residential altitude (Tingri) than the lower residential altitude (Lhasa), in addition to being higher among Han Chinese children than Tibetan children living at the same residential altitude (Lhasa). Thus, physical growth according to age, in terms of both height and...

  19. Influences of Indigenous Language on Spatial Frames of Reference in Aboriginal English

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…

  20. Aboriginal, Anglo, and Immigrant Australian Students' Motivational Beliefs about Personal Academic Success: Are There Cultural Differences?

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Hinkley, John; Dowson, Martin; Van Etten, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a study in which the similarities and differences between Aboriginal Australian, Anglo Australian, and immigrant Australian students' learning-goal orientations were measured. Previous research posits that children embrace different learning goals according to their culture. In contrast, findings indicate that the profiles of all…

  1. Health literacy in relation to cancer: addressing the silence about and absence of cancer discussion among Aboriginal people, communities and health services.

    Treloar, Carla; Gray, Rebecca; Brener, Loren; Jackson, Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Harris, Magdalena; Butow, Phyllis; Newman, Christy

    2013-11-01

    Cancer outcomes for Aboriginal Australians are poorer when compared with cancer outcomes for non-Aboriginal Australians despite overall improvements in cancer outcomes. One concept used to examine inequities in health outcomes between groups is health literacy. Recent research and advocacy have pointed to the importance of increasing health literacy as it relates to cancer among Aboriginal people. This study examined individual, social and cultural aspects of health literacy relevant to cancer among Aboriginal patients, carers and their health workers in New South Wales. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 Aboriginal people who had been diagnosed with cancer, 18 people who were carers of Aboriginal people with cancer and 16 healthcare workers (eight Aboriginal and eight non-Aboriginal health workers). Awareness, knowledge and experience of cancer were largely absent from people's lives and experiences until they were diagnosed, illustrating the need for cancer awareness raising among Aboriginal people, communities and services. Some beliefs about cancer (particularly equating cancer to death) differed from mainstream Western biomedical views of the body and cancer and this served to silence discussion on cancer. As such, these beliefs can be used to inform communication and help illuminate how beliefs can shape responses to cancer. Participants proposed some practical strategies that could work to fill absences in knowledge and build on beliefs about cancer. These results were characterised by a silence about cancer, an absence of discussions of cancer and an acknowledgement of an already full health agenda for Aboriginal communities. To promote health literacy in relation to cancer would require a multi-layered programme of work involving grass-roots community education, workers and Board members of Aboriginal community-controlled health organisations and speciality cancer services, with a particular focus on programmes to bridge community-based primary

  2. Aboriginal Knowledge Infusion in Initial Teacher Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto

    Angela Mashford-Pringle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the Aboriginal socio-political history in Canada has historically been excluded from public education. In Ontario, public school children learn about Aboriginal people at specific times in the curriculum. However, teachers frequently only teach the bare essentials about Aboriginal people in Canada because they do not have adequate knowledge or feel that they lack the ability to teach about this subject. The Ontario Institute of Studies in Education at the University of Toronto has implemented the Deepening Knowledge Project to provide teacher candidates with an increased awareness and knowledge about Aboriginal history, culture, and worldview for their future teaching careers. This article will provide insight into the project and the curriculum developed for working with teacher candidates.

  3. Caries Prevalence and Caries Associated Measures in Children Living in a Rural Romanian Village

    Kaveh, Babak; Witkowska, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed with the aim to investigate the caries prevalence and associated factors in 6 to 15 year old school children living in a village outside Cluj-Napoca, Romania. All children were offered to be included and examined for dental caries according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Caries was scored at the tooth and surface levels D/d=decayed, M/m=missing, F/f=filled, T/t=tooth, S/s=surface (DMFT/DMFS/dmft/dmfs) for the permanent and deciduous dentitio...

  4. A NARRATIVE: MEDITATION IN THE LIVES OF CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC ILLNESS

    Taunya WIDEMAN-JOHNSTON

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chronic illness in one’s life often entails endless appointments, tests, medications, treatments, and procedures. In the instances of children with chronic illness, they do not know what life consists of without their illness, and consequently, have lived with many restrictions. Children with chronic illness and their families are not only in need of traditional methods and strategies from the medical model but are often in need of additional strategies to support and cope with the nature and effects of the chronic illness. This paper focuses on how mediation, mindfulness, and visualization strategies aid individuals with chronic illness.

  5. Cohabitation and children's living arrangements: New estimates from the United States

    Larry Bumpass; Sheela Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the 1995 and 2002 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine recent trends in cohabitation in the United States. We find increases in both the prevalence and duration of unmarried cohabitation. Cohabitation continues to transform children's family lives, as children are increasingly likely to be born to a cohabiting mother (18Å  during 1997-2001) or to experience their mother's entry into a cohabiting union. Consequently, we estimate that two-fifths of all chil...

  6. The forgotten ones: challenges and needs of children living with disabling parental chronic pain.

    Umberger, Wendy A; Risko, Judy; Covington, Edward

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative study explored the challenges and needs of children living with parental chronic pain. Young adult children (n=30) of parents with chronic pain were interviewed. Parents (n=20) with chronic pain participated in four focus groups. Content analysis yielded five categories of child challenges: (a) understanding the big picture; (b) enduring hardships; (c) grieving losses; (d) communicating with parent, and; (e) isolating self from peers. Three categories of child needs emerged: (a) knowledge; (b) skills, and; (c) supervised interaction. Understanding these challenges and needs is a vital step in the process of developing evidence-based interventions for this at-risk group. PMID:25557986

  7. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story

    Leaman, Trevor M

    2014-01-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "The Orion Story", stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of "The Orion Story", including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  8. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  9. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

  10. Differences in physical growth of Aymara and Quechua children living at high altitude in Peru.

    de Meer, K; Bergman, R; Kusner, J S; Voorhoeve, H W

    1993-01-01

    Physical growth of Amerindian children living in two Aymara and three Quechua peasant communities in the Andean highlands of southern Peru (altitude 3,810-3,840 m) was studied, taking into account differences in the microclimate, agronomic situation, and sociodemographic variables. Anthropometric measurements were taken in 395 children aged under 14 years of age in a sample of 151 families in these communities, who were surveyed for sociodemographic variables as well. Data on the land system were available for 77 families. In comparison with reference populations from the United States (NCHS) and The Netherlands, stature, weight, head circumference, and midupper arm circumference (but not weight for stature) in the sample children were reduced. Growth retardation increased after the age of 1 year. Stature and weight in the present sample were very similar compared with previously published data on growth of rural Aymara children living near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Head circumference, midupper arm circumference, and weight for stature were significantly larger in Aymara children compared with Quechua children. Land was significantly more fragmented in Aymara compared with Quechua families, but amount of land owned was not different. Perinatal and infant mortality was elevated in Aymara vs. Quechua communities. Most families in Aymara communities used protected drinking water. One Quechua community had a severe microclimate, grim economic outlook, and weak social cohesion. Children in this community showed significant reductions in weight and midupper arm circumference compared with their peers in the other communities. We conclude that (presumably nutritionally mediated) intervillage and Aymara-Quechua differences in childhood physical growth existed in this rural high-altitude population in Peru and were associated with microclimate and the village economy, sociodemographic factors, and differences in the land system. PMID:8470756

  11. Iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of nutritional anemia; it has been recognized as an important health problem in Palestine. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify possible risk factors of iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip and to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing oral iron formula in the anemic children. Methods: the study included 735 (384 male and 351 female kindergarten children. Data was collected by questionnaire interviews, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count analysis. All iron deficient anemic children were treated using an oral iron formula (50 mg ferrous carbonate + 100 mg vitamin C /5 mL and the complete blood count was reassessed after three months. A univariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model were constructed; crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results: the overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 33.5% with no significant differences between boys and girls. Significantly different prevalences of iron deficiency anemia were reported between different governorates of the Gaza Strip. Governorate, low education level of the parents and smoking are significant risk factors for children developing anemia. Significantly lower complete blood count parameters, except for WBC, were reported in anemic children. The oral iron treatment significantly improved hemoglobin concentrations, and normalized the iron deficiency marker. Conclusions: iron deficiency anemia is a serious health problem among children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip, which justifies the necessity for national intervention programs to improve the health status for the less fortunate development areas.

  12. Pets, allergy and respiratory symptoms in children living in a desert country.

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; Naser, K A

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of pets and other domestic animals effect on allergic respiratory symptoms among United Arab Emirates primary school children. A cross-sectional survey of 2200 school children living in both urban and rural areas was conducted using self-administered questionnaires between November 1993 and June 1994. The age range of the children studied was 6-12 years, with a mean of 9.23 and standard deviation of 2.14 years; 51% were girls and 49% were boys. Pet ownership was defined by the presence of birds, cats, camels, dogs, goats, poultry and rabbits in the home. One thousand and thirty-six (1036/2090 = 49.6%) of the 2090 families studied had at least one animal at home. However, respiratory symptoms, pet allergy, chronic cough, chronic wheeze, breathlessness or chest tightness, doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis and eczema was reported by 633 families (30.3%) from 2090 studied families. The highest prevalence of reported respiratory allergy and symptoms was found in children who had pets in the past and currently. The lowest prevalence of reported respiratory allergy and symptoms was found in children who never had pets in their lives. Past pets ownership was generally associated with a higher prevalence of pets allergy and respiratory symptoms. No less than 218 (10.4%) reported removing pets in the past because of an allergy or other health problems in the child or in other family members. The risk of having pet allergy in children with animals was found to be twice than that of children without (RR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97; p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7626193

  13. Reducing the risks of children living near the site of a former lead smeltery.

    Louekari, K; Mroueh, U-M; Maidell-Münster, L; Valkonen, S; Tuomi, T; Savolainen, K

    2004-02-01

    The sources of lead exposure, soil, household dust, diet and ambient air near a former lead smeltery were studied. The blood lead level of small children was also determined. The aim of the study was to define, based primarily on blood lead measurements, whether children living in the contaminated area may be at risk. Within 500 m from the site of the smeltery, there were several areas where the Finnish limit value for soil Pb, i.e. 300 mg/kg, was exceeded. In the recently built areas, the surface soil has been replaced and soil remediation has taken place in schoolyards and the playgrounds of children's day-care centres. Lead content in household dust was clearly elevated in the contaminated areas. In approximately 20 years, after the smeltery was closed in 1984, the lead concentrations of the fruits and berries in local gardens have decreased to one-tenth. In some samples, the limit values are still exceeded. The lead concentration in ambient air is now 50 times lower than in the 1970s. The blood lead level of the children living in the area is slightly but statistically significantly higher than that of the children in the control areas. The critical blood lead level, i.e. 10 microg/100 ml, was not exceeded in any of the children examined. The average and maximum lead concentrations of 63 analysed blood samples were 2.2 and 5 microg/100 ml, respectively. In contrast, the average and maximum blood lead levels of school children in 1981 were 6.7 and 13.0 microg/100 ml, respectively. The risk reduction measures undertaken during the past 20 years are described. PMID:14967502

  14. Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie; Cleland, Verity J; Campbell, Karen J; Timperio, Anna F; Abbott, Gavin; Brug, Johannes; Baur, Louise A; Salmon, Jo A

    2012-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the underlying drivers of obesity-risk behaviours is needed to inform prevention initiatives, particularly for individuals of low socioeconomic position who are at increased risk of unhealthy weight gain. However, few studies have concurrently considered factors in the home and local neighbourhood environments, and little research has examined determinants among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The present study examined home, social and neighbourhood correlates of BMI (kg/m2) in children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were collected from 491 women with children aged 5-12 years living in forty urban and forty rural socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (suburbs) of Victoria, Australia in 2007 and 2008. Mothers completed questionnaires about the home environment (maternal efficacy, perceived importance/beliefs, rewards, rules and access to equipment), social norms and perceived neighbourhood environment in relation to physical activity, healthy eating and sedentary behaviour. Children's height and weight were measured at school or home. Linear regression analyses controlled for child sex and age. In multivariable analyses, children whose mothers had higher efficacy for them doing physical activity tended to have lower BMI z scores (B = - 0·04, 95 % CI - 0·06, - 0·02), and children who had a television (TV) in their bedroom (B = 0·24, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·44) and whose mothers made greater use of food as a reward for good behaviour (B = 0·05, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·09) tended to have higher BMI z scores. Increasing efficacy among mothers to promote physical activity, limiting use of food as a reward and not placing TV in children's bedrooms may be important targets for future obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged communities. PMID:21824445

  15. High nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serotypes in Western Australian aboriginal people following 10 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    Deirdre A Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. METHODS: We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ≥5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ≥2µg/ml was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%, 19F (4.9% and 16F (3.2% isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ≥0.125µg/ml in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%, 19A (41.3%, 16F (29.0%. Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried

  16. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  17. Thyroid Function and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Children Living Near a Chemical Plant

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Mondal, Debapriya; Armstrong, Ben; Bloom, Michael S.; Fletcher, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background: Animal studies suggest that some perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) may impair thyroid function. Epidemiological findings, mostly related to adults, are inconsistent. Objectives: We investigated whether concentrations of PFAAs were associated with thyroid function among 10,725 children (1–17 years of age) living near a Teflon manufacturing facility in the Mid-Ohio Valley (USA). Meth...

  18. Rethinking responses to children and young people’s online lives

    Davies, Timothy G.; Bhullar, Sangeet; Dowty, Terri

    2011-01-01

    This brief discussion paper shares preliminary work to develop a practical framework for thinking about rights-respecting advocacy, policy and practice responses to support and empower children and young people in their daily encounters with the Internet and other networked digital technologies. Contemporary public service policy and practice responses to the role of the Internet in young people’s lives focus disproportionately on strategies involving web blocking and filtering, restriction o...

  19. The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience

    Frances Hills

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available South African studies have suggested that street children are resilient but also suicidal, engage in unprotected sex and other high risk sexual behaviour as a means of survival, have high rates of substance abuse and are physically abused and stigmatized due to their state of homelessness. However, few studies have explored in a more holistic manner the lived experiences of street children in South Africa. The main purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of street children living on the street of Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Adolescents (six males and four females between the ages of 14 and 18 years (average age=16 were purposively selected and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that incidence of violence and drug and alcohol use were common experiences of street life. Yet despite these challenges survival was made possible through personal and emotional strength, cultural values, religious beliefs, supportive peer relationships, and participation in sports activities. These protective, resilience resources should be strengthened in health promotion interventions with a focus on mental health, the prevention of violence, substance use, and daily physical activities that seems to provide meaning and hope.

  20. The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience.

    Hills, Frances; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2016-01-01

    South African studies have suggested that street children are resilient but also suicidal, engage in unprotected sex and other high risk sexual behaviour as a means of survival, have high rates of substance abuse and are physically abused and stigmatized due to their state of homelessness. However, few studies have explored in a more holistic manner the lived experiences of street children in South Africa. The main purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of street children living on the street of Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Adolescents (six males and four females) between the ages of 14 and 18 years (average age=16) were purposively selected and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that incidence of violence and drug and alcohol use were common experiences of street life. Yet despite these challenges survival was made possible through personal and emotional strength, cultural values, religious beliefs, supportive peer relationships, and participation in sports activities. These protective, resilience resources should be strengthened in health promotion interventions with a focus on mental health, the prevention of violence, substance use, and daily physical activities that seems to provide meaning and hope. PMID:27291160

  1. The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience

    Hills, Frances; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2016-01-01

    South African studies have suggested that street children are resilient but also suicidal, engage in unprotected sex and other high risk sexual behaviour as a means of survival, have high rates of substance abuse and are physically abused and stigmatized due to their state of homelessness. However, few studies have explored in a more holistic manner the lived experiences of street children in South Africa. The main purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of street children living on the street of Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Adolescents (six males and four females) between the ages of 14 and 18 years (average age=16) were purposively selected and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that incidence of violence and drug and alcohol use were common experiences of street life. Yet despite these challenges survival was made possible through personal and emotional strength, cultural values, religious beliefs, supportive peer relationships, and participation in sports activities. These protective, resilience resources should be strengthened in health promotion interventions with a focus on mental health, the prevention of violence, substance use, and daily physical activities that seems to provide meaning and hope. PMID:27291160

  2. What Explains the Educational Attainment Gap between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Youth?

    Frenette, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal people generally have lower levels of educational attainment than other groups in Canada, but little is known about the reasons behind this gap. This study is the second of two by the same author investigating the issue in detail. The first paper (Frenette 2011) concludes that the labour market benefits to pursuing further schooling are generally not lower for Aboriginal people than for non-Aboriginal people. This second paper takes a more direct approach to the subject by examinin...

  3. Uranium royalties and Aboriginal economic development

    In 1978 and 1979 agreements were negotiated under the Land Rights Act for development of the Ranger and Nabarlek uranium deposits, both located in the Alligator River Region. Over the period between March 1979 and June 1986, some $70 million have been paid to Aboriginal communities by these two projects. This paper is concerned with expenditure of uranium revenues by Aboriginal associations which have been established to receive up front and rental payments provided for in these agreements as well as the 30% of statutory royalties payable to Aboriginal communities affected by mining operations

  4. Live and Inactivated Influenza Vaccines Induce Similar Humoral Responses, but Only Live Vaccines Induce Diverse T-Cell Responses in Young Children

    Hoft, Daniel F.; Babusis, Elizabeth; Worku, Shewangizaw; Spencer, Charles T.; Lottenbach, Kathleen; Truscott, Steven M.; Abate, Getahun; Sakala, Isaac G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; CREECH, C. BUDDY; Gerber, Michael A.; Bernstein, David I.; Newman, Frances; Graham, Irene; Anderson, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Two doses of either trivalent live attenuated or inactivated influenza vaccines (LAIV and TIV, respectively) are approved for young children (≥24 months old for LAIV and ≥6 months old for TIV) and induce protective antibody responses. However, whether combinations of LAIV and TIV are safe and equally immunogenic is unknown. Furthermore, LAIV is more protective than TIV in children for unclear reasons.

  5. 當原住民與漢人在教室相遇:不同族群背景的教師與幼兒在教室之言談 Aboriginal and Han People in Classrooms: Discourse Styles between Teachers and

    李萍娜 Pyng-Na Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究探究不同族群師生之教室言談。採質性研究法進入兩個場域觀察:漢人教師與原住民幼兒、原住民教師與漢人幼兒。研究發現,漢人教師在原住民區教導的原住民幼兒,在教室之口說回答簡短、常穿插族語且在團體中交叉共構。漢人教師在原住民區之提問以封閉性問題居多,原住民幼兒被要求來前面單獨回答時則常靜默,但如有媒介物就能敘說;原住民幼兒口說日記遊走在真實和「編說」中,與漢人教師所欲討論真實事件形成雙軌平行之對答。漢人區任教之原住民教師口語表達常重複、補充說明和插入臺語;原住民教師與漢人幼兒之對話以開放性提問居多,提問的內容若為讓幼兒探索教師意圖,則常缺乏線索而造成幼兒隨意猜測;若是提問的內容為幼兒的經驗事件,則提供幼兒社會建構、同儕鷹架之對話關係。此外,在漢人區的原住民教師之言談常過度延伸或轉換主旨,以至於延宕提問結論或沒有結論。 This study explored classroom discourses between teachers and young children with different ethnic groups, adopting an ethnographic approach as the qualitative method. Data were collected from (1 a Han teacher and aboriginal children in a Paiwan tribe; and (2 a Painanese teacher and Han children in a Han area. The results indicated that in the class of the Han teacher, the discourse styles of the aboriginal children included short sentences and interpolating Paiwanese nouns. The aboriginal children were unfamiliar with speaking alone in front of people, and multiple children spoke over each other in group situations. If the aboriginal children had varied media, such as their own drawings, they could express themselves; when they discussed their daily lives based on these drawings, other children frequently participated, generating a story that varied between reality and

  6. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  7. The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.

    Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

  8. Burden Among Caregivers of Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in North India

    Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Kant, Shashi; Lodha, Rakesh; Kumar, Nand; Singh, Neelima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA) places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among 156 CLHA-caregiver dyads in North India was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Data were collected by using a pretested structured interview schedule. The caregiver burden was measured with a 36-item scale adapted from Burden Assessment Schedule of Schizophrenia Research Foundation (BASS). Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, the knowledge of caregivers, and issues related to health care, nutrition, education, and psychological aspects were studied. Results: Caregivers had a mean age of 35.9 ± 10.2 years. Women accounted for over three-fourth (76.9%) of the caregivers. Nearly two-third of them (65.4%) reported as living with HIV. The mean caregiver burden score was 68.7 ± 2.9. A majority of the caregivers reported either low or moderate burden. Standardized percentage score was high in the domains of physical and mental health, external support, patients’ behavior, and caregivers’ strategy and seemed to be comparatively less in the other domains such as support of the patient and taking responsibility. Conclusions: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as caregivers did

  9. Burden among caregivers of children living with human immunodeficiency virus in North India

    Ramesh Chand Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among 156 CLHA-caregiver dyads in North India was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Data were collected by using a pretested structured interview schedule. The caregiver burden was measured with a 36-item scale adapted from Burden Assessment Schedule of Schizophrenia Research Foundation (BASS. Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, the knowledge of caregivers, and issues related to health care, nutrition, education, and psychological aspects were studied. Results: Caregivers had a mean age of 35.9 ± 10.2 years. Women accounted for over three-fourth (76.9% of the caregivers. Nearly two-third of them (65.4% reported as living with HIV. The mean caregiver burden score was 68.7 ± 2.9. A majority of the caregivers reported either low or moderate burden. Standardized percentage score was high in the domains of physical and mental health, external support, patients′ behavior, and caregivers′ strategy and seemed to be comparatively less in the other domains such as support of the patient and taking responsibility. Conclusions: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as

  10. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  11. Living with childhood obesity: the experience of children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program

    Silvia Veridiana Zamparoni Victorino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the perceptions of obesity from the perspective of obese children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program. Descriptive exploratory study of qualitative nature. Data collection occurred in December 2013, along with eight children accompanied by a child and adolescent obesity group in a municipality in northwestern Paraná, Brazil, through semi-structured interviews. Data were submitted to content analysis, from which four categories emerged: “Obesity in children’s perspective”; “Being an obese child”; “Eating and the practice of physical exercise in the routine of obese children”; and “Living with obesity: social and family implications for children.” It was verified the negative impact of obesity on children’s lives, justifying the importance of multidisciplinary follow-up through group activities, seeking a comprehensive care. Nursing is accountable for planning activities of health promotion and control of this disease, in order to improve the quality of life.

  12. How Can Children Tell Us about Their Wellbeing? Exploring the Potential of Participatory Research Approaches within "Young Lives"

    Crivello, Gina; Camfield, Laura; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    "Wellbeing" is a key concept in the study of children's lives over time, given its potential to link the objective, subjective, and inter-subjective dimensions of their experiences in ways that are holistic, contextualized and longitudinal. For this reason wellbeing is one of the core concepts used by Young Lives, a 15-year project (2000-2015)…

  13. Children Writing "Hard Times": Lived Experiences of Poverty and the Class-Privileged Assumptions of a Mandated Curriculum

    Dutro, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Dutro discusses an analysis of the disconnect between the material realities of the lives of a group of third-grade children living in poverty and the middle-class assumptions of a district-mandated unit within a literacy curriculum. The analysis arose in the context of an ethnographic study of identity and classroom literacy practices; it was…

  14. Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

  15. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Indonesian children living with a sputum smear-positive case

    Rutherford, M.E.; Hill, P.C.; Maharani, W.; Apriani, L.; Sampurno, H.; Crevel, R. van; Ruslami, R.

    2012-01-01

    SETTING AND OBJECTIVES: Young children living with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases are at high risk of infection and disease, and screening is recommended. This is rarely conducted in resource-limited settings. Identifying children most at risk of infection may be useful for setting practical scr

  16. Maids or Mentors? The Effects of Live-In Foreign Domestic Workers on Children's Educational Achievement in Hong Kong

    Tang, Sam Hak Kan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of live-in foreign domestic workers (FDWs) on school children's educational outcomes using samples from two population censuses and a survey data set. The evidence consistently points to Filipino FDWs improving the educational outcomes of school children by decreasing their probability of late schooling or increasing…

  17. Managing Mobile Relationships: Children's Perceptions of the Impact of the Mobile Phone on Relationships in Their Everyday Lives

    Bond, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This article explores English children's use of mobile phones in managing and maintaining friendships and relationships in their everyday lives. Based on the accounts of 30 young people aged between 11 and 17, this research adopts a social constructivist perspective to offer a theoretical framework which explores how children themselves actually…

  18. Substance Flow Analysis: A Case Study of Fluoride Exposure through Food and Beverages in Young Children Living in Ethiopia

    Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Scheidegger, Ruth; Julshamn, Kåre; Bader, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Context Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Children are especially vulnerable to excessive fluoride intake because their permanent teeth are still being formed. Strategies to reduce the total fluoride intake by children are thus warranted. Case presentation By combining the results of field studies in Ethiopia, the relevant pathways for fluoride intake have been identified in 28 children 2–5 years of age living in two villages on the Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate...

  19. The predictive value of albuminuria for renal and nonrenal natural deaths over 14 years follow-up in a remote aboriginal community

    Wang, Zaimin; Wendy E. Hoy

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian aboriginal people living in remote regions have extraordinary higher rates of mortality compared with other Australian ethnicities. Albuminuria marks the underlying renal disease. This study assessed the predictive value of albuminuria for nonrenal and renal deaths in a remote Australian aboriginal community over a follow-up period of >14 years. Methods From 1992 to 1997, 85% of community members participated in a health screen, which included measurement of urine albumi...

  20. The impact of living on the streets on latency children's friendships

    Rohde Luís A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a study to evaluate friendships in latency street boys of Porto Alegre, RGS, Brazil. METHODS: A sample of 30 latency street boys was compared with a sample of 51 latency boys living with their low income families, using the Cornell Interview of Peers and Friends (CIPF. RESULTS: The two groups had a significantly different CIPF global scores, and the boys of the street group had the highest mean score. Also, boys of the street had significantly lower developmental appropriateness, self-esteem and social skills scores than boys living with a family. CONCLUSIONS: The urgent need for intervention street children, especially on boys of the street, is emphasized.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (IMOJEV®) in children.

    Chokephaibulkit, K; Houillon, G; Feroldi, E; Bouckenooghe, A

    2016-02-01

    JE-CV (IMOJEV®, Sanofi Pasteur, France) is a live attenuated virus vaccine constructed by inserting coding sequences of the prM and E structural proteins of the Japanese encephalitis SA14-14-2 virus into the genome of yellow fever 17D virus. Primary immunization with JE-CV requires a single dose of the vaccine. This article reviews clinical trials of JE-CV in children aged up to 6 years conducted in countries across South-East Asia. Strong and persistent antibody responses were observed after single primary and booster doses, with 97% of children seroprotected up to five years after booster vaccination. Models of long-term antibody persistence predict a median duration of protection of approximately 30 years after a booster dose. The safety and reactogenicity profiles of JE-CV primary and booster doses are comparable to other widely used childhood vaccines. PMID:26588242

  2. The Meaning of Musical Instruments and Music Technologies in Children's Lives

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, I will investigate the role of musical instruments in children’s lives. A musical instrument is a thing which has the capacity to produce a variation of sounds perceived as music when the musician follows certain conventions and rules. The child who learns to play a musical...... instrument involves him/herself both with music as a cultural field and with the steady technical and expressive requirements from the particular musical instrument. However, whereas music accompanies very many activities in everyday life of children, fewer children have such an active relationship with a...... musical instrument. The more so when what is practiced by the instrument is classical music. This gap between music as consumed (listening to) and music as practiced (playing) is interesting from a developmental perspective: what does it mean for a child to play a musical instrument? And in which ways may...

  3. Femicide and murdered women's children: Which future for these children orphans of a living parent?

    Ferrara, P; Caporale, O.; Cutrona, C.; Sbordone, A.; Amato, M.; Spina, G.; Ianniello, F.; Fabrizio, G.; Guadagno, C.; Basile, M.; Miconi, F.; Perrone, G; RICCARDI, R; Verrotti, A.; Pettoello-Mantovani, M

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of femicides in Italy over the last three years and the potential long lasting effects of these traumatic events for the children of a woman who dies a violent death. Methods The data used in this study come from an internet search for the number of femicides occurring in Italy between 1st January, 2012 and 31st October, 2014. Results The total number of femicides was 319; the average age of murdered women was 47.50 ± 19.26. Cold arms in the form of sharp o...

  4. An uncommon cause of seizures in children living in developed countries: neurocysticercosis -a case report

    Denegri Federica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurocysticercosis represents an important cause of seizures in children in endemic countries, such as Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, while in Europe, especially in Italy, the cases of neurocysticercosis are anectodal. We report the case of a 6 year old boy, born and lived for four years in Cameroon, who presented a right emiconvulsion. The diagnosis was neurocysticercosis. This case accentuates the need to consider neurocysticercosis in a child presenting with non febrile seizures, mainly if he emigrated from an area of high prevalence or if he had long-term stay in endemic regions.

  5. Aboriginal Learning Styles and Adult Education: Is a Synthesis Possible?

    Byrnes, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Review of both aboriginal and nonaboriginal literature elicited principles for aborigine adult education: enabling learner control; supporting and reflecting culture, values, and experience; conducting learning in places familiar to learners; and using culturally appropriate content and teaching strategies. (SK)

  6. Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context

    Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

  7. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  8. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  9. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  10. Aboriginal English: A Case for the Recognition of Prior Learning.

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    This paper discusses Aboriginal English speakers in Australia, noting the importance of recognizing prior learning and of recognizing Aboriginal English within the context of programs that understand the particular areas where Aboriginal English speakers need support to achieve outcomes in standard English. It defines recognition of prior learning…

  11. Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil

    Maria Clotildes N. de Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children,each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.

  12. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis in Australian aborigines.

    Young, R J; Hoy, W E; Kincaid-Smith, P; Seymour, A E; Bertram, J F

    2000-09-01

    We have previously described the prevalence of glomerulomegaly in biopsy specimens from Australian Aborigines with renal disease, a phenomenon documented in a number of other indigenous populations. Many of the biopsy specimens showed variable degrees of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Correlations between glomerular size and FSGS have been described in various animal models, as well as studies of humans. The aim of this study is to determine whether a relation exists between glomerular volume and severity of FSGS in biopsy specimens from Australian Aboriginals in the Northern Territory and Aboriginal inhabitants of the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst Island and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia). Consecutive clinical biopsy specimens were obtained from 78 non-Tiwi and 72 Tiwi Aboriginals. Glomerular volume was estimated using the stereological method of Weibel and Gomez. FSGS was graded from 0 to 4; 0 indicates no sclerosis and 4 indicates severe sclerosis. A biphasic relationship between glomerular size and severity of FSGS was identified. As the severity of FSGS increased from grade 0 to grade 3, glomerular size also increased. For both populations studied, glomeruli scored as grades 1, 2, and 3 were approximately 50% (PAustralian Aborigines. PMID:10977779

  13. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    Blinkhorn Fiona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808

  14. PROBLEM OF METABOLIC DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS LIVING IN THE REPUBLIC OF MORDOVIA

    A. V. Krasnopolskaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, as many other rheumatic diseases, is in close pathogenic connection with metabolic disorders and early atherosclerosis. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components both in healthy Finno-Ugrian children and teens and JIA patients is unknown.Objective of the present work was to study the prevalence of metabolic disorders in children with JIA, living in the Republic of Mordovia.Subjects and methods. Authors have examined 82 children (among them 44 girls with JIA aged 10–18 years. Results. Full complex of metabolic syndrome symptoms was revealed in 36.6% of patients, most of which had arthritis. Dyslipidaemia, obesity and arterial hypertension were recorded most frequently and correlated with activity of the disease and the dose of systemic glucocorticoids.Conclusion. JIA is associated with high prevalence of metabolic disorders which only partially (arterial hypertension and carbohydrate metabolism disorders are connected with glucocorticoid therapy and mainly determined by the high inflammatory activity of the disease.

  15. Children and teenagers living in orphanages victims of violence: dilemmas and nursing perspectives

    Paloma Reschke Salomão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to understand the nursing care provided to children/teenagers victims of violence living in orphanages and to identify the strategies used on the treatment of these individuals when they arrive at the institution. Qualitative, exploratory-descriptive study conducted from March to April 2012, at the headquarters of the Fundação de Proteção Especial do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul [Special Protection Foundation of the State of Rio Grande do Sul] in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data were collected through focus group in three meetings with seven nurses from the mentioned institution. The analysis of the information followed the proposed theme, identifying three categories: violence conceptions and vulnerability factors, nursing care provided to children/teenagers victims of violence and violence prevention in orphanages. Conclusions point out that attendance protocols are fundamental for integral care and that recreational content may be a strategy for taking care of children/teenagers victims of violence.

  16. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  17. New estimates of the number of children living with substance misusing parents: results from UK national household surveys

    Faulkner Nathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing estimates of there being 250,000 - 350,000 children of problem drug users in the UK (ACMD, 2003 and 780,000 - 1.3 million children of adults with an alcohol problem (AHRSE, 2004 are extrapolations of treatment data alone or estimates from other countries, hence updated, local and broader estimates are needed. Methods The current work identifies profiles where the risk of harm to children could be increased by patterns of parental substance use and generates new estimates following secondary analysis of five UK national household surveys. Results The Health Survey for England (HSfE and General Household Survey (GHS (both 2004 generated consistent estimates - around 30% of children under-16 years (3.3 - 3.5 million in the UK lived with at least one binge drinking parent, 8% with at least two binge drinkers and 4% with a lone (binge drinking parent. The National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (NPMS indicated that in 2000, 22% (2.6 million lived with a hazardous drinker and 6% (705,000 with a dependent drinker. The British Crime Survey (2004 and NPMS (2000 indicated that 8% (up to 978,000 of children lived with an adult who had used illicit drugs within that year, 2% (up to 256,000 with a class A drug user and 7% (up to 873,000 with a class C drug user. Around 335,000 children lived with a drug dependent user, 72,000 with an injecting drug user, 72,000 with a drug user in treatment and 108,000 with an adult who had overdosed. Elevated or cumulative risk of harm may have existed for the 3.6% (around 430,000 children in the UK who lived with a problem drinker who also used drugs and 4% (half a million where problem drinking co-existed with mental health problems. Stronger indicators of harm emerged from the Scottish Crime Survey (2000, according to which 1% of children (around 12,000 children had witnessed force being used against an adult in the household by their partner whilst drinking alcohol and 0.6% (almost 6000

  18. Dis/Abling States, Dis/Abling Citizenship: Young Aboriginal Mothers and the Medicalization of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Salmon, Amy

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on data collected in group interviews with six young, urban Aboriginal mothers whose lives have included substance use and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/ Fetal Alcohol Effects (hereafter FAS/FAE) to highlight the multiple and often contradictory ways in which disability as a constituent of social relations is defined in public policy…

  19. Participation of Aboriginal peoples in resource development

    The means by which the petroleum industry can establish a successful relationship with Aboriginal people and their community are described. It was emphasized that industry and Aboriginals must define training, employment and business objectives jointly for the longer term. Suncor's Oil Sands Group operates in an area considered to be traditional lands by the First Nation and Metis people of Fort McKay. Suncor recognizes its responsibilities to Fort McKay and has taken the approach to support Aboriginal community development through written agreements and protocols which identify the social, economic, environmental and political issues that are important to them. The Memorandum of Understanding between Suncor Energy Oil Sands, Fort McKay First Nation, and Fort McKay Metis Local 122 is used as an example of one major company's initiatives to establish a mutually supportive and interdependent relationship

  20. A research review: exploring the health of Canada's Aboriginal youth

    Ashley Ning

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design. A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010. The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care, and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC. Results. Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC

  1. Gudaga Goes to School Study: Methods Used in Understanding School Transitions and Early Education Experiences of an Urban Aboriginal Cohort

    Kaplun, Cathy; Knight, Jennifer; Grace, Rebekah; Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob; Comino, Elizabeth; Jackson-Pulver, Lisa; Kemp, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The Gudaga Goes to School Study described the transition to school and early education experiences of 117 urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper outlines the methods and design of the study. A life course approach, employing multidimensional and multi-theoretical frameworks was used to capture the complexity of issues surrounding…

  2. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  3. Women at greatest risk: Reducing injection frequency among young Aboriginal drug users in British Columbia

    Pearce, Margo Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates why some young Aboriginal people inject opiates at higher frequency than others and suggests policies to address high frequency opiate injection. Multivariate logistic regression is used to analyze data gathered between 2003-04 in Vancouver and Prince George Independent variables include those shown as significant in relevant literature, demographics factors associated with severe addiction, and HCV imd HIV serostatus. Career injectors, females, those living in Vancouv...

  4. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  5. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  6. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  7. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  8. Multiple strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in skin sores of aboriginal Australians.

    Carapetis, J; Gardiner, D; Currie, B; Mathews, J D

    1995-01-01

    A molecular technique (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) was used to characterize group A streptococcal (GAS) strains among 194 isolates from 55 swabs from 12 Australian Aboriginal children and adults with multiple pyoderma lesions. Ninety-three percent of the lesions contained only one strain of GAS, but 8 of 12 individuals were infected with more than one strain. We conclude that accurate epidemiologic surveys require that more than one swab specimen be obtained from each person, whe...

  9. Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians.

    Chung, Esther K; Siegel, Benjamin S; Garg, Arvin; Conroy, Kathleen; Gross, Rachel S; Long, Dayna A; Lewis, Gena; Osman, Cynthia J; Jo Messito, Mary; Wade, Roy; Shonna Yin, H; Cox, Joanne; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources. PMID:27101890

  10. Quality of life and psychosocial well-being among children living with HIV at a care home in Southern India

    Lang, Tess; Heylen, Elsa; Perumpil, Sheeja; Shet, Anita; Perumpil, Mathew; Steward, Wayne; Shamban, Emily; Maria L Ekstrand

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of children living with HIV at an institutional care home in Bangalore, India. The Sneha Care Home is a unique residence that provides educational and community support with a focus on physical, nutritional, medical, and psychological care for orphans and vulnerable children. Cross-sectional health measures and interview data were collected from 97 residents including 52 boys and 45 girls between 5 and 12 years of age (mean age = 9...

  11. Costs of Inaction on Maternal Mortality: Qualitative Evidence of the Impacts of Maternal Deaths on Living Children in Tanzania.

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Vanessa M Boulanger; Falb, Kathryn L; Shuma, Jane; Leaning, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the interconnectedness of maternal deaths and impacts on children, beyond infants, or the mechanisms through which this interconnectedness is established. A study was conducted in rural Tanzania to provide qualitative insight regarding how maternal mortality affects index as well as other living children and to identify shared structural and social factors that foster high levels of maternal mortality and child vulnerabilities. Methods and Findings Adult famil...

  12. Costs of Inaction on Maternal Mortality: Qualitative Evidence of the Impacts of Maternal Deaths on Living Children in Tanzania

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Vanessa M Boulanger; Falb, Kathryn L; Shuma, Jane; Leaning, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the interconnectedness of maternal deaths and impacts on children, beyond infants, or the mechanisms through which this interconnectedness is established. A study was conducted in rural Tanzania to provide qualitative insight regarding how maternal mortality affects index as well as other living children and to identify shared structural and social factors that foster high levels of maternal mortality and child vulnerabilities. Methods and Findings: Adult fam...

  13. On hormonal activity of thyroid in children-oligopherens, living in endemic goiter region of medium intensity

    106 children with oligophrenia from a region of strumous endemia in Upland Shoria were examined clinically and by radioisotope methods in order to reveal thyroid function disorders. The investigation proved the necessity of more detailed examination of children, living in strumous endemia region. The revealed deviations in thyroid hormonal function were the least among aborigens. The fact testifies the conclusions that aborigens have certain adaptation mechanisms

  14. Aborigines and uranium: consolidated report to the Minister for Aboriginal Affairs on the social impact of uranium mining on the aborigines of the Northern Territory

    This consolidated report for the period October 1978 to June 1984 examines the aboriginal social environment, the impact and consequences for aborigines of uranium mining. The report looks at the question of monitoring social impact and examines in detail the findings and recommendations of the Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry. The social impact of mining is discussed, including the complexity of law and administration, economic consequences, health and aboriginal civic culture

  15. Influence of music lessons on the vocabulary of bilingual children : a study among 16 bilingual children living in mixed communicative environment in Oslo, Norway

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies in the field of bilingualism and early childhood education have been made. Very few studies, from the ones I found, focus specifically on using music activities with the bilingual children, which raises interest for this particular research. Being a teacher of music myself it made me especially interested in such kind of research. The study may lead to a better understanding of influence of music lessons on extending of vocabulary of children living in mixed commu...

  16. Children Living near a Sanitary Landfill Have Increased Breath Methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in Their Intestinal Microbiota

    Humberto Bezerra de Araujo Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher P<0.05 concentrations in those who lived in the slum near the landfill (3.16×107 CFU/g of feces, comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05×106 CFU/g of feces and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93×105 CFU/g of feces. The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  17. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  18. Correlates of Immunity to Influenza as Determined by Challenge of Children with Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    Wright, Peter F.; Hoen, Anne G.; Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Brown, Eric P.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I.; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Haynes, Brenda C.; Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta; Treanor, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of live, attenuated live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine(IIV) is poorly explained by either single or composite immune responses to vaccination. Protective biomarkers were therefore studied in response to LAIV or IIV followed by LAIV challenge in children. Methods. Serum and mucosal responses to LAIV or IIV were analyzed using immunologic assays to assess both quantitative and functional responses. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in nasal washes collected before vaccination, on days 2, 4, and 7 after initial LAIV, and again after LAIV challenge using a 63-multiplex Luminex panel. Results. Patterns of immunity induced by LAIV and IIV were significantly different. Serum responses induced by IIV, including hemagglutination inhibition, did not correlate with detection or quantitation of LAIV on subsequent challenge. Modalities that induced sterilizing immunity seen after LAIV challenge could not be defined by any measurements of mucosal or serum antibodies induced by the initial LAIV immunization. No single cytokine or chemokine was predictive of protection. Conclusions. The mechanism of protective immunity observed after LAIV could not be defined, and traditional measurements of immunity to IIV did not correlate with protection against an LAIV challenge.

  19. Giardiasis in children living in post-earthquake camps from Armenia (Colombia

    Gonzalez Maria

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake in the coffee growing region of Colombia on January 25, 1999 destroyed 70% of the houses in Armenia city. Transitory housing camps still remained until two years after the disaster. Parasitological studies found that, in this population, giardiasis was the most frequent parasitic infection. This study was carried out in order to determine the epidemiological risk factors associated with this high prevalence. Methods Fecal samples were obtained from 217 children aged between 3 and 13 years. Stool samples were studied by direct wet examination and stained with ferric hematoxilin for microscopical examination. Epidemiological data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by using the Epi-info software (CDC, Atlanta 2001. Results Giardia cysts were observed in 60.4% of the samples presented and trophozoites in 4.6%. The following epidemiological and laboratory factors were significantly associated with Giardia infection: 1. Use of communal toilet (vs. individual toilet OR: 3.9, CI95%: 1.2–16; 2. water provision by municipal ducts (vs. water provision by individual tanks OR: 3.5, CI95% 1.1–14, and 3. presence of mucus in stool OR: 2.3, IC95%: 0.9–6.7. Conclusions A high prevalence of giardiasis was found in children living in temporary houses after the 1999 earthquake in Armenia (Colombia. Giardiasis is an emerging disease in post-disaster situations and adequate prevention measures should be implemented during these circumstances.

  20. Changing Patterns of Neuropsychological Functioning in Children Living at High Altitude above and below 4000 M: A Report from the Bolivian Children Living at Altitude (BoCLA) Study

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Bucks, Romola; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Baya-Botti, Ana; Hogan, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to environmental hypoxia. Little is known, however, about the neuropsychological effects of high altitude residence in the developing brain. We recently described only minor changes in processing speed in native Bolivian children and adolescents living at approximately 3700 m. However, evidence for loss of cerebral…

  1. An investigation of admixture in an Australian Aboriginal Y-chromosome STR database.

    Taylor, Duncan; Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Wilcox, Stephen; Henry, Julianne; Turakulov, Rust; Mitchell, R John

    2012-09-01

    Y-chromosome specific STR profiling is increasingly used in forensic casework. However, the strong geographic clustering of Y haplogroups can lead to large differences in Y-STR haplotype frequencies between different ethnicities, which may have an impact on database composition in admixed populations. Aboriginal people have inhabited Australia for over 40,000 years and until ∼300 years ago they lived in almost complete isolation. Since the late 18th century Australia has experienced massive immigration, mainly from Europe, although in recent times from more widespread origins. This colonisation resulted in highly asymmetrical admixture between the immigrants and the indigenes. A State jurisdiction within Australia has created an Aboriginal Y-STR database in which assignment of ethnicity was by self-declaration. This criterion means that some males who identify culturally as members of a particular ethnic group may have a Y haplogroup characteristic of another ethnic group, as a result of admixture in their paternal line. As this may be frequent in Australia, an examination of the extent of genetic admixture within the database was performed. A Y haplogroup predictor program was first used to identify Y haplotypes that could be assigned to a European haplogroup. Of the 757 males (589 unique haplotypes), 445 (58.8%) were identified as European (354 haplotypes). The 312 non-assigned males (235 haplotypes) were then typed, in a hierarchical fashion, with a Y-SNP panel that detected the major Y haplogroups, C-S, as well as the Aboriginal subgroup of C, C4. Among these 96 males were found to have non-Aboriginal haplogroups. In total, ∼70% of Y chromosomes in the Aboriginal database could be classed as non-indigenous, with only 169 (129 unique haplotypes) or 22% of the total being associated with haplogroups denoting Aboriginal ancestry, C4 and K* or more correctly K(xL,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S). The relative frequencies of these indigenous haplogroups in South Australia (S

  2. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  3. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  4. Wilson's disease in an Australian aborigine.

    Crawford, D H; Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Patrick, M; Powell, L W

    1990-01-01

    Wilson's disease is due to a genetically determined defect inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most reported cases have been caucasoid. This report describes a case of Wilson's disease in an Australian Aboriginal girl, only the second such case reported. PMID:2129845

  5. Sustaining an Aboriginal mental health service partnership.

    Fuller, Jeffrey D; Martinez, Lee; Muyambi, Kuda; Verran, Kathy; Ryan, Bronwyn; Klee, Ruth

    2005-11-21

    The Regional Aboriginal Integrated Social and Emotional (RAISE) Wellbeing program commenced in February 2003 as an Aboriginal mental health service partnership between one Aboriginal Health Service and three mainstream services: a community mental health team, a hospital mental health liaison, and an "outback" community counselling service. A case study method was used to describe the drivers (incentives for program development), linkage processes (structures and activities through which the partnership operated), and sustainability of the program. Program drivers were longstanding problems with Aboriginal peoples' access to mental health care, policy direction favouring shared service responsibility, and a relatively small amount of new funding for mental health that allowed the program to commence. Linkage processes were the important personal relationships between key individuals. Developing the program as a part of routine practice within and across the partner organisations is now needed through formal agreements, common care-management tools, and training. The program's sustainability will depend on this development occurring, as well as better collection and use of data to communicate the value of the program and support calls for adequate recurrent funds. The development of care-management tools, training and data systems will require a longer period of start-up funding as well as some external expertise. PMID:16296956

  6. Comet and Meteorite Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  7. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and wheezing in children living in poor neighbourhoods in urban Latin American.

    Lívia Ribeiro Mendonça

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. METHODS: The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE. Skin prick test (SPT, total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. FINDINGS: Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction.

  8. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  9. Screening for anxiety symptoms and social desirability in children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan.

    Arabiat, Diana H; Jabery, Mohammad Al; Wardam, Lina

    2013-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms in a group of children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan, and their relation to social desirability in a cultural sample not previously researched. Using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), anxiety and social desirability data were obtained from 114 children diagnosed with chronic illnesses and 162 healthy control participants. Based on children's self-report, participants were categorized according to their adaptive style paradigm as either high anxious, low anxious, or repressor. It was proposed that children who score high on social desirability and low on anxiety are repressors. The prevalence of these categories was compared across the two groups. Anxiety was reported in 9.64 percent of the chronic illnesses and 12.34 percent of the healthy peers. Using the data obtained in the present study, the rate and nature of anxiety in children with chronic illnesses were lower for children in Jordan when compared to previous studies. However, social desirability values were similar to those established in Western societies suggesting a significantly higher percentage of children identified as repressors in children with long-term illnesses. These results supported the hypothesis regarding the relationship between social desirability and expressed anxiety symptoms. PMID:23242812

  10. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Background Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Healt...

  11. Children living near chipboard and wood industries are at an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases: a prospective study.

    Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Paolo, Girardi; Guarda, Linda; Pironi, Vanda; Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants emitted from wood processing factories may be harmful to the health of the population. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate whether proximity to wood factories was associated with the risk of hospital admissions in children living in the Viadana district (Italy), where two big chipboard industries and other smaller wood factories (sawmills, multi-strata layer manufacturing) are located. In 2006, children (3-14 years) living in the Viadana district were surveyed through a parental questionnaire (n=3854), their home/school addresses were geocoded and the distances to the wood industries were calculated. Hospital discharge records for the years 2007-2009 were obtained. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the association between hospitalization rates and distance to the factories, adjusting for sex, age, nationality, parents' education, exposure to passive smoking and reported traffic near home. During the 3-year follow-up, the risk of hospitalization for all diagnoses (Hospitalization Hazard Ratio, HHR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.24-1.95) and for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.86) was greater in the children living close (factory. The children living close to the smaller wood factories were also at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.06-2.85). This study highlights a health problem for the children living close to chipboard and wood factories in the Viadana district. Further research should develop accurate exposure models based on objective measurements of air pollution in order to confirm these findings. PMID:23628305

  12. Experiences of stigma and access to HAART in children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil.

    Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Castro, Arachu

    2006-03-01

    This study describes and conceptualizes the experiences of stigma in a group of children living with HIV in São Paulo, Brazil, and evaluates the impact of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) over the social course of AIDS and over the children's experiences of stigma. Through ethnographic research in São Paulo from 1999 to 2001, the life trajectories of 50 children ages 1-15 living with or affected by HIV were studied. Data were collected via participant observation and semi-structured informal interviews and analyzed using social theories on illness experience and social inequality. Our results demonstrate that AIDS-related stigma occurs within complex discrimination processes that change as children reach adolescence. We found that structural violence in the forms of poverty, racism, and inequalities in social status, gender, and age fuels children's experiences of stigma. We also describe how access to HAART changes the lived experience of children, reduces stigma, and brings new challenges in AIDS care such as adolescents' sexuality and treatment adherence. Based on these results, we propose structural violence as the framework to study stigma and argue that interventions to reduce stigma that solely target the perception and attitudes toward people living with HIV are limited. In contrast universal access to HAART in Brazil is a powerful intervention that reduces stigma, in that it transforms AIDS from a debilitating and fatal disease to a chronic and manageable one, belongs to a broader mechanism to assure citizens' rights, and reduces social inequalities in access to health care. PMID:16099573

  13. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  14. Quality of life and psychosocial well-being among children living with HIV at a care home in Southern India

    Lang, Tess; Heylen, Elsa; Perumpil, Sheeja; Shet, Anita; Perumpil, Mathew; Steward, Wayne; Shamban, Emily; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of children living with HIV at an institutional care home in Bangalore, India. The Sneha Care Home is a unique residence that provides educational and community support with a focus on physical, nutritional, medical, and psychological care for orphans and vulnerable children. Cross-sectional health measures and interview data were collected from 97 residents including 52 boys and 45 girls between 5 and 12 years of age (mean age = 9). QOL was measured with the Pediatric Quality of Life 4.0 (PedsQL) Inventory. Caregivers perceived children to have an overall higher QOL than was self-reported by children (total score 83 vs. 78). Our findings indicated self-reported QOL decreased with age of the child, while caregiver-reported QOL increased with age, suggesting a need to ensure greater psychological support for older children. Physical measures showed the children's clinical severity of disease remained well controlled living in this residential, values-based care home. PMID:25987890

  15. The Chernobyl trace in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of children living on the territories contaminated with radionuclides

    Lymphocytes were characterized by cytogenetic, cytochemical and immune phenotype parameters. The stratification of the children population was demonstrated: in lymphocytes of children living on more contaminated territories (over 15 Ci/square km) radiation-induced aberrations are often, and judging by environment-dependent cytochemical lymphocyte markers, these children have a higher risk of the possible foreseen accident consequences. 5.5 per cent of children-residents of Krasnogorsk district have accumulated inside their bodies dangerous amounts of cesium 137, producing additional internal irradiation at annual dose of over 1 mZv. The majority of these so called 'accumulator' children live on the territories where soil contamination with 137Cs exceeds 15 Ci/square km; (and even 40 Ci/square km). Significantly more radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, decreased absolute lymphocytes number (CD2+, CD4+ subsets also decreased), and significantly lower number of lymphocytes with point nonspecific esterase (the marker of mature T-lymphocytes) were observed in these 'accumulator' children. While analyzing cytochemical lymphocytograms in 1994-1995 we revealed some unfavorable trends implying probable enhancement of thyroid cancer and other chronic pathologies against the background of weakened community

  16. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Wirting in English", pp. 32-44

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  17. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Writing in English", pp. 32-44

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  18. "Try to Understand Us":Aboriginal Elders’ Views on Exceptionality

    Ron Phillips

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the views of four Elders at the “A Window to Seeing the World Differently, National Symposium on Aboriginal Special Education” that was held in October 2005 at First Nations University of Canada in Regina. The symposium was an opportunity to provide educators, students, parents, and community members with information on Aboriginal views on special education. Concern had been expressed over the high numbers of Aboriginal students being identified as “spec...

  19. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of onychomycosis in primary school children living in rural and urban areas in Central Anatolia of Turkey

    Mustafa Gulgun; Elcin Balci; Abdulbaki Karaoglu; Vural Kesik; Oguzhan Babacan; Muzaffer Kursat Fidanci; Turker Turker; Duran Tok; Nedret Koc

    2013-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a world-wide public health concern in children, requiring epidemiological data for different regions for control and prevention. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predominant pathogens and risk factors for onychomycosis in school children living in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: This study included 8122 school children, aged 5-16 years, living in the rural and urban areas around Kayseri. Onychomycosis was clinically classified as distal and lateral subungu...

  1. The use of a standardized language assessment tool to measure the language development of urban Aboriginal preschoolers.

    Miller, Erin; Webster, Vana; Knight, Jennifer; Comino, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    The use of standardized language assessment tools with Australian Indigenous children has been criticized for language and cultural reasons; however, this has not been tested in an urban context. The aim of the study was to explore the language performance of a small sample of urban Aboriginal preschoolers on a standardized language tool compared with a conversational sample. Fifteen participants (drawn from a birth cohort study of over 150 Aboriginal infants born at a metropolitan hospital) completed the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool Edition, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and generated a 30-minute conversational language sample. Descriptive data are reported, and five case studies are explored in detail to compare results of the CELF-P2 and the language sample analysis. Grammatical features of Aboriginal English are also investigated. There was a diverse range of responses to standardized assessment and language sampling, with some samples reflective of CELF-P2 results. Two or more grammatical features of Aboriginal English were identified in 13 of the language samples. The results suggest the CELF-P2 is an appropriate tool to use to assess the language development of the children in the study when used in conjunction with analysis of language samples obtained using culturally appropriate methods. PMID:23829438

  2. Primary Health Networks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    Couzos, Sophia; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Page, Priscilla

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Government has established that the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is a priority for the newly established 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs). Efforts to reduce the high hospitalisation rates of Aboriginal people will require PHNs to build formal participatory structures with Aboriginal health organisations to support best practice service models. There are precedents as to how PHNs can build formal partnerships with Aboriginal community controlled health services (ACCHSs), establish an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander steering committee to guide strategic plan development, and work towards optimising comprehensive primary care. All health services within PHN boundaries can be supported to systematically and strategically improve their responsiveness to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people by assessing systems of care, adopting best practice models, embedding quality assurance activity, and participating in performance reporting. PHNs can be guided to adopt an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-specific quality improvement framework, agree to local performance measures, review specialist and other outreach services to better integrate with primary health care, enhance the cultural competence of services, and measure and respond to progress in reducing potentially preventable hospitalisations. Through collaborations and capacity building, PHNs can transition certain health services towards greater Aboriginal community control. These proposals may assist policy makers to develop organisational performance reporting on PHN efforts to close the gap in Aboriginal health disparity. PMID:27031397

  3. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. METHODS: Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. RESULTS: Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. DISCUSSION: The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period

  4. Parental Perceptions of the Role of Media and Technology in Their Young Children's Lives

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Snider, Sharla; Rose, Katherine K; Rippy, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey parental media attitudes and perceptions of their children's knowledge and engagement with various media technologies, as well as to explore the children's actual knowledge and experience with these tools. A total of 101 US parents of young children (ages 2-7 years) and 39 children (ages 3-6 years)…

  5. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    John D Scott; Naomi Garland

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death.Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD,but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD.Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive.In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

  6. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  7. When the Streets Speak: Investigating Music, Memory, and Identity in the Lives of Abidjanese Street Children

    Taylor, Ty-Juana

    2016-01-01

    Africa currently has tens of millions of street children roaming its city streets, making it one of the leading regions in the world for children who have made the streets their home. Because of the exponential increase in street children over the past decade, the topic of street children has gained uncharted momentum in the world of academia. Until recently, academics have perpetuated the myth of street children as passive helpless beings. However, after fourteen months of observation and re...

  8. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  9. The impact of taxation on Aboriginal ventures

    The paper covers several key objectives including: sheltering income and assets owned by Bands from taxation; structuring businesses so that taxes are minimized at the outset; maintaining and managing business operations so as to ensure taxes continue to be minimized; and shifting permissible deductions to non-Aboriginal business partners (whenever possible) without infringing upon the rights Indians are entitled to under Section 87 of the Indian Act. The paper does not consider exploiting the rights or assets of Indians, rather it is about willing and cooperative business partners who are able to take advantage of a unique situation so that various levels of government do not get a bigger slice of the pie. It is important to remember that if one partner needs more cash to pay taxes, all partners suffer, because there is less cash available to reinvest in the business. Most First Nations and Aboriginal people maintain that taxes do not apply to them because various levels of government have no jurisdiction over them. The paper does not dispute this claim, rather while the issue of self-government and related jurisdictions issues are being resolved, it is still important to focus on using the status quo in minimizing taxes for Aboriginal businesses. The paper considers: the various taxes requiring consideration; the impact of other legislation and agreements; the various business structures and their treatment; and how to find the best structure for each business

  10. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  11. [Understanding and support for children with autism spectrum and developmental disorders--looking steadily at peaceful lives in adolescence].

    Sasaki, Masami

    2010-05-01

    For a long time autism spectrum and developmental disorders have not been well understood. Treatment and education for children with this disorders have been inappropriate in many ways. Although this fact was not obvious until many such children began to demonstrate secondary emotional disturbances including social withdrawal, social aggression, delinquency, domestic violence and momicide. This discourse describes advances in research and practice of clinical and psycho-neurological for autism spectrum in recent years. In addition, I suggest policies and measures for therapeutic education that will avoid secondary symptoms allowing these individuals to conduct their lives in socially independent directions. PMID:23858573

  12. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  13. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  14. Tympanic membrane temperature in adopted children associated with sleep problems and pre-adoption living arrangements: an exploratory study

    Damsteegt, Rani C; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Out, Dorothée; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tympanic membrane temperature (TMT) has been proposed as an indicator of cerebral activation and TMT asymmetry may indicate lateralization, which has been associated with specific (problem) behaviors in children and adults. The current study explored the relations between pre-adoption living arrangements, TMT, and behavior and sleep problems in a sample of adopted toddlers. Methods Ninety-two families who had adopted a Chinese girl who had previously been placed in an institution o...

  15. Border-line neuro psychic disturbances in children and teenagers living on the territory contaminated with radionuclides

    Spread of the border-line neuro psychic disturbances in children and teenagers aged 10-16 living in the districts contaminated with radionuclides was studied. A marked increase of psychic disturbances, particularly in girls, attributed to the growth of neurotic and neurosis-like disorders as compared with the control group was revealed. Asthenic type disorders prevailed in derangement structure. 7 refs., 1 tab

  16. Social support as a protective factor for children impacted by HIV/AIDS across varying living environments in southern Africa.

    Barenbaum, Edna; Smith, Tamarah

    2016-03-01

    The literature on the psychological well-being of children impacted by HIV/AIDS in Africa highlights increased vulnerability due to loss of parents and environmental stressors (e.g., hunger). Research shows that the lack of attachment and social support due to loss limits the grieving process in children. Access to trusting adults and social support through caregivers can be an important protective factor to allow for coping and better emotional adjustment in the future. This study examined social support systems across varying living environments to determine if social support promoted higher levels of well-being in children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. The participants included 100 children from a small targeted population in southern Africa who receive varying levels of support from a private not-for-profit organization. Children's well-being was assessed through the Psycho-Social Adjustment Scale-Adolescents developed specifically for vulnerable child populations in Africa. Children were individually interviewed either on their homestead, school or hostel. Data demonstrated that children who do not share their feelings had significantly lower measures of positive well-being (M = 2.61 (0.87) vs. M = 3.10 (0.57), d = 0.60). Children with trusted adults were significantly more likely to share their feelings and had lower incidence of hunger (49.1% vs. 62.5%), suicide ideation (15.1% vs. 62.5%) and witnessing violence (69.8% vs. 87.5%). Sharing feelings with caregivers was more pronounced among children who had greater access to trusted adults and correlated with stronger attachment scores (r = .30, p < .01). An important component to decrease levels of anxiety and depression in this vulnerable population is providing access to trusted individuals. Social support interventions are discussed. PMID:27392004

  17. The small anomalies of heart development of children which live in radionuclide contaminated territories in Belarus

    Almost 1000 children from radionuclide contaminated territories (1-5 Ci/km2) were examined for small heart malformation. 25% children have anomalous position of cardiac chord in left ventricular cavity. Causes of suspicion are given

  18. Troubled traces: painting and displaying intercultural traumas of Aboriginality

    Heather Kamarra Shearer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behind the pointillism of dot paintings or ‘naïve’ techniques, Aboriginal artists stridently critique histories of injustice, incarceration, racism, colonialism and dispossession. This personal testimony from Heather Kamarra Shearer, one of the ‘stolen generation’ of Aboriginal Australians, reflects on her life story and her present vocation in the field of legal rights and as an artist.

  19. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    2010-03-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XN25 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  20. 78 FR 13028 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    2013-02-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC460 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to...

  1. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    2011-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA309 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  2. 77 FR 21540 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    2012-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA967 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to...

  3. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  4. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    Norris, R. P.

    2010-10-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, and its own ceremonies and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Sadly, the Australian media tend to focus on negative aspects of contemporary Aboriginal culture, and very few non-Aboriginal people in the wider Australian community are aware of the intellectual depth of traditional Aboriginal cultures. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider public about Aboriginal astronomy, so that they might understand something of the depth and complexity of traditional Aboriginal cultures. This article describes some of the challenges and successes of this programme, and the impact that this work has had on Australian perceptions of Aboriginal culture, helping to build a bridge across the cultures. It also describes the achievement of an unexpected and unplanned goal: the inclusion of Aboriginal astronomy opened up astronomy to a section of the population who had never before intentionally attended a talk on science.

  5. Aboriginal English in the Classroom: An Asset or a Liability?

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of Australian Aboriginal English in the classroom in the light of a recent survey. Aboriginal English is often correlated with low academic performance and poor school attendance. The paper argues that in any discussion of the school role of students' home talk, a range of factors need to be…

  6. Educational Implications of the Values Held by Australian Aboriginal Students.

    White, Colin; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the values held by Australian aboriginal college students, which are more collective than those of non-aboriginal students, could help explain their low achievement levels. Longitudinal survey data indicated there were factors other than value systems that had a much greater impact on students' problems (e.g., lack of…

  7. The Aboriginal-White Encounter: Towards Better Communication.

    Bain, Margaret S.

    The research reported here seeks to explain communication failure between Whites and Aboriginals in Australia, based on an examination of fundamental concepts underlying the world view of each group. The research arose from the observation that in Aboriginal-White encounters, each group had different expectations of and conclusions about the same…

  8. Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada

    Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

  9. Training of Para-Legal Staff: The Aboriginal Legal Service.

    Roberts, Kim

    1978-01-01

    Describes the in-service training project for Australian aboriginal paralegal field officers of the Aboriginal Legal Service, organized by the Law School and Extension Service of the University of Western Australia. The project team acted as facilitators for the field officers, a participative training program design being found to be important.…

  10. Seeding Success: Schools That Work for Aboriginal Students

    Munns, Geoff; O'Rourke, Virginia; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a large mixed methods research project that investigated the conditions of success for Aboriginal school students. The article presents the qualitative case study component of the research. It details the work of four schools identified as successful for Aboriginal students with respect to social and academic outcomes, and…

  11. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum

    Carolina Santos Mello; Soraia Tahan; Lígia Cristina FL Melli; Mirian Silva do Carmo Rodrigues; Ricardo Martin Pereira de Mello; Isabel Cristina Affonso Scaletsky; Mauro Batista de Morais

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. METHODS: This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children fro...

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children Living With Addicted Family Members: Prevention Challenges in an Underprivileged Suburban Community

    Thaís dos Reis Vilela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children living with substance abusers are more likely to experience negative outcomes. Our goal was to compare caregivers' reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and a socioeconomic and risk form of psychological aspects of children exposed to substance abuse assisted versus not assisted by a preventive intervention program in an underprivileged community. This observational intervention study was conducted with 66 caregivers of children who attended the program and 35 caregivers of children from the same community who did not attend. Ages ranged between six and 11 years old. Chi-square and logistic regression tests indicate that children exposed to substance abusers have more mental health problems than the general population and those who did not participate in the preventive intervention program presented worse outcomes, with higher rates of behavioral/emotional problems and exposure to risk situations. Results suggest that preventive actions might be helpful to promote the mental health of children at risk, validating the need for public policies and services.

  13. Young children learning about living things: A case study of conceptual change from ontological and social perspectives

    Venville, Grady

    2004-05-01

    Although research from a developmental/psychological perspective indicates that many children do not have a scientific understanding of living things, even by the age of 10 years, little research has been conducted about how students learn this science topic in the classroom. This exploratory research used a case-study design and qualitative data-collection methods to investigate the process of conceptual change from ontological and social perspectives when Year 1 (5- and 6-year-old) students were learning about living things. Most students were found to think about living things with either stable, nonscientific or stable, scientific framework theories. Transitional phases of understanding also were identified. Patterns of conceptual change observed over the 5-week period of instruction included theory change and belief revision as well as reversals in beliefs. The predominant pattern of learning, however, was the assimilation of facts and information into the students' preferred framework theory. The social milieu of the classroom context exposed students' scientific and nonscientific beliefs that influenced other individuals in a piecemeal fashion. Children with nonscientific theories of living things were identified as being least able to benefit from socially constructed, scientific knowledge; hence, recommendations are made for teaching that focuses on conceptual change strategies rather than knowledge enrichment.

  14. Oral health status of children living in Gorom-Gorom, Oudalan District, Burkina Faso

    Mazza, Clelia; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo;

    2010-01-01

    .3%) and 358 males (51.7%). Clinical and oral health related behaviours were collected. Results. 83.4% of the children were caries-free. Fluorosis was recorded in 41.3% of the sample, while only 37.9% of children showed healthy gingival condition. Toothbrushing was reported by 35.7% of children. A...

  15. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  16. Aboriginal Peoples and Forest Certification: a Review of the Canadian Situation

    Ronald L. Trosper; Innes, John L.; Anna V. Tikina; Bruce C. Larson

    2010-01-01

    We assess how different certification standards address Aboriginal issues in Canada, augmenting current legislation related to Aboriginal issues. The benefits from forest certification and the obstacles to its adoption by the Aboriginal community are also reviewed. We conclude that it would take significant effort, time, and resources to achieve widespread Aboriginal adoption of forest certification.

  17. Aboriginal Peoples and Forest Certification: a Review of the Canadian Situation

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We assess how different certification standards address Aboriginal issues in Canada, augmenting current legislation related to Aboriginal issues. The benefits from forest certification and the obstacles to its adoption by the Aboriginal community are also reviewed. We conclude that it would take significant effort, time, and resources to achieve widespread Aboriginal adoption of forest certification.

  18. Morbidity among children living around clinical waste treatment and disposal site in the Northwest region of Cameroon

    Peter I. K. Mochungong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical waste is ineffectively treated and disposed in Cameroon. Disposal sites have unrestricted access and are located within communities. We hypothesize that vector proliferation and exposure to chronic low-level emissions will increase morbidity in children living around such sites. Self-reported disease frequency questionnaires were used to estimate the frequency of new episodes of intestinal, respiratory and skin infections among exposed children less than 10 years. Data was simultaneously collected for unexposed children of the same age, using the same questionnaire. Data reporting by the parents was done in the first week in each of the 6 months study period. The risk ratios were 3.54 (95% CI, 2.19-5.73, 3.20 (95% CI, 1.34-7.60 and 1.35 (95% CI, 0.75-2.44 for respiratory, intestinal and skin infections respectively. Their respective risk differences were 0.47 (47%, 0.18 (18% and 0.08 (8%. The study revealed that poor treatment and disposal of clinical waste sites enhance morbidity in children living close to such areas. Simple health promotion and intervention programs such as relocating such sites can significantly reduce morbidity.

  19. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  20. The Family Life Project: an epidemiological and developmental study of young children living in poor rural communities.

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2013-10-01

    About 20% of children in the United States have been reported to live in rural communities, with child poverty rates higher and geographic isolation from resources greater than in urban communities. There have been surprisingly few studies of children living in rural communities, especially poor rural communities. The Family Life Project helped fill this gap by using an epidemiological design to recruit and study a representative sample of every baby born to a mother who resided in one of six poor rural counties over a 1-year period, oversampling for poverty and African American. 1,292 children were followed from birth to 36 months of age. This monograph described these children and used a cumulative risk model to examine the relation between social risk and children's executive functioning, language development, and behavioral competence at 36 months. Using both the Family Process Model of development and the Family Investment Model of development, observed parenting was examined over time in relation to child functioning at 36 months. Different aspects of observed parenting were examined as mediators/moderators of risk in predicting child outcomes. Results suggested that cumulative risk was important in predicting all three major domains of child outcomes and that positive and negative parenting and maternal language complexity were mediators of these relations. Maternal positive parenting was found to be a buffer for the most risky families in predicting behavioral competence. In a final model using both family process and investment measures, there was evidence of mediation but with little evidence of the specificity of parenting for particular outcomes. Discussion focused on the importance of cumulative risk and parenting in understanding child competence in rural poverty and the implications for possible intervention strategies that might be effective in maximizing the early development of these children. PMID:24147448

  1. Prediction of Suicide Intent in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescent Inpatients: A Research Note.

    Enns, Murray W.; Inayatulla, Mohamed; Cox, Brian; Cheyne, Lorraine

    1997-01-01

    Explored the relationship among depressive symptoms, anxiety, hopelessness, and suicidal intent in a group of 77 adolescents following a suicide attempt. Results indicate that hopelessness was the only significant predictor of suicide intent in Caucasian patients, and depressed mood was the only significant predictor in the Aboriginal group. (RJM)

  2. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  3. The Role of the Residence: Exploring the Goals of an Aboriginal Residential Program in Contributing to the Education and Development of Remote Students

    Benveniste, Tessa; Dawson, Drew; Rainbird, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Recent media and policy focus in remote Aboriginal education has turned to boarding schools. The general rhetoric is that boarding schools will allow Indigenous Australian students to have access to quality education and to learn to "walk in two worlds". However, to date, there has been very little exploration of the lived experiences of…

  4. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  5. Petrol-inhalation in aboriginal towns. Its remedy: the homelands movement.

    Eastwell, H D

    1979-09-01

    Regular petrol-inhaling involves 50 children ("sniffers"), aged nine to 14 years, at the Aboriginal town of Maningrida--over one-third of resident children of this age. Children of two closely related clan-language groups comprise the majority of inhalers. Similarly, at the town of Galiwinku the children of two deprived clans are involved almost exclusively. These are the only clans in eastern Arnhem Land without outstations on their homelands. Revitalization of these clans appears the only effective method of containing the practice. Petrol-inhaling is associated with delinquency, low body weight, venereal disease, and elevated levels of blood lead. The effectiveness of past remedial action is in doubt. PMID:514145

  6. The lived experience of US parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)). The lived experience of parents with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is important to know since quantitative studies have indicated that higher rates of mental disorders exist in this population as compared to parents of typically developing children (Yirmiya and Shaked (2005) Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46: 69-83). This study was a meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature in this area embedded within a systematic review. A comprehensive search and review yielded 14 studies. A total of six major themes were identified: (a) emotional stress and strain; (b) adaptation; (c) impact on the family; (d) services; (e) stigmatization; and (f) appreciating the little things. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25819433

  7. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  8. Living in the present with the past : mental health of Bosnian refugee children in Sweden

    Goldin, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The negative impact of war on child mental health has been repeatedly documented. Still, the majority of children exposed to ethnic and political violence show no signs of clinical disorder. In Western countries of exile, these findings have prompted a variety of attempts to evaluate refugee children, in the hope of identifying and offering support to those children “at risk”. This study critically examines one such attempt. The aims are fourfold: 1. to describe the range and pattern of child...

  9. Infection status of intestinal parasites in children living in residential institutions in Metro Manila, the Philippines

    Baldo, Eleonor T; Belizario, Vicente Y.; de Leon, Winifreda U.; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

    2004-01-01

    A small scale survey was performed to know the infection status of intestinal parasite in children of the residential institutions and street communities in Metro Manila, Philippines. A total of 284 stool samples from 11 institutions and 3 street communities was examined by the formalin-ether concentration method. The scotch tape anal swab was adapted to 121 children to investigate the infection status of Enterovius vermicularis. It was found out that 62.0% of the children examined were posit...

  10. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Jubin Varghese; Nathan Grills; Kaaren Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intell...

  11. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

    Ismail Mohd N; Bulgiba Awang; Poh Bee K; Wee Bee S; Ruzita Abdul T; Hills Andrew P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 ch...

  12. Validation of the Actical Accelerometer in Multiethnic Preschoolers: The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program

    Ettienne, Reynolette; Nigg, Claudio R.; Li, Fenfang; Su, Yuhua; McGlone, Katalina; Luick, Bret; Tachibana, Alvin; Carran, Christina; Mercado, Jobel; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Actical accelerometer for measuring physical activity (PA) in preschool children of mixed ethnicity, compared with direct observation via a modified System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) protocol and proxy parental reports (PA Logs). Fifty children in Hawai‘i wore wrist-mounted accelerometers for two 7-day periods with a washout period between each week. Thirty children were concurrently observed using SOFIT. Pa...

  13. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  14. Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  15. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  16. Reducing occurrence of Giardia duodenalis in children living in semiarid regions: impact of a large scale rainwater harvesting initiative.

    Jacqueline Evangelista Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Brazil, about two million people living in rural semiarid regions were benefited with the construction of rainwater cement cisterns, as an initiative from the program "One Million Cisterns" (P1MC. Nevertheless, few epidemiological studies have been conducted to assess health risks or protection effects associated with consumption of this water source. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether access to rainwater harvesting cisterns is associated with the decrease in the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis infections in children, compared to other children living in households supplied by other water sources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quasi-experimental study with two concurrent cohorts was developed in two rural municipalities of the semiarid region of Brazil. A sample of 664 children, aged between 4 months and 5 years old, was followed up, of which 332 had access to rainwater cisterns (cistern group and 332 did not, having water supplied from alternative sources (comparison group. In a period of approximately one year (2010 intestinal parasites were investigated in feces three times. The prevalence of G. duodenalis in children from the cistern group ranged from 4.8 to 10.5%, while the prevalence in the comparison group ranged from 7.6 to 16.7%. Multivariate analysis (GEE showed a higher risk of G. duodenalis infection in children who did not have access to rainwater cisterns, when compared to children who did (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.14-2.59. The other variables associated with G. duodenalis infection were: number of rooms per house (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-0.99; family income (OR0.48; 95% CI 0.26-0.88; birth order (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.17-2.51; preterm children (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.19-2.43; and improper hand hygiene prior to food preparation (OR 4.78; 95% CI 1.95-11.76. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ownership of a rainwater cistern is associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis infection in children after adjustment for

  17. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  18. Comparative Assessment of Intelligence Quotient among Children Living in High and Low Fluoride Areas of Kutch, India- a Pilot Study

    Ramesh Nagarajappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term ingestion of large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems and neurological consequences. The study was conducted to assess and compare intelligence quotient of children living in high and low fluoride areas in Kutch, Gujarat, India.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 100 school children aged 8 to 10 years, living in Kutch District, Gujarat, India during July 2012. Mundra (2.4 to 3.5 mg/L and Bhuj (0.5mg/L were the two villages randomly selected to represent the high and low water fluoride areas respectively. Seguin Form Board Test was used to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ level of children. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test was used for analysis.Results: Mean scores for average, shortest and total timing category were found to be significantly higher (P0.05.Conclusion: Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was observed to be associated with lower intelligence quotient.

  19. Imperialism, ANZAC nationalism and the Aboriginal experience of warfare

    Padraic John Gibson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal protest played a key role in undermining the celebratory settler-nationalism of the bicentennial in 1988. In the lead up to another major nationalist mobilisation, the centenary of the Gallipoli invasion on ANZAC Day 2015, extensive official efforts are being made to incorporate Aboriginal experiences into the day, through celebration of the role of Aboriginal people who served in Australia’s armed forces.   This article provides a critical analysis of the 2014 NAIDOC theme as a way of exploring some of the tensions in this process. The NAIDOC theme, ‘Serving Country: Centenary and Beyond’, presented a continuity between Aboriginal soldiers in WW1 and Aboriginal warriors who fought in defence of their land during the 19th Century Frontier Wars.   In contrast, this article argues that the real historical continuity is between the massacres on the frontier, which often involved Aboriginal troopers fighting for the colonial powers, and the invasions undertaken by Australian soldiers in WW1. New research documenting the horrific scale on which Aboriginal people were killed by Native Police in Queensland in the second half of the 19th Century is integrated with studies of the political economy of Australian settler-capitalism in this period. This analysis is used to demonstrate how capitalist class interests drove both the Frontier Wars and the development of an Australian regional empire, which was consolidated by the mobilisation of Australian troops in WW1.

  20. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care. PMID:26653073

  1. Feeling Good, Living Life: A Spiritual Health Measure for Young Children

    Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    Following previous work on the spiritual health of secondary students, the author wondered if it was possible to develop a spiritual health measure for younger children. Taking Fisher's model of spiritual health as the basis, items were developed to reflect relationships with self, with others, with the environment and with a god. The children's…

  2. Health status of children with cerebral palsy living in Europe: a multi-centre study

    Beckung, E; White-Koning, M; Marcelli, M;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this report is to describe the health status of 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy (CP) of all severities in Europe using the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). METHOD: A total of 818 children with CP from nine centres in defined geographical areas participated. CP type...

  3. Expanding Supports to Improve the Lives of Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Russa, Mary Bower; Matthews, Amy L.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that families with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience increased stress and challenges compared with families of typically developing children. We highlight the need for family-centered approaches to reduce family stress, and we elaborate on some of the most central universal needs for families with a child…

  4. Book review of: Newnes, C. & Radcliffe, N. ( 2006). Making and Breaking Children's Lives. UK: PCCS Books

    CARR, ALAN

    2006-01-01

    The central message of this book is that distressed children who display distressing behaviour and their families are often involved with significant psychosocial challenges like poverty, unemployment, domestic violence, child abuse, inadequate educational resources, neighbourhood crime and other adversities. These children and families should be helped through thoughtful psychosocial interventions and community development initiatives which address their unique needs and requirements, not by...

  5. Improving Children's Lives, Transforming the Future--25 Years of Child Rights in South Asia

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in South Asia, strong inequalities persist and children pay a heavy price. This publication examines latest trends and data on children in the eight countries of the region. It highlights what has been achieved in the 25 years since the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child--and what remains to be done.

  6. Socializing Relations in the Everyday Lives of Children: Comparing Domestic Texts from Norway and China

    Waerdahl, Randi; Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The text material analysed in this article consists of 20 teddy-diaries that circulated between the families of 6-year-old children in Beijing, China and in Oslo, Norway. The circulation process makes teddy-diaries highly normatively saturated domestic stories from families with 6-year-old children. A quantitative analysis of these texts inspired…

  7. Living in a Sweetie Culture: Scottish Parents' Difficulties in Maintaining Their Children's Oral Health

    Smith, Patricia Anne; Freeman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the views and experiences of parents whose children have rampant tooth decay. Methods: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 19 parents of varied age and social background whose children had been referred to Dundee Dental Hospital for assessment for dental extractions. Participants were encouraged to…

  8. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001)…

  9. The developmental consequences for asylum-seeking children living with the prospect for five years or more of enforced return to their home country

    Kalverboer, M.E.; Zijlstra, A.E.; Knorth, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the European legal framework and policy on children's rights and on the development and developmental risks of children from asylum-seeking families who have lived in asylum centres for over five years with the prospect of being forced to return to their home country. The legal p

  10. The Everyday Costs of Poverty in Childhood: A Review of Qualitative Research Exploring the Lives and Experiences of Low-Income Children in the UK

    Ridge, Tess

    2011-01-01

    This review of 10 years of qualitative research with disadvantaged children in the UK shows that despite some gaps in the knowledge base, there is now a substantive body of evidence exploring children's lives and experiences from their own perspectives. The review reveals that poverty penetrates deep into the heart of childhood, permeating every…

  11. The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8,900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children without Disabilities across 30 Countries

    Kuper, Hannah; Monteath-van Dok, Adrienne; Wing, Kevin; Danquah, Lisa; Evans, Jenny; Zuurmond, Maria; Gallinetti, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities are widely believed to be less likely to attend school or access health care, and more vulnerable to poverty. There is currently little large-scale or internationally comparable evidence to support these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disability on the lives of children sponsored by Plan International across 30 countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 907,734 children aged 0–17 participating in the Plan International Sponsorship Programme across 30 countries in 2012. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardised questionnaires including information on: age, sex, health, education, poverty, and water and sanitation facilities. Disability was assessed through a single question and information was collected on type of impairment. The dataset included 8,900 children with reported disabilities across 30 countries. The prevalence of disability ranged from 0.4%–3.0% and was higher in boys than girls in 22 of the 30 countries assessed – generally in the range of 1.3–1.4 fold higher. Children with disabilities were much less likely to attend formal education in comparison to children without disabilities in each of the 30 countries, with age-sex adjusted odds ratios exceeding 10 for nearly half of the countries. This relationship varied by impairment type. Among those attending school, children with disabilities were at a lower level of schooling for their age compared to children without disabilities. Children with disabilities were more likely to report experiencing a serious illness in the last 12 months, except in Niger. There was no clear relationship between disability and poverty. Conclusions Children with disabilities are at risk of not fulfilling their educational potential and are more vulnerable to serious illness. This exclusion is likely to have a long-term deleterious impact on their lives unless services are adapted to promote their

  12. Platelet antigen allele frequencies in Australian aboriginal and Caucasian populations.

    Chen, Z; Lester, S; Boettcher, B; McCluskey, J

    1997-11-01

    We have applied genotyping methods of PCR-SSOP and PCR-RFLP to three, bi-allelic platelet specific antigen systems HPA-1 (Pla), HPA-3 (Bak) and HPA-5 (Br). This combination of techniques offers flexibility for high volume or rapid typing. The phenotype and genotype frequencies of alleles from the three systems differ significantly between the Yuendumu Australian Aboriginals (Wailbri) and Australian Caucasians. The major differences are the very low frequencies of HPA-1b and HPA-3b in Yuendumu Aboriginals which are potentially relevant to platelet transfusion in patients of Australian Aboriginal descent. PMID:9423221

  13. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles. PMID:18536535

  14. Evolutionists and Australian Aboriginal art: 1885-1915

    Susan Lowish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines key examples of writing about Australian Aboriginal art in the decades around 1900 specifically in relation to the way in which it is used to provide evidence for theories concerning the evolution of art. Analysis of published works by late nineteenth-century men of science reveals the main influences shaping their perceptions of Aboriginal art during this time and provides an early working definition of this emerging category. This paper confirms that turn-of-the-century European understandings of Aboriginal art were based on limited evidence mediated through a specifically ethnographic notion of ‘decorative art’.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes diversity in symptomatic malaria of children living in an urban and a rural setting in Burkina Faso

    Konaté Amadou T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of P. falciparum genotypes. Methods Isolates collected from 75 and 89 children with uncomplicated malaria infection living in a rural and an urban area of Burkina Faso, respectively, were analysed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes to compare P. falciparum diversity. Results The K1 allelic family was widespread in children living in the two sites, compared to other msp1 allelic families (frequency >90%. The MAD 20 allelic family of msp1 was more prevalent (p = 0.0001 in the urban (85.3% than the rural area (63.2%. In the urban area, the 3D7 alleles of msp2 were more prevalent compared to FC27 alleles, with a high frequency for the 3D7 300bp allele (>30%. The multiplicity of infection was in the range of one to six in the urban area and of one to seven in the rural area. There was no difference in the frequency of multiple infections (p = 0.6: 96.0% (95% C.I: 91.6–100 in urban versus 93.1% (95%C.I: 87.6–98.6 in rural areas. The complexity of infection increased with age [p = 0.04 (rural area, p = 0.06 (urban area]. Conclusion Urban-rural area differences were observed in some allelic families (MAD20, FC27, 3D7, suggesting a probable impact of urbanization on genetic variability of P. falciparum. This should be taken into account in the implementation of malaria control measures.

  16. Proceedings of Canada Forum 4. annual conference : powering up Aboriginal energy : clean energy driving Aboriginal economic development across Canada

    This conference provided a form to discuss issues related to renewable energy and methods of creating successful and sustainable business models and plans in Aboriginal communities. The Government of Canada's new Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development promotes partnerships supporting Aboriginal businesses in order to maximize access to capital. More than $350 billion in major resource and energy developments have been identified in or near Aboriginal communities. The tools available for small, medium and large-sized Aboriginal businesses were discussed along with financing sources and mechanisms for creating equity in renewable energy projects. Speakers also addressed the need for new transmission to serve renewable generation; recognition of rights in sharing the land; and Ontario's Aboriginal Energy Partnerships Program which provides an opportunity for First Nations and Metis to work with the government and private sector to build, own and operate new electricity transmission. Other topics presented at the conference included biomass district heating; bioenergy projects; wind partnerships with Aboriginal communities; hydroelectric development; and northern and remote communities. The conference featured 11 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  17. Results of the thyroid and diabetes-associated autoantibodies screening in children and adolescents living in various regions of Belarus

    Recently among the factors capable to induce autoimmune reaction, it is ionizing radiation that is discussed, along with virus infections and chemical influences. Investigation of 540 healthy children and adolescents (age range 12-19 y.o.) living in radionuclide contaminated areas (average cesium 137 contamination 0,19-0,56 MBq/m2) and in conditionally clear regions revealed significant differences in levels of diabetes-associated (AB-GAD, AB-IA2) and thyroid (AB-TG, AB-TPO) autoantibodies. At the same time frequencies of positive AB-IA2, AB-TPO and AB-TG were higher in persons from contaminated regions. Obtained results correlate with the increase of the type 1 diabetes incidence in children and adolescents from Gomel region and dictate the necessity to continue the such study

  18. [Genome sensitivity and genotoxic effects features in children-teenagers affected by radon radiation in living and educational environment].

    Druzhinin, V G; Akhmat'ianova, V R; Golovina, T A; Volkov, A N; Minina, V I; Larionov, A V; Makeeva, E A

    2009-01-01

    The results of chromosomal aberration level and spectrum study in 48-hours peripheral blood lymphocytes cultures of 10-19 years old children-teenagers (n = 132, mean 14.2 +/- 0.16 years old) living in the south part of Kemerovskaya area Gornaya Shoria are presented. Mean metaphases with aberrations were 4.74 +/- 0.21% in studied group that is significantly higher (p polycentric, ring chromosomes and multiple pair dot fragments. The reasons of chromosomal aberrations frequency increasing in this mountain area inhabitants are discussed (ultrahigh radon radiation doses influence are included). PMID:19947520

  19. High occurrence of giardiasis in children living on a 'landless farm workers' settlement in Araras, São Paulo, Brazil

    Oswaldo Aparecido de Lima Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteric parasitosis remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world including in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. Research carried out over the course of a year revealed that 96.6% (28/29 of children randomly selected from a 'landless farm workers' settlement in Araras, São Paulo, aged 4 - 15 years, presented Giardia intestinalis cysts. After referral to the neighborhood Health Office, all the children received tinidazole, given as a single dose of 50 mg/kg and 12 months later, new fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Despite the low adherence to the study, a high percentage (64.3% - 9/14 of the children remained positive for the parasite. This study showed a high positivity of giardiasis in child residents of the settlement, even after treatment; adults were not sensitized to the study and did not collected and/or deliver children fecal samples. The precarious living conditions are consistent with a high susceptibility to parasitic diseases, suggesting that the treatment of the infected individuals without identifying and eradicating the means of contamination is simply a palliative measure.

  20. Long-Term Trends in the Well-Being of Children and Youth: Issues in Children's and Families' Lives.

    Weissberg, Roger P., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.; O'Brien, Mary Utne, Ed.; Kuster, Carol Bartels, Ed.

    Representing an important University of Colorado effort to relate university research directly to social policy and practice, this book examines several decades of indicators that reflect changes in children's behavior as well as social-environmental factors that influence their development. Articles in the book provide a volume overview and…

  1. The Place Where Hope Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families

    ... helping families in need. The cornerstone Ronald McDonald House program began in 1974 based on a simple idea: Provide a "home-away-fromhome" for families of seriously ill children receiving treatment at nearby hospitals. Since that time, ...

  2. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    Molla, Mitike; Mitiku, Israel; Worku, Alemayehu; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods: We conducted interviews with 28 adult fa...

  3. Lives in a chiaroscuro. Should we suspend the puberty of children with Gender Identity Disorder?

    Simona Giordano

    2008-01-01

    Transgender children who are not treated for their condition are at high risk of violence and suicide. As a matter of survival, many are willing to take whatever help is available, even if this is offered by illegal sources, and this often traps them into the juvenile criminal system and exposes them to various threats. Endocrinology offers a revolutionary instrument to help children/adolescents with gender identity disorder: suspension of puberty. Suspension of puberty raises many ethical is...

  4. Linked Lives: Adult Children's Problems and Their Parents' Psychological and Relational Well-Being

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined associations between adult children's cumulative problems and their parents' psychological and relational well-being, as well as whether such associations are similar for married and single parents. Regression models were estimated using data from 1,188 parents in the 1995 National Survey of Midlife in the United States whose youngest child was at least 19 years old. Participants reporting children with more problems indicated moderately poorer levels of well-being across ...

  5. Our lives, our say: Street and working children talk about their rights in Delhi

    Jen Couch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently a “new sociology of childhood” has been proposed arguing that childhood must be seen as a social construct and considered like race, class and gender as an important analytical variable. It is asserted that children and their life worlds are  topics worthy of study and that children must be seen as active agents in creating their own social worlds and society at large. The main implication of such a conceptualization is that childhood takes a multiplicity of forms over time and across cultures.  Essentially these approaches privilege the perspectives of children and reject the representation of them as passive vessels into which the rules of society are poured as merely adults in training. This paper examines this new discourse by drawing upon the experiences of Butterflies, a non-government organization working for the empowerment of street and working children in Delhi. In particular the paper will explore Butterflies’ rights-based approach to working with street and working children and give space to children’s own experiences and perceptions in regards to this approach. The article focuses on four key areas: the right to participation; the right to freedom of assembly; the right to protection from economic exploitation and the right to work. Keywords: children, work, rights, poverty, marginalisation, participation

  6. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

    Ismail Mohd N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007 growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. International Diabetes Federation (2007 criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Results Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245 Malay, 30.9% (n = 124 Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33 Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8, followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1 and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7. Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p Conclusions We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are

  7. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  8. Emu Dreaming: An Introduction to Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla M.

    2009-07-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the "emu in the sky" constellation of dark clouds, and stories about the Sun, Moon , Orion, and the Pleiades. Several use the rising and setting of particular stars to indicate the time to harvest a food source, and some link the Sun and Moon to tides, and even explain eclipses as a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Thse traditions reveal a depth and complexity of Aboriginal cultures which are not widely appreciated by outsiders. This book explores the wonderful mystical Aboriginal astronomical stories and traditions, and the way in which these are used for practical applications such as navigation and harvesting. It also describes the journey of exploration which is opening Western eyes to this treasury of ancient Aboriginal knowledge.

  9. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong;

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that...... Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves...... prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa....

  10. Chagas' disease in Aboriginal and Creole communities from the Gran Chaco Region of Argentina: Seroprevalence and molecular parasitological characterization.

    Lucero, R H; Brusés, B L; Cura, C I; Formichelli, L B; Juiz, N; Fernández, G J; Bisio, M; Deluca, G D; Besuschio, S; Hernández, D O; Schijman, A G

    2016-07-01

    Most indigenous ethnias from Northern Argentina live in rural areas of "the Gran Chaco" region, where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic. Serological and parasitological features have been poorly characterized in Aboriginal populations and scarce information exist regarding relevant T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) and parasitic loads. This study was focused to characterize T. cruzi infection in Qom, Mocoit, Pit'laxá and Wichi ethnias (N=604) and Creole communities (N=257) inhabiting rural villages from two highly endemic provinces of the Argentinean Gran Chaco. DNA extracted using Hexadecyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide reagent from peripheral blood samples was used for conventional PCR targeted to parasite kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) and identification of DTUs using nuclear genomic markers. In kDNA-PCR positive samples from three rural Aboriginal communities of "Monte Impenetrable Chaqueño", minicircle signatures were characterized by Low stringency single primer-PCR and parasitic loads calculated using Real-Time PCR. Seroprevalence was higher in Aboriginal (47.98%) than in Creole (27.23%) rural communities (Chi square, p=4.e(-8)). A low seroprevalence (4.3%) was detected in a Qom settlement at the suburbs of Resistencia city (Fisher Exact test, p=2.e(-21)).The kDNA-PCR positivity was 42.15% in Aboriginal communities and 65.71% in Creole populations (Chi square, p=5.e(-4)). Among Aboriginal communities kDNA-PCR positivity was heterogeneous (Chi square, p=1.e(-4)). Highest kDNA-PCR positivity (79%) was detected in the Qom community of Colonia Aborigen and the lowest PCR positivity in two different surveys at the Wichi community of Misión Nueva Pompeya (33.3% in 2010 and 20.8% in 2014). TcV (or TcII/V/VI) was predominant in both Aboriginal and Creole communities, in agreement with DTU distribution reported for the region. Besides, two subjects were infected with TcVI, one with TcI and four presented mixed infections of TcV plus TcII/VI. Most minicircle signatures

  11. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia.

    Seow, H F; Mahomed, N M; Mak, J W; Riddell, M A; Li, F; Anderson, D A

    1999-10-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been examined in many countries, but such studies have generally been limited to majority populations such as those represented in healthy blood donors or cross sections of urban populations. Due to its major route of enteric transmission, large differences in HEV prevalence might be expected between populations in the same country but with different living conditions. Using an ELISA based on GST-ORF2.1 antigen, the prevalence of IgG-class antibodies to HEV was examined in three distinct populations in Malaysia: the normal (urban) blood donor population and two aboriginal communities located at Betau, Pahang and Parit Tanjung, Perak. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 45 (44%) of 102 samples from Betau and 15 (50%) of 30 samples from Parit Tanjung, compared to only 2 (2%) of 100 normal blood donors. The distribution of sample ELISA reactivities was also consistent with ongoing sporadic infection in the aboriginal communities, while there was no significant relationship between HEV exposure and age, sex, or malaria infection. The high prevalence of antibodies to HEV in the two aboriginal communities indicates that this group of people are at high risk of exposure to HEV compared to the general blood donors, and the results suggest that studies of HEV seroprevalence within countries must take into account the possibility of widely varying infection rates between populations with marked differences in living conditions. PMID:10459151

  12. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  13. The health of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    LoGiudice, Dina

    2016-06-01

    The health of Aboriginal Australians is poorer than that of all other Indigenous cultures in developed nations, and recent studies suggest high rates of dementia and other conditions that are common in old age. This has implications for health promotion, provision of services and planning for older age in these communities. This article provides an overview on the health of Older Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27155822

  14. Adult T-cell leukaemia lymphoma in an aborigine.

    Kirkland, M A; Frasca, J; Bastian, I

    1991-10-01

    A 44-year-old Aborigine with Adult T-cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) due to HTLV-I is reported. He presented with transverse myelitis of subacute onset, and subsequently developed frank T-cell leukaemia complicated by splenomegaly and hypercalcaemia. Cell surface marker studies showed a phenotype of CD3+ CD4+ CD8- CD25+, and serological and molecular studies confirmed HTLV-I infection. This is the first report of ATLL in an Australian Aborigine. PMID:1759923

  15. ETHNICITY AND INCOME IMPACT ON BMI AND STATURE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN LIVING IN URBAN SOUTHERN MEXICO.

    Mendez, Nina; Barrera-Pérez, The Late Mario; Palma-Solis, Marco; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Dickinson, Federico; Azcorra, Hugo; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Obesity affects quality of life and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Mexico, a middle-income country, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban children. Merida is the most populated and growing city in southern Mexico with a mixed Mayan and non-Maya population. Local urbanization and access to industrialized foods have impacted the eating habits and physical activity of children, increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to contribute to the existing literature on the global prevalence of overweight and obesity and examined the association of parental income, ethnicity and nutritional status with body mass index (BMI) and height in primary school children in Merida. The heights and weights of 3243 children aged 6-12 from sixteen randomly selected schools in the city were collected between April and December 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the prevalence of BMI and height categories (based on WHO reference values) by ethnicity and income levels. Of the total students, 1648 (50.9%) were overweight or obese. Stunting was found in 227 children (7%), while 755 (23.3%) were defined as having short stature. Combined stunting and overweight/obesity was found in 301 students (9.3%) and twelve (0.4%) were classified as stunted and of low weight. Having two Mayan surnames was inversely associated with having adequate height (OR=0.69, pMexican families of all ethnic groups, particularly those of lower income. PMID:26041567

  16. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  17. Validation of the Actical Accelerometer in Multiethnic Preschoolers: The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program.

    Ettienne, Reynolette; Nigg, Claudio R; Li, Fenfang; Su, Yuhua; McGlone, Katalina; Luick, Bret; Tachibana, Alvin; Carran, Christina; Mercado, Jobel; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Actical accelerometer for measuring physical activity (PA) in preschool children of mixed ethnicity, compared with direct observation via a modified System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) protocol and proxy parental reports (PA Logs). Fifty children in Hawai'i wore wrist-mounted accelerometers for two 7-day periods with a washout period between each week. Thirty children were concurrently observed using SOFIT. Parents completed PA Logs for three days. Reliability and validity were measured by intra-class correlation coefficient and proportions of agreement concurrently. There was slight agreement (proportion of agreement: 82%; weighted Kappa=.17, P SOFIT as well as between the accelerometer and the PA Logs (proportions of agreement: 40%; weighted Kappa=0.15, P <.001). PA logs underestimated the PA levels of the children, while the Actical was found to be valid and reliable for estimating PA levels of multiethnic, mixed ethnicity preschoolers. These findings suggest that accelerometers can be objective, valid, and accurate physical activity assessment tools compared to conventional PA logs and subjective reports of activity for preschool children of mixed ethnicity. PMID:27099804

  18. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2015-01-01

    Only 60–70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to ‘live-birth bias’) that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used p...

  19. Vaccination of children with a live-attenuated, intranasal influenza vaccine – analysis and evaluation through a Health Technology Assessment

    Andersohn, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Influenza is a worldwide prevalent infectious disease of the respiratory tract annually causing high morbidity and mortality in Germany. Influenza is preventable by vaccination and this vaccination is so far recommended by the (STIKO as a standard vaccination for people from the age of 60 onwards. Up to date a parenterally administered trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV has been in use almost exclusively. Since 2011 however a live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV has been approved additionally. Consecutively, since 2013 the STIKO recommends LAIV (besides TIV for children from 2 to 17 years of age, within the scope of vaccination by specified indications. LAIV should be preferred administered in children from 2 to 6 of age. The objective of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA is to address various research issues regarding the vaccination of children with LAIV. The analysis was performed from a medical, epidemiological and health economic perspective, as well as from an ethical, social and legal point of view.Method: An extensive systematic database research was performed to obtain relevant information. In addition a supplementary research by hand was done. Identified literature was screened in two passes by two independent reviewers using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included literature was evaluated in full-text using acknowledged standards. Studies were graded with the highest level of evidence (1++, if they met the criteria of Results: For the medical section, the age of the study participants ranges from 6 months to 17 years. Regarding study efficacy, in children aged 6 months to ≤7 years, LAIV is superior to placebo as well as to a vac-cination with TIV (Relative Risk Reduction – RRR – of laboratory confirmed influenza infection approx. 80% and 50%, respectively. In children aged >7 to 17 years (= 18th year of their lives, LAIV is superior to a vaccination with TIV (RRR 32%. For this age group, no

  20. Lives in a chiaroscuro. Should we suspend the puberty of children with gender identity disorder?

    Giordano, S

    2008-08-01

    Transgender children who are not treated for their condition are at high risk of violence and suicide. As a matter of survival, many are willing to take whatever help is available, even if this is offered by illegal sources, and this often traps them into the juvenile criminal system and exposes them to various threats. Endocrinology offers a revolutionary instrument to help children/adolescents with gender identity disorder: suspension of puberty. Suspension of puberty raises many ethical issues, and experts dissent as to when treatment should be commenced and how children should be followed up. This paper argues that suspension of puberty is not only not unethical: if it is likely to improve the child's quality of life and even save his or her life, then it is indeed unethical to defer treatment. PMID:18667644

  1. Comparison of cervicovertebral dimensions in Australian Aborigines and Caucasians.

    Grave, B; Brown, T; Townsend, G

    1999-04-01

    Cervicovertebral dimensions were compared in a group of 30 male and 30 female young adult Australian Aborigines from the Northern Territory, and a control sample consisting of 60 Caucasian dental students from Adelaide, matched for sex and age. Thirty-six variables, 22 cervical and 14 craniofacial, were derived from standardized lateral roentgenograms with the use of a computerized cephalometric system. Vertebral body height and length were significantly greater in Aboriginal males than females for C3 to C7, while dorsal arch height of C1 and C2 displayed the greatest dimensional variability in both sexes. The antero-posterior length of C1, dens height, and body heights of C3 and C4 were significantly shorter in Aborigines than Caucasians for both males and females. Total length of the column from C2 to C6 was approximately 12 per cent shorter in the Aborigines compared with Caucasians. The height of the posterior arch of C1 was significantly correlated with one or both posterior cranial base lengths in Aborigines and Caucasians. Associations were also noted between mandibular lengths and posterior arch heights of the upper two vertebrae. The results confirm and clarify several previous observations on the relative shortness of the cervical spine in Australian Aboriginals. They also indicate some associations between dimensions of the cervical vertebrae and craniofacial lengths, particularly those representing the posterior cranial base and the mandible. PMID:10327736

  2. FLUORIDE INTAKE FROM DRINKING WATER AND DENTIFRICE BY CHILDREN LIVING IN A TROPICAL AREA OF BRAZIL

    Omena, Leila Maria F.; Silva, Milton F. de A.; Cleone Calheiros Pinheiro; Cavalcante, Jairo C.; Fábio Correia Sampaio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess fluoride (F-) intake from water and toothpaste by children aged 18 to 36 months and to monitor the F- concentrations in the drinking water system in a tropical city of Brazil. METHODS: Children (n=58) aged 18-36 months, all lifetime residents of Penedo, state of Alagoas, Brazil, participated in this study. Water F- analyses were carried out in 7 different occasions at least a week apart. For 2 days all the water drunk by each child was accounted for. Fluoride intake from ...

  3. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl, 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl, 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl, 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl, 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl, 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl, and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl, respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01 and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05. Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that

  4. [Variability of diarrheal diseases in children under 5 living in an urban setting: observations in Rufisque, Senegal].

    Sy, I; Handschumacher, P; Wyss, K; Cisse, G; Lo, B; Piermay, J L; Tanner, M

    2010-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has created numerous health risks in developing countries, but the exact impact on many diseases in function of living conditions is unclear. For insight into this complex relationship, a study on diarrheal diseases was carried out to obtain knowledge about the distribution of health risks in an urban setting. An epidemiological survey with a combined longitudinal and transverse design was conducted in Rufisque, Senegal, from April 2002 to March 2003 in a sample including households with children less than 5-years-old living in four areas presenting different levels of hygiene. Results showed a high overall incidence of diarrhea (6.5 episodes/child/year) but there were major discrepancies between the four study areas in direct relation with level of hygiene. The annual incidence per child was lower in the low-cost housing project (fair hygiene, 3.4 episodes) than in the Castors area (poor hygiene, 6.8 episodes), Diokoul Wague area (very poor hygiene, 7.3 episodes) and Goufe Aldiana area (no hygiene, 8.4 episodes). The study showed only a slight seasonal effect on diarrheal disease in the different areas. However, the differences observed between areas during the cold and hot dry seasons were considerably attenuated in the rainy season. This variability in the incidence rate that underlines the diversity of urban living conditions depends on a variety of risk factors (such as age and number of children) that may interact, although hygiene level remains critical. For issues usually given priority at the national level, multiplying studies aimed at fine analysis of factors underlying disease transmission is useful since this approach can improve understanding of public health policy in city environments characterized by the complex conditions (density and diversity) created by urbanization. PMID:20337117

  5. Relationships between children and their grandparents and importance of older generations in lives of todays'families

    Stasova L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of relationships among contemporary generations. It is devoted to the specific communication and relationships development between today's children and their grandparents. What is the role played by grandparents in lives of their grandchildren? Is the generation gap so powerful to destroy the traditionally strong relationships in families? Our text stresses the importance of an intergenerational socializations influence and its positives for individuals and the whole family system. The article is based on the empirical survey among the 202 respondents in the age group 12–17. The data tried to show that there are differences in relationships in families where the generations are living together and the families with separate living of generations. However, this presumption was not confirmed and our data show that there is no difference in frequency and quality of relationships between both groups of families. The important question is, if the face-to-face communication has been replaced by other means of communication, especially through modern media, or not. The data show the intensity and content of intergenerational meeting in family. It brings some view on the attitudes of young Czech people towards their grandparents. The results show the mostly positive intergenerational relationships and the value of older generations for young people. Interesting are expressions of appreciation of grandmothers and grandfathers from their grandchildren. The relationships to grandparents are mostly influenced by the whole family climate and are closely connected with the parental attitudes toward the older generations.

  6. Typologies of Risk and Protection in the Lives of Filipino Street Children in Manila

    Sta. Maria, Madelene A.; Martinez, Carmelo L.; Diestro, Jose Maria A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group discussions with the youth living and working in the streets of Manila as well as interviews with key informants involved in intervention programs for these youth reveal several ways by which the youth may be protected from engaging in problem behaviors in and out of the streets. Findings reveal that conditions which promote the…

  7. Children born after autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. A review of 13 live births

    Donnez, Jacques; Silber, Sherman; Andersen, Claus Yding;

    2011-01-01

    fresh ovarian tissue transplantation. We report 13 live births after orthotopic transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue in cancer patients (n = 8) and in patients treated with high doses of chemotherapy for benign diseases (n = 2) (microscopic polyangiitis, sickle cell anemia). Interpretation...

  8. Expanding Our View on Separation in the Lives of Young Children

    Marfo, Kofi; Goldman-Fraser, Jenifer; Fernandez, Mari T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors of this article suggest a number of areas worthy of further research regarding family disruptions that lead to children's separation from their primary caregivers. They survey the existing data and suggest questions for new research on the effects of marital divorce, maternal incarceration, maternal depression and substance…

  9. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  10. Uncovered Coping Strategies Adopted by Children Living in Homes with Marital Conflicts for Their Own Survival

    Lawuo, Ebenezer A.; Machumu, Haruni J.; Kimaro, Anathe R.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that marital conflict pertains to three particular dimensions of communication including affect, conflict behaviours and conflict management and these affect conflict choice of management strategies. This paper explored the problems and coping strategies of children from homes with marital conflicts in Tanga City, Tanzania. An…

  11. A Classroom at Home: Children and the Lived World of MOOCs

    Yin, Yin; Adams, Catherine; Goble, Erika; Francisco Vargas Madriz, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This research asks "What is it like for a K-12 school-age child to learn in a massive open online course (MOOC)?" Evidence suggested that a significant number of children are participating in MOOCs either independently or alongside their parents, both inside and outside the K-12 school system. Researchers have expressed concerns…

  12. Lived Experiences of Adult Children Who Have a Parent Diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease

    Blanchard, Amy; Hodgson, Jennifer; Lamson, Angela; Dosser, David

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the experience among adult children who have a parent with Parkinson's Disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to explore, appreciate, and describe their experiences using a phenomenological methodology. Narratives were collected from seven participants who have a parent diagnosed with PD and analyzed according to…

  13. Living in Two Worlds: Code-Switching amongst Bilingual Chinese-Australian Children

    Zheng, Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of interviews, conducted at three primary schools in Melbourne, which sought to explore the determinants of code-switching between English and Chinese. Specifically, it examined school education and other specific possible determinants of code switching amongst Chinese-Australian bilingual children. The specific…

  14. Inventing Songs, Inventing Worlds: The "Genesis" of Creative Thought and Activity in Young Children's Lives

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on systems views of creativity and their application in music education, to argue that young children's independent invented song making evolves from their early musico-communicative interaction with others, is evidential of their capacity for "elaboration," and is foundational in the development of creative thought and activity…

  15. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure in school-aged children living in rice and aquacultural farming regions of Thailand

    Rohitrattana J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Juthasiri Rohitrattana,1 Wattasit Siriwong,1,2 Mark Robson,2–4 Parinya Panuwet,5 Dana Boyd Barr,5 Nancy Fiedler3,6 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Thai Fogarty (ITREOH International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Environmental and Occupational Health Science Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA; 4School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 5Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 6Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Background: Pyrethroid insecticides (PYR are commonly used in rice farms and household pest control in Thailand. No investigative study has yet been made regarding factors associated with PYR exposure among Thai children. Objective: This study aimed to compare the levels of PYR exposure between children living in rice farms (high-intensity PYR used and aquacultural areas (low-intensity PYR used during the wet and dry seasons in Thailand, during which different amounts of PYR are applied. Environmental conditions and common activities of children were used to identify factors associated with PYR exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. A total of 53 participants aged between 6 and 8 years old were recruited from rice farms and aquacultural areas. A parental-structured interview was used to gather information about PYR use, household environments, and participants' activities. First voided morning urine samples were collected for PYR urinary metabolites (ie, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid [3-PBA] and cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid [DCCA] measurements. Hand wipe samples were collected during home visits, to measure PYR residues on the hands. Results and discussion: The

  16. The Relationship between Racial Attitudes and Social-Cognitive Development in Children: An Australian Study.

    Black-Gutman, Dasia; Hickson, Fay

    1996-01-01

    Examined the racial attitudes of 122 Euro-Australian children toward Euro-, Asian, and Aboriginal Australians across the 5-/6-, 7-/9-, and 10-/12-year age groups. Found that the middle group had fewer negative attitudes toward Aborigines than the older and younger groups. Notes the influence of environmental and cognitive factors in the…

  17. History, law, and policy as a foundation for health care delivery for Australian indigenous children.

    Brown, Ngiare

    2009-12-01

    This article identifies significant historical and contemporary issues, programs, and progress to better understand the current policy in Australia relating to Aboriginal child health and well-being. A legislative perspective gives context to contemporary issues based on legally sanctioned historical practices specifically designed to make Aboriginal peoples disappear, particularly through the control and assimilation of Indigenous children. PMID:19962036

  18. The effects of live music groups versus an educational children's television program on the emergent literacy of young children.

    Register, Dena

    2004-01-01

    Research suggests that music is beneficial in teaching both social and academic skills to young children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a music therapy program designed to teach reading skills versus the "Between the Lions" television program on the early literacy behaviors of Kindergarten children from a low socioeconomic background. Subjects (n = 86) were children, aged 5-7 years, enrolled in one of four different Kindergarten classes at a public elementary school in Northwest Florida. Each class was assigned one of four treatment conditions: Music/Video (sequential presentation of each condition), Music-Only, Video-Only, and no contact Control group. Growth in early literacy skills was measured using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and 3 subtests of the Test of Early reading Ability-3rd edition (TERA-3). Teachers' perceptions of classroom literacy behaviors were measured using a pre and poststudy survey. This study also compared on- and off-task behavior of students during video versus music conditions. Results of the 7 subtests measuring early literacy were varied. The Music/Video and Music-Only groups achieved the highest increases in mean scores from pre to posttest on 4 of the 7 subtests. Students in the Video-Only group scored significantly better on the phonemic segmentation portion of the DIBELS than peers in the Music/Video condition. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between the Letter Naming, Initial Sounds Fluency tests, and total raw score of the TERA-3 tests for both pre and posttesting. Additionally, graphic analysis of mean off-task behavior per session indicated that students were more off-task during both video conditions (video alone and video portion of Music/Video condition) than during the music conditions. Off-task behavior was consistently lower during music sessions for the duration of the study. This study confirmed that music increases the on-task behavior of students

  19. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues. PMID:8344231

  20. At the edge of vulnerability—lived experience of parents of children with cerebral palsy going through surgery

    Anne Solveig Iversen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the experiences of parents of children with cerebral palsy undergoing surgery as they describe them from a lived experience perspective. When children undergo surgical procedures, they have to stay at hospital for a long time, which represents a great challenge for the children as well as their parents. We collected data by using open-ended interviews with 12 parents of 9 children and analyzed these data in accordance with Max van Manen's methodological themes. Based on the parents’ stories, the essential theme is: At the edge of vulnerability—being parents at hospital to a child with CP undergoing surgery, which consisted of three subthemes: establishing trust, awareness of a child who cannot speak, and sensing bodily reactions. Parents experienced demanding challenges as they entered the hospital, in a situation that meant both familiarity and unfamiliarity. Judgments about how to care for the child relied on what they normally did. Sitting bedside for hours and days, thoughts about the legitimacy of letting their child go through the suffering surgery were tormenting the parents. They felt vulnerable and very much dependent on health care workers’ competence and at the same time doubting them in seeing and taking care of their child's specific needs. It was experienced as an ambivalent situation, and even more so for the parents of a child without speech. The findings indicate that establishing trust implies being met at an existential level and a deeply felt need for health care workers that are really engaged in taking care of their child and their parents.

  1. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  2. Violence in the Lives of Children and Youth in “Post-Conflict” Northern Ireland

    McAlister, Siobhan; Haydon, Deena; Scraton, Phil

    2013-01-01

    While Northern Ireland experiences relative peace and political stability, its violent past is normalized in murals and commemorations, the language and posturing of opposition politics, segregated communities and social life. In “post-conflict” Northern Ireland, children and youth disproportionately experience paramilitary-style attacks and routine sectarian violence. The violence of poverty and restricted opportunities within communities debilitated by three decades of conflict is masked by...

  3. Less-structured time in children's daily lives predicts self-directed executive functioning

    Barker, Jane E.; Semenov, Andrei D.; Michaelson, Laura; Provan, Lindsay S.; Snyder, Hannah R.; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) in childhood predict important life outcomes. Thus, there is great interest in attempts to improve EFs early in life. Many interventions are led by trained adults, including structured training activities in the lab, and less-structured activities implemented in schools. Such programs have yielded gains in children's externally-driven executive functioning, where they are instructed on what goal-directed actions to carry out and when. However, it is less clear how ch...

  4. Internet in the lives of children and adolescents: problems and resources

    Sorokina A.B.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a problem of training and personality development of adolescents as regular Internet-users and, namely , social networkers. It discusses two commonly studied questions, concerning the use of data resources: children and young people in social networks and online technologies in teaching. The main aspects discussed in the article are: the issues related to modalities of development of communication skills, security, risk of adolescents’ Internet addiction and the role of ...

  5. Single-parent immigrant families in Iceland : lives and educational experiences of their children

    Chen Fuhui 1986; Hanna Ragnarsdóttir 1960

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore what situations immigrant single-parent families face in Iceland, their process of integration into Icelandic society and the educational experiences of their children. This is a qualitative interview study where 11 participants were recruited through a purposive sampling strategy. Data was collected in 2012 through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The main significance of the study is to give a minority group a voice while also providing...

  6. Internet in the lives of children and adolescents: problems and resources

    Sorokina A.B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a problem of training and personality development of adolescents as regular Internet-users and, namely , social networkers. It discusses two commonly studied questions, concerning the use of data resources: children and young people in social networks and online technologies in teaching. The main aspects discussed in the article are: the issues related to modalities of development of communication skills, security, risk of adolescents’ Internet addiction and the role of social networking in training.

  7. Optimizing drugs to reach treatment targets for children and adolescents living with HIV

    Martina Penazzato; Janice Lee; Edmund Capparelli; Shaffiq Essajee; Nathan Ford; Atieno Ojoo; Fernando Pascual; Nandita Sugandhi; Marc Lallemant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As the global community makes progress towards the 90-90-90 targets by 2020, a key challenge is ensuring that antiretroviral drugs for children and adolescents are suitable to the context of resource-limited settings. Drug optimization aims to support the expanded use of more simplified, less toxic drug regimens with high barriers to drug resistance that require minimal clinical monitoring while maintaining therapeutic efficacy. This manuscript summarizes the progress made and o...

  8. THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO EXPRESS THEIR OPINIONS WHEN THEIR PARENTS LIVE SEPARATELY

    Vyacheslav Igorevich ANASHKIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Litigations related to the protection of children's rights in Russia, tend towards the increased number of disputes relating to the upbringing of children and reduced number of disputes concerning the termination of parental rights. Disputes concerning the procedures determining the communication of the child with parents or relatives are defined by Court as disputes related to the upbringing of children. It is noted that domestic legislation has recognized for a long time only positivist approaches to the determination of human rights, thus recognizing only those rights which were textually reflected in the normative legal acts. It seems natural and understandable that the child was not considered as the right-holder either by legislation or by the doctrine. The transition to a new economic system has changed the views on the rights and lead to transition from the dominance of positivism in law to recognition of natural inborn human rights [5]. A special place among the rights of the child normatively fixed in international and national acts the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child [6] and the Family Code of the Russian Federation [7] (hereinafter the RF IC is given to the child's right to express views and is recognized as a separate law (article 12 of the Convention, article 57 of the RF IC. 

  9. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among Children Living with HIV in South India.

    Mehta, K; Ekstrand, M L; Heylen, E; Sanjeeva, G N; Shet, A

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to ART, fundamental to treatment success, has been poorly studied in India. Caregivers of children attending HIV clinics in southern India were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Adherence was assessed using a visual analogue scale representing past-month adherence and treatment interruptions >48 h during the past 3 months. Clinical features, correlates of adherence and HIV-1 viral-load were documented. Based on caregiver reports, 90.9 % of the children were optimally adherent. In multivariable analysis, experiencing ART-related adverse effects was significantly associated with suboptimal adherence (p = 0.01). The proportion of children who experienced virological failure was 16.5 %. Virological failure was not linked to suboptimal adherence. Factors influencing virological failure included running out of medications (p = 0.002) and the child refusing to take medications (p = 0.01). Inclusion of drugs with better safety profiles and improved access to care could further enhance outcomes. PMID:26443264

  10. Increasing rates of surgical treatment and preventing comorbidities may increase breast cancer survival for Aboriginal women

    Supramaniam, Rajah; Gibberd, Alison; Dillon, Anthony; Goldsbury, David Eamon; O’Connell, Dianne L

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower breast cancer survival has been reported for Australian Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women, however the reasons for this disparity have not been fully explored. We compared the surgical treatment and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women diagnosed with breast cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods We analysed NSW cancer registry records of breast cancers diagnosed in 2001–2007, linked to hospital inpatient episodes and deaths. We used unc...

  11. Dizzying Dialogue: Canadian Courts and the Continuing Justification of the Dispossession Of Aboriginal People

    D’Arcy Vermette

    2015-01-01

    Since Aboriginal rights have found protection within Canada’s Constitution, a new relationship has emerged between Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples and the Crown. This relationship is characterized by the need for “reconciliation.” In its growing jurisprudence, the Supreme Court of Canada applies reconciliation doctrine to several important Aboriginal claims. Each application, however, brings with it a restriction on Aboriginal rights. This paper argues that the Court’s conception of reconciliatio...

  12. Early mortality from external causes in Aboriginal mothers: a retrospective cohort study

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Walker, Roz; de Klerk, Nick; Shepherd, Carrington

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal loss can have a deep-rooted impact on families. Whilst a disproportionate number of Aboriginal women die from potentially preventable causes, no research has investigated mortality in Aboriginal mothers. We aimed to examine the elevated mortality risk in Aboriginal mothers with a focus on external causes. Methods We linked data from four state administrative datasets to identify all women who had a child from 1983 to 2010 in Western Australia and ascertained their Aborigin...

  13. Growing up Online: Some Myths and Facts About Children's Digital Lives in Ireland Today

    O'Neill, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Digital technologies and the widespread adoption of the internet have given rise to an unprecedented social transformation that is having a profound impact on childhood today. While debate continues on the precise nature of its effects and the extent to which we can refer to a distinctly different ‘digital’ generation, there is growing consensus that the centrality of new modes of sociality and new ways of communicating online in children’s lives today are shaping new contours of risk and of...

  14. Multi-slice spiral CT of living-related liver transplantation in children: pictorial essay

    In pediatric living-related liver transplantation, preoperative evaluation of the recipient is important for surgical planning, while the accurate diagnosis of postoperative complications is essential for graft salvage. Multiplanar and three dimensional imaging using multi-slice spiral CT can be used for preoperative vascular imaging, as well as for evaluating postoperative complications. In this essay, we describe the usefulness of multi-slice CT, combined with a variety of different reconstruction techniques, for the preoperative evaluation of transplant recipients. In addition, we demonstrate the multi-slice CT findings of postoperative complications, including vascular stenosis or thrombosis, bile duct leak or stricture, and extrahepatic fluid collection

  15. Multi-slice spiral CT of living-related liver transplantation in children: pictorial essay

    Choi, Seong Hoon; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    In pediatric living-related liver transplantation, preoperative evaluation of the recipient is important for surgical planning, while the accurate diagnosis of postoperative complications is essential for graft salvage. Multiplanar and three dimensional imaging using multi-slice spiral CT can be used for preoperative vascular imaging, as well as for evaluating postoperative complications. In this essay, we describe the usefulness of multi-slice CT, combined with a variety of different reconstruction techniques, for the preoperative evaluation of transplant recipients. In addition, we demonstrate the multi-slice CT findings of postoperative complications, including vascular stenosis or thrombosis, bile duct leak or stricture, and extrahepatic fluid collection.

  16. Growth, development, reproduction, physiological and behavioural studies on living organisms, human adults and children exposed to radiation from video displays

    Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating voltage of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were obtained before switching on the VDT. Various effects related to the irradiation time were demonstrated, i.e. growth delay in algae and Drosophila, a body weight deficiency in rats, abnormal peaks of mortality in Daphnia and Drosophila, teratological effects in chick embryos and behavioural disturbances in rats. The embryonic and neonatal periods showed a high sensitivity to the VDT radiation. In humans, after 4 h of working in front of a VDT screen, an increase in tiredness and a decrease in the resistance of the immune system were observed in workers. In prepubertal children, 20 min of exposure were sufficient to induce neuropsychological disturbances; pre-pubertal young people appear to be particularly sensitive to the effect of the radiation. In human testicular biopsies cultured in vitro for 24 h in front of a VDT screen, mitotic and meiotic disturbances, the appearance of degeneration in some aspects of the cells and significant disorganisation of the seminiferous tubules were demonstrated and related to modification of the metabolism of the sample. An experimental apparatus has been developed and tested that aims to prevent the harm from VDT radiation. Known commercially as the 'emf-Bioshield', it ensures effective protection against harmful biological effects of VDT radiation. (author)

  17. Aboriginal Student Stories, the Missing Voice to Guide Us towards Change

    Donovan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of policy and practice oriented at improving educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in Australia, achievements on most measures indicate that there is a long way to go in this endeavour. One avenue for improving Aboriginal education that has received little attention is accessing the views of Aboriginal students themselves…

  18. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  19. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  20. Aboriginal Report--Charting Our Path: Public Post-Secondary System

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an update on initiatives, activities and performance information regarding public post-secondary Aboriginal students in British Columbia between 2003-04 and 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations…