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Sample records for abomasal glucose infusion

  1. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism.......Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism....

  2. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic amino acid metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic AA metabolism. The experimental design was a split plot, with cow as the whole...... plot, treatment as the whole-plot factor and days in milk (DIM) as the subplot factor. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g/d of glucose into the abomasum from the day of calving to 29 DIM....

  3. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K;

    2010-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design was a randomi......Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design...... was a randomized block design with repeated measurements. Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g of glucose/d into the abomasum from the day of parturition to 29 d in milk. Cows were sampled 12 ± 6 d prepartum and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk. Concentrations of glucose......-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide, and oxyntomodulin were measured in pooled samples within cow and sampling day, whereas active ghrelin was measured in samples obtained 30 min before and after feeding at 0800 h. Postpartum, dry matter intake increased at a lower rate with infusion...

  4. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary glucose metabolism

    Galindo, C; Larsen, Mogens; Ouellet, D R;

    2015-01-01

    Nine Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used to study the effects of supplementing AA on milk lactose secretion, whole-body rate of appearance (WB-Ra) of glucose, and tissue metabolism of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and β...... AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to the same basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half the maximal dose at 1 d in milk (DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d from DIM 2 to 29 to cover the estimated essential AA deficit. On DIM 5, 15, and 29, D[6,6-(2)H2]-glucose...... (23.7 mmol/h) was infused into a jugular vein for 5h, and 6 blood samples were taken from arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary sources at 45-min intervals, starting 1h after the initiation of the D[6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion. Trans-organ fluxes were calculated as veno-arterial differences times...

  5. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH3 absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating...... would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH3 absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration...... did it affect ruminal venous − arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH3. The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the...

  6. Abomasal protein infusion in postpartum transition dairy cows: Effect on performance and mammary metabolism

    Larsen, Mogens; Lapierre, H; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2014-01-01

    blood samples were taken 14 d before expected parturition and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk (DIM). To compensate previously estimated deficiency of essential AA and to avoid oversupply, casein protein infusion was graduated with 696 ± 1, 490 ± 9, and 212 ± 10 g/d at 4, 15 and 29 DIM, respectively. Dry...... indicated that Lys, Leu, and Tyr were the first-limiting AA at 4 DIM with CTRL. Mammary plasma flow was unaffected by treatment, indicating similar perfusion of mammary tissue. The greater milk yield with CAS was associated with greater mammary uptake of individual essential AA, tendencies to greater uptake...... of glucose, lactate, and β-hydroxybutyrate, whereas uptakes of volatile fatty acids were unaffected. Despite similar MP supply by 29 DIM, milk and lactose yields were greater with CAS indicating a persistent response to increased postpartum MP supply. In conclusion, the postpartum MP deficiency can...

  7. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary amino acid metabolism

    Larsen, Mogens; Galindo, C; Ouellet, D R;

    2015-01-01

    blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (CTRL; n=4) or free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to a basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half of the maximal dose at the calving day (1 d in milk; DIM) and then......Nine Holstein cows with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used in a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures to study the effect of increased early postpartum AA supply on splanchnic and mammary AA metabolism. At calving, cows were...... steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d until 29 DIM. On 5, 15, and 29 DIM, 6 sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary blood were taken at 45-min intervals. Over the whole period, increasing AA supply increased milk (+7.8 ± 1.3 kg/d) and milk protein yields (+220 ± 65 g/d) substantially. The...

  8. Portal 5-hydroxytryptophan infusion enhances glucose disposal in conscious dogs

    Moore, Mary Courtney; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Haruki; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Saito, Masayuki; Everett, Carrie A.; Smith, Marta S.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2005-01-01

    Intraportal serotonin infusion enhances net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) during glucose infusion but blunts nonhepatic glucose uptake and can cause gastrointestinal discomfort and diarrhea at high doses. Whether the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) could enhance NHGU without gastrointestinal side effects during glucose infusion was examined in conscious 42-h-fasted dogs, using arteriovenous difference and tracer ([3-3H]glucose) techniques. Experiments consisted of equilibratio...

  9. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary amino acid metabolism.

    Larsen, M; Galindo, C; Ouellet, D R; Maxin, G; Kristensen, N B; Lapierre, H

    2015-11-01

    Nine Holstein cows with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used in a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures to study the effect of increased early postpartum AA supply on splanchnic and mammary AA metabolism. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (CTRL; n=4) or free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to a basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half of the maximal dose at the calving day (1 d in milk; DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d until 29 DIM. On 5, 15, and 29 DIM, 6 sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary blood were taken at 45-min intervals. Over the whole period, increasing AA supply increased milk (+7.8 ± 1.3 kg/d) and milk protein yields (+220 ± 65 g/d) substantially. The increased milk yield was not supported by greater dry matter intake (DMI) as, overall, DMI decreased with AA-CN (-1.6 ± 0.6 kg/d). Arterial concentrations of essential AA were greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL. The net portal-drained viscera (PDV) release of His, Met, and Phe was greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 72 to 102% once changes in DMI were accounted for. The hepatic removal of these AA was increased equivalently to the increased net PDV release, resulting in an unaltered net splanchnic release. The net PDV release of Ile, Leu, Val, and Lys tended to be greater for AA-CN, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 69 to 73%, indicating increased PDV metabolism with AA-CN. The fractional hepatic removal of these AA did not differ from zero and was unaffected by the increased supply. Consequently, the splanchnic release of these AA was approximately equivalent to their net PDV release for both CTRL and AA-CN. Overall, greater early postpartum AA supply increased milk and milk protein

  10. Lipolytic response to glucose infusion in human subjects

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.

    1987-02-01

    The authors have determined the effect of various rates of glucose infusion on the rates of release of glycerol (R/sub a/ glycerol), free fatty acids (R/sub a/ FFA), and on energy metabolism in normal human volunteers. Plasma kinetics were determined with use of the stable isotopic tracers D-5-glycerol and (1- TC)palmitate, and energy metabolism was determined by indirect calorimetry. The effect of glucose infusion on R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA was dose-dependent. At 4 mg x kg x min , both R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA were suppressed; at 8 mg x kg x min , R/sub a/ FFA was even more depressed, but R/sub a/ glycerol was similar to the value during the 4 mg x kg x min infusion. At all infusion rates tested, the amount of potential energy available from the sum of the glucose infusion and endogenously mobilized fat was always greater than when no glucose was infused. Glucose decreased fat mobilization by both inhibiting lipolysis and stimulating reesterification, thus causing a significant increase in triglyceride-fatty acid substrate cycling within the adipose tissue. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay.

  11. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  12. Septal co-infusions of glucose with a GABAB agonist impair memory

    Erickson, Erika J.; Watts, Kelly D; Parent, Marise B.

    2005-01-01

    Septal infusions of glucose exacerbate memory deficits produced by co-infusions of drugs that increase γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor activity. To further understand the interaction between glucose and GABA, this experiment tested whether glucose would also potentiate spatial working memory deficits produced by septal infusions of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Fifteen minutes prior to assessing spontaneous alternation (SA), male Sprague–Dawley derived rats were given septal infus...

  13. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens J;

    2003-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  14. HIPPOCAMPAL INFUSIONS OF GLUCOSE REVERSE MEMORY DEFICITS PRODUCED BY CO-INFUSIONS OF A GABA RECEPTOR AGONIST

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Although septal infusions of glucose typically have positive effects on memory, we have shown repeatedly that this treatment exacerbates memory deficits produced by co-infusions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists. The present experiments tested whether this negative interaction between glucose and GABA in the medial septum would be observed in the hippocampus, a brain region where glucose typically has positive effects on memory. Specifically, we determined whether hippocampal in...

  15. Septal co-infusions of glucose with the benzodiazepine agonist chlordiazepoxide impair memory, but co-infusions of glucose with the opiate morphine do not

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Parent, Marise B.

    2009-01-01

    We have found repeatedly that medial septal (MS) infusions of glucose impair memory when co-infused with the γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonist muscimol. The present experiment sought to determine whether the memory-impairing effects of this concentration of glucose would generalize to another GABAA receptor agonist and to an agonist from another neurotransmitter system that is known to impair memory. Specifically, we determined whether the dose of glucose that produces memory deficits when ...

  16. EFFECTS OF GLUCOSE-INFUSION ON HORMONE-SECRETION AND HEPATIC GLUCOSE-PRODUCTION DURING HEAVY EXERCISE

    WIERSMA, MML; VISSING, J; STEFFENS, AB; GALBO, H

    1993-01-01

    Blood-borne metabolic feedback vs. neural feedforward regulation of glucose homeostasis during exercise was investigated by infusing glucose and [H-3]glucose for glucose appearance determination intravenously in rats running for 20 min at 28 m/min [almost-equal-to 85% of maximal 02 consumption (VO2m

  17. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2003-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  18. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes?

    Staehr, P; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, O;

    2003-01-01

    turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10...... from basal rates of Rd, assessment of glucose turnover rates in euglycaemic clamp studies of Type 2 diabetic patients is not dependent on the method by which plasma glucose levels are lowered........7 +/- 2.9 mmol/l in the + ON and - ON studies, respectively, and were clamped at -5.5 mmol/l. Basal rates of glucose production (GP) were similar in the + ON and - ON studies, 83 +/- 13 vs. 85 +/- 14 mg m-2 min-1 (NS), whereas basal rates of glucose disappearance (Rd) were lower in the + ON than in the...

  19. Glucose uptake and pulsatile insulin infusion: euglycaemic clamp and [3-3H]glucose studies in healthy subjects

    To test the hypothesis that insulin has a greater effect on glucose metabolism when given as pulsatile than as continuous infusion, a 354-min euglycaemic clamp study was carried out in 8 healthy subjects. At random order soluble insulin was given intravenously either at a constant rate of 0.45mU/kg · min or in identical amounts in pulses of 11/2 to 21/4 min followed by intervals of 101/2 to 93/4 min. Average serum insulin levels were similar during the two infusion protocols, but pulsatile administration induced oscillations ranging between 15 and 62 μU/ml. Glucose uptake expressed as metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose was significantly increased during pulsatile insulin delivery as compared with continuous administration (270-294 min: 8.7±0.7 vs 6.8±0.9 ml/kg · min, P 3H]glucose infusion technique was suppressed to insignificant values. Finally, the effect of insulin on endogenous insulin secretion and lipolysis as assessed by changes in serum C-peptide and serum FFA was uninfluenced by the infusion mode. In conclusion, insulin infusion resulting in physiological serum insulin levels enhances glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in healthy subjects to a higher degree when given in a pulsed pattern mimicking that of the normal endocrine pancreas than when given as a continuous infusion. (author)

  20. Glucose uptake and pulsatile insulin infusion: euglycaemic clamp and (3-/sup 3/H)glucose studies in healthy subjects

    Schmitz, O.; Arnfred, J.; Hother Nielsen, O.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Oerskov, H.

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that insulin has a greater effect on glucose metabolism when given as pulsatile rather than as continuous infusion, a 354-min euglycaemic clamp study was carried out in 8 healthy subjects. At random order soluble insulin was given intravenously either at a constant rate of 0.45mU/kg center dot min or in identical amounts in pulses of 1/sup 1///sub 2/ to 2/sup 1///sub 4/ min followed by intervals of 10/sup 1///sub 2/ to 9/sup 3///sub 4/ min. Average serum insulin levels were similar during the two infusion protocols, but pulsatile administration induced oscillations ranging between 15 and 62 ..mu..U/ml. Glucose uptake expressed as metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose was significantly increased during pulsatile insulin delivery as compared with continuous administration (270-294 min: 8.7+-0.7 vs 6.8+-0.9 ml/kg center dot min, P < 0.01, and 330-354 min: 8.9 +- 0.5 vs 7.4 +- 0.9 ml/kg center dotmin, P<0.05). The superior efficacy of pulsatile insulin delivery on glucose uptake was not consistently found until after 210 min of insulin administration. In both infusion protocols, endogenous glucose production as estimated by the (3-/sup 3/H)glucose infusion technique was suppressed to insignificant values. Finally, the effect of insulin on endogenous insulin secretion and lipolysis as assessed by changes in serum C-peptide and serum FFA was uninfluenced by the infusion mode. In conclusion, insulin infusion resulting in physiological serum insulin levels enhances glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in healthy subjects to a higher degree when given in a pulsed pattern mimicking that of the normal endocrine pancreas than when given as a continuous infusion.

  1. The Small Intestinal Epithelia of Beef Steers Differentially Express Sugar Transporter Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in Response to Abomasal Versus Ruminal Infusion of Starch Hydrolysate

    In mammals, the absorption of mono¬saccharides from small intestinal lumen involves at least 3 sugar transporters (SugT): sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1; gene SLC5A1) transports glucose and galactose, whereas glucose transporter (GLUT) 5 (GLUT5; gene SLC2A5) transports fructose, acros...

  2. Portal infusion of escitalopram enhances hepatic glucose disposal in conscious dogs

    An, Zhibo; Moore, Mary C.; Winnick, Jason J.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss W.; Lautz, Margaret; Smith, Marta; Rodewald, Tiffany; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether escitalopram enhances net hepatic glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic clamp, studies were performed in conscious 42-h-fasted dogs. The experimental period was divided into P1 (0–90 min) and P2 (90–270 min). During P1 and P2 somatostatin (to inhibit insulin and glucagon secretion), 4X basal intraportal insulin, basal intraportal glucagon, and peripheral glucose (2X hepatic glucose load) were infused. Saline was infused intraportally during P1 in all groups...

  3. Metabolic and Endocrine Profiles in Response to Systemic Infusion of Fructose and Glucose in Rhesus Macaques

    Adams, Sean H.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Grant, Ryan W.; Cummings, Bethany P.; Havel, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of circulating leptin concentrations are attenuated after consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, likely a result of limited postprandial glucose and insulin excursions after fructose. Differences in postprandial exposure of adipose tissue to peripheral circulating fructose and glucose or in adipocyte metabolism of the two sugars may also be involved. Thus, we compared plasma leptin concentrations after 6-h iv infusions of saline...

  4. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-08-01

    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  5. Monitoring of patient glucose infusion using a surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor

    Wu, Jiangling; Yan, Yurong; Li, Shengqiang; Ding, Xiaojuan; Ding, Shijia; Huang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based optic fiber monitoring system was introduced in this paper to monitor patients’ infusion process. The SPR-based fiber optic sensor provides a dramatically enhanced flexibility during the monitoring process. The experimental results showed that the spectral shift of sensor is correlated with glucose concentration and its flowing speed. The presence of fatal air bubbles in a glucose infusion solvent is detectable in real time, so that the consequent medical accident is avoidable. This sensor can simultaneously provide the information of liquid concentration and its flowing velocity, and make a judgment on the presence of air bubbles in solution during infusion. It provides experimental guidance on designing and manufacturing a sensor for on-line clinical monitoring systems in the future.

  6. Monitoring of patient glucose infusion using a surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based optic fiber monitoring system was introduced in this paper to monitor patients’ infusion process. The SPR-based fiber optic sensor provides a dramatically enhanced flexibility during the monitoring process. The experimental results showed that the spectral shift of sensor is correlated with glucose concentration and its flowing speed. The presence of fatal air bubbles in a glucose infusion solvent is detectable in real time, so that the consequent medical accident is avoidable. This sensor can simultaneously provide the information of liquid concentration and its flowing velocity, and make a judgment on the presence of air bubbles in solution during infusion. It provides experimental guidance on designing and manufacturing a sensor for on-line clinical monitoring systems in the future. (paper)

  7. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul; Dela, Flemming; Madsbad, Sten; Vaag, Allan A

    2003-01-01

    not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.......We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...

  8. A Quadruply-Asymmetric Sigmoid to Describe the Insulin-Glucose Relationship during Intravenous Insulin Infusion

    Daniel T. Braithwaite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For hospitalized patients requiring intravenous insulin therapy, an objective is to quantify the intravenous insulin infusion rate (IR across the domain of blood glucose (BG values at a single timepoint. The algorithm parameters include low BG (70 mg/dL, critical high BG, target range BG limits, and maintenance rate (MR of insulin infusion, which, after initialization, depends on rate of change of blood glucose, previous IR, and other inputs. The restraining rate (RR is a function of fractional completeness of ascent of BG (FCABG from BG 70 mg/dL to target. The correction rate (CR is a function of fractional elevation of BG (FEBG, in comparison to elevation of a critical high BG, above target. IR = RR + CR. The proposed mathematical model describing a sigmoidal relationship between IR and BG may offer a safety advantage over the linear relationship currently employed in some intravenous glucose management systems.

  9. Response to glucose and lipid infusions in sepsis: a kinetic analysis

    The kinetics and oxidation of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism were assessed in control and Escherichia coli septicemic dogs by using primed, constant infusions of U-14C-glucose and 1,2, 13C-palmitic acid. In the controls, the infusion of glucose suppressed endogenous glucose production completely, whereas, in the septic dogs, only a 30% suppression of glucose production occurred. The ability of the septic dogs to oxidize endogenous or exogenous glucose was decreased significantly. The basal rate of appearance of FFA was significantly higher in the septic dogs, but their ability to oxidize FFA was comparable to that of the control dogs; therefore, the basal rate of FFA oxidation was higher in the septic dogs. These studies indicate that septic dogs have a decreased capacity to oxidize glucose, but that they retain their ability to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. Because the rate of lipolysis was increased in sepsis, lipid was the predominate energy substrate in this septic model

  10. Response to glucose and lipid infusions in sepsis: a kinetic analysis

    Shaw, J.H.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1985-05-01

    The kinetics and oxidation of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism were assessed in control and Escherichia coli septicemic dogs by using primed, constant infusions of U-/sup 14/C-glucose and 1,2, /sup 13/C-palmitic acid. In the controls, the infusion of glucose suppressed endogenous glucose production completely, whereas, in the septic dogs, only a 30% suppression of glucose production occurred. The ability of the septic dogs to oxidize endogenous or exogenous glucose was decreased significantly. The basal rate of appearance of FFA was significantly higher in the septic dogs, but their ability to oxidize FFA was comparable to that of the control dogs; therefore, the basal rate of FFA oxidation was higher in the septic dogs. These studies indicate that septic dogs have a decreased capacity to oxidize glucose, but that they retain their ability to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. Because the rate of lipolysis was increased in sepsis, lipid was the predominate energy substrate in this septic model.

  11. Liver Glycogen Loading Dampens Glycogen Synthesis Seen in Response to Either Hyperinsulinemia or Intraportal Glucose Infusion

    Winnick, Jason J.; An, Zhibo; Kraft, Guillaume; Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Irimia, Jose M.; Smith, Marta; Lautz, Margaret; Roach, Peter J.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of liver glycogen loading on net hepatic glycogen synthesis during hyperinsulinemia or hepatic portal vein glucose infusion in vivo. Liver glycogen levels were supercompensated (SCGly) in two groups (using intraportal fructose infusion) but not in two others (Gly) during hyperglycemic-normoinsulinemia. Following a 2-h control period during which fructose infusion was stopped, there was a 2-h experimental period in which the response to hyperglycemia plus either 4× basal insulin (INS) or portal vein glucose infusion (PoG) was measured. Increased hepatic glycogen reduced the percent of glucose taken up by the liver that was deposited in glycogen (74 ± 3 vs. 53 ± 5% in Gly+INS and SCGly+INS, respectively, and 72 ± 3 vs. 50 ± 6% in Gly+PoG and SCGly+PoG, respectively). The reduction in liver glycogen synthesis in SCGly+INS was accompanied by a decrease in both insulin signaling and an increase in AMPK activation, whereas only the latter was observed in SCGly+PoG. These data indicate that liver glycogen loading impairs glycogen synthesis regardless of the signal used to stimulate it. PMID:22923473

  12. Measurement of deuterium-labeled glucose flux in newborn infants by the continuous isotope infusion technique

    Although hypoglycemia is a frequent neonatal problem, direct estimates of glucose turnover in newborn infants have not been possible before the advent of practical, stable isotope microtechniques. Using the well-established constant isotopic infusion procedure, glucose flux has been measured in newborn infants for the first time with the metabolically non-recycling tracer, glucose-6,6-d2. Nineteen infants from 650 to 4330 grams (25 to 44 weeks gestation) were studied at various times during the first week of postnatal life. 100 to 200 microliter capillary blood samples, obtained at appropriate intervals during the course of a 150 to 240 minute infusion of dideuterioglucose, were processed by rapid ion exchange purification and the glucose converted to the 6-0-acetyl-1,2 : 3,5-di-O-(n-butane-boronyl)-α-D-glucofuranose derivative for subsequent measurement of isotopic enrichment by combined GC-MS with selected ion recording using an AVA:Voltage Sweeping circuit. Glucose flux rates were calculated by steady-state equations, where appropriate, or by non steady-state approximations when blood glucose concentration and/or glucose isotopic enrichment changed during the course of the investigation. Total glucose flux ranged from 3 to 43 mg/min (3.7 to 11.1 mg/kg.min) and was directly correlated with body weight, estimated brain weight, and average blood sugar concentration during the course of the study. These data agree closely with previous indirect estimates of glucose metabolism in the newborn period and represent the first direct measurements of new glucose production and utilization in the human neonate

  13. Effect of alcohol and glucose infusion on pituitary-gonadal hormones in normal females

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick;

    1988-01-01

    after 8 h. Four of the women participated in a control experiment with infusion of an equal volume of glucose 5.5%. Venous blood samples were drawn 5 times during the 24-h follow up period. Serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones decreased in both ethanol and control experiments...... and the results did not differ significantly. The lowest hormone concentrations were observed 1-5 h after the start of infusion. Oestradiol, oestrone and oestrone-sulphate concentrations decreased 24-46% compared to basal values. 5 alpha-dihydro-testosterone levels decreased 23-31%, androstenedione...

  14. Comparison of palmitic acid kinetics during glucose or ketone body infusions

    Birkhahn, R.H.; Block, D.J.; Birkhahn, G.C.; Thomford, N.R.

    1986-03-05

    Ketone body interactions can be observed for extended ketosis by infusion by monoacetoacetin (the monoglyceride of acetoacetic acid). Palmitic acid kinetics were compared on the 5th day of glucose or ketone body-glucose infusions. 20 rats were fed complete diets intravenously at the rate of 50 ml/day. All diets contained vitamins, trace minerals, electrolytes, amino acids and 1 kcal/ml of non-protein energy. Rats were divided by energy source: Group A (n = 10) received energy from glucose and Group B (n = 10) from 72% monoacetoacetin plus 28% glucose. Diets were given at 1/2 and 3/4 rats on days 1 and 2, respectively and at full rate for days 3-5. Urinary nitrogen losses, body weight and dietary intake were measured daily. Palmitate kinetics was measured on day 5 using a continuous infusion of (1-/sup 14/C) palmitate and measuring C-14 in breath and plasma and plasma palmitate by GC. The two groups had similar body weight changes and urinary nitrogen losses over the 3 days of full intake Group A had lower plasma palmitate (88 +/- 7 vs 105 +/- 6 micromol/l) but similar turnover (17.1 +/- 2.4 vs 15.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/hr) and oxidation 2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 2.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/hr) compared to Group B. These data show that feeding monoacetoacetin intravenously does not stimulate fatty acid metabolism in the well nourished rat.

  15. Estimation of fasting glucose flux in malnourished and hypoglycemic children by constant infusion of U-13C-glucose

    Glucose flux was estimated in fasting children by primed constant infusion of U-13C-glucose, 8 μg/kg/min for 3 hours followed by 3 hours during which alanine was also infused at a rate of 4 mg/kg/min. Plasma was obtained half hourly, deionized, incubated with glucose oxidase, the gluconic acid separated on Dowex-2 and combusted in vacuo (recovery 70%). Enrichment of CO2 was 0.2 to 0.4 atom %. Glucose flux was estimated after glycogen oxidation had become negligible (measured by the respiratory quotient), so as to approximate gluconeogenesis. In 5 severely malnourished infants, 1 to 2 years old, glucose flux was 3.0 mg/kg/min (range 1.8 to 4.4). In a separate study, 3 twins with ''ketotic'' hypoglycemia were compared with their larger unaffected identical twins. After becoming hypoglycemic while fasting, glucose flux in the hypoglycemic twins, 2.6 mg/kg/min (2.4 to 2.8) was similar to the controls, 3.0 mg/kg/min (2.5 to 3.3). The lower alanine observed at this time was thus not associated with decreased gluconeogenesis. Just prior to becoming hypoglycemic, the affected twins oxidized glycogen more rapidly, 2.7 mg/kg/min (2.4 to 2.9) vs. 1.5 (1.4 to 1.7) in the controls. This was more than sufficient to account for the hypoglycemia and appears to be related to an acquired inability to produce epinephrine

  16. Blood glucose control in healthy subject and patients receiving intravenous glucose infusion or total parenteral nutrition using glucagon-like peptide 1

    Nauck, Michael A; Walberg, Jörg; Vethacke, Arndt;

    2004-01-01

    It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition.......It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition....

  17. Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Vidarsdottir, S.; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Viergever, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Grond, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that hypothalamic neuronal activity, as measured by the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal, declines in response to oral glucose intake. To further explore the mechanism driving changes in hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to an oral glucose load,

  18. Effect of hepatic glucose production on acute insulin resistance induced by lipid-infusion in awake rats

    Ling Li; Gang-Yi Yang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the influence of hepatic glucose production on acute insulin resistance induced by a lipid infusion in awake rats.METHODS: A hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was established in awake chronically catheterized rats. Two groups of rats were studied either with a 4-h intraarterial infusion of lipid/heparin or saline. Insulin-mediated peripheral and hepatic glucose metabolism was assessed by hyperinsulinaemiceuglycaemic clamp combined with [3-3H]-glucose infusion.RESULTS: During hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp,there was a significant increase in plasma free fatty acid (FFA, from 741.9±50.6 to 2346.4±238.5 μmol/L, P<0.01) in lipid-infused group. The glucose infusion rates (GIR) in the lipid infusion rats, compared to control rats, were significantly reduced (200-240 min average: lipid infusion; 12.6±1.5 vs control; 34.0±1.6 mg/kg.min, P<0.01), declining to - 35%of the corresponding control values during the last time of the clamp (240 min: lipid infusion; 12.0±1.9 vs control;34.7±1.7 mg/kg.min, P<0.0001). At the end of clamp study,the hepatic glucose production (HGP) in control rats was significantly suppressed (88%) from 19.0±4.5 (basal) to 2.3±0.9 mg/kg.min (P<0.01). The suppressive effect of insulin on HGP was significantly blunted in the lipid-infused (P<0.05). The rate of glucose disappearance (GRd) was a slight decrease in the lipid-infused rats compared with controls during the clamp.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that lipid infusion could induces suppression of hepatic glucose production, impairs the abilities of insulin to suppress lipolysis and mediate glucose utilization in peripheral tissue. Therefore, we conclude that lipid-infusion induces an acute insulin resistance in vivo.

  19. Effect of sepsis on VLDL kinetics: responses in basal state and during glucose infusion

    The effect of gram-negative sepsis on the kinetics and oxidation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acids was assessed in conscious dogs in the normal state and 24 h after infusion of live Escherichia coli. VLDL, labeled with [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitic acid, was used to trace VLDL kinetics and oxidation, and [1-13C]palmitic acid bound to albumin was infused simultaneously to quantify kinetics and oxidation of free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma. Sepsis caused a fivefold increase in the rate of VLDL production (RaVLDL). In the control dogs, the direct oxidation of VLDL-fatty acids was not an important contributor to their overall energy metabolism, but in dogs with sepsis, 17% of the total rate of CO2 production could be accounted for by VLDL-fatty acid oxidation. When glucose was infused into dogs with insulin and glucagon levels clamped at basal levels (by means of infusion of somatostatin and replacement of the hormones), RaVLDL increased significantly in the control dogs, but it did not increase further in dogs with sepsis. The authors conclude that the increase in triglyceride concentration in fasting dogs with gram-negative sepsis is the result of an increase in VLDL production and that the fatty acids in VLDL can serve as an important source of energy in sepsis

  20. Intraportal Infusion of Ghrelin Could Inhibit Glucose-Stimulated GLP-1 Secretion by Enteric Neural Net in Wistar Rat

    Xiyao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a regulator of food intake and energy metabolism, the role of ghrelin in glucose metabolism is still not fully understood. In this study, we determined the in vivo effect of ghrelin on incretin effect. We demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the glucose-stimulated release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 when infused into the portal vein of Wistar rat. Hepatic vagotomy diminished the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. In addition, phentolamine, a nonselective α receptor antagonist, could recover the decrease of GLP-1 release induced by ghrelin infusion. Pralmorelin (an artificial growth hormone release peptide infusion into the portal vein could also inhibit the glucose-stimulated release of GLP-1. And growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonist, [D-lys3]-GHRP-6, infusion showed comparable increases of glucose stimulated GLP-1 release compared to ghrelin infusion into the portal vein. The data showed that intraportal infusion of ghrelin exerted an inhibitory effect on GLP-1 secretion through growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1α (GHS1α receptor, which indicated that the downregulation of ghrelin secretion after food intake was necessary for incretin effect. Furthermore, our results suggested that the enteric neural net involved hepatic vagal nerve and sympathetic nerve mediated inhibition effect of ghrelin on incretin effect.

  1. Local cerebral glucose utilization in monkeys with hemiparkinsonism induced by intracarotid infusion of the neurotoxin MPTP.

    Palombo, E; Porrino, L J; Bankiewicz, K S; Crane, A M; Sokoloff, L; Kopin, I J

    1990-03-01

    Quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to map the pattern of alterations in local cerebral glucose utilization associated with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta produced by the infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) into one internal carotid artery of rhesus monkeys. These monkeys become hemiparkinsonian, displaying rigidity, bradykinesia, and tremor of the limbs contralateral to the side of MPTP infusion; during spontaneous activity they turn toward the side of the lesion. Eighty-two brain areas were examined, and statistically significant metabolic changes were confined mainly to basal ganglia structures ipsilateral to the side of the lesion. Glucose utilization was reduced in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area, i.e., in the areas of cell loss. Increases in glucose utilization in regions normally innervated by the lesioned area were observed in the post-commissural portions of the putamen and dorsolateral caudate. Other structures showing statistically significant metabolic changes were the external segment of the globus pallidus (+40%), subthalamic nucleus (-17%), and pedunculopontine nucleus (+15%). There were also smaller changes in portions of the thalamus (ventral anterior nucleus, parafascicular nucleus) and premotor cortex. All significant metabolic changes were confined to the side of the substantia nigra lesion and were essentially restricted to regions involved in the production of movement or maintenance of posture. PMID:2319306

  2. Abomasal ulceration and tympany of calves.

    Marshall, Tessa S

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of abomasal ulcer formation and abomasal tympany in calves. The development of ulcers and bloat has been attributed to many factors, including coarse feed, environmental stress, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and bacterial infections. This article discusses various factors thought to play a role in the development of these abomasal conditions in calves. PMID:19174290

  3. Clostridial abomasal disease in Connecticut dairy calves.

    Van Kruiningen, Herbert J; Nyaoke, Carol A; Sidor, Inga F; Fabis, Jaroslaw J; Hinckley, Lynn S; Lindell, Kevin A

    2009-08-01

    Over 2 years, 24 dairy calves died of emphysematous abomasitis and abomasal bloat. Anaerobic cultures of necrotic abomasal mucosa yielded Clostridium perfringens from 10 of 15 calves. Sarcina were observed in 17 of 22 examined histologically. A change in the antibiotic regimen for newborns and improved sanitizing of feeding utensils eliminated further losses. PMID:19881926

  4. Effect of insulin and glucose infusion on myocardial infarction size in uraemic rats.

    Dikow, Ralf; Wasserhess, Caroline; Zimmerer, Katrin; Kihm, Lars Philipp; Schaier, Matthias; Schwenger, Vedat; Hardt, Stefan; Tiefenbacher, Christiane; Katus, Hugo; Zeier, Martin; Gross, Lisa Marie

    2009-09-01

    The post myocardial infarction (MI) mortality rate is high in renal patients. One possible explanation is the reduced ischemia tolerance caused by uraemia. Previous investigations showed larger MI size in uraemic rats when compared with sham-operated controls. To explore a possible link between uraemic insulin resistance syndrome and MI size in uraemia, we studied an intervention model with administration of insulin and glucose during acute MI in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats and sham-operated controls. In 16 SNX rats and 16 sham-operated controls, the left coronary artery was ligated for 60 min, followed by reperfusion for 90 min. To visualize the perfused myocardium, lissamine-green ink was injected. The nonperfused area (lissamine exclusion) and the area of total infarction (TTC stain) were assessed in sections of the left ventricle (LV) using image analysis. While eight SNX rats and eight sham-operated controls were treated with a placebo during the procedure, the other animals received an insulin bolus of 85 mU/kg and then a continuous insulin infusion of 8 mU/kg per minute. Blood glucose levels were clamped to baseline levels with an infusion of 25% glucose. Insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 and IRS-2) and glucose transporter (GLUT 4) were studied by western blot in another seven SNX and seven sham-operated controls without further intervention. The infarcted area, given as a proportion of the nonperfused risk area, was not different in sham-operated controls treated with a hyperinsulinaemic clamp versus untreated (0.55 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.13, p = 0.477). The eight SNX animals treated with the hyperinsulinaemic clamp utilized significantly less glucose to stabilize baseline glucose levels when compared with the sham-operated controls (5,637 vs. 3,207 microl Glc 25%, p = 0.007). The infarcted area was significantly lower in SNX rats treated with the hyperinsulinaemic clamp compared to non-treated SNX animals (0.56 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.09, p

  5. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    energy intake and on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, postprandial lipidemia, blood pressure, heart rate, and basal metabolic rate. RESULTS: The infusion resulted in elevations of the plasma concentrations of intact GLP-1 similar to those observed after intravenous infusion of 1.2 pmol.kg-1.min-1...... fullness was unaffected. No side effects during GLP-1 infusion were recorded except for a brief cutaneous reaction. Basal metabolic rate and heart rate did not change significantly during GLP-1 administration. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure tended to be lower during the GLP-1 infusion......OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore...

  6. Performance and acceptability of a combined device for insulin infusion and glucose sensing in the home setting

    Nørgaard, K.; Shin, J.; Welsh, J. B.;

    2015-01-01

    connected to insulin pumps over 15 days (3 days/device) and test capillary blood glucose (SMBG) 7 times/day. The primary endpoint was the percentage of sensor-SMBG paired values within 20% of one another. Subject experiences were assessed via questionnaires. Overall, 74.8% of sensor-SMBG paired values were......The use of sensor-augmented insulin pump (SAP) therapy is increasing. Currently, glucose sensors and insulin infusion cannulas are inserted separately. A new device, MiniMed Duo, combines sensing and infusion capabilities on the same platform and is intended to simplify device insertion and site...

  7. Effect of intravenous glucose infusion on renal function in normal man and in insulin-dependent diabetics

    Frandsen, M; Parving, H H; Christiansen, JS

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intravenous glucose infusion on glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow (constant infusion technique using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran) and on urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin were studied in ten normal subjects and seven metabolically well......-controlled insulin-dependent diabetics. Following glucose infusion in normal subjects (n = 10) blood glucose increased from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 10.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/l (SEM) (p less than or equal to 0.01). Glomerular filtration rate increased from 116 +/- 2 to 123 +/- 3 ml/mi x 1.73 m2 (p less than or equal to 0.01), while...... no change in renal plasma flow was seen - 552 +/- 11 versus 553 +/- 18 ml/min x 1.73 m2. Volume expansion with intravenous saline infusion in six of the normal subjects induced no changes in blood glucose or kidney function. In seven strictly controlled insulin-dependent diabetics, blood glucose values were...

  8. Glucose tracer, kinetics and turnover in monkeys and chickens infused with ethanol, 1,3-butanediol, or fructose

    Mixtures of (2-3H) and (U-14C) glucose were injected as single doses into fasted cynomolgus monkeys to assess glucose tracer kinetics and obtain rates of turnover. Data were treated by stochastic and compartmental analyses and results from both analyses closely agreed. However, (2-3H) data analyzed by the compartmental analysis required three pools to fit the glucose disappearance curve while (6-3H) data fit a two or three pool model equally well. Turnover rates averaged 4.9-4.0, and 3.0 mg/min x kg-1 body weight with (2-3H), 6-3H) and (U-14C) glucose tracers, respectively. The data heuristically suggest that the slow turnover pool that was necessary to fit (2-3H) glucose data is related to isotope discrimination. The effects of four treatment solutions on (6-3H) glucose metabolism in monkeys were examined. The solutions and their rates of infusion (umoles/min x kg-1) were: (1) ethanol, 110; (2) 1,3-butanediol, 110; (3) fructose, 30; and (4) ethanol pus fructose, 110 and 30, respectively. The glucose clearance rate was lowest during the ethanol plus fructose infusions. Ethanol infusions (222 or 444 umoles/min x kg-1 body weight) in chickens (1500 g) fasted 64 hours did not cause hypoglycemia although the high dose slightly decreased the rate of glucose turnover 15% (14.0 versus 12.0 mg/min x kg-1). It was further found that neither the hepatic cytosolic nor the mitochondrial redox state significantly changed in chickens infused with the high dose of ethanol. The unchanged hepatic metabolite ratios in chickens are consistent with their unusual resistance to ethanol-induced hypoglycemia

  9. Activity of hepatic but not skeletal muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase enzyme is depressed by intravenous glucose infusions in lactating dairy cows.

    Al-Trad, B; Wittek, T; Gäbel, G; Fürll, M; Reisberg, K; Aschenbach, J R

    2010-12-01

    A positive energy balance in dairy cows pre-partum may decrease hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) enzyme activity, which might contribute to disturbances of lipid metabolism post-partum. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle CPT activity can also be downregulated during positive energy balance. Mid-lactating dairy cows were maintained on intravenous infusion of either saline (control) or glucose solutions that increased linearly over 24 days, remained at the 24-day level until day 28 and were suspended thereafter. Liver and skeletal muscle biopsies, as well as four diurnal blood samples, were taken on days 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32, representing infusion levels equivalent to 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 0% of the net energy for lactation (NE(L)) requirement respectively. Glucose infusion increased serum insulin concentrations on day 16 and 24 while plasma glucose levels were increased at only a single time point on day 24. Serum beta-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations decreased between day 8 and 24; whereas changes in non-esterified fatty acids were mostly insignificant. Total lipid contents of liver and skeletal muscle were not affected by treatment. Hepatic CPT activity decreased with glucose infusion (by 35% on day 24) and remained decreased on day 32. Hepatic expression levels of CPT-1A and CPT-2 mRNA were not significantly altered but tended to reflect the changes in enzyme activity. In contrast to the liver, no effect of glucose infusion was observed on skeletal muscle CPT activity. We conclude that suppression of CPT activity by positive energy balance appears to be specific for the liver in mid-lactating dairy cows. PMID:20546068

  10. Effect of abomasal carbohydrates and live yeast on measures of postruminal fermentation.

    Gressley, T F; Davison, K A; Macies, J; Leonardi, C; McCarthy, M M; Nemec, L M; Rice, C A

    2016-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of abomasal carbohydrate infusion on nutrient digestibility and fecal measures. In Exp. 1, 5 Holstein steers were assigned to a Latin square with 1-wk periods and were abomasally infused on a single day at the end of each period with water alone, a single pulse dose of water with 1 g/kg BW oligofructose or cornstarch, or 4 pulse doses of water with 0.25 g/kg BW oligofructose or cornstarch administered every 6 h. Total tract nutrient digestibility was not affected by treatment except for a tendency for a decrease in starch digestibility in response to the 1 g/kg BW dose of cornstarch ( < 0.10). Compared with the control, both oligofructose and starch infusions caused similar decreases in fecal pH ( < 0.05) and increases in fecal short-chain fatty acids ( ≤ 0.01) measured 12 h after the first infusion, with the single 1 g/kg BW infusions causing a greater magnitude of pH change compared with the four 0.25-g/kg BW infusions ( < 0.01). All treatments increased concentration of fecal lipopolysaccharide compared with the control for at least 1 time point following the infusion ( < 0.05), with a greater increase observed for the 0.25 g/kg BW infusions of oligofructose compared with the other treatments ( < 0.05). Results of Exp. 1 indicate that both oligofructose and cornstarch infusions increased carbohydrate fermentation in the intestines and can be used as a method to evaluate the impact of excessive intestinal fermentation on intestinal health. In Exp. 2, 6 Holstein steers received abomasal pulse doses of 0 (control) or 10 g/d live var. (SB) according to a crossover design with 18-d periods. Abomasal infusions of 4 pulse doses of 0.25 g/kg BW oligofructose administered every 6 h were conducted on d 16 of each period. During the baseline period prior to the oligofructose challenge, there were no effects of SB on fecal measures except for an increase in apparent total tract NDF digestibility ( < 0.05), suggesting that

  11. Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves

    Scaife Jes R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin and essential amino acids (EAA would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of

  12. GIT (Glucose Infusion Test): polycentric evaluation of a new test for vascular access recirculation.

    Alloatti, S; Magnasco, A; Bonfant, G; Bonello, F; Ciciani, A M; Fidelio, T; Filiberti, O; Forneris, G; Martina, G; Robaudo, C; Romano, U; Schelotto, C

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. Vascular access recirculation (AR), which is often unacknowledged, remains an important cause of inadequate dialytic dose. The glucose infusion test (GIT) is a new method for detecting and quantifying AR. This paper reports on a polycentric evaluation of the new test and a comparison with the classical Urea-test (UT). Methods. GIT protocol comprises withdrawal from the arterial port (sample A), injection into the venous drip chamber of 1 g glucose in 4 seconds, withdrawal from the arterial port (sample B) continuously from 13 to 17 seconds. Glucose is determined on A and B by a reflectance photometer. If B = A then there is no recirculation. If B exceeds A by at least 20 mg/dl there is recirculation. AR quantification: AR% = (B-A) / 20. GIT was performed on 623 patients from eleven dialysis centers to screen the patients for AR. Subsequently, GIT and Urea-test (UT) were compared in 189 paired tests. The reproducibility of GIT and UT was studied in 28 paired tests performed in sequence. Results. The screening test by GIT was positive in 68 cases (11 %). The majority of positivities was found in central venous catheters (CVC, 27/50 cases, 54 %), whereas only 7 % of artero-venous fistulas (AVF) were positive. In the CVC group, Tesio catheters were more frequently positive compared to Dual Lumen Catheters (64 % vs. 29 %). The comparison GIT - UT showed that results matched in 162 tests (79 negative and 83 positive both by GIT and UT), showing that on the grounds of UT, GIT has high sensitivity and specificity. In 27 tests GIT was positive, but UT negative. This disagreement is due to the different minimal limit of detection, 1 % for GIT and 5% for UT. The reproducibility was greater with GIT than with UT with a lower D% (respectively -0.6 +/- 2.5 and -0.4 +/- 6.1 %, p<0.001) and a lower coefficient of variation (17 vs 33 %). Conclusions. The screening of 623 patients by GIT confirmed that AR in AVF is normally absent, whereas an un-expectedly high

  13. Use of Short-Term Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Type 1 Diabetes Patients on Continuous Intraperitoneal Insulin Infusion : A Feasibility Study

    Logtenberg, Susan J. J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Groenier, Klaas H.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In diabetes, strict glycemic control reduces risk of complications. One mode of therapy is continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII). With CIPII, like all intensified treatment strategies, frequent assessment of glucose levels is mandatory. Real-time (RT)-continuous glucose mon

  14. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans

    Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

  15. Inhibition of glucose- and fructose-mediated protein glycation by infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices

    Jugjeet Singh Ramkissoon; Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally; Anwar Hussein Subratty; Nessar Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inhibitory activity of ten culinary herbs and spices namely on glucose-mediated glycation (GMG) and fructose-mediated glycation (FMG) of bovine serum albumin. Methods: Fluorescence was used as an index of albumin glycation using glucose and fructose as substrates in the presence of infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using reducing power, metal ion chelating and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Phytochemicals profile was analysed using 13 standard methods. Results: FMG was found to be significantly higher than GMG (95 and 84 AU, respectively; P 0.05) was found in the percentage glycation inhibitory activity of infusions compared to ethanolic extracts. The mean percentage inhibitory activity of the extracts for GMG (45.9%) and for FMG (45.1%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, fla-vonoids, tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids, reducing sugars, proteins, phenols, saponins, phlobatannins, and cardiac glycosides. Conclusions: The higher rate of fluorescence generation by fructation suggests that glycation by fructose deserves much attention as a glycating agent. Data herein showed that the extracts inhibited GMG and FMG. Thus, these edible plants could be a natural source of antioxidants and anti-glycation agent for preventing advanced glycation end-products-mediated complications.

  16. Evidence-based use of prokinetic drugs for abomasal disorders in cattle.

    Constable, Peter D; Nouri, Mohammad; Sen, Ismail; Baird, Aubrey N; Wittek, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Abomasal hypomotility is a prerequisite for abomasal displacement in cattle and is present immediately after surgical correction of left displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus. Hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and hyperinsulinemia should be corrected in cattle suspected to have abomasal hypomotility. The most effective prokinetic for calves and adult cattle suspected to have abomasal hypomotility is erythromycin. PMID:22374117

  17. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore......, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area...... under the curve for insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher during the GLP-1 administration, whereas glucagon levels were unchanged. Neither triglycerides nor free fatty acids were affected. GLP-1 administration decreased hunger and prospective food intake and increased satiety, whereas...

  18. Influence of an intravenous infusion of amino acids and glucose on the pancreatic exocrine in rats

    FAN Bo-guang 范博广; (A。)ke Andrén-Sandberg

    2004-01-01

    Background A number of reports based on both animal experiments and clinical investigations have pointed out that total parenteral nutrition (TPN) suppresses the function of the exocrine pancreas. Even though pancreatic hypotrophy and dysfunction resulting from TPN may be explained by several mechanisms, the clinically most important cause is that nutrients in circulation affect pancreatic secretion. The effect of nutrients on the exocrine pancreas is still controversial. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to clarify the influence of intravenous amino acids and hypertonic glucose in TPN solution on the exocrine pancreas. Methods Three mixed TPN solutions, consisting of 30% or 50% glucose or of 14% amino acids, were employed. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, six rats in each group, including a control group and one group receiving each of the three TPN solutions. All animals were killed after 10 days of TPN. Body weight, pancreatic content, and enzyme levels in the pancreas were measured. Results Compared with the control group, pancreatic wet weight was lower in all TPN groups. Glucose significantly decreased the content and concentration of pancreatic protein, but amino acids did not alter the concentration of protein. The level of amylase was lower in all parenterally fed groups, with a greater decrease in the groups treated with amino acids and 30% glucose than with 50% glucose. Trypsin levels in all groups receiving TPN were markedly higher than in the control group. Conclusion TPN results in atrophy of the pancreas, but trypsin levels increase with TPN treatment. Glucose elevates the amylase level in the pancreas, while amino acids suppress pancreatic amylase. Amino acids used as a source of protein maintain normal pancreatic protein levels.

  19. Enhancing the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer; Butt, Sadia Asghar;

    2013-01-01

    A change in myocardial metabolism is a known effect of several diseases. MRS with hyperpolarized 13C‐labelled pyruvate is a technique capable of detecting changes in myocardial pyruvate metabolism, and has proven to be useful for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in vivo. However, during...... fasting, the myocardial glucose oxidation is low and the fatty acid oxidation (β‐oxidation) is high, which complicates the interpretation of pyruvate metabolism with the technique. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) could increase the...... myocardial glucose oxidation in the citric acid cycle, reflected as an increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate MRS measurements in fasted rats. Two groups of rats were infused with two different doses of GIK and investigated by MRS after injection of hyperpolarized...

  20. Glucose and insulin dynamics associated with continuous infusion of dextrose or dextrose and insulin in healthy and endotoxin-exposed horses

    Han, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate and characterize the effects of a continuous rate infusion of dextrose or dextrose and insulin on glucose and insulin dynamics in both healthy and endotoxin-exposed horses. Administration of a low dose of endotoxin has been used in horses to mimic the clinicopathologic changes seen in endotoxemia, including the development of an inflammatory response. Our hypothesis was that a continuous rate infusion of insulin at a rate of 0.07 IU/kg/hr would p...

  1. Increased secretory demand rather than a defect in the proinsulin conversion mechanism causes hyperproinsulinemia in a glucose-infusion rat model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Alarcón, C; Leahy, J L; Schuppin, G T; Rhodes, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    Hyperproinsulinemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is due to an increased release of proinsulin from pancreatic beta cells. This could reside in increased secretory demand placed on the beta cell by hyperglycemia or in the proinsulin conversion mechanism. In this study, biosynthesis of the proinsulin conversion enzymes (PC2, PC3, and carboxypeptidase-H [CP-H]) and proinsulin, were examined in islets isolated from 48-h infused rats with 50% (wt/vol) glucose (hyperglycemic, ...

  2. Autophagy in muscle of glucose-infusion hyperglycemia rats and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats via selective activation of m-TOR or FoxO3.

    Pengfei Lv

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotes required for metabolism and is involved in diverse diseases. To investigate autophagy in skeletal muscle under hyperglycemia status, we established two hyperglycemia-rat models that differ in their circulating insulin levels, by glucose infusion and singe high-dose streptozotocin injection. We then detected expression of autophagy related genes with real-time PCR and western blot. We found that under hyperglycemia status induced by glucose-infusion, autophagy was inhibited in rat skeletal muscle, whereas under streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia status autophagy was enhanced. Meanwhile, hyperglycemic gastrocnemius muscle was more prone to autophagy than soleus muscle. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy in skeletal muscle in glucose-infusion hyperglycemia rats was mediated by the m-TOR pathway while m-TOR and FoxO3 both contributed to enhancement of autophagy in gastrocnemius muscle in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats. These data shows that insulin plays a relatively more important role than hyperglycemia in regulating autophagy in hyperglycemia rat muscle through selectively activating the m-TOR or FoxO3 pathway in a fiber-selective manner.

  3. Simultaneous determination of glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis

    Martineau, A.; Lecavalier, L.; Falardeau, P.; Chiasson, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    We have developed and validated a new method to measure simultaneously glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human, in steady and non-steady states, using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and GC-MS analysis. The method is based on the concomitant infusion and dilution of D-(2,3,4,6,6-2H5)glucose and L-(1,2,3-13C3)alanine. The choice of the tracers was done on the basis of a minimal overlap between the ions of interest and those arising from natural isotopic abundances. Alanine was chosen as the gluconeogenic substrate because it is the major gluconeogenic amino acid extracted by the liver and, with lactate, constitutes the bulk of the gluconeogenic precursors. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained during simultaneous infusion of trace amounts of both stable isotope labeled compounds with the radioactive tracers (D-(3-3H)glucose and L-(1,2,3-14C3)alanine) in a normal and a diabetic subject; the radiolabeled tracers were used as the accepted reference procedure. A slight overestimation of glucose turnover (7.3 versus 6.8 in normal and 10.8 versus 9.2 mumol/kg min in diabetic subject) was noticed when the stable isotope-labeled tracers were used. For the basal turnover rate of alanine, similar values were obtained with both methods (6.2 mumol/kg min). For gluconeogenesis, higher values were observed in the basal state with the stable isotopes (0.42 versus 0.21 mumol/kg min); however, these differences disappeared in the postprandial period after the ingestion of a mixed meal. Despite those minor differences, the overall correlation with the reference method was excellent for glucose turnover (r = 0.87) and gluconeogenesis (r = 0.86).

  4. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with abomasal lymphosarcoma: Case report

    Meyer Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case report describes the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in a Swiss Braunvieh cow with lymphosarcoma of the abomasum. Case Presentation The main clinical findings were vomiting in response to eating and melena. The results of serum biochemistry and rumen fluid analysis were indicative of abomasal reflux syndrome. The main ultrasonographic findings were two enlarged lymph nodes caudal to the reticulum and a severely enlarged abomasum with thickening of the abomasal wall and folds. Based on all the findings, pyloric stenosis caused by lymphosarcoma was tentatively diagnosed and later confirmed at postmortem examination. Conclusions This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of abomasal reflux syndrome.

  5. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves were randomly fed whole cow's milk, or an oral rehydration solution (ORS) containing bicarbonate and high levels of soluble fibre was fed for 3 consecutive feedings an hour before the portion of milk. For each calf, both feeding programs were repeated twice at a one-week interval. Immediately following administration of the 99mTC-sulfur-colloid-containing milk, the calves were imaged with the gamma camera positioned lateral and ventral to the abomasum. Additional right lateral and ventral views of the abomasum were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after administration of the radionuclide. Blood glucose determination were performed at one-hour intervals for 7 h after feeding milk to evaluate milk digestibility in both feeding programs. No significant differences in the results of the glucose absorption test or in the radionuclide counts of the abomasum were found between both feeding programs. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was found to be a useful technique for visualization of milk clotting and to test the effect of an ORS on milk digestibility. PMID:11227195

  6. Phosphorus homeostasis in dairy cows with abomasal displacement or abomasal volvulus.

    Grünberg, Walter; Constable, Peter; Schröder, Ulf; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Morin, Dawn; Rohn, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal phosphorus homeostasis occurs in dairy cows with an abomasal displacement or volvulus. The goal of this study was to identify potential mechanisms for hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia in cows with a left displaced abomasum (LDA), right displaced abomasum (RDA), or abomasal volvulus (AV). Accordingly, the results of preoperative clinicopathologic analyses for 1,368 dairy cows with an LDA (n = 1,189), RDA, or AV (n = 179) (data set 1) and for 44 cows with an AV (data set 2) were retrieved. Laboratory values were compared by Student's t-tests, and correlation and regression analyses were performed. Thirty-four percent of the animals from data set 1 (463/1,368) were hypophosphatemic (serum phosphorus concentration ([Pi]) 2.3 mmol/L). Serum [Pi] was significantly lower (P cattle with an RDA or AV appears to result from dehydration and decreased renal blood flow. PMID:16355687

  7. New aspects in the pathogenesis of abomasal displacement.

    Doll, Klaus; Sickinger, Marlene; Seeger, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Impaired abomasal motility and an increased accumulation of gas are prerequisites for displacement of the abomasum in the cow. Predisposing factors are the breed (e.g. Holstein-Friesian, Simmental-Red-Holstein cross breeds and Guernsey), genetic background, twin pregnancy, first weeks of lactation, metabolic disorders (ketosis, increased lipomobilisation, insulin resistance), high-concentrate and low-fibre diets, as well as other concomitant diseases, such as endometritis, mastitis and claw disorders. There does not appear to be a strong correlation between increased milk yield or endotoxaemia and abomasal displacement. Recent studies have focused on possible functional disorders of the enteric nervous system within the abomasal wall, since cattle with abomasal displacement have an increased activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, as well as decreased acetylcholine sensitivity. In addition, there appear to be significant differences between breeds in the levels of the neurotransmitters substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the abomasal wall. For example, SP (stimulatory) was significantly less in German Holsteins in comparison to the German Fleckvieh, whereas VIP (inhibitory) was markedly increased. These risk factors may explain why Holstein cows are more susceptible to abomasal displacement than other breeds. PMID:18397836

  8. Central acylated ghrelin improves memory function and hippocampal AMPK activation and partly reverses the impairment of energy and glucose metabolism in rats infused with β-amyloid.

    Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Da Sol; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sunmin

    2015-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone released during the fasting state that targets the hypothalamus where it induces hunger; however, emerging evidence suggests it may also affect memory function. We examined the effect of central acylated-ghrelin and DES-acetylated ghrelin (native ghrelin) on memory function and glucose metabolism in an experimentally induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model. AD rats were divided into 3 groups and Non-AD rats were used as a normal-control group. Each rat in the AD groups had intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of β-amyloid (25-35; 16.8nmol/day) into the lateral ventricle for 3 days, and then the pumps were changed to infuse either acylated-ghrelin (0.2nmol/h; AD-G), DES-acylated ghrelin (0.2nmol/h; AD-DES-G), or saline (control; AD-C) for 3 weeks. The Non-AD group had ICV infusion of β-amyloid (35-25) which does not deposit in the hippocampus. During the next 3 weeks memory function, food intake, body weight gain, body fat composition, and glucose metabolism were measured. AD-C exhibited greater β-amyloid deposition compared to Non-AD-C, and AD-G suppressed the increased β-amyloid deposition and potentiated the phosphorylation AMPK. In addition, AD-G increased the phosphorylation GSK and decreased the phosphorylation of Tau in comparison to AD-C and AD-DES-G. Cognitive function, measured by passive avoidance and water maze tests, was much lower in AD-C than Non-AD-C whereas AD-G but not AD-DES-G prevented the decrease (pintermittent fasting to facilitate sustained elevations of acyl-ghrelin should be investigated for cognitive and metabolic benefits, especially in person with early symptoms of memory impairment. PMID:26188171

  9. The impact of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion in acute myocardial infarction on infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction [ISRCTN56720616

    Gosselink AT Marcel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Favorable clinical outcomes have been observed with glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (GIK in acute myocardial infarction (MI. The mechanisms of this beneficial effect have not been delineated clearly. GIK has metabolic, anti-inflammatory and profibrinolytic effects and it may preserve the ischemic myocardium. We sought to assess the effect of GIK infusion on infarct size and left ventricular function, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Patients (n = 940 treated for acute MI by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI were randomized to GIK infusion or no infusion. Endpoints were the creatinine kinase MB-fraction (CK-MB and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. CK-MB levels were determined 0, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after admission and the LVEF was measured before discharge. Results There were no differences between the two groups in the time course or magnitude of CK-MB release: the peak CK-MB level was 249 ± 228 U/L in the GIK group and 240 ± 200 U/L in the control group (NS. The mean LVEF was 43.7 ± 11.0 % in the GIK group and 42.4 ± 11.7% in the control group (P = 0.12. A LVEF ≤ 30% was observed in 18% in the controls and in 12% of the GIK group (P = 0.01. Conclusion Treatment with GIK has no effect on myocardial function as determined by LVEF and by the pattern or magnitude of enzyme release. However, left ventricular function was preserved in GIK treated patients.

  10. Potassium and insulin affect the contractility of abomasal smooth muscle.

    Türck, G; Leonhard-Marek, S

    2010-08-01

    Abomasal displacement is a frequent and important disease of high yielding dairy cows. Although several factors are related to its occurrence, the pathogenesis of the condition is still inadequately understood, particularly in regard to K(+) and insulin homeostasis. For this reason the aim was to investigate the effects of K(+) and insulin concentrations on in vitro motility of abomasal smooth muscle. The second aim was to determine whether the in vivo change in K(+) and insulin levels might be sufficient to induce reduced abomasal motility. Muscle strips were isolated from the abomasum of slaughtered cows and incubated in buffer solution under isometric conditions. Results show that a decrease in extracellular K(+) (between 5 and 1 mmol/L) or an increase in extracellular insulin concentrations (to 21 mU/L or higher) were able to affect the contraction activity of abomasal muscles. Contraction activity given as median (25th, 75th percentiles) changed from 28.1 mN/min (2.5, 49.9) at 5 mmol/L of K(+) to 9.4 mN/min (0.6, 35.7) at 1 mmol/L of K(+), and from 34.5 mN/min (10.8, 112.4) at 0 mU/L of insulin to 12.0 mN/min (7.6, 49.8) at 120 mU/L of insulin. Because the effect of insulin could be abolished by barium, glybenclamide, or ouabain, the underlying mechanisms of the insulin action could be an increased K(+) conductance or an increased Na/K-ATPase activity or both. Low K(+) or high insulin concentrations both reduced the activity of the circular muscle of the abomasal corpus (i.e., of the part that is responsible for the propulsion of abomasal chymus) and might play an important role in the pathogenesis of abomasal displacement. PMID:20655424

  11. Dietary abomasal impaction in a herd of dairy replacement heifers.

    Mitchell, K J

    1991-04-15

    An episode of dietary abomasal impaction in a herd of dairy replacement heifers was found to be caused by excess almond shells in the ration. Clinical signs and necropsy findings led to the diagnosis. Removal of the almond shells and increasing the energy and digestibility of the ration corrected the problem. Factors contributing to the dietary impactions included advanced stages of pregnancy, high energy demands of growing heifers, and cold weather. Dietary abomasal impactions are not common in dairy cattle because of the high-quality ration a dairy cow generally receives. Replacement heifers in advanced stages of pregnancy have nutritional requirements similar to those of dairy cows, yet are often nutritionally neglected. The clinical findings in this report may help make veterinarians aware of the possibility of dietary abomasal impactions in dairy replacement heifers fed low-quality feeds. PMID:1648050

  12. Use of microdialysis-based continuous glucose monitoring to drive real-time semi-closed-loop insulin infusion.

    Freckmann, Guido; Jendrike, Nina; Pleus, Stefan; Buck, Harvey; Bousamra, Steven; Galley, Paul; Thukral, Ajay; Wagner, Robin; Weinert, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia

    2014-11-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and automated insulin delivery may make diabetes management substantially easier, if the quality of the resulting therapy remains adequate. In this study, a semi-closed-loop control algorithm was used to drive insulin therapy and its quality was compared to that of subject-directed therapy. Twelve subjects stayed at the study site for approximately 70 hours and were provided with the investigational Automated Pancreas System Test Stand (APS-TS), which was used to calculate insulin dosage recommendations automatically. These recommendations were based on microdialysis CGM values and common diabetes therapy parameters. For the first half of their stay, the subjects directed their diabetes therapy themselves, whereas for the second half, the insulin recommendations were delivered by the APS-TS (so-called algorithm-driven therapy). During subject-directed therapy, the mean glucose was 114 mg/dl compared to 125 mg/dl during algorithm-driven therapy. Time in target (90 to 150 mg/dl) was approximately 46% during subject-directed therapy and approximately 58% during algorithm-driven therapy. When subjects directed their therapy, approximately 2 times more hypoglycemia interventions (oral administration of carbohydrates) were required than during algorithm-driven therapy. No hyperglycemia interventions (delivery of addition insulin) were necessary during subject-directed therapy, while during algorithm-driven therapy, 2 hyperglycemia interventions were necessary. The APS-TS was able to adequately control glucose concentrations in the subjects. Time in target was at least comparable or moderately higher during closed-loop control and markedly fewer hypoglycemia interventions were required, thus increasing patient safety. PMID:25205589

  13. Effect of intraruminal propionic acid infusion on metabolism of mesenteric- and portal-drained viscera in growing steers fed a forage diet: I. Volatile fatty acids, glucose, and lactate.

    Seal, C J; Parker, D S

    1994-05-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of intraruminal infusion of propionic acid on ruminal VFA metabolism and the absorption of nutrients by the mesenteric- and portal-drained viscera of seven Friesian steers, average BW 127 kg, fed a dried grass-pellet diet. Each received by random allocation 0 (control), .5, or 1.0 mol of propionic acid/d for 7 d. Ruminal acetate and propionate irreversible loss rates and carbon exchange between VFA and CO2 were measured during continuous intraruminal infusions of 2-14C-acetic acid and 2-14C-propionic acid. Ruminal acetate irreversible loss rate was not affected by propionic acid infusion (overall mean 8.09, error mean square [EMS] 2.68 mol/d), whereas propionate irreversible loss increased incrementally with PA supply (3.22 vs 4.16, EMS .61 mol/d, for control and 1.0 mol of propionic acid/d, respectively, P = .09). Glucose irreversible loss rate was increased at the highest level of PA infusion (2.84, 2.83, and 3.22, EMS .06 mol/d, for control, .5, and 1.0 mol of propionic acid/d, respectively; P = .02 for control vs .5 + 1.0), although the proportion of glucose irreversible loss derived from propionate remained constant (.6). Net absorption into venous blood showed that propionate was extensively metabolized in the rumen wall and that the tissues of the small intestine utilized acetate. Utilization of glucose was reduced in portal tissues as a result of intraruminal infusion, and the data were used to derive a model of glucose and lactate interrelationships in gut tissues. PMID:8056681

  14. INFLUENCE OF RUMINAL AND POSTRUMINAL CARBOHYDRATE INFUSION ON VISCERAL ORGAN MASS AND ADIPOSE TISSUE ACCRETION IN GROWING BEEF STEERS.

    Forty beef steers (243 ± 2 kg BW) with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used to determine the effects of site of carbohydrate (CHO) digestion on visceral organ mass and adipose accretion. Treatments included a pelleted basal diet fed at 0.162 (LE) or 0.215 Mcal ME/kg BW.75/d, LE plus ru...

  15. Effect of Insulin Infusion on Liver Protein Synthesis during Hemodialysis

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan; Jespersen, Bente;

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure that may contribute to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients receiving maintenance HD. The present study investigated the additional effect of glucose and glucose-insulin infusion on liver protein synthesis during HD...... compared with a meal alone. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three arms, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were assigned to receive a conventional HD session with either: • no treatment (NT) • IV infusion of glucose (G) • IV infusion of glucose-insulin (GI) During infusions blood glucose levels were...... maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results Blood...

  16. Zero net flux estimates of septal extracellular glucose levels and the effects of glucose on septal extracellular GABA levels

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Rauw, Gail; Baker, Glen B.; Parent, Marise B.

    2009-01-01

    Although hippocampal infusions of glucose enhance memory, we have found repeatedly that septal glucose infusions impair memory when γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are activated. For instance, hippocampal glucose infusions reverse the memory-impairing effects of co-infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol, whereas septal glucose infusions exacerbate memory deficits produced by muscimol. One potential explanation for these deleterious effects of glucose in the septum is that there are highe...

  17. Effect of spiramycin and tulathromycin on abomasal emptying rate in milk-fed calves

    Rashnavadi, Mehdi; Nouri, Mohammad; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad R.; Najafzadeh, Housain; Constable, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired abomasal motility is common in cattle with abomasal disorders. The macrolide erythromycin has been demonstrated to be an effective prokinetic agent in healthy calves and in adult cattle with abomasal volvulus or left displaced abomasum. We hypothesized that 2 structurally related macrolides, spiramycin and tulathromycin, would also be effective prokinetic agents in cattle. Six milk-fed, male, Holstein-Friesian calves were administered each of the following 4 treatments: spiramycin, 75 000 IU/kg BW, IM, this dose approximates 25 mg/kg BW, IM; tulathromycin, 2.5 mg/kg BW, SC; 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl (negative control); and erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg BW, IM (positive control). Calves were fed 2 L of cow’s milk containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg body weight) 30 min after each treatment was administered and jugular venous blood samples were obtained periodically after the start of sucking. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed by the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Spiramycin, tulathromycin, and the positive control erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate compared to the negative control. We conclude that the labeled antimicrobial dose of spiramycin and tulathromycin increases the abomasal emptying rate in healthy milk-fed calves. Additional studies investigating whether spiramycin and tulathromycin exert a prokinetic effect in adult cattle with abomasal hypomotility appear indicated. PMID:24396182

  18. Hippocampal infusions of pyruvate reverse the memory-impairing effects of septal muscimol infusions

    Krebs, Desiree L.; Parent, Marise B.

    2005-01-01

    Hippocampal infusions of glucose reverse memory deficits in spontaneous alternation and in a continuous multiple trial inhibitory avoidance task. The current experiments tested whether glucose metabolism may participate in these effects of glucose. Specifically, these experiments determined whether the glycolytic metabolite pyruvate would mimic these effects of glucose. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were given septal infusions of vehicle or the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist musci...

  19. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    Stengärde Lena

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations. Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap to nine weeks postpartum (pp. Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds.

  20. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves we...

  1. Immunohistochemical detection of gastrin and motilin peptides, their receptors, VIP receptors and caspase activity from the abomasal wall of cattle

    Özcan, Aycan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the possible effects of gastrin, motilin peptides, their receptors and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) receptors on the occurrence of abomasal displacement (AD). A decreased amount of stimulating factors (motilin, motilin receptors) accompanied by an increased amount of inhibiting factors (gastrin, gastrin receptors, VIP receptors) in the abomasal wall could be a cause of the hypo- or atony of the abomasum prior to the abomasal displac...

  2. Aislamiento de Clostridium perfringens tipo D en un ternero lactante afectado con abomasitis ulcerativa Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type D from a suckling calve with ulcerative abomasitis

    R. A ASSIS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de abomasitis ulcerativa asociada con infección por Clostridium perfringens tipo D en terneros lactantes. Seis terneros Holstein, de 2 semanas de edad, murieron después de presentar anorexia y apatía. Otros animales del mismo establecimiento habían muerto de la misma forma seis meses antes. A la necropsia el abomaso estaba muy distendido con contenido fluido y oscuro, la mucosa estaba edematosa y presentaba gran cantidad de úlceras milimétricas y habían depósitos de fibrina en la serosa. En el ciego de un animal se observaron extensas areas de infarto. En frotis de la mucosa abomasal se observaron bacilos cortos Gram positivos, no esporulados, aislándose de ella un cultivo rico de C. perfringens tipo D. Es probable que la baja inmunidad de los terneros debido a falta de calostro y estrés alimenticio, haya sido el predisponente para la infección por C. perfringens tipo DAn outbreak of ulcerative abomasitis in suckling calves associated with Clostridium perfrigens type D infection is described. Six twoweek old Holstein calves died after showing loss of appetite and lethargy. Other animals had died in similar circumstances during the previous six months. At necropsy, the abomasum was severely distended with dark fluid and the mucosa was oedematous and covered with many millimetric ulcers, while the serous surface of this organ was covered with fibrin. Several irregular black areas of infarcts were observed in the cecum of one animal. Histologically, the abomasal mucosa showed ulcers and haemorrhage, while the submucosa showed severe oedema and infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Short, thick, nonsporulated Gram positive rods were observed on smears of abomasal mucosa. C. perfringens type D was isolated from the abomasal mucosa. Low immunity and stress could have contributed to the pathogenesis of the lesions described

  3. Determination of 24-hour insulin infusion pattern by an artificial endocrine pancreas for intravenous insulin infusion with a miniature pump

    Kølendorf, K; Christiansen, J S; Bojsen, J;

    1981-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Intravenous insulin infusion with a glucose controlled insulin infusion system (GCIIS) is known to restore glucose homeostasis. A simpler approach to improve blood glucose regulation is preprogrammed intravenous insulin infusion with portable pumps without sensor-mediated feedback. We...... report a study designed to evaluate whether the preprogrammed insulin infusion pattern to be used in the miniature insulin infusion pump (MIIP) could be optimized by concomitant employment of the GCIIS for blood glucose control. Six juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetics (mean age 31 yrs) were...... studied. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was 6.2 mmol/l +/- 0.5 (SD) during glucose controlled infusion and 5.3 +/- 0.6 during the combined MIIP + GCIIS-day. The insulin requirements calculated from the s.c. regimen (56 U +/- 10 SD) were identical to the GCIIS-measured (51 U +/- 14) and to the amounts delivered...

  4. Effects of wheat protein in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate in calves.

    Wittek, T; Ernstberger, M; Muckenhuber, M; Flöck, M

    2016-04-01

    Diarrhoea is a condition with tremendous impact on calf health. Infectious agents play a dominant role; however, non-infective factors may also contribute to pathogenesis of diarrhoea. One factor, the abomasal emptying rate, is mainly influenced by the composition of feed. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different protein sources in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate and clinical parameters. The effect of increasing age of the calves on abomasal emptying was also evaluated. The study compared abomasal emptying rates and clinical parameters in calves, which were fed either milk replacer containing only whey protein or one which partially contained wheat protein. Abomasal emptying rate was estimated by ultrasonography. Ten calves were used in the study over 18 days, and each calf was fed 3 periods of 3 days length using different milk replacers in an alternating crossover design. The abomasum was emptied significantly faster when the wheat protein containing milk replacer was fed (half-emptying time wheat protein 49.1 ± 4.1 min, half-emptying time milk protein 59.1 ± 7.4 min); however, clinical parameters and weight gain did not differ between the feeding regimes. Age did not significantly influence abomasal emptying rate. As milk replacers containing wheat proteins increased abomasal emptying rate, they may have a higher potential to initiate diarrhoea, especially if high volumes are fed. Thus, the feeding regimes are likely to be even more important when such milk replacers are used. PMID:26189821

  5. Comparison of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress-redistribution-reinjection thallium-201 SPECT and low dose dobutamine echocardiography for prediction of reversible dysfunction

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Makoto; Motohiro, Masayuki; Usami, Satoru [Shimada Municipal Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    The usefulness of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 (GI-Tl) infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting reversible dysfunction has not been evaluated, so the present study recruited 20 patients with regional ischemic dysfunction for investigation. All patients underwent GI-Tl SPECT, post-stress Tl reinjection imaging and low dose dobutamine echocardiography. The diagnostic accuracy of these 3 techniques in predicting functional recovery was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In segments with functional recovery, regional Tl activities of GI-Tl SPECT were significantly higher than those of reinjection imaging (p<0.05), although there were no significant differences in segments without recovery. The area under the ROC curve for GI-Tl SPECT (0.75{+-}0.06) was greater than that for reinjection imaging (0.68{+-}0.07). The optimal cutoff values to identify viable myocardium were considered to be 55% of peak activity for GI-Tl SPECT and 50% for reinjection imaging. At this cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of functional recovery were, respectively, 85% and 61% for GI-Tl SPECT, and 73% and 61% for reinjection imaging. Dobutamine echocardiography had the same sensitivity (85%), but lower specificity (48%) than GI-Tl SPECT. Continuous infusion of GI-Tl solution enhances regional Tl uptake compared with conventional post-stress reinjection imaging. This study suggests that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjection imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in predicting functional recovery after ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  6. A mechanism of excessive accumulation of abomasal gas in vagotomized cattle determined using fluoroscopy.

    Itoh, Megumi; Sasaki, Naoki; Kawamoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruo; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2011-05-01

    To better understand the mechanism of excessive gas accumulation in the abomasum in bovine abomasal displacement, we performed gastric fluoroscopy in vagotomized cattle. Fifteen 6-month-old Holstein steers were divided into three groups: a non-vagotomized control group (Group C; n=5), a ventral thoraco-vagotomized group (Group V; n=5), and a dorsal and ventral thoraco-vagotomized group (Group DV; n=5). These groups were examined by fluoroscopy before and during a 5-week observation period after surgery. In Group C, no change was observed throughout the observation period. In Group DV, immediately after surgery, reticuloruminal motility was completely absent and ruminal distention was seen. Two weeks after surgery, abnormal reticulum motility and increased gas accumulation in the abomasal body were noted. Abomasal dilatation was also observed. In Group V, 1 week after surgery, gas inflow into the abomasum and relatively normal reticulum motility were observed along with a rapid increase in abomasal gas. Abomasal dilatation was also observed. In addition, left-displaced abomasum occurred in one of the steers in this group. From these results, we concluded that one of the mechanisms of excessive gas accumulation in the abomasum is reticulum-mediated gas inflow from the rumen combined with vagotomy-induced hypomotility. PMID:21178321

  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cattle with abomasal displacement.

    Irmak, K; Turgut, K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate haemostatic function in cattle with abomasal displacement (AD) and to reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Ten adult cattle with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) (group I), 10 adult cattle with right displacement of abomasum with volvulus (RDA) (group II) and 10 clinically healthy adult cattle (control group) were used as material. Numbers of platelets (PLT) and coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), serum fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs), fibrinogen) were measured before the surgical treatment of cattle with LDA and RDA. APTT was prolonged only in group II compared with the control and group I (pcattle in group I and three cattle in group II had at least three abnormal coagulation profiles, which reflect the occurrence of DIC. These cattle died after surgical treatment. The two cattle with LDA had abnormal APTT, FDPs and PLT values; three cattle with RDA had abnormal APTT, PT, TT, FDPs and PLT values. APTT (5 cases), FDPs (5 cases) and thrombocytopenia (5 cases) were the three most common abnormal tests on coagulation profile in the cattle with LDA and RDA. The results of the study indicate that cattle with AD had a spectrum of haemostatic dysfunction and that DIC was a significant risk factor for mortality. PMID:15727292

  8. INFUSION LOUNGE

    2009-01-01

    Infusion Lounge——颇具亚洲风情的的夜店——坐落于旧金山市区大受追捧的联合广场之上,福森酒店之下。此夜店兼具了酒吧与餐厅的功能,它将提供加州与亚洲风味融为一体的佳肴及优雅的环境和一流的服务。Infusion Lounge不仅为旧金山当地,也将为整个行业重新定义高消费夜生活的概念。

  9. Direct effects of locally administered lipopolysaccharide on glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism in the placebo-controlled, bilaterally infused human leg

    Buhl, Mads; Bosnjak, Ermina; Vendelbo, Mikkel H;

    2013-01-01

    Context: Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) maycreate a constant low-grade inflammation, leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. All previous human studies assessing the metabolic actions of LPS have used systemic administration, making...... discrimination between direct and indirect effects impossible. Objective: We sought to define the direct, placebo-controlled effects of LPS on insulin resistance and protein and lipid metabolism in the infused human leg without systemic interference from cytokines and stress hormones. Design...... release in the perfused human leg without detectable effects on amino acid metabolism. Conclusions: These data strongly suggest that the primary metabolic effect of LPS is increased lipolysis and muscle insulin resistance, which, together with secondary insulin resistance, caused by systemic cytokine...

  10. Níveis glicêmicos e de colesterol em ratos com Diabetes Mellitus aloxano induzido, tratados com infusão de Bauhinia candicans ou Syzygium Jambolanum Glucose and cholesterol plasma levels in rats with alloxan-induced Diabetes Mellitus treated with infusion of Bauhinia candicans or Syzygium Jambolanum

    Julio Cesar Mendes Soares

    2000-03-01

    , respectively. Group 1 (C was the control group, receiving standard rodent feed and water ad libitum. Group 2 (TI received rodent feed and an infusion of Syzygium jambolanum ad libitum. Group 3 (TII received the feed and an infusion of Bauhinia candicans. Animals were treated for a period of 21 and 40 days for experiments I and II respectively. Blood was collected by retro orbital sinus puncture with animals under ether anesthesia on days 3, 9, 16, and 23 for experiment I; and days 3, 12, 24, and 40 for experiment II. At the end of both experiments, all animals were euthanized and liver and pancreas samples were collected for light microscopy. All animals, in both experiments, had blood glucose levels above 170mg% on the third day after last alloxan injection. In the first experiment, plasma glucose was lower (P < 0.001 in TI as compared to C on day 23. In experiment II, plasma glucose was lower in TI when compared to C on days 16 (P < 0.004 and 40 (P < 0.0001. Moreover, clinical signs of IDDM like polyfagya, polydpsya were attenuated in this group. Plasma cholesterol showed a slight increase in all animals in experiment II but no differences were observed between control and treated groups. Histopathological analysis of pancreas and liver samples in the first experiment did not show marked differences between C and treated groups. However, in experiment II, 9 out of 10 pancreas samples examined from C, and 5 out of 9 samples from TII presented necrosis. Meanwhile, only 2 out of 9 pancreas samples from TI showed islet necrosis. In conclusion, the results suggest that the use of an infusion of Syzygium jambolanum instead of water is efficient in the control of hyperglycemia and reduction of clinical signs associated with IDDM. On the other hand, the use of an infusion of Bauhinia candicans has no effect over theses variables.

  11. Comparison of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress-redistribution-reinjection thallium-201 SPECT and low dose dobutamine echocardiography for prediction of reversible dysfunction

    The usefulness of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 (GI-Tl) infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting reversible dysfunction has not been evaluated, so the present study recruited 20 patients with regional ischemic dysfunction for investigation. All patients underwent GI-Tl SPECT, post-stress Tl reinjection imaging and low dose dobutamine echocardiography. The diagnostic accuracy of these 3 techniques in predicting functional recovery was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In segments with functional recovery, regional Tl activities of GI-Tl SPECT were significantly higher than those of reinjection imaging (p<0.05), although there were no significant differences in segments without recovery. The area under the ROC curve for GI-Tl SPECT (0.75±0.06) was greater than that for reinjection imaging (0.68±0.07). The optimal cutoff values to identify viable myocardium were considered to be 55% of peak activity for GI-Tl SPECT and 50% for reinjection imaging. At this cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of functional recovery were, respectively, 85% and 61% for GI-Tl SPECT, and 73% and 61% for reinjection imaging. Dobutamine echocardiography had the same sensitivity (85%), but lower specificity (48%) than GI-Tl SPECT. Continuous infusion of GI-Tl solution enhances regional Tl uptake compared with conventional post-stress reinjection imaging. This study suggests that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjection imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in predicting functional recovery after ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  12. Effect of intraoperative amino acid infusion on glucose metabolism in dogs%术中静脉输注氨基酸对犬糖代谢的影响

    金琳; 葛圣金; 薛张纲

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of intraoperative amino acid infusion on perioperative glucose metabolism. Methods Thirty-six adult mongrel dogs of both sexes weighing 12-16 kg undergoing partially small intestine resection under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of 4 groups (n=9 each): Ⅰ control group received normal saline (C);Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ amino acid group (A1, A2, A3) received iv infusion of 2.85%, 5.70% and 11.4% 18-amino acid respectively at 12 ml·kg-1·h-1 during operation starting from skin incision until the end of operation. The animals were premedicated with ketamine and diazepam. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 5-10 mg/kg, fentanyl 2 μg/kg and vecuronium 0.2 mg/kg and maintained with 1%-3% isoflurane and intermittent iv boluses of fentanyl and vecuronium. The animals were intubated and mechanically ventilated. PET CO2 was maintained at 30-40 mm Hg. ECG, MAP, HR, PET CO2 and esophageal T0 were continuously monitored. Venous blood samples were collected before anesthesia (T1), 15 min after induction of anesthesia (T2), 15, 30 min and 1 h after skin incision (T3-5), when abdomen was closed (T6) and 1,2,4,8 and 24 h after operation (T7-11) for determination of plasma glucose, lactate, insulin and glucagon. Liver biopsy was performed at T6-11 and muscle biopsy at T2,6,11 for measurement of hepatic and muscle glucagon. Homa index was used to estimate the degree of insulin resistance. Results The plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly increased at T3-11 as compared with the baseline at T1 in all 4 groups (P<0.05). The plasma insulin concentrations were significantly higher in group A1 (at T6), group A2 (at T3,6) and group A3 (at T3-11) than in group C (P<0.05). Homa index was significantly higher in group A3(at T3-8) than in group C. Conclusion Intraoperative amino acid infusion increases plasma insulin concentration but does not prevent glycogenolysis especially high dose amino acid infusion.%目的 探讨术

  13. Ischaemia/reperfusion injury in experimentally induced abomasal volvulus in sheep.

    Sharifi, K; Mostaghni, K; Maleki, M; Badiei, K

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ischaemia/reperfusion injury in simulated abomasal volvulus in sheep. Sixteen ewes were randomly allocated to three groups. The control group (n=4) served as sham-operated controls. The animals of the ischaemia group and reperfusion group (n=6, each) underwent a simulated 'abomasal volvulus'. The abomasum was exteriorized under general inhalation anesthesia and forced into a 180( composite function) anticlockwise rotation around its longitudinal axis, followed by another 270( composite function) anticlockwise rotation around its transectional axis. All ewes were monitored for 4 h. In the reperfusion group, volvulus was released after 3 h (i.e., 1 h of reperfusion). In the ischaemia group, the volvulus remained for 4 h (no reperfusion). Vital signs were monitored and some haematological and biochemical parameters were measured, without any significant differences. Full-section biopsy specimens were taken at the 3rd and 4th hours from the greater curvature of the abomasum. Histopathological lesions were scored according to the severity of mucosal oedema, submucosal oedema, haemorrhage submucosal and submuscularis layers, and polymorphonuclear infiltration on a scale of 0 to 4 (nil, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Another biopsy specimen was taken at the 4th hour for transmission electron microscopic examination. The scored lesions in light-microscopic examination were significantly different at the 3rd and 4th hours between the control and the experimental groups (p0.1). Within-group comparisons (3rd hour with 4th hour) revealed no significant differences. In transmission electron microscopic examination there were no remarkable changes in the control group, but in the ischaemia and reperfusion groups there were remarkable cellular (epithelial and goblet cells), mitochondrial and microvillous changes that strongly implied the occurrence of ischaemia (pmodel of simulated abomasal volvulus in sheep and that ischaemia

  14. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

    Li Robert W; Rinaldi Manuela; Capuco Anthony V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The response of the abomasal transcriptome to gastrointestinal parasites was evaluated in parasite-susceptible and parasite-resistant Angus cattle using RNA-seq at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample. These cattle displayed distinctly separate resistance phenotypes as assessed by fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23 632 bovine genes were expressed in the fundic abomasum. Of these, 13 758 genes were expressed in all samples tested and likely represent core componen...

  15. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal componen...

  16. Changes in the coagulation profile of cattle with left abomasal displacement.

    Sobiech, P; Radwińska, J; Krystkiewicz, W; Snarska, A; Stopyra, A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in coagulation profile parameters in cattle with left abomasal displacement (LAD). The study was performed on 20 Holstein-Friesian (H-F) cows divided into two groups: group I--10 cows with diagnosed left abomasal displacement and group II--10 clinically healthy cows. Coagulation tests, including TT (thrombin time), PT (prothrombin time) and APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time), were conducted, and fibrinogen content, D-dimer content, AT III (antithrombin III) activity and platelet (PLT) count were determined in all the animals. Prolonged TT, PT and APTT, a higher fibrinogen and D-dimer content, a drop in AT III activity and thrombocyte count were observed in the cattle with LAD. The above abnormal coagulation profiles were most predominant in three cows which died after surgical repositioning of the abomasum. The results of the study indicate that in cattle with abomasal displacement, the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) syndrome was the most significant risk factor for mortality. PMID:19227127

  17. Modified plasma and abomasal disposition of albendazole in nematode-infected sheep.

    Alvarez, L I; Sánchez, S F; Lanusse, C E

    1997-05-01

    The influence of gastrointestinal nematode infection on the kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites, albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2) in plasma and abomasal fluid was investigated in sheep. A micronised suspension of ABZ was administered intraruminally at 7.5 mg kg-1 to the following groups of sheep: (a) non-parasitised (control); (b) artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus; (c) naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Plasma and abomasal fluid samples were obtained serially over 72 h post-treatment and they were analysed by HPLC for ABZ and its metabolites. The ABZ parent drug was not detected in plasma at any time post-treatment, however the metabolites ABZSO and ABZSO2 were recovered in the bloodstream. The active metabolite ABZSO was recovered in plasma between 0.5 and 48 (uninfected), 60 (H. contortus infected) or 72 h (naturally infected sheep) post-administration. The area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) values for ABZSO were higher in both artificially infected (64.0 micrograms h ml-1) and naturally infected (79.3 micrograms h ml-1) sheep as compared with non-infected animals (41.8 micrograms h ml-1). Peak plasma concentrations for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were higher in both artificially and naturally infected sheep than in non-parasitised animals. No changes in the half-lives and mean residence times for these metabolites were observed in infected sheep. ABZ and its metabolites were found in the abomasum between 0.5 and 48 (infected animals) or 72 h (uninfected) post-treatment. The availability (total AUCs) of ABZ and its metabolites in abomasal fluid were lower in H. contortus infected sheep than in the uninfected control animals. The increased abomasal pH induced by the presence of the H. contortus infection may reduce the plasma/abomasum pH gradient, which results in a decreased ionic-trapping of ABZ and its metabolites in the abomasum. Such a

  18. Oxytocin increases extrapancreatic glucagon secretion and glucose production in pancreatectomized dogs

    Altszuler, N.; Puma, F.; Winkler, B.; Fontan, N.; Saudek, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    Infusion of oxytocin into normal dogs increases plasma levels of insulin and glucagon and glucose production and uptake. To determine whether infused oxytocin also increases glucagon secretion from extrapancreatic sites, pancreatectomized dogs, off insulin of 18 hr, were infused with oxytocin and plasma glucagon, and glucose production and uptake were measured using the (6-/sup 3/H)glucose primer-infusion technique. The diabetic dogs, in the control period, had elevated plasma glucose and glucagon levels, an increased rate of glucose production, and a relative decrease in glucose uptake (decreased clearance). Infusion of oxytocin (500 ..mu..U/kg/min) caused a rise in plasma glucagon and glucose levels, increased glucose production, and further decreased glucose clearance. it is concluded that oxytocin can stimulate secretion of extrapancreatic glucagon, which contributes to the increased glucose production.

  19. Emphysematous abomasitis in a lamb by bacteria of the Sarcina genus in Southern Brazil

    Ronaldo Viana Leite Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Abomasal bloat associated with Sarcina genus bacteria is a rare condition reported in young ruminants. An outbreak characterized by the sudden death of eight lambs from a total of 80 lambs (30 days-old occurred on a property located in the city of Palmares do Sul in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Deaths began to occur after the introduction of supplementation into the diet of lambs. At necropsy, the abomasum was distended by gas and had diffusely thickened walls and emphysema. On microscopic examination, the abomasum showed marked diffuse emphysema and multifocal areas of mild superficial necrosis with many coccoid structures measuring approximately 2µm in diameter, arranged in tetrads, compatible with Sarcina genus bacteria. After removing supplementation from the diet, no more deaths occurred. The diagnosis of this case was established by gross and microscopic lesions in addition to the clinical and epidemiological findings. Therefore, it was concluded that it was an outbreak of emphysematous abomasitis by Sarcina genus bacteria in lambs.

  20. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

    Li Robert W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The response of the abomasal transcriptome to gastrointestinal parasites was evaluated in parasite-susceptible and parasite-resistant Angus cattle using RNA-seq at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample. These cattle displayed distinctly separate resistance phenotypes as assessed by fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23 632 bovine genes were expressed in the fundic abomasum. Of these, 13 758 genes were expressed in all samples tested and likely represent core components of the bovine abomasal transcriptome. The gene (BT14427 with the most abundant transcript, accounting for 10.4% of sequences in the transcriptome, is located on chromosome 29 and has unknown functions. Additionally, PIGR (1.6%, Complement C3 (0.7%, and Immunoglobulin J chain (0.5% were among the most abundant transcripts in the transcriptome. Among the 203 genes impacted, 64 were significantly over-expressed in resistant animals at a stringent cutoff (FDR

  1. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with [2-3H]glucose and HGP with [6-3H]glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). [2-3H]- minus [6-3H]glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP

  2. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3-3H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6-3H]glucose rather than [3-3H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  3. Effect of Insulin Infusion on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during Hemodialysis

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure probably contributing to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients on maintenance HD. The aim was to investigate the effect of insulin infusion on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during HD compared with a meal alone....... Methods: In a randomized cross-over study 11 non-diabetic HD patients (M/F:8/3, median age 57 years, range 33-79) received either 1) no treatment (NT), 2) glucose infusion (G) (10% glucose, 2.5 mL/kg/h), or 3) glucose-insulin infusion (GI) (10% glucose added 30 units of NovoRapid® per liter, 2.5 m......L/kg/h) during a standardized 4 h HD. During infusion, blood glucose levels were maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before...

  4. Novel gene expression responses in the ovine abomasal mucosa to infection with the gastric nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta

    Knight Pamela A; Griffith Susan E; Pemberton Alan D; Pate Judith M; Guarneri Lauren; Anderson Katherine; Talbot Richard T; Smith Sarah; Waddington David; Fell Mark; Archibald Alan L; Burgess Stewart TG; Smith David W; Miller Hugh RP; Morrison Ivan W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Infection of sheep with the gastric nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta results in distinct Th2-type changes in the mucosa, including mucous neck cell and mast cell hyperplasia, eosinophilia, recruitment of IgA/IgE producing cells and neutrophils, altered T-cell subsets and mucosal hypertrophy. To address the protective mechanisms generated in animals on previous exposure to this parasite, gene expression profiling was carried out using samples of abomasal mucosa collected pre- and po...

  5. 糖尿病大鼠胰岛素原基因转基因治疗的研究——门静脉注射与肌肉注射对血糖影响的比较%Proinsulin gene therapy in diabetic rats——Comparison of the effects on blood glucose by intraportal infusion and intramuscular injection

    蒋琳; 茅晓东; 刘超; 顾永辉; 段宇; 唐伟; 崔岱; 朱剑; 刘翠萍; 覃又文; 徐宽枫

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of rat proinsulin gene therapy via intraportal infusion and intramuscular injection blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rots. Methods (1) Recombinant eukaryotic cell expression plasmid of rat proinsulin gene pCMV/proiusulin was transferred into streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by intraportal infusion and intramuscular injection to observe the effect of rat proiusulin gene therapy in diabetic rats. The treatment group by intraportal infusion (group A) and the group by intramuscular injection (group C) were given pCMV/proinsulin naked plasmid DNA 100 μg, while the control groups by intraportal infusion (group B) or by intramuscular injection (group D) were treated with similar amount of pCMV DNA. Normal group and diabetes mellitus group were also observed at the same time. (2) Blood glucose level was tested and serum insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detemine proinsulin mRNA and protein expressions in liver and skeletal muscle and protein. Results (1) The blood glucose levels in two treated groups were both decreased. In group A, levels of blood sugar decreased about 7 mmol/L and glycemie control was maintained for 3-4 weeks. Serum insulin levels step up significantly after pCMV/proinsulin gene therapy. The blood glucose level in group A was significantly lower than those of group B and DM group (P<0.05), while the serum insulin level was higher than those of two groups (P<0.05). In group C, blood glucose levels decreased about 4 mmol/L and glycemic control was maintained for 1-2 weeks. Meanwhile, the concentrations of insulin increased markedly after gene therapy. The blood glucose in group C was significantly lower than those of group D and DM group (P<0.05), while the serum insulin level was higher than those of two groups (P<0.05). (2) Proinsulin mRNA and protein expressions could be detected in either hepatic cell of group A or skeletal muscle cell of

  6. [Infusion correction of bile outflow and endotoxicosis in patients with mechanical jaundice].

    Iakovlev, A Iu; Semenov, V B; Emel'ianov, N V; Mokrov, K V; Zubeev, P S; Akulenko, S V; Zarechnova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The investigations were performed in 139 patients divided into 3 groups and who were given similar volume of infusion therapy (1600 ml/day). In the first group consisting of 54 patients the solution of infusion therapy included the Ringer solution and 10% of glucose solution in the ratio 1:1. In the second group (37 patients) the infusion therapy was performed with a solution of sterofundin-G-5. In the third group (48 patients) remaksol in dose 800 ml/day was included in infusion therapy. The inclusion of sterofundin-G-5 and remaksol in the infusion therapy increased the rate of bile outflow at the early postoperative period as compared with the solutions of Ringer and 10% of glucose. Remaksol is better for arresting endotoxicosis and bile excreting function of the liver as compared with infusion of sterofundin-G-5. PMID:22416402

  7. Continuous radioisotope infusion

    Continuous infusion of a radioactive marker was used instead of a conventional bolus injection to improve haemodynamic studies. Tc-99m was infused into the blood circulation at a constant rate for 100-300 seconds and the activity in the target structure was measured by a gamma camera with a computer system or by a single detector. The concentration of the marker increased linearly at the same rate throughout the circulating system. Due to variations in transport time from infusion site to different parts of the system the rise of activity occurred at different times. A theory for the calculations was presented and consequently confirmed in a model study. Blood flow patterns in artificial kidneys and alterations in renal blood flow induced by angiotensin were studied. The results are presented as time-function curves or as computer images. This technique can be used to evaluate distributions and alterations of flow in separate parts of a complex circulating system. (author)

  8. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have clinically relevant disturbances in the effects of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the importance of the prevailing plasma glucose levels for the effect of GIP on responses of...... glucagon and insulin and glucose disposal in patients with T2DM. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a single center, placebo-controlled, cross-over, experimental study. PATIENTS: We studied twelve patients with T2DM (age: 62 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM], body mass index: 29 ± 1 kg/m(2); glycosylated hemoglobin A1c......: 6.5 ± 0.1% [48 ± 2 mmol/mol]). INTERVENTION: We infused physiological amounts of GIP (2 pmol × kg(-1) × min(-1)) or saline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured plasma concentrations of glucagon, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, intact GIP, and amounts of glucose needed to maintain glucose clamps. RESULTS...

  9. Initial distribution volume of glucose can be approximated using a conventional glucose analyzer in the intensive care unit

    Ishihara, Hironori; Nakamura, Hitomi; Okawa, Hirobumi; Takase, Hajime; Tsubo, Toshihito; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Introduction We previously reported that initial distribution volume of glucose (IDVG) reflects central extracellular fluid volume, and that IDVG may represent an indirect measure of cardiac preload that is independent of the plasma glucose values present before glucose injection or infusion of insulin and/or vasoactive drugs. The original IDVG measurement requires an accurate glucose analyzer and repeated arterial blood sampling over a period of 7 min after glucose injection. The purpose of ...

  10. Postoperative myocardial performance during glucose-induced hypophosphatemia

    Rasmussen, A; Buus, S; Hessov, I

    1985-01-01

    Long-lasting hypophosphatemia was previously found to diminish myocardial performance. The present study aimed to elucidate if postoperative glucose-induced hypophosphatemia is of importance for myocardial performance. Sixteen patients undergoing elective colonic or rectal surgery were given 100 g...... glucose intravenously (as 20% glucose solution) on the first and second postoperative days. The infusion rate was 0.3 g/kg/hour. On both days the glucose infusion caused significant fall in P-phosphate (0.94 to 0.67 and 0.71 to 0.47 mmol/l, respectively). No changes were seen in P-calcium, P-potassium or...... P-sodium. Measurements of stroke volume and frequency, central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure were made immediately before and after the glucose infusions. Stroke volume and cardiac output were unaffected during the infusions, and also from the first to the second postoperative day. As...

  11. Serial non-invasive measurements of dermal carotenoid concentrations in dairy cows following recovery from abomasal displacement.

    Julian Klein

    Full Text Available Maintaining the health of farm animals forms the basis for a sustainable and profitable production of food from animal origin. Recently, the effects of carotenoids on the oxidative status as well as on reproductive and immune functions in cattle have been demonstrated. The present study aimed at investigating dermal carotenoid levels in cattle recovering from abomasal displacement. For this purpose, serial in vivo measurements were undertaken using a miniaturized scanner system that relies on reflection spectroscopy (Opsolution GmbH, Kassel, Germany. In a first trial, repeated measurements of dermal carotenoid concentrations were performed on the udder skin of healthy non-lactating cattle (n = 6 for one month in weekly intervals. In a second trial, in vivo dermal carotenoid concentrations were determined in intervals in 23 cows following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement. The results show that dermal carotenoid concentrations, determined on a weekly basis over a period of one month, showed variations of up to 18% in the healthy individuals kept under constant conditions with respect to housing and nutrition. Repeated measurements during the recovery period following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement resulted in an increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in 18 of 20 animals with a favourable outcome when compared with results obtained within 12 hours following surgery. The mean increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in subsequent measurements was 53 ± 44%, whereas levels decreased (mean 31 ± 27% in cattle with a fatal outcome.These results indicate potential applications for reflection spectroscopy for non-invasive early detection of changes in the dermal carotenoid concentrations as a reflection of the antioxidant status in an animal.

  12. In silico evaluation of a control system and algorithm for automated insulin infusion in the ICU setting

    Olmos Pablo R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that tight control of glucose in the Intensive Care Unit reduces morbidity and mortality not only in diabetic patients but also in those non-diabetics who become transiently hyperglycemic. Taking advantage of a recently marketed subcutaneous glucose sensor we designed an Automatic Insulin Infusion System (AIIS for inpatient treatment, and tested its stability under simulated clinical conditions. Methods The system included: reference glucose, glucose sensor, insulin and glucose infusion controllers and emergency infusion logic. We carried out computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®, in both common and worst-case conditions. Results The system was capable of controlling glucose levels without entering in a phase of catastrophic instability, even under severe simulated challenges. Care was taken to include in all simulations the 5-10 minute delay of the subcutaneous glucose signal when compared to the real-time serum glucose signal, a well-known characteristic of all subcutaneous glucose sensors. Conclusions When tested in-Silico, a commercially available subcutaneous glucose sensor allowed the stable functioning of a proportional-derivative Automatic Insulin Infusion System, which was able to maintain glucose within acceptable limits when using a well-established glucose response model simulating a patient. Testing of the system in vivo using animal models is now warranted.

  13. Glucose Tests

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  14. New innovative glucose-controlled pump enabling glucose control in a pregnant patitient with diabetes

    Pilemann-Lyberg, Sascha; Solis, Anette Bratt; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R;

    2014-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring enables innovative insulin pumps to stop infusion of insulin at selected blood glucose thresholds. We present the first and successful Danish clinical case using this device, a Medtronics Veo insulin pump, in a patient with numerous cases of severe hypoglycaemia during...

  15. The relationship between gluconeogenic substrate supply and glucose production in humans

    The relationship between gluconeogenic precursor supply and glucose production has been investigated in 14-h and 86-h fasted humans. In protocols 1 and 2 [6,6-2H]glucose and [15N2]urea were infused to measure glucose and urea production rates (Ra) in response to infusions of glycerol and alanine. In protocol 3 first [15N]alanine, [3-13C]lactate, and [6,6-2H]glucose were infused before and during administration of dichloroacetate (DCA) to determine the response of glucose Ra to decreased fluxes of pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, then alanine was infused with DCA and glucose Ra measured. After a 14-h fast, neither alanine nor glycerol increased glucose Ra. Basal glucose Ra decreased by one-third after 86 h of fasting, yet glycerol and alanine infusions had no effect on glucose Ra. Glycerol always reduced urea Ra (P less than 0.05), suggesting that glycerol competitively inhibited gluconeogenesis from amino acids. DCA decreased the fluxes of pyruvate, alanine (P less than 0.01), and glucose Ra (P less than 0.01), which was prevented by alanine infusion. These findings suggest that (1) the reduction in glucose Ra after an 86-h fast is not because of a shortage of gluconeogenic substrate; (2) nonetheless, the importance of precursor supply to maintain basal glucose Ra is confirmed by the response to DCA; (3) an excess of one gluconeogenic substrate inhibits gluconeogenesis from others

  16. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  17. [Effect of antihypoxant infusion on microbial endotoxin circulation in obstructive jaundice patients].

    Iakovlev, A Ia; Niazmatov, A A; Zarechnova, N V; Zaĭtsev, R R; Emel'ianov, N V; Mokrov, K V; Chichkanova, A S

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of microbial endotoxemia in group of 149 patients with cholelithiasis complicated by obstructive jaundice has been studied as dependent on the perioperative tactics of infusion therapy. The perioperative period in obstructive jaundice patients is complicated by a significant increase in lipopolysaccharidemia caused by translocation mechanisms and disorders of the liver detoxification function. In Group 1, 47 patients received infusion therapy including Ringer's solution and 10% glucose solution at a 1:1 ratio. In group 2, 55 patients received infusion therapy with only Sterofundin G-5 solution. In Group 3, 47 patients received the infusion therapy with remaxol in a dose of 800 ml/day. It is established that the infusion of Sterofundin G-5, and to a greater extent the infusion of remaxol, reduces the early postoperative degree of decompensation and accelerates recovery of the detoxifying function of Kupffer cells with respect to microbial endotoxin. PMID:23631281

  18. Fluoroscopic findings in bovine mass-screening with an X-ray car for large animals: Occurrence and nature of abomasal foreign bodies

    The occurrence and nature of abomasal foreign bodies were investigated in 1, 976 clinically healthy cows in mass-screening with an X-ray car for large animals within 23 months period from January 1981 to November 1982 in northern and eastern districts of Hokkaido.Metallic foreign bodies (MFB) and sand-like substance were observed in the abomasum in 35.3% and 96.5% of the cows, respectively. This result suggested that most of the clinically healthy cows might always be exposed to the occurrence of traumatic abomasitis and/or abomasal ulcer, and turned down the theory that MFB were very seldom encounted in the abomasum.Of the cows, 826 had a magnet in the reticulum. MFB were found in the abomasum in 25.7% of them.Abomasal MFB were detected from 42.2% of 1, 147 cows which had no magnet in the reticulum. The presence of a magnet in the reticulum was effective to some extent to prevent the migration of MFB to the abomasum. (author)

  19. II Infused Mice

    Justin L. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR-α plays an important role in attenuating hypertension. The current study determines the anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory role of PPAR-α agonist during a slow-pressor dose of Ang II (400 ng/kg/min. Ten to twelve week old male PPAR-α KO mice and their WT controls were implanted with telemetry devices and infused with Ang II for 12 days. On day 12 of Ang II infusion, MAP was elevated in PPAR-α KO mice compared to WT (161±4 mmHg versus 145±4 mmHg and fenofibrate (145 mg/kg/day reduced MAP in WT + Ang II mice (134±7 mmHg. Plasma IL-6 levels were higher in PPAR-α KO mice on day 12 of Ang II infusion (30±4 versus 8±2 pg/mL and fenofibrate reduced plasma IL-6 in Ang II-treated WT mice (10±3 pg/mL. Fenofibrate increased renal expression of CYP4A, restored renal CYP2J expression, reduced the elevation in renal ICAM-1, MCP-1 and COX-2 in WT + Ang II mice. Our results demonstrate that activation of PPAR-α attenuates Ang II-induced hypertension through up-regulation of CYP4A and CYP2J and an attenuation of inflammatory markers such as plasma IL-6, renal MCP-1, renal expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2.

  20. Coal-face infusion. Kohlenstosstraenken

    Becker, H.; Betting, K.; Korth, H.; Stockmann, H.W.; Goeretz, H. (Steinkohlenbergbauverein, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Hauptstelle fuer Staubbekaempfung und Pneumokonioseverhuetung)

    1989-01-01

    Trials with continuous infusion methods were run in 22 collieries. Longwall infusion was used either for the first time or as an alternative to other infusion techniques. Several collieries stepped up the development of long drill holes achieving depths of up to 184 m by increasing drilling water pressure and associated adequate water quantities. A measuring device was used to determine the direction and inclination of the drill holes. Addition of fluorescine sodium to the infusion water allowed the course of the water to be verified across a distance of 70 m. A carriage-type drilling machine was equipped with electric sensors to establish drilling-machine-specific data. New cement mixtures were developed to achieve better drill hole sealing in longwall infusion. New transducers were installed to begin with the acquisition of infusion water quantity data and their transmission to the central mine control station. (orig.).

  1. Beta-endorphin infusion during exercise in rats does not alter hepatic or muscle glycogen.

    Jamurtas, A Z; Goldfarb, A H; Chung, S C; Hegde, S; Marino, C; Fatouros, I G

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-endorphin infusion influences liver or muscle glycogen concentration during exercise. Thirty-two rats (Harlan Co., IN, USA) with a body mass of 265-290 g were assigned at random to four groups, each of eight rats: (1) beta-endorphin infusion for 90 min at rest; (2) beta-endorphin infusion for 90 min while running on a rodent treadmill at 22 m x min(-1) and 0% grade; (3) saline infusion (0.9% NaCl) for 90 min at rest; and (4) saline infusion for 90 min while running on a rodent treadmill at 22 m x min(-1) and 0% grade. Beta-endorphin infusion elevated plasma beta-endorphin concentration by 2.5-fold at rest compared with saline infusion at rest, and by two-fold after exercise compared with saline infusion after exercise. Beta-endorphin infusion attenuated exercise-induced glucose concentration but did not alter the fasting hepatic glycogen concentration at rest or after exercise compared with saline infusion. Fasting hepatic glycogen decreased significantly as a result of 90 min of exercise independent of treatment. Deep intermedius muscle glycogen concentration at rest was similar after 90 min of both beta-endorphin and saline infusion and decreased significantly as a result of 90 min of exercise independent of treatment. Our results suggest that liver and muscle glycogenolysis is not responsible for the differences in plasma glucose with beta-endorphin infusion during exercise. PMID:11820687

  2. Glucose Sensing

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  3. [Tactics of preoperative infusion therapy in obturation jaundice].

    Iakovlev, A Iu; Semenov, V B; Emel'ianov, N V; Mokrov, K V; Akulenko, S V; Zarechnova, N V

    2011-10-01

    The influence of the infusion therapy content on a hepatic function of bile outflow (HFBO), a bilirubin content and the enzymes activity in obturation jaundice in 139 patients was studied up. In 54 patients (the first group) a Ringer solution and 10% solution of glucose in 1:1 ratio were applied; in 37 patients (the second group) - a sterofundin-G-5 solution; in 48 patients (the third group) - remaxol in a dose of 800 ml/day. Application of sterofundin-G-5 and remaxol as a component of infusion therapy have promoted a bile outflow intensity enhancement in early postoperative period in comparison with such while Ringer solution and 10% solution of glucose application. Remaxol more effectively have eliminated a hyperbilirubinemia, enzymemia and a HFBO disorder, than sterofundin-G-5. PMID:22295543

  4. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    C. Williams; W. van Eerde; D. The

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  5. Psychological aspects in continuous subcutaneous Insulin infusion : A retrospective study

    Aberle, Ingo; Scholz, Urte; Bach-Kliegel, Birgit; Fischer, Christine; Gorny, Martin; Langer, Karin; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to analyze the relation of psychological predictors with medical and psychological therapy success indicators in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Besides blood glucose control as a medical indicator of therapy success (by means of HbA1C levels), the authors assessed treatment satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and quality of life among 51 adult patients on CSll. The authors examined the following psychological factors that were assumed to be associated with o...

  6. A Model of Chronic Nutrient Infusion in the Rat

    Fergusson, Grace; Ethier, Mélanie; Zarrouki, Bader; Fontés, Ghislaine; Poitout, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to excessive levels of nutrients is postulated to affect the function of several organs and tissues and to contribute to the development of the many complications associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes. To study the mechanisms by which excessive levels of glucose and fatty acids affect the pancreatic beta-cell and the secretion of insulin, we have established a chronic nutrient infusion model in the rat. The procedure consists of cathete...

  7. Ruminal and Abomasal Starch Hydrolysate Infusions Selectively Decrease the Expression of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter mRNA by Small Intestinal Epithelia of Forage-fed Beef Steers

    Although cationic amino acids (CAA) are consid-ered essential to maximize optimal growth of cattle, transporters responsible for CAA absorption by bovine small intestinal epithelia have not been described. This study was conducted to test 2 hypotheses: 1) the duo¬denal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia ...

  8. Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Si, Yiling; Zhao, Yali; Hao, Haojie; Liu, Jiejie; Guo, Yelei; Mu, Yiming; Shen, Jing; Cheng, Yu; Fu, Xiaobing; Han, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to effectively lower blood glucose in diabetic individuals, but the mechanism involved could not be adequately explained by their potential role in promoting islet regeneration. We therefore hypothesized that infused MSCs might also contribute to amelioration of the insulin resistance of peripheral insulin target tissues. To test the hypothesis, we induced a diabetic rat model by high-fat diet/streptozotocin (STZ) administration, perfor...

  9. Novel gene expression responses in the ovine abomasal mucosa to infection with the gastric nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta

    Knight Pamela A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infection of sheep with the gastric nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta results in distinct Th2-type changes in the mucosa, including mucous neck cell and mast cell hyperplasia, eosinophilia, recruitment of IgA/IgE producing cells and neutrophils, altered T-cell subsets and mucosal hypertrophy. To address the protective mechanisms generated in animals on previous exposure to this parasite, gene expression profiling was carried out using samples of abomasal mucosa collected pre- and post- challenge from animals of differing immune status, using an experimental model of T. circumcincta infection. Recently developed ovine cDNA arrays were used to compare the abomasal responses of sheep immunised by trickle infection with worm-naïve sheep, following a single oral challenge of 50 000 T. circumcincta L3. Key changes were validated using qRT-PCR techniques. Immune animals demonstrated highly significant increases in levels of transcripts normally associated with cytotoxicity such as granulysin and granzymes A, B and H, as well as mucous-cell derived transcripts, predominantly calcium-activated chloride channel 1 (CLCA1. Challenge infection also induced up-regulation of transcripts potentially involved in initiating or modulating the immune response, such as heat shock proteins, complement factors and the chemokine CCL2. In contrast, there was marked infection-associated down-regulation of gene expression of members of the gastric lysozyme family. The changes in gene expression levels described here may reflect roles in direct anti-parasitic effects, immuno-modulation or tissue repair. (Funding; DEFRA/SHEFC (VT0102 and the BBSRC (BB/E01867X/1.

  10. Variation in the Ovine Abomasal Lymph Node Transcriptome between Breeds Known to Differ in Resistance to the Gastrointestinal Nematode.

    Albin M Ahmed

    Full Text Available Texel lambs are known to be more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN infection than Suffolk lambs, with a greater ability to limit infection. The objectives of this study were to: 1 profile the whole transcriptome of abomasal lymph node tissue of GIN-free Texel and Suffolk lambs; 2 identify differentially expressed genes and characterize the immune-related biological pathways and networks associated with these genes. Abomasal lymph nodes were collected from Texel (n = 6 and Suffolk (n = 4 lambs aged 19 weeks that had been GIN-free since 6 weeks of age. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed using RNA-seq on the Illumina platform. At the time of conducting this study, a well annotated Ovine genome was not available and hence the sequence reads were aligned with the Bovine (UMD3.1 genome. Identification of differentially expressed genes was followed by pathway and network analysis. The Suffolk breed accounted for significantly more of the differentially expressed genes, (276 more highly expressed in Suffolk v 162 in Texel; P < 0.001. The four most significant differentially expressed pathways were all related to immunity and were classified as: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Recognition of Bacteria and Viruses, Activation of IRF by Cytosolic Pattern Recognition Receptors, Role of RIG-I-like Receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity, and Interferon Signaling. Of significance is the fact that all of these four pathways were more highly expressed in the Suffolk. These data suggest that in a GIN-free environment, Suffolk lambs have a more active immune profile relative to the Texel: this immune profile may contribute to the poorer efficiency of response to a GIN challenge in the Suffolk breed compared to the Texel breed.

  11. Underestimation of glucose turnover measured with [6-3H]- and [6,6-2H]- but not [6-14C]glucose during hyperinsulinemia in humans

    Recent studies indicate that hydrogen-labeled glucose tracers underestimate glucose turnover in humans under conditions of high flux. The cause of this underestimation is unknown. To determine whether the error is time-, pool-, model-, or insulin-dependent, glucose turnover was measured simultaneously with [6-3H]-, [6,6-2H2]-, and [6-14C]glucose during a 7-h infusion of either insulin (1 mU.kg-1.min-1) or saline. During the insulin infusion, steady-state glucose turnover measured with both [6-3H]glucose (8.0 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) and [6,6-2H2]glucose (7.6 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) was lower (P less than .01) than either the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia (9.8 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1) or glucose turnover determined with [6-14C]glucose and corrected for Cori cycle activity (9.8 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1). Consequently negative glucose production rates (P less than .01) were obtained with either [6-3H]- or [6,6-2H2]- but not [6-14C]glucose. The difference between turnover estimated with [6-3H]glucose and actual glucose disposal (or 14C glucose flux) did not decrease with time and was not dependent on duration of isotope infusion. During saline infusion, estimates of glucose turnover were similar regardless of the glucose tracer used. High-performance liquid chromatography of the radioactive glucose tracer and plasma revealed the presence of a tritiated nonglucose contaminant. Although the contaminant represented only 1.5% of the radioactivity in the [6-3H]glucose infusate, its clearance was 10-fold less (P less than .001) than that of [6-3H]glucose. This resulted in accumulation in plasma, with the contaminant accounting for 16.6 +/- 2.09 and 10.8 +/- 0.9% of what customarily is assumed to be plasma glucose radioactivity during the insulin or saline infusion, respectively (P less than .01)

  12. Placental Transfer of Lactate, Glucose and 2-deoxyglucose in Control and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Thomas, Chris R.; Oon, Beryl B.; Lowy, Clara

    2001-01-01

    Placental transfer of lactate, glucose and 2-deoxyglucose was examined employing the in situ perfused placenta. Control and streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were infused with U-14C]-glucose and [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG). The fetal side of the placenta was perfuseci with a cell free medium and glucose uptake was calculated in the adjacent fetuses. Despite the 5-fold higher maternal plasma glucose concentration in the diabetic dams the calculated fetal glucose metabolic index was not...

  13. Prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion

    Jennifer; Katz; Michael; Frank

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacologic management for ulcerative colitis (UC) has recently been expanded to include antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for severe disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed again TNF α was first tested in patients with Crohn’s disease. In addition to serious infections, malignancy, drug induced lupus and other autoimmune diseases, serum sickness-like reactions, neurological disease, and infusion reactions further complicate the use of Infliximab. We report a case of prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion to treat steroid refractory UC.

  14. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  15. Estimation of glucose carbon recycling in children with glycogen storage disease: A 13C NMR study using [U-13C]glucose

    A stable isotope procedure to estimate hepatic glucose carbon recycling and thereby elucidate the mechanism by which glucose is produced in patients lacking glucose 6-phosphatase is described. A total of 10 studies was performed in children with glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) and type III (GSD-III) and control subjects. A primed dose-constant nasogastric infusion of D-[U-13C]glucose or an infusion diluted with nonlabeled glucose solution was administered following different periods of fasting. Hepatic glucose carbon recycling was estimated from 13C NMR spectra. The values obtained for GSD-I patients coincided with the standard [U-13C]glucose dilution curve. These results indicate that the plasma glucose of GSD-I subjects comprises only a mixture of 99% 13C-enriched D-[U-13C]glucose and unlabeled glucose but lacks any recycled glucose. Significantly different glucose carbon recycling values were obtained for two GSD-III patients in comparison to GSD-I patients. The results eliminate a mechanism for glucose production in GSD-I children involving gluconeogenesis. However, glucose release by amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity would result in endogenous glucose production of non-13C-labeled and nonrecycled glucose carbon, as was found in this study. In GSD-III patients gluconeogenesis is suggested as the major route for endogenous glucose synthesis. The contribution of the triose-phosphate pathway in these patients has been determined

  16. Effect of somatostatin on nonesterified fatty acid levels modifies glucose homeostasis during fasting

    In the 7-days fasted conscious dog, unlike the postabsorptive conscious dog, somatostatin infusion results in decreased levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and increased glucose utilization (Rd) even when insulin and glucagon levels are held constant. The aim of this study was to determine whether NEFA replacement in such animals would prevent the increase in Rd. In each of three protocols there was an 80-min tracer equilibration period, a 40-min basal period, and a 3-h test period. During the test period in the first protocol saline was infused, in the second protocol somatostatin was infused along with intraportal replacement amounts of insulin and glucagon (hormone replacement), while in the third protocol somatostatin plus the pancreatic hormones were infused with concurrent heparin plus Intralipid infusion. Glucose turnover was assessed using [3-3H]glucose. The peripheral levels of insulin, glucagon, and glucose were similar and constant in all three protocols; however, during somatostatin infusion, exogenous glucose infusion was necessary to maintain euglycemia. The NEFA level was constant during saline infusion and decreased in the hormone replacement protocol. In the hormone replacement plus NEFA protocol, the NEFA level did not change during the first 90-min period and then increased during the second 90-min period. After a prolonged fast in the dog, (1) somatostatin directly or indirectly inhibits adipose tissue NEFA release and causes a decrease in the plasma NEFA level, and (2) this decrease in the NEFA level causes an increase in Rd

  17. Glucose allostasis

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert;

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose...... chronic stress (insulin resistance), we propose to use the term "glucose allostasis." Allostasis (stability through change) ensures the continued homeostatic response (stability through staying the same) to acute stress at some cumulative costs to the system. With increasing severity and over time, the...

  18. Effects of β-hydroxybutyrate and different calcium and potassium concentrations on the membrane potential and motility of abomasal smooth muscle cells in cattle.

    Zurr, L; Leonhard-Marek, S

    2012-10-01

    The left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in periparturient dairy cows. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) levels above the reference range are regarded as risk factors for the occurrence of LDA. Additionally, hypokalemia and hypocalcemia have been observed in LDA cows. The aim of the present study was to characterize the membrane potential and the slow waves in abomasal smooth muscle cells by a microelectrode technique and to determine possible effects of BHBA and of various calcium and potassium concentrations on the membrane potential. Subsequently, the results obtained by the microelectrode technique were combined with in vitro motility experiments of abomasal smooth muscles. Strips of the abomasal circular smooth muscles were prepared and incubated in different buffer solutions. For the microelectrode technique, healthy bulls and cows that underwent surgery for LDA were sampled. These measurements showed a frequency of the slow waves between 3.5 and 10.9 per minute (for amplitudes ≥ 3mV) and between 0.6 and 4.5 per minute (for amplitudes ≥ 5mV). The frequency of contractions (1.8 to 3.1 per minute) were in the same order as the frequency of the slow waves with amplitudes ≥ 5 mV. Blocking potassium conductance with barium chloride induced a depolarization of the basal membrane potential (from -43±2.9 to -37±4.1mV; mean ± standard error of the mean) without affecting the frequency or the height of the slow waves. The reduction in the potassium concentration from 5.4 to 2 mmol/L resulted in a nominal decrease in the activity of contractions (from 22.2 to 18.6 mN/min). The subsequent addition of 1 mmol of KCl/L induced a nominal increase in contraction activity (from 18.6 to 25.7 mN/min). An effect of BHBA (5 mmol/L) could not be demonstrated, neither on the electric nor on the motility parameters. A simulated hypocalcemia (1.2 mmol/L total, 0.9 mmol/L ionized Ca) did not change slow waves and motility. In conclusion, changes in

  19. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the in vivo memory to glucose of pancreatic beta cell in rats.

    N'Guyen, J M; C. Magnan; Laury, M C; Thibault, C.; Leveteau, J; Gilbert, M.; Pénicaud, L.; Ktorza, A

    1994-01-01

    The fact that the potentiating effect of prolonged hyperglycemia on the subsequent insulin secretion is observed in vivo but not in vitro suggests the involvement of extrapancreatic factors in the in vivo memory of pancreatic beta cells to glucose. We have investigated the possible role of the autonomic nervous system. Rats were made hyperglycemic by a 48-h infusion with glucose (HG rats). At the end of glucose infusion as well as 6 h postinfusion, both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve a...

  20. Conventional insulin vs insulin infusion therapy in acute coronary syndrome diabetic patients

    Caterina; Arvia; Valeria; Siciliano; Kyriazoula; Chatzianagnostou; Gillian; Laws; Alfredo; Quinones; Galvan; Chiara; Mammini; Sergio; Berti; Sabrina; Molinaro; Giorgio; Iervasi

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the impact on glucose variability(GLUCV)of an nurse-implemented insulin infusion protocol when compared with a conventional insulin treatment during the day-to-day clinical activity.METHODS:We enrolled 44 type 2 diabetic patients(n=32 males;n=12 females)with acute coronary syndrome(ACS)and randomy assigned to standard a subcutaneous insulin treatment(n=23)or a nurse-implemented continuous intravenous insulin infusion protocol(n=21).We utilized some parameters of GLUCV representing well-known surrogate markers of prognosis,i.e.,glucose standard deviation(SD),the mean dailyδglucose(mean of daily difference between maximum and minimum glucose),and the coefficient of variation(CV)of glucose,expressed as percent glucose(SD)/glu-cose(mean).RESULTS:At the admission,first fasting blood glucose,pharmacological treatments(insulin and/or anti-diabetic drugs)prior to entering the study and basal glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c)were observed in the two groups treated with subcutaneous or intravenous insulin infusion,respectively.When compared with patients submitted to standard therapy,insulin-infused patients showed both increased first 24-h(median 6.9 mmol/L vs 5.7mmol/L P<0.045)and overall hospitalizationδglucose(median 10.9 mmol/L vs 9.3 mmol/L,P<0.028),with a tendency to a significant increase in first 24-h glycaemic CV(23.1%vs 19.6%,P<0.053).Severe hypoglycaemia was rare(14.3%),and it was observed only in 3 patients receiving insulin infusion therapy.HbA1c values measured during hospitalization and 3 mo after discharge did not differ in the two groups of treatment.CONCLUSION:Our pilot data suggest that no real benefit in terms of GLUCV is observed when routinely managing blood glucose by insulin infusion therapy in type 2 diabetic ACS hospitalized patients in respect to conventional insulin treatment

  1. Triacylglycerol infusion improves exercise endurance in patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I deficiency

    Roef, MJ; de Meer, K; Reijngoud, DJ; Straver, HWHC; de Barse, M; Kalhan, SC; Berger, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high-fat diet has been recommended for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) deficiency (CID). Objective: This study evaluated the effects of intravenous infusion of isoenergetic amounts of triacylglycerol or glucose on substrate ox

  2. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of ornithine decarboxylases in the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus.

    Umair, Saleh; Knight, Jacqueline S; Simpson, Heather V

    2013-06-01

    Full length cDNA encoding ornithine decarboxylases (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) were cloned from the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta (TcODC) and Haemonchus contortus (HcODC). The TcODC (1272 bp) and HcODC cDNA (1266 bp) encoded 424 and 422 amino acid proteins respectively. The predicted TcODC amino acid sequence showed 87% identity with HcODC and 65% and 64% with Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae ODC respectively. All binding sites and active regions were completely conserved in both proteins. Soluble N-terminal His-tagged ODC proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21, purified and characterised. The recombinant TcODC and HcODC had very similar kinetic properties: K(m) ornithine was 0.2-0.25 mM, optimum [PLP] was 0.3 mM and the pH optima were pH 8. No enzyme activity was detected when arginine was used as substrate. One millimolar difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) completely inhibited TcODC and HcODC activity, whereas 2 mM agmatine did not inhibit activity. The present study showed that ODC is a separate enzyme from arginine decarboxylase and strictly uses ornithine as substrate. PMID:23499950

  3. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239Pu or 147Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Altered hepatic vasopressin and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors after chronic endotoxin infusion

    Roth, B.L.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are complicated by a number of hemodynamic and metabolic aberrations. These include catecholamine refractoriness and altered glucose metabolism. Recently, a nonshock rat model of continuous endotoxin infusion via an implanted osmotic pump was developed that reproduces some of the metabolic and cardiovascular findings of human sepsis. By using this model, we have found a decreased number of hepatic plasma membrane alpha 1-adrenergic and (Arg8)vasopressin receptors in rats continuously infused with endotoxin. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)prazosin (35 +/- 7%) and (/sup 3/H) (Arg8)vasopressin (43 +/- 8%) receptors after 30 h of continuous endotoxin infusion with no change in affinity. The ability of norepinephrine to form the high-affinity complex with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors was not altered after chronic endotoxin infusion. The results are consistent with the concept that alterations in receptor number might underlie certain of the metabolic consequences of chronic sepsis.

  5. The effect of caffeine on glucose kinetics in humans - influence of adrenaline

    Battram, Danielle S.; Graham, Terry E.; Richter, Erik A.;

    2005-01-01

    While caffeine impedes insulin-mediated glucose disposal in humans, its effect on endo-genous glucose production (EGP) remains unknown. In addition, the mechanism involved in these effects is unclear, but may be due to the accompanying increase in adrenaline concentration. We studied the effect of...... caffeine on EGP and glucose infusion rates (GIR), and whether or not adrenaline can account for all of caffeine's effects. Subjects completed three isoglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps (with 3-[3H]glucose infusion) 30 min after ingesting: (1) placebo capsules (n= 12); (2) caffeine capsules (5 mg kg-1) (n......= 12); and either (3) placebo plus a high-dose adrenaline infusion (HAdr; adrenaline concentration, 1.2 nM; n= 8) or (4) placebo plus a low-dose adrenaline infusion (LAdr; adrenaline concentration, 0.75 nM; n= 6). With caffeine, adrenaline increased to 0.6 nM but no effect on EGP was observed. While...

  6. Does hyperketonemia affect protein or glucose kinetics in postabsorptive or traumatized man

    Leucine and glucose turnover were measured using simultaneous infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H]glucose before and during an infusion of Na DL-hydroxybutyrate (Na DL-HB) in overnight-fasted patients the day before and 3 days after total hip replacement. The ketone body infusion before surgery resulted in a significant increase in plasma leucine concentration and leucine turnover, while glucose concentration and turnover decreased. Surgery increased leucine turnover. Ketone body infusion after surgery caused a further increased leucine turnover while turnover fell as before surgery. We suggest that exogenous ketone bodies decrease hepatic glucose production and probably stimulate a rise in protein synthesis above breakdown leading to a decreased nitrogen excretion as observed by other investigators. Despite the metabolic adaptation to trauma, this response was not affected by surgery

  7. Increased activity of the glucose cycle in the liver: early characteristic of type 2 diabetes.

    Efendić, S; Wajngot, A; Vranić, M

    1985-01-01

    The aims were to assess in the mild, lean, type 2 diabetics the activity of the hepatic futile cycle (glucose cycling) in the basal state and during an infusion of glucose and the overall contribution of futile cycling and the relative contributions of the liver and the periphery to excessive hyperglycemia during a glucose challenge. To determine hepatic futile cycling, we studied seven healthy controls (C) and eight mild, lean, type 2 diabetics with decreased oral glucose tolerance test and ...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or...

  9. Splanchnic and renal exchange of infused fructose in insulin-deficient type 1 diabetic patients and healthy controls.

    Björkman, O; Gunnarsson, R.; Hagström, E; Felig, P.; Wahren, J

    1989-01-01

    Fructose raises blood glucose and lactate levels in normal as well as diabetic man, but the tissue origin (liver and/or kidney) of these responses and the role of insulin in determining the end products of fructose metabolism have not been fully established. Splanchnic and renal substrate exchange was therefore examined during intravenous infusion of fructose or saline in six insulin-deficient type I diabetics who fasted overnight and in five healthy controls. Fructose infusion resulted in si...

  10. Effects of intragastric infusion of inosine monophosphate and l-glutamate on vagal gastric afferent activity and subsequent autonomic reflexes

    Kitamura, Akihiko; Sato, Wataru; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio; NIIJIMA, Akira

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of intragastric infusion of palatable basic taste substances (umami, sweet, and salty) on the activity of the vagal gastric afferent nerve (VGA), the vagal celiac efferent nerve (VCE), and the splanchnic adrenal efferent nerve (SAE) in anesthetized rats. To test the three selected taste groups, rats were infused with inosine monophosphate (IMP) and l-glutamate (GLU) for umami, with glucose and sucrose for sweet, and with sodium chloride (NaCl) for sal...

  11. Mechanism for underestimation of isotopically determined glucose disposal

    Use of [3H]glucose and a one-compartment model to determine glucose kinetics frequently underestimates the rate of glucose production (Ra). To assess to what extent an isotope effect, a tracer contaminant, or inadequacy of the model was responsible, we measured glucose Ra and forearm clearance of tracer and unlabeled glucose at various concentrations of plasma insulin (approximately 50, approximately 160, and approximately 1800 microU/ml) and plasma glucose (approximately 90, approximately 160, approximately 250, and approximately 400 mg/dl) under steady-state and non-steady-state conditions. Under isotopic steady-state conditions, the clearances of tracer and unlabeled glucose across the forearm were identical, and exogenous glucose infusion rates did not differ significantly from the isotopically determined glucose Ra (10.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 10.5 +/- 1.0 mg.kg-1 fat-free mass.min-1, respectively). However, under isotopic non-steady-state conditions, the isotopically determined Ra was significantly lower than the glucose infusion rate (11.5 +/- 1.3 vs. 13.7 +/- 1.5 mg.kg-1 fat-free mass.min-1, respectively, P less than .001), and the underestimation was related to the deviation from the isotopic steady state. When [3H]glucose specific activity of plasma samples from experiments with the greatest underestimation of Ra was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, less than 7% of the underestimation could be accounted for by a contaminant. These results indicate that inadequacy of the one-compartment model is responsible for underestimation of glucose Ra under non-steady-state conditions and that there is no detectable isotopic effect or appreciable contaminant of [3-3H]glucose. We conclude that under isotopic steady-state conditions, [3-3H]glucose is a reliable tracer for glucose kinetic studies in humans

  12. Glucose recovery after intranasal glucagon during hypoglycaemia in man

    Hvidberg, A; Djurup, R; Hilsted, J

    1994-01-01

    We compared the hyperglycaemic effect of intranasal and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of glucagon after insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Twelve healthy subjects were examined twice, receiving on both occasions an intravenous insulin bolus. Somatostatin and propranolol were administered to block...... endogenous glucose counterregulation, and glucose turnover was estimated by a 3-[3H]-glucose infusion. When hypoglycaemia was reached, the subjects received either i.m. glucagon of pancreatic extraction (1 mg) or intranasal genetically engineered glucagon (2 mg). The incremental values for plasma glucose...

  13. Continuous infusion versus daily injections of growth hormone (GH) for 4 weeks in GH-deficient patients

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jakobsen, Grethe;

    1995-01-01

    effects with constant and pulsatile GH delivery. This study was carried out to compare the metabolic effects of longer term continuous infusion vs. daily injections of GH. Thirteen GH-deficient patients were studied in a cross-over design. The patients were randomized to receive GH as a continuous sc...... infusion by means of a portable pump for 1 month and as daily sc injections (at 1900 h) for another month. An average daily GH dosage (+/- SEM) of 3.15 +/- 0.27 IU was administered during both periods. Steady state 24-h profiles of GH, IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), insulin, glucose, lipid.......35 (infusion); P < 0.02]. Continuous infusion induced higher nighttime than daytime GH levels (P = 0.01), indicating a diurnal variation in the absorption or clearance of GH. Serum IGF-I levels (micrograms per L) were slightly higher (P < 0.05, by analysis of variance) after continuous GH infusion [312...

  14. Contraction-mediated glucose uptake is increased in men with impaired glucose tolerance

    Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Skovbro, Mette; Flint, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    stimulation alone and with superimposed exercise. Patients with type 2 diabetes, subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), healthy controls, and endurance-trained subjects were studied. The groups were matched for age and lean body mass (LBM), and differed in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), body fat......Exercise superimposed on insulin stimulation is shown to increase muscle glucose metabolism and these two stimuli have synergistic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate glucose infusion rates (GIR) in groups with a wide variation in terms of insulin sensitivity during insulin...... percentage, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose concentration, and oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT). Each subject underwent a two-step sequential hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. During the last 30 min of the 2nd clamp step, subjects exercised on a bicycle at 43% +/- 2% of VO2 peak. In...

  15. Mechanisms of the incretin effect in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and patients with type 2 diabetes

    Mari, Andrea; Bagger, Jonatan I; Ferrannini, Ele; Holst, Jens Juul; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2013-01-01

    The incretin effect on insulin secretion was investigated in 8 subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 8 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), using 25, 75, and 125 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusions (IIGI). The ß-cell response was evaluated using a...

  16. Effects of hyperglycemia on glucose production and utilization in humans. Measurement with [3H]-2-, [3H]-3-, and [14C]-6-glucose

    Studies with tritiated isotopes of glucose have demonstrated that hyperglycemia per se stimulates glucose utilization and suppresses glucose production in humans. These conclusions rely on the assumption that tritiated glucose provides an accurate measure of glucose turnover. However, if in the presence of hyperglycemia the isotope either loses its label during futile cycling or retains its label during cycling through glycogen, then this assumption is not valid. To examine this question, glucose utilization and glucose production rates were measured in nine normal subjects with a simultaneous infusion of [3H]-2-glucose, an isotope that may undergo futile cycling but does not cycle through glycogen; [14C]-6-glucose, an isotope that may cycle through glycogen but does not futile cycle; and [3H]-3-glucose, an isotope that can both undergo futile cycling and cycle through glycogen. In the postabsorptive state at plasma glucose concentration of 95 mg X dl-1, glucose turnover determined with [14C]-6-glucose (2.3 +/- 0.1 mg X kg-1 X min-1) was greater than that determined with [33H]glucose (2.1 +/- 0.1 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P = 0.002) and slightly less than that determined with [3H]-2-glucose (2.7 +/- 0.2 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P = 0.08). Plasma glucose was then raised from 95 to 135 to 175 mg X dl-1 while insulin secretion was inhibited, and circulating insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone concentrations were maintained constant by infusion of these hormones and somatostatin. Glucose production and utilization rates determined with [14C]-6-glucose continued to be less than those determined with [3H]-2-glucose and greater than those seen with [3H]-3-glucose

  17. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production

  18. Insulin resistance and decreased insulin response to glucose in lean type 2 diabetics

    Wajngot, Alexandre; Roovete, Arved; Vranić, Mladen; Luft, Rolf; Efendić, Suad

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the mechanism of decreased glucose tolerance in lean type 2 diabetics, glucose turnover in such subjects and controls was studied under basal conditions and during hyperglycemia induced by intravenous administration of glucose. The diabetics had decreased intravenous glucose tolerance and a fasting plasma glucose of 6-8 mM (108-144 mg/dl). Glucose was infused for 2 hr at 2 mg/kg per min in the controls (n = 16) and diabetics (n = 9). Furthermore, 11 healthy subjects...

  19. Glucose regulates lipid metabolism in fasting king penguins.

    Bernard, Servane F; Orvoine, Jord; Groscolas, René

    2003-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether glucose intervenes in the regulation of lipid metabolism in long-term fasting birds, using the king penguin as an animal model. Changes in the plasma concentration of various metabolites and hormones, and in lipolytic fluxes as determined by continuous infusion of [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitate, were examined in vivo before, during, and after a 2-h glucose infusion under field conditions. All the birds were in the phase II fasting status (large fat stores, protein sparing) but differed by their metabolic and hormonal statuses, being either nonstressed (NSB; n = 5) or stressed (SB; n = 5). In both groups, glucose infusion at 5 mg.kg-1.min-1 induced a twofold increase in glycemia. In NSB, glucose had no effect on lipolysis (maintenance of plasma concentrations and rates of appearance of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids) and no effect on the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols (TAG), glucagon, insulin, or corticosterone. However, it limited fatty acid (FA) oxidation, as indicated by a 25% decrease in the plasma level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB). In SB, glucose infusion induced an approximately 2.5-fold decrease in lipolytic fluxes and a large decrease in FA oxidation, as reflected by a 64% decrease in the plasma concentration of beta-OHB. There were also a 35% decrease in plasma TAG, a 6.5- and 2.8-fold decrease in plasma glucagon and corticosterone, respectively, and a threefold increase in insulinemia. These data show that in fasting king penguins, glucose regulates lipid metabolism (inhibition of lipolysis and/or of FA oxidation) and affects hormonal status differently in stressed vs. nonstressed individuals. The results also suggest that in birds, as in humans, the availability of glucose, not of FA, is an important determinant of the substrate mix (glucose vs. FA) that is oxidized for energy production. PMID:12738609

  20. Erroneous glucose recordings while using mutant variant of quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase glucometer in a child with galactosemia

    Vivek Mathew; Anantharaman Ramakrishnan; Ranjini Srinivasan; Sushma, K.; Ganapathi Bantwal; Vageesh Ayyar

    2013-01-01

    We report a 2-month-old child with galactosemia and falsely high glucose readings with a glucometer using mutant variant of quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (MutQ-GDH) chemistry. Potentially fatal hypoglycemia could have been induced in the child if insulin infusion had been initiated as per glycemic management protocol. Even though, the product information with the glucometer carries warning regarding interference by high galactose levels, the awareness regarding this interaction is genera...

  1. Design of low cost smart infusion device

    Saputra, Yohanes David; Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri

    2015-01-01

    We propose design of a smart infusion device suitable for public hospitals in Indonesia. The device comprised of LED, photodiode and DC motor to measure and control the infusion rate, using the principle of LED beam absorption. The infusion rate was identified by using microcontroller and displayed through computer unit. Experiment results for different flow rate level and concentration of Dextrose showed that the device is able to detect, measure, and control the infusion droplets flow rate by the average error rate of 1.0081%.

  2. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Gjedsted, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind, p......CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single......-blind, placebo-controlled two-period crossover study. SETTING: The study was performed in a university clinical research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eight healthy men aged 27.2 +/- 0.9 yr with a body mass index of 23.4 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Subjects received infusion of ghrelin...... the final 2 h of each infusion. RESULTS: Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased with ghrelin [basal: 1.9 +/- 0.1 (ghrelin) vs. 2.3 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.03; clamp: 3.9 +/- 0.6 (ghrelin) vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.02], whereas endogenous glucose...

  3. Histochemical study of the effects on abomasal mucins of Haemonchus contortus or Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in lambs.

    Simpson, H V; Umair, S; Hoang, V C; Savoian, M S

    2016-08-15

    in both antrum and fundus contrasts with reported hypersecretion of mucus in the intestine, which is believed to aid in parasite expulsion. It has been proposed that intestinal goblet cell hypersecretion occurs only in resistant animals, therefore reduced mucins in the abomasum may be indicative of susceptibility to abomasal parasites. PMID:27387375

  4. Insulin secretion, insulin action, and hepatic glucose production in identical twins discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Vaag, A.; Henriksen, J E; Madsbad, S; Holm, N; Beck-Nielsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    12 identical twin pairs discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied for insulin sensitivity (euglycemic insulin clamp, 40 mU/m2 per min), hepatic glucose production (HGP, [3-3H]glucose infusion), and insulin secretion (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperglycemic [12 mM] clamp, including glucagon administration). Five of the nondiabetic twins had normal and seven had impaired glucose tolerance. 13 matched, healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes ...

  5. Amino acid infusion during anesthesia attenuates the surgery induced decline in IGF-1 and diminishes the "diabetes of injury"

    Eksborg Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery, commonly performed after an overnight fast, causes a postoperative decline in the anabolic and glucose lowering insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Clinical fasting studies have exhibited a positive correlation between IGF-1 and nitrogen balance during different conditions. A perioperative amino acid infusion changes nitrogen balance and might thereby influence serum IGF-1. We hypothesized that amino acid infusion would enhance IGF-1 and thereby might influence glucose homeostasis after surgery. In this study we examined two different regimes of perioperative amino acids infusion. Methods 24 females scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into three groups; Ringer's solution infusion throughout anesthesia (Group B, amino acid infusion throughout anesthesia (Group C and amino acid infusion 1 hour before anesthesia and during 1.5 hrs of surgery (Group D. Six female volunteers, who were not operated, but received the same amino acids infusion after fasting, served as controls (Group A. Fasting levels of IGF-1, Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1, insulin and P-glucose were studied prior to, and four days following, operation. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was used as an index of insulin resistance. Non-parametric statistical methods were used. Results During the study the Ringer-group exhibited a decrease in IGF-1 and an increase in insulin and plasma glucose after surgery. Within the other groups there were no significant alterations over time after surgery, with the exception of a postoperative decrease in IGF-1 in group D. Group C had higher IGF-1 levels compared to group B on all days. Also, group D had higher IGF-1 levels than group B on day 2 – 4. From baseline to the first postoperative day there was a significant increase in HOMA and IGFBP-1 in groups B and C. These changes were not found in group D, in which insulin, glucose, HOMA and IGFBP-1 did not change. Amino acid

  6. Role of changes in insulin and glucagon in glucose homeostasis in exercise.

    Wolfe, R R; Nadel, E. R.; Shaw, J H; Stephenson, L A; Wolfe, M H

    1986-01-01

    This experiment was performed to determine if plasma glucose homeostasis is maintained in normal human volunteers during light exercise (40% maximal oxygen consumption [VO2 max]) when changes in insulin and glucagon are prevented. Hormonal control was achieved by the infusion of somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon. Glucose kinetics and oxidation rates were determined with stable isotopic tracers of glucose, and by indirect calorimetry. Two different rates of replacement of insulin and glucago...

  7. A switching control strategy for the attenuation of blood glucose disturbances

    Markakis, Mihalis G.; Mitsis, Georgios D.; Papavassilopoulos, George P.; Ioannou, Petros A.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this computational study we consider a generalized minimal model structure for the intravenously infused insulin–blood glucose dynamics, which can represent a wide variety of diabetic patients, and augment this model structure with a glucose rate disturbance signal that captures the aggregate effects of various internal and external factors on blood glucose. Then we develop a model-based, switching controller, which attempts to balance between optimal performance, reduced computational com...

  8. Adrenergic blockade does not abolish elevated glucose turnover during bacterial infection

    Infusions of adrenergic antagonists were used to investigate the role of catecholamines in infection-induced elevations of glucose kinetics. Infection was produced in conscious catheterized rats by repeated subcutaneous injections of live Escherichia coli over 24 h. Glucose kinetics were measured by the constant intravenous infusion of [6-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose. Compared with noninfected rats, infected animals were hyperthermic and showed increased rates of glucose appearance, clearance, and recycling as well as mild hyperlacticacidemia. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were increased by 50-70% in the infected rats, but there were no differences in plasma glucagon, corticosterone, and insulin levels. Adrenergic blockade was produced by primed constant infusion of both propranolol (β-blocker) and phentolamine (α-blocker). A 2-h administration of adrenergic antagonists did not attenuate the elevated glucose kinetics or plasma lactate concentration in the infected rats, although it abolished the hyperthermia. In a second experiment, animals were infused with propranolol and phentolamine beginning 1 h before the first injection of E. coli and throughout the course of infection. Continuous adrenergic blockade failed to attenuate infection-induced elevations in glucose kinetics and plasma lactate. These results indicate that the adrenergic system does not mediate the elevated glucose metabolism observed in this mild model of infection

  9. Catecholamine stimulation, substrate competition, and myocardial glucose uptake in conscious dogs assessed with positron emission tomography

    Uptake of radiolabelled deoxyglucose out of proportion to reduced coronary flow demonstrated by positron emission tomography has been used to identify reversibly ischemic, viable myocardium. For this concept to be applied reliably in the clinical setting, factors that may depress glucose availability independent of tissue viability, such as adrenergic stimulation and substrate competition, must be examined. Accordingly, we studied the effect of catecholamine stimulation by dopamine on myocardial glucose uptake in vivo using chronically instrumented, intact dogs and positron emission tomography. We measured myocardial activity of [2-18F]-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 82Rb in glucose-loaded animals randomly studied during dopamine infusion, during insulin infusion, and then during their combined infusion. Myocardial FDG uptake was significantly decreased when animals were treated with dopamine, compared with treatment in the same animals with insulin. When insulin was added to the dopamine infusion, myocardial FDG uptake was restored. In contrast, myocardial activity of 82Rb, which is taken up in proportion to coronary flow, was similar under all three experimental conditions. Plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and lactate concentrations were determined before and during each infusion. The depression of myocardial FDG activity seen during dopamine infusion and its reversal with addition of insulin can be explained on the basis of effects of these hormones on substrate availability and competition

  10. Comparison of histamine and hyperosmotic arabinose infusion on brain capillary permeability to hydrophilic solutes

    The effect of bilateral intracarotid infusion of histamine (HA) on capillary permeability-surface area products (PS) of two metabolically inert tracers was determined and compared to that of L(+)arabinose (ARAB) in rat brain. Ringer's solution alone, or with 1 mg/kg HA diphosphate or 1.6M ARAB added, was infused (0.9 ml over 0.5 min) into each external carotid artery (CA). Five minutes later, a bolus of 14C-sucrose and 3H-L-glucose was injected i.v. Estimates of PS for both tracers were computed by the method of Ohno et al after brain concentration was corrected for tracer within cerebral blood vessels. Brain blood volume, based on the 14C-dextran space, was the same (.016 ml/g) in discrete cortical and midbrain regions of all rats except those treated with ARAB. The latter yielded .033 ml/g, presumably due to dextran extravasation. Infusion of ARAB, HA and Ringer's increased the PS's of sucrose and L-glucose by 10x, 8x, and 3x in brain regions perfused by the internal CA's. The ratio, PS-sucrose/PS-L-glucose was unchanged by any treatment. Both ARAB and HA caused transient falls in arterial pressure, but only ARAB caused deaths (3 of 9 rats). While as effective as ARAB in opening the blood-brain barrier, HA may be safer than hyperosmotic shock to enhance delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to brain tumors

  11. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    Because pentobarbital is often used in investigations related to carbohydrate metabolism, the in vivo effect of this drug on glucose homeostasis was studied. Glucose kinetics assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of [6-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose, were determined in three groups of catheterized fasted rats: conscious, anesthetized and body temperature maintained, and anesthetized but body temperature not maintained. After induction of anesthesia, marked hypothermia developed in rats not provided with external heat. Anesthetized rats that developed hypothermia showed a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (25%) and heart rate (40%). Likewise, the plasma lactate concentration and the rates of glucose appearance, recycling, and metabolic clearance were reduced by 30-50% in the hypothermic anesthetized rats. Changes in whole-body carbohydrate metabolism were prevented when body temperature was maintained. Because plasma pentobarbital levels were similar between the euthermic and hypothermic rats during the first 2 h of the experiment, the rapid reduction in glucose metabolism in this latter group appears related to the decrease in body temperature. The continuous infusion of epinephrine produced alterations in glucose kinetics that were not different between conscious animals and anesthetized rats with body temperature maintained. Thus pentobarbital-anesthetized rats became hypothermic when kept at room temperature and exhibited marked decreases in glucose metabolism. Such changes were absent when body temperature was maintained during anesthesia

  12. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  13. Glucose test (image)

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  14. Safety of rapid intravenous of infusion acetaminophen.

    Needleman, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    Intravenous acetaminophen, Ofirmev®, is approved for management of mild to moderate pain, management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioids, and reduction of fever. The product is supplied as a 100 mL glass vial. As stated in the prescribing information, it is recommended to be infused over 15 minutes. This recommendation is related to the formulation propacetamol, the prodrug to acetaminophen, approved in Europe, which caused pain on infusion, and data from the clinical development of acetaminophen. The objective of this retrospective chart review study was to show the lack of side effects of rapidly infusing intravenous acetaminophen. Charts of American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I-III ambulatory surgical patients who received only acetaminophen in the preoperative setting were reviewed for any infusion-related side effects. Using standard binomial proportion analyses and employing SAS/JMP software, all vital signs were analyzed for statistically significant changes between pre- and postinfusion values. One hundred charts were reviewed. Only one patient had pain on infusion, which lasted 10 seconds. No reported side effects or erythema was seen at the injection site. No infusions had to be slowed or discontinued. The median infusion time was 3:41 minutes. Of the vital signs monitored, only the systolic (P < 0.0001) and diastolic (P < 0.0099) blood pressures had statistically significant changes from pre- to postinfusion; however, they were of no clinical relevance. Acetaminophen can be administered as a rapid infusion with no significant infusion-related side effects or complications. PMID:23814378

  15. Thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic cerebral stroke: intraarterial urokinase infusion vs. intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion

    To evaluate the efficacy and limitation of intra-arterial urokinase (IAUK) infusion for treatment of acute cerebral stroke. Twenty-seven acute cerebral stroke patients treated with IAUK infusion within six hours of stroke onset were reviewed. All patients showed normal initial brain findings on CT. In 21 patients, urokinase(5-15 x 105IU) was administered through a microcatheter placed into or proximal to occluded segment. Mechanical disruption of thrombus by guidewire was performed in 17 patients. Angiographic and clinical responses and complications after IAUK infusion, were evaluated and the results were compared with those of intravenous heparin(N=19) and urokinase infusion(N=19). Complete or partial angiographic recanalization of occluded segment was found in 18 patients (67%), and neurologic improvement was followed in 14 patients(52%). The degree of improvement on the stroke scale score after IAUK infusion was statistically more significant(p<0.05) than that shown after intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion. Complications after IAUK infusion were large(15%) and small amount intracerebral hemorrhage(15%), contrast leakage into brain parenchyma(11%), and gastrointestinal bleeding(4%). Between the IAVK and the intravenous urokinase infusion group, differences in extent and types of complications were statistically insignificant, but were significantly higher in those two groups than in the intravenous heparin infusion group. IAUK infusion may be effective for the treatment of acute cerebral stroke

  16. Pharmacokinetics of morphine infusion in premature neonates.

    Hartley, R.; Green, M; Quinn, M; Levene, M I

    1993-01-01

    Morphine pharmacokinetics were studied in 17 premature neonates (26-34 weeks' gestation) after intravenous infusion during the first 24 hours of life. Infants received either standard dose morphine that comprised of a 100 micrograms/kg/hour loading infusion for 2 hours followed by a maintenance infusion of 12.5 micrograms/kg/hour, or a high dose of 200 micrograms/kg/hour for 2 hours followed by 50 micrograms/kg/hour. Mean plasma concentrations of morphine (SD) after 2 and 24 hours were 99 (12...

  17. Entry rates and recycling of glucose in buffalo calves fed on urea molasses liquid diet

    Entry rates of glucose have been measured in buffalo calves by using a dual-isotope dilution method based on continuous infusion of (U-14C)D-glucose and (6-3H)D-glucose into the blood at a precise controlled rate for 540 min. After 5 h a plateau was obtained in the specific radioactivity of the plasma glucose from which glucose synthesis and entry rates were calculated. The average entry rates of glucose were 112 and 145 mg/min measured by 14C and 3H labelled glucose respectively. About 23 percent of the glucose carbon was recycled in the pool. The average recycling rate was 33 mg/min. (author)

  18. Effects of intraduodenal administration of HCl and glucose on circulating immunoreactive secretin and insulin concentrations.

    Boden, G; Essa, N; Owen, O E; Reichle, F A

    1974-04-01

    A new radioimmunoassay for secretin was used to investigate (a) serum secretin responses to intraduodenally infused HCl and glucose, (b) the metabolic half-life and the volume of distribution of exogenous secretin and (c) the effect of endogenously released secretin on insulin secretion in 25 anesthetized dogs. Portal and femoral venous blood samples were taken simultaneously before, during, and after intraduodenal infusion of HCl (21 meq/30 min) and glucose (131 ml/30 min). Control experiments were performed with intraduodenal infusion of saline. Mean portal venous immunoreactive secretin concentration of six dogs rose from 313 muU/ml before to 1,060 muU/ml 10 min after initiation of the intestinal acidification (P dogs mean portal venous immunoreactive insulin concentration rose from 38 muU/ml before to 62 muU/ml at the end of the infusion (P Pancreatic exocrine function was studied in four dogs. The rise in secretin concentration was followed promptly by a highly significant increase in exocrine pancreatic flow rate and bicarbonate secretion, indicating biological activity of the circulating immunoreactive secretin. The effect of intraduodenal infusion of glucose on immunoreactive secretin concentration was studied in 12 dogs. Glucose in concentrations ranging from 2.5% to 10% had no detectable influence on portal or peripheral secretin concentration. Infusion of 50% glucose caused a slight decline in secretin concentration. The metabolic clearance rate, half-life of disappearance, and volume of distribution of exogenous secretin was studied in three dogs by the constant infusion technic. The metabolic clearance rate was 730+/-34 ml/min, volume of distribution was 17.4+/-0.8% of body weight, and the half-life of disappearance was 2.8+/-0.1 min. It could be calculated that 1.38 U/kg-h(-1) of endogenous secretin was released into the peripheral circulation during the steady state period of the HCl infusion experiments. The data indicated that immunoreactive

  19. Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (proglucagon 78-107amide) on hepatic glucose production in healthy man

    Hvidberg, A; Nielsen, M T; Hilsted, J;

    1994-01-01

    /L during the infusion, changes that were within physiologic limits. In a control experiment only saline was infused. During GLP-1 infusion, plasma glucose level decreased significantly (from 5.3 +/- 0.1 to 4.7 +/- 0.1 and 4.3 +/- 0.1 pmol/L at the end of the two infusion periods). Despite this, plasma......The newly discovered intestinal hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (proglucagon 78-107amide), stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion in man and may therefore be anticipated to influence hepatic glucose production. To study this, we infused synthetic GLP-1 sequentially at...... rates of 25 and 75 pmol.kg-1.h-1 into eight healthy volunteers after an overnight fast and measured plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and glucagon and glucose turnover by a technique involving infusion of 3-3H-glucose. Plasma levels of GLP-1 increased by 21.3 +/- 3.1 and 75.4 +/- 3.2 pmol...

  20. Particulate contaminants of intravenous medications and infusions.

    Backhouse, C M; Ball, P R; Booth, S; Kelshaw, M A; Potter, S R; McCollum, C N

    1987-04-01

    Particulate contamination in small volume parenteral medications has been studied and compared with that found in a selection of large volume infusions. Particle counts in 39 commonly used small volume medications and 7 large volume infusions were performed by an automated light blockage method (HIAC) or by optical microscopy. Based on these results and a random survey of drug therapy of intensive care patients, it is concluded that the contribution of intravenous medications to the total particle load received by such patients is likely to be many times greater than from infusion fluids. Until firm evidence regarding the harmful systemic effects of drug particles is available and the manufacturing regulations adjusted appropriately, final in-line filtration of infusions immediately proximal to the intravenous cannula should be considered when drugs are being given intravenously. PMID:2884285

  1. Effect of somatostatin on glucose homeostasis in conscious long-fasted dogs

    The effects of somatostatin plus intraportal insulin and glucagon replacement (pancreatic clamp) on carbohydrate metabolism were studied in conscious dogs fasted for 7 days so that gluconeogenesis was a major contributor to total glucose production. By use of [3-3H]glucose, glucose production (Ra) and utilization (Rd) and glucose clearance were assessed before and after implementation of the pancreatic clamp. After an initial control period, somatostatin (0.8 μg·kg-1·min-1) was infused with intraportal replacement amounts of glucagon and insulin. The insulin infusion rate was varied to maintain euglycemia and then kept constant for 250 min. Plasma glucagon was similar before and during somatostatin infusion, while plasma insulin was lower. Plasma glucose levels remained similar while Ra and Rd and the ratio of glucose clearance to plasma insulin were significantly increased. Net hepatic lactate uptake and [14C]alanine plus [14C]lactate conversion to [14C]glucose increased. In conclusion, somatostatin alters glucose clearance in 7-day fasted dogs, resulting in changes in several indices of carbohydrate metabolism

  2. Splanchnic net balance of oxygen and metabolites in response to a discontinuous mesenteric vein infusion of ammonium in sheep.

    Recavarren, M I; Milano, G D

    2013-12-01

    To simulate daily episodes of high absorption associated with the intake of diets with high N content, four wethers (42 ± 3.4 kg body weight), fitted with permanent catheters in the femoral artery and splanchnic vessels, were infused with 340 μmol into the mesenteric vein for 3 h, during the morning meal, over seven consecutive days. On the 7th day, mass transfers of , urea, glucose, lactate, ß-OH-butyrate and O2 were measured across portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver and splanchnic tissues during the last 90 min of the infusion. Measurements were repeated on the following day, at the same time, without the infusion. Plasma concentration in the portal vein (+332 μm; p = 0.006), portal absorption (+424 μmol/min; p lactate, ß-OH-butyrate and O2 across the PDV, and glucose, lactate, ß-OH-butyrate and O2 across the liver, were not altered by the infusion. Results suggest that a daily, discontinuous increase in portal flow during a meal stimulates liver removal and urea N production but does not significantly affect liver glucose production and O2 consumption in sheep. PMID:23005900

  3. Infusion thrombophlebitis: the histological and clinical features.

    Woodhouse, C R

    1980-01-01

    Thrombophlebitis was induced in 8 greyhounds by intravenous infusion of naftidrofuryl (Praxilene), dextrose saline being used as a control. The histological features were the same in the treated and the control veins: circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes became attached to and later infiltrated the vein endothelium. In more severe cases the deeper layers of the vein wall were affected. The clinical features in 97 patients receiving intravenous infusions of physiological saline, dextrose s...

  4. Glucose metabolism in critically ill patients

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    compared to normoglycemia. Insulin is used for treating hyperglycemia in the critically ill patients but may be complicated by hypoglycemia, which is difficult to detect in these patients and which may lead to serious neurological sequelae and death. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1...... glucose (BG). This is taken advantage of in the treatment of patients with T2DM, for whom GLP-1 analogs have been introduced during the recent years. Infusion of GLP-1 also lowers the BG level in critically ill patients without causing severe hypoglycemia. The T2DM and critical illness share similar...

  5. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    Pentobarbital is a common anesthetic agent used in animal research that is known to alter sympathetic function and may also affect carbohydrate metabolism. The in vivo effects of iv pentobarbital on glucose homeostasis were studied in chronically catheterized fasted rats. Whole body glucose kinetics, assessed by the constant iv infusion of [6-3H]- and [U-14C]-glucose, were determined in all rats in the conscious state. Thereafter, glucose metabolism was followed over the next 4 hr in 3 subgroups of rats; conscious, anesthetized with body temperature maintained, and anesthetized with body temperature not maintained. Hypothermia (a 50C decrease) developed spontaneously in anesthetized rats kept at ambient temperature (220C). No differences were seen in MABP and heart rate between conscious and normothermic anesthetized rats; however, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a decrease in MABP (20%) and heart rate (35%). Likewise, plasma glucose and lactate concentrations, the rate of glucose appearance (Ra), recycling and metabolic clearance (MCR) did not differ between conscious and normothermic anesthetized animals. In contrast, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a 50% reduction in plasma lactate, a 40% drop in glucose Ra, and a 30-40% decrease in glucose recycling and MCR. Thus, pentobarbital does not appear to alter in vivo glucose kinetics, compared to unanesthetized controls, provided that body temperature is maintained

  6. Blood Test: Glucose

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  7. Effect of perioperative insulin infusion on surgical morbidity and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.7

    Gandhi, G.Y.; Murad, M.H.; Flynn, D.N.;

    2008-01-01

    infusion vs 48/1476 patients in control group; relative risk, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.29-3.32; 99% CI, 1.09-3.88; I2, 31.5%; 95% CI, 0.0%-59.0%). No significant effect was seen in any other outcomes. The available mortality data represent only 40% of the optimal information size required to reliably detect a......, and Cochrane CENTRAL, from their inception up to May 1, 2006, and included RCTs of perioperative insulin infusion (with or without glucose targets) measuring outcomes in patients undergoing any surgery. Pairs of reviewers working independently assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of...

  8. Pancreatic beta-cell responses to GLP-1 after near-normalization of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Asmar, Meena; Højberg, Patricia V; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of strict glycaemic control on beta-cell function in nine obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), using graded glucose infusions together with infusions of saline or GLP-1 before (HbA(1)c: 8.0+/-0.4%) and after four weeks of near-normalization of blood...

  9. Pancreatic ß-cell responses to GLP-1 after near-normalization of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Asmar, Meena; Højberg, Patricia; Deacon, Carolyn F.;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of strict glycaemic control on beta-cell function in nine obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), using graded glucose infusions together with infusions of saline or GLP-1 before (HbA(1)c: 8.0+/-0.4%) and after four weeks of near-normalization of blood...

  10. Effect of adrenaline on glucose kinetics during exercise in adrenalectomised humans

    Howlett, K; Galbo, H; Lorentsen, J;

    1999-01-01

    1. The role of adrenaline in regulating hepatic glucose production and muscle glucose uptake during exercise was examined in six adrenaline-deficient, bilaterally adrenalectomised humans. Six sex- and age-matched healthy individuals served as controls (CON). 2. Adrenalectomised subjects cycled...... measured using [3-3H]glucose. 3. Euglycaemia was maintained during exercise in CON and -ADR, whilst in +ADR plasma glucose was elevated. The exercise-induced increase in hepatic glucose production was similar in +ADR and -ADR; however, adrenaline infusion augmented the rise in hepatic glucose production...... early in exercise. Glucose uptake increased during exercise in +ADR and -ADR, but was lower and metabolic clearance rate was reduced in +ADR. 4. During exercise noradrenaline and glucagon concentrations increased, and insulin and cortisol concentrations decreased, but plasma levels were similar between...

  11. [Suppression of glucose absorption by various health teas in rats].

    Matsuura, Toshiki; Yoshikawa, Yukako; Masui, Hironori; Sano, Mitsuaki

    2004-04-01

    The inhibitory effects on the intestinal digestion and absorption of sugar of health teas that claim beneficial dietary and diabetes-controlling effects were compared in rats using portal cannulae. The measured durations were the times during which the elevation of portal glucose levels resulting from continuous intragastric infusion of sucrose or maltose was suppressed by concentrated teas. The teas investigated included salacia oblonga, mulberry, guava, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba. The duration of the inhibitory effect on the sucrose load of salacia oblonga, mulberry, and guava were 110 min, 20 min, and 10 min, respectively. In contrast, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba had no significant effect on the continuous infusion of sucrose. These results suggest that there is considerable difference in the efficacy of commercial health teas in influencing glucose absorption. PMID:15067185

  12. Four grams of glucose

    Wasserman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Four grams of glucose circulates in the blood of a person weighing 70 kg. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types. In accordance with the importance of these 4 g of glucose, a sophisticated control system is in place to maintain blood glucose constant. Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The body has a remarkable capacity to satisfy the nutritional need for glucose, while ...

  13. Glucose turnover in 48-hour-fasted running rats

    In fed rats, hyperglycemia develops during exercise. This contrasts with the view based on studies of fasted human and dog that euglycemia is maintained in exercise and glucose production (R/sub a/) controlled by feedback mechanisms. Forty-eight-hour-fasted rats (F) were compared to fed rats (C) and overnight food-restricted (FR) rats. [3-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose were infused and blood and tissue sampled. During running (21 m/min, 0% grade) R/sub a/ increased most in C and least in F and only in F did R/sub a/ not significantly exceed glucose disappearance. Plasma glucose increased more in C (3.3 mmol/1) than in FR (1.6 mmol/l) and only modestly (0.6 mmol/l) and transiently in F. Resting liver glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and similar in FR and F. Resting muscle glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and lowest in F. During running, lactate production and gluconeogenesis were higher in FR than in F. At least in rats, responses of production and plasma concentration of glucose to exercise depend on size of liver and muscle glycogen stores; glucose production matches increase in clearance better in fasted than in fed states. Probably glucose production is stimulated by feedforward mechanisms and feedback mechanisms are added if plasma glucose decreases

  14. Forearm metabolism during infusion of adrenaline

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle metabolism is often investigated by measurements of substrate fluxes across the forearm. To evaluate whether the two forearms give the same metabolic information, nine healthy subjects were studied in the fasted state and during infusion of adrenaline. Both arms were...... catheterized in a cubital vein in the retrograde direction. A femoral artery was catheterized for blood sampling, and a femoral vein for infusion of adrenaline. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Forearm subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... by the local 133Xe washout method. Metabolic fluxes were calculated as the product of forearm blood flow and a-v differences of metabolite concentrations. After baseline measurements, adrenaline was infused at a rate of 0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1. No difference in the metabolic information obtained in the fasting...

  15. Design of Infusion Schemes for Neuroreceptor Imaging

    Feng, Ling; Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karine;

    2016-01-01

    for bolus infusion (BI) or programmed infusion (PI) experiments. Steady-state quantitative measurements can be made with one short scan and venous blood samples. The GABAA receptor ligand [(11)C]Flumazenil (FMZ) was chosen for this purpose, as it lacks a suitable reference region. Methods. Five bolus [(11)C...... state was attained within 40 min, which was 8 min earlier than the optimal BI (B/I ratio = 55 min). Conclusions. The system can design both BI and PI schemes to attain steady state rapidly. For example, subjects can be [(11)C]FMZ-PET scanned after 40 min of tracer infusion for 40 min with venous...

  16. Perioperative control of blood glucose level in cardiac surgery.

    Minakata, Kenji; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that poor perioperative blood glucose (BG) control can increase the risk of infection, cardiovascular accidents, and even death in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Since it has been reported that tight BG control (80-110 mg/dL) yields better outcomes in critically ill patients, it became a standard of care to control BG using intravenous insulin infusion in ICU. However, it has been debated in terms of the optimal target range whether a strict control with intensive ...

  17. First-pass metabolism of ethanol in human beings: effect of intravenous infusion of fructose

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, MH; Schäfer, C.;

    2004-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of fructose has been shown to enhance reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reoxidation and, thereby, to enhance the metabolism of ethanol. In the current study, the effect of fructose infusion on first-pass metabolism of ethanol was studied in human volunteers. A...... significantly higher first-pass metabolism of ethanol was obtained after administration of fructose in comparison with findings for control experiments with an equimolar dose of glucose. Because fructose is metabolized predominantly in the liver and can be presumed to have virtually no effects in the stomach......, results of the current study support the assumption that only a negligible part of first-pass metabolism of ethanol occurs in the stomach....

  18. Use of Glucose Rate of Change Arrows to Adjust Insulin Therapy Among Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes Who Use Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Pettus, Jeremy; Edelman, Steven V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to understand and to compare differences in utilization of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and the rate of change (ROC) arrow to adjust insulin therapy among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), comparing those treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) with those treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

  19. PET physiological measurements using constant infusion

    A wide range of study designs can be used with positron emission tomography methods to provide quantitative measurements of physiological parameters. While bolus injection of tracer is the conventional approach, use of combined bolus plus constant infusion provides a number of advantages for receptor-binding tracers. Of recent interest is the use of this approach to dynamically follow the displacement of tracer during in vivo changes in neurotransmitter concentrations. This paper provides an overview of the tradeoffs in using bolus/infusion methods versus conventional bolus injection for receptor binding studies

  20. Cultural Congruence and Infusion Nursing Practice.

    Abitz, Tracey L

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cultural competence in every nursing practice setting in today's world cannot be understated. Unconscious bias can have detrimental effects on therapeutic relationships and health outcomes. Nursing models of cultural competence by Purnell, Leininger, and Campinha-Bacote are reviewed. The Kleinman Model and LEARN Model offer questions and guidelines to facilitate assessment of patients' understanding of illness and treatment. The Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice contains elements of diversity and cultural competence throughout. Self-reflection of one's own values, beliefs, biases, and practice as an infusion nurse will promote the development of cultural competence. PMID:26934161

  1. Monitoring and control of vacuum infusion

    Hvesser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Vacuum infusion is becoming an important production method for composite laminates, and especially for large structures with thick cross sections, e.g. wind turbine blades. Roughly, a vacuum infusion can be described as a closed process where vacuum is the driving force that pulls a thermoset resin into a dry fiber preform. The mold consists of two halves; one rigid and one flexible in the form of a plastic foil.In the industry, the monitoring and active control of this process is almost abse...

  2. Effect of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor/cachectin on glucose turnover in the rat

    We studied the effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin (TNF) on glucose kinetics in healthy rats by means of a primed constant infusion of D-(6-3H)glucose and D-[U-14C]glucose. During the isotope (6-hour) and monokine (4-hour) infusion, plasma levels of glucagon and insulin were determined and correlated with changes in glucose metabolism. The rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) were elevated only with IL-1 and were associated with an increase in glucagon and a concomitant decrease in the ratio of insulin to glucagon. Plasma glucose concentration was increased early after IL-1 administration and coincided with the peak in the Ra. The augmentation of the metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and percent of flux oxidized by IL-1 suggest that this monokine induces the utilization of glucose as a substrate. TNF administration failed to modify the Ra or Rd, percent of flux oxidized, or MCR. TNF-treated rats increased the percent of glucose recycling, but not the total rate of glucose production. The results of this experiment suggest that endogenous macrophage products participate in the diverse alterations of carbohydrate metabolism seen during injury and/or infection

  3. Bihormonal control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    Batora, Vladimir; Tárnik, Marían; Murgaš, Ján;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a bihormonal artificial pancreas (AP) for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) designed to provide a safe blood glucose control with minimal use of glucagon. The control algorithm uses insulin as well as glucagon to prevent hyper- and hypoglycemia. We employ a novel prediction...... predicts hypoglycemia. Predictions utilize an ARMAX model describing glucose-insulin and glucose-glucagon dynamics. The model parameters are estimated from basic patient-specific data. A continuous glucose monitor provides feedback. We test the control algorithm using a simulation model with time......-based activation of glucagon administration. The control algorithm consists of a Kalman filter, an insulin infusion model predictive controller (MPC), a proportional-derivative (PD) controller for glucagon infusion, and a meal time insulin bolus calculator. The PD controller is activated if the Kalman filter...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... but it is not as effective as it should be. You ate more than planned or exercised ... glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  7. Your Glucose Meter

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Your Gift for Research Doubled - 2016- ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ...

  12. Effect of steel and teflon infusion catheters on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and infusion counter pressure in humans

    Højbjerre, Lise; Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Kaastrup, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous tissue is an important target for drug deposition or infusion. A local trauma may induce alterations in local microcirculation and diffusion barriers with consequences for drug bioavailability. We examined the influence of infusion catheters' wear time on local...... microcirculation and infusion counter pressure. METHODS: One steel catheter and one Teflon (Dupont, Wilmington, DE) catheter were inserted in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in 10 healthy, lean men. The catheters were infused with isotonic saline at a rate of 10 microL/h for 48 h. Another steel...... catheter and a Teflon catheter were inserted contralateral to the previous catheters after 48 h. The infusion counter pressure was measured during a basal infusion rate followed by a bolus infusion. The measurements during a basal rate infusion were repeated after the bolus infusion. Adipose tissue blood...

  13. No effect of continuous i.p. infusion of bupivacaine on postoperative analgesia, pulmonary function and the stress response to surgery

    Scott, N B; Mogensen, T; Greulich, A;

    1988-01-01

    on entering the peritoneum. The following variables were measured before and at 2-h intervals during the infusion: serum glucose and cortisol concentrations, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, peak expiratory flow rate and pain at rest, on mobilization and on...

  14. CSF glucose test

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  18. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition

    Isabel Arrieta-Cruz; Ya Su; Roger Gutiérrez-Juárez

    2016-01-01

    Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine o...

  19. Circulatory and metabolic effects of glycerol infusion in patients with recent cerebral infarction.

    Meyer, J S; Itoh, Y; Okamoto, S; Welch, K M; Mathew, N T; Ott, E O; Sakaki, S; Miyakawa, Y; Chabi, E; Ericsson, A D

    1975-04-01

    The effect of intravenous infusion of 10 per cent glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (using hydrogen bolus and Xenon-133 (133Xe) clearance methods) and metabolism was investigated in 57 patients with recent cerebral infarction. Hemispheric blood flow (HBF) increased, together with increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral blood volume (rCBV), in foci of brain ischemia. Hemispheric oxygen consumption (HMIO2) decreased together with hemispheric respiratory quotient. Systemic blood levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and triglycerides also increased after glycerol while free fatty acids (FFA) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased. Hemispheric glucose consumption was unaltered after glycerol so that hemispheric glucose to oxygen ratio tended to rise. Pyruvate and lactate production by brain was unchanged. Glycerol moved across the blood brain barrier into brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Release of FFA and Pi from infarcted brain was reversed by glycerol. Total phosphate balance was maintained actoss brain both before and after glycerol infusion. Triglycerides increased in CSF after glycerol, originating either from cerebral blood or as a result of lipogenesis in cerebral tissue. The EEG Recording and neurological status of the patients improved despite decreased brain oxygen consumption. Results of this study suggest that after intravenous infusion of 10 per cent glycerol in patients with recent cerebral infarction, glycerol rapidly enters the CSF and brain compartments and favorably affects the stroke process in two ways: first, by redistribution of cerebral blood flow with increase in rCBF and rCBV in ischemic brain secondary to reduction in focal cerebral edema; and second glycerol may become an alternative source of energy either by being directly metabolized by the brain, or indirectly, by enhancing lipogenesis, or by both processes. Involvement of glycerol in lipogenesis with esterification to accumulated FFA might lead to

  20. Propofol Infusion Syndrome Heralded by ECG Changes

    Mijzen, Elsbeth J.; Jacobs, Bram; Aslan, Adnan; Rodgers, Michael G. G.

    2012-01-01

    Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is well known, often associated with, lethal complication of sedation with propofol. PRIS seems to be associated with young age, traumatic brain injury (TBI), higher cumulative doses of propofol, and the concomitant use of catecholamines. Known manifestations of PRI

  1. Intravenous infusions in chronic pain management.

    Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Almonte, Wilson; Shaparin, Naum; Pappagallo, Marco; Smith, Howard

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, millions of Americans are affected by chronic pain, which adds heavily to national rates of morbidity, mortality, and disability, with an ever-increasing prevalence. According to a 2011 report titled Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, pain not only exacts its toll on people's lives but also on the economy with an estimated annual economic cost of at least $560 - 635 billion in health care costs and the cost of lost productivity attributed to chronic pain. Intravenous infusions of certain pharmacologic agents have been known to provide substantial pain relief in patients with various chronic painful conditions. Some of these infusions are better, and although not necessarily the first therapeutic choice, have been widely used and extensively studied. The others show promise, however are in need of further investigations. This article will focus on non-opiate intravenous infusions that have been utilized for chronic painful disorders such as fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, phantom limb pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS), diabetic neuropathy, and central pain related to stroke or spinal cord injuries. The management of patients with chronic pain conditions is challenging and continues to evolve as new treatment modalities are explored and tested. The following intravenous infusions used to treat the aforementioned chronic pain conditions will be reviewed: lidocaine, ketamine, phentolamine, dexmedetomidine, and bisphosphonates. This overview is intended to familiarize the practitioner with the variety of infusions for patients with chronic pain. It will not, however, be able to provide guidelines for their use due to the lack of sufficient evidence. PMID:23703410

  2. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition.

    Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS- in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS-. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste. PMID:26791832

  3. The effects of TNF-α on GLP-1-stimulated plasma glucose kinetics

    Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Lars; Nielsen, Signe T;

    2015-01-01

    Context: GLP-1 analogues have recently been promoted as anti-hyperglycemic agents in critically ill patients with systemic inflammation, but the effects of TNF-α on glucose metabolism during GLP-1 administration are unknown. Objective: To determine whether infusion of TNF-α at high physiological...... levels impairs GLP-1's effects on glucose metabolism. Design: Randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. Setting: Hospital clinical research laboratory. Participants: Twelve healthy males (age 24±3 y; BMI 22.9±1.3 kg/m(2)). Interventions: Following an overnight fast, either saline (0.9%) or recombinant...... human TNF-α (1000 ng/m(2)/h) was infused from t = 0-6 hours. At t = 2 hours, GLP-1 infusion (0.5 pmol/kg/min) began. From t = 4-6 hours, the GLP-1 infusion rate was increased to 1.2 pmol/kg/min. Plasma glucose was clamped at 5 mmol/L throughout via a variable-rate 20% dextrose infusion. Trials were 7...

  4. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  5. Regulation of. beta. -cell glucose transporter gene expression

    Chen, Ling; Alam, Tausif; Johnson, J.H.; Unger, R.H. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA) Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dallas, TX (USA)); Hughes, S.; Newgard, C.B. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))

    1990-06-01

    It has been postulated that a glucose transporter of {beta} cells (GLUT-2) may be important in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. To determine whether this transporter is constitutively expressed or regulated, the authors subjected conscious unrestrained Wistar rats to perturbations in glucose homeostasis and quantitated {beta}-cell GLUT-2 mRNA by in situ hybridization. After 3 hr of hypoglycemia, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA signal densities were reduced by 25% of the level in control rats. After 4 days, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA densities were reduced by 85% and 65%, respectively. After 12 days of hypoglycemia, the K{sub m} for 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport in isolated rat islets, normally 18-20 mM, was 2.5 mM. This provides functional evidence of a profound reduction of high K{sub m} glucose transporter in {beta} cells. In contrast, GLUT-2 was only slightly reduced by hypoglycemia in liver. To determine the effect of prolonged hyperglycemia, they also infused animals with 50% (wt/vol) glucose for 5 days. Hyperglycemic clamping increased GLUT-2 mRNA by 46% whereas proinsulin mRNA doubled. They conclude that GLUT-2 expression in {beta} cells, but not liver, is subject to regulation by certain perturbations in blood glucose homeostasis.

  6. Regulation of β-cell glucose transporter gene expression

    It has been postulated that a glucose transporter of β cells (GLUT-2) may be important in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. To determine whether this transporter is constitutively expressed or regulated, the authors subjected conscious unrestrained Wistar rats to perturbations in glucose homeostasis and quantitated β-cell GLUT-2 mRNA by in situ hybridization. After 3 hr of hypoglycemia, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA signal densities were reduced by 25% of the level in control rats. After 4 days, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA densities were reduced by 85% and 65%, respectively. After 12 days of hypoglycemia, the Km for 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport in isolated rat islets, normally 18-20 mM, was 2.5 mM. This provides functional evidence of a profound reduction of high Km glucose transporter in β cells. In contrast, GLUT-2 was only slightly reduced by hypoglycemia in liver. To determine the effect of prolonged hyperglycemia, they also infused animals with 50% (wt/vol) glucose for 5 days. Hyperglycemic clamping increased GLUT-2 mRNA by 46% whereas proinsulin mRNA doubled. They conclude that GLUT-2 expression in β cells, but not liver, is subject to regulation by certain perturbations in blood glucose homeostasis

  7. Effects of maternal undernutrition and exercise on glucose kinetics in fetal sheep.

    Leury, B J; Chandler, K D; Bird, A R; Bell, A W

    1990-09-01

    Fetal glucose kinetics were measured using a combination of isotope-dilution and Fick-principle methodology in single-pregnant ewes which were either well-fed throughout, or fed at 0.3-0.4 predicted energy requirement for 7-21 d during late pregnancy. All ewes were studied while standing at rest and then while walking on a treadmill at 0.7 m/s on a 10 degree slope for 60 min. Underfed ewes suffered major decreases in fetal total disposal rate, fetal-placental transfer and umbilical net uptake of glucose, each of which were significantly related to declines in maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations respectively. In well-fed ewes, fetal endogenous glucose production was negligible, as indicated by the similarity between fetal utilization rate (total glucose disposal rate minus placental uptake of fetal glucose) and umbilical net uptake of glucose, and by nearly identical fetal and maternal arterial blood specific radioactivities of maternally infused D-[2-3H]glucose. By contrast, in underfed ewes, fetal utilization rate greatly exceeded umbilical net uptake of glucose, and the fetal:maternal [3H]glucose specific activity ratio declined significantly, suggesting induction of a substantial rate of fetal endogenous glucogenesis. Exercise caused increases in fetal total glucose disposal rate and glycaemia in fed and underfed ewes. In underfed ewes only, this was accompanied by increased placental uptake of fetal glucose and umbilical net glucose uptake, unchanged fetal glucose utilization and decreased fetal endogenous glucose production. It is concluded that fetal gluconeogenesis makes a major contribution to fetal glucose requirements in undernourished ewes. Increased maternal supply of fetal glucose during exercise substitutes for rather than adds to fetal endogenous glucogenesis. PMID:2223747

  8. Change in hexose distribution volume and fractional utilization of ( sup 18 F)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose in brain during acute hypoglycemia in humans

    Shapiro, E.T.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Given, B.D.; Polonsky, K.S. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-02-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of mild hypoglycemia on cerebral glucose uptake and metabolism. Nine healthy men were studied under basal saline-infusion conditions, and during euglycemic and hypoglycemic clamp studies. Insulin was infused at the same rate (1 mU.kg-1.min-1) in both clamp studies. In euglycemic clamp studies, glucose was infused at a rate sufficient to maintain the basal plasma glucose concentration, whereas in hypoglycemic clamp studies, the glucose infusion rate was reduced to maintain the plasma glucose at 3.1 mM. Each study lasted 3 h and included a 30-min baseline period and a subsequent 150-min period in which insulin or glucose was administered. Blood samples for measurement of insulin, glucose, cortisol, growth hormone, and glucagon were obtained at 20- to 30-min intervals. A bolus injection of 5-10 mCi (18F)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (2-DFG) was administered 120 min after initiation of the study, and plasma radioactivity and dynamic PET scans were obtained at frequent intervals for the remaining 40-60 min of the study. Cerebral regions of interest were defined, and concentrations of radioactivity were calculated and used in the three-compartment model of 2-DFG distribution described by Sokoloff. Glucose levels were similar during saline-infusion (4.9 +/- 0.1 mM) and euglycemic clamp (4.8 +/- 0.1 mM) studies, whereas the desired degree of mild hypoglycemia was achieved during the hypoglycemic clamp study (3.1 +/- 0.1 mM, P less than 0.05). The insulin level during saline infusion was 41 +/- 7 pM.

  9. Change in hexose distribution volume and fractional utilization of [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose in brain during acute hypoglycemia in humans

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of mild hypoglycemia on cerebral glucose uptake and metabolism. Nine healthy men were studied under basal saline-infusion conditions, and during euglycemic and hypoglycemic clamp studies. Insulin was infused at the same rate (1 mU.kg-1.min-1) in both clamp studies. In euglycemic clamp studies, glucose was infused at a rate sufficient to maintain the basal plasma glucose concentration, whereas in hypoglycemic clamp studies, the glucose infusion rate was reduced to maintain the plasma glucose at 3.1 mM. Each study lasted 3 h and included a 30-min baseline period and a subsequent 150-min period in which insulin or glucose was administered. Blood samples for measurement of insulin, glucose, cortisol, growth hormone, and glucagon were obtained at 20- to 30-min intervals. A bolus injection of 5-10 mCi [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (2-DFG) was administered 120 min after initiation of the study, and plasma radioactivity and dynamic PET scans were obtained at frequent intervals for the remaining 40-60 min of the study. Cerebral regions of interest were defined, and concentrations of radioactivity were calculated and used in the three-compartment model of 2-DFG distribution described by Sokoloff. Glucose levels were similar during saline-infusion (4.9 +/- 0.1 mM) and euglycemic clamp (4.8 +/- 0.1 mM) studies, whereas the desired degree of mild hypoglycemia was achieved during the hypoglycemic clamp study (3.1 +/- 0.1 mM, P less than 0.05). The insulin level during saline infusion was 41 +/- 7 pM

  10. Inhaled Insulin Is Associated with Prolonged Enhancement of Glucose Disposal in Muscle and Liver in the Canine

    Edgerton, Dale S.; Cherrington, Alan D.; Neal, Doss W.; Scott, Melanie; Lautz, Margaret; Brown, Nancy; Petro, Jeff; Hobbs, Charles H.; Leach, Chet; Del Parigi, Angelo; Strack, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic patients treated with inhaled insulin exhibit reduced fasting plasma glucose levels. In dogs, insulin action in muscle is enhanced for as long as 3 h after insulin inhalation. This study was designed to determine whether this effect lasts for a prolonged duration such that it could explain the effect observed in diabetic patients. Human insulin was administered via inhalation (Exubera; n = 9) or infusion (Humulin R; n = 9) in dogs using an infusion algorithm that yielded matched plas...

  11. [Portable elastomeric infusion system applied to patients with knee prosthesis].

    Soler, Gemma; Quiles, Olga; Nicolau, Agnes; Faura, Teresa; Moreno, Cristina

    2007-03-01

    An LV infuser consists of an infusion pump which can administer medicines via various methods: intravenous, epidural, subdural, o subcutaneous. Its usefulness is based on the administration of medicines such as oncological drugs and/or analgesic by means of a continuous infusion. PMID:17474369

  12. An audit of hospital based outpatient infusions and a pilot program of community-based monoclonal antibody infusions.

    Doran, J-P

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. METHODS: An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent\\'s University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. RESULTS: All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.

  13. Caffeine's impairment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal cannot be solely attributed to adrenaline in humans

    Battram, D S; Graham, T E; Dela, F

    2007-01-01

    Caffeine (CAF) impedes insulin-mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) and increases plasma adrenaline concentrations ([ADR]; 0.6 nm). While the antagonism of ADR abolishes the CAF effect, infusion of ADR (0.75 nm) has no effect on IMGD. We have now examined CAF and ADR in concert to determine whether or...

  14. Intravenous lipid and amino acids briskly increase plasma glucose concentrations in small premature infants.

    Savich, R D; Finley, S L; Ogata, E S

    1988-07-01

    We determined the glycemic response to intravenous lipid infusion alone, lipid with amino acids, or amino acids alone in 15 very small premature infants receiving constant glucose infusion during early life. Infants who received lipid or lipid and amino acids demonstrated significant increases in glucose compared with infants who received amino acids. The combination of lipid and amino acids resulted in an earlier increase than lipid alone. Although plasma insulin did not change in all three groups, infants who received amino acids alone demonstrated an appropriate increase in glucagon. These data suggest that lipid infusion, a commonly used means of providing nutrition to premature infants, may cause significant disturbances in glucoregulation, particularly when administered with amino acids. PMID:3132930

  15. Influence of Site of Casein Infusion on Voluntary Feed Intake and Digestive Function in Steer Calves Fed a Sudangrass-Based Growing Diet

    E.G. Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four medium-frame steer calves (269 kg BW with cannulas in the rumen, abomasum and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 H 4 Latin square experiment. Steers were allowed ad libitum access to the basal diet, offering 120% of the previous days DMI. Treatments consisted of infusing sodium caseinate (300 g d 1 into: 1 rumen, via the ruminal cannula; 2 abomasum, via ruminal cannula; 3 abomasum, via the abomasal cannula and 4 proximal duodenum, via the duodenal cannula. Dry matter intake averaged 97 g kg-1 BW.75 and was not affected (p>0.20 by treatments. There were no treatment effects (p>0.20 on flow of OM, NDF and ADF to the small intestine. As expected due to the high ruminal degradability of casein (86%, flow of nonammonia N to the small intestine was greater (p0.20 ruminal degradability of dietary N. Observed ruminal degradability of dietary N was in close agreement with expected (49 vs 51%, respectively based on the National Research Council?s Level 1 model. There were no treatment effects (p>0.20 on ruminal NDF digestion. However, ruminal ADF digestion was greater (5%, p0.20 on total tract digestion of OM, N, ADF, NDF and GE. Casein infusion did not influence (p>0.20 flow of chyme to the small intestine or ruminal turnover. Flow of chyme to the small intestine was primarily a function of DMI (chyme, L = 5.3 + 12.1DMI; R2 = 0.50. Postruminal casein infusion increased (75%, p0.20 its tonicity, averaging 264 mOsm. The relationship between tonicity and passage rate of chyme from the abomasum was small ( R2 = 0.05 . Casein infusion did not affect (p>0.20 ruminal DM content or liquid volume, averaging 17.5 g DM kg-1 BW.75 and 471 g kg-1 BW.75, respectively. There were no treatment effects (p>0.20 on indigestible NDF intake (averaging 26 g kg-1 BW.75 or ruminal NDF fill (averaging 41.1 g kg-1 BW.75. Casein infusion did not affect (p>0.20 ruminal pH, but ruminal acetate:propionate molar ratio was greater (p<0.10 when casein was infused ruminally. Ruminal

  16. Software Engineering Technology Infusion Within NASA

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this paper, several software engineering technologies used within NASA are studied, and the mechanisms, schedules, and efforts at transferring these technologies are investigated. The goals of this study are: 1) to understand the difference between technology transfer (the adoption of a new method by large segments of an industry) as an industry-wide phenomenon and the adoption of a new technology by an individual organization (called technology infusion); and 2) to see if software engineering technology transfer differs from other engineering disciplines. While there is great interest today in developing technology transfer models for industry, it is the technology infusion process that actually causes changes in the current state of the practice.

  17. Pre-rigor infusion with kiwifruit juice improves lamb tenderness.

    Han, J; Morton, J D; Bekhit, A E D; Sedcole, J R

    2009-07-01

    The ability of pre-rigor infusion of kiwifruit juice to improve the tenderness of lamb was investigated. Lamb carcasses were infused (10% body weight) with fresh kiwifruit juice (Ac), water (W) and a non-infusion control (C) treatment. Infusion treatment had no effect on lamb hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and chilling evaporative losses. The infused treatment carcasses of Ac and W had lower (Ptender with significantly lower shear force (Ptenderizer, which could contribute efficiently and effectively to the meat tenderization process. PMID:20416722

  18. Cerebral Critical Closing Pressure During Infusion Tests.

    Varsos, Georgios V; Czosnyka, Marek; Smielewski, Peter; Garnett, Matthew R; Liu, Xiuyun; Adams, Hadie; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    We studied possible correlations between cerebral hemodynamic indices based on critical closing pressure (CrCP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compensatory dynamics, as assessed during lumbar infusion tests. Our data consisted of 34 patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus who undertook an infusion test, in conjunction with simultaneous transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) monitoring of blood flow velocity (FV). CrCP was calculated from the monitored signals of ICP, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and FV, whereas vascular wall tension (WT) was estimated as CrCP - ICP. The closing margin (CM) expresses the difference between ABP and CrCP. ICP increased during infusion from 6.67 ± 4.61 to 24.98 ± 10.49 mmHg (mean ± SD; p < 0.001), resulting in CrCP rising by 22.93 % (p < 0.001), with WT decreasing by 11.33 % (p = 0.005) owing to vasodilatation. CM showed a tendency to decrease, albeit not significantly (p = 0.070), because of rising ABP (9.12 %; p = 0.005), and was significantly different from zero for the whole duration of the tests (52.78 ± 22.82 mmHg; p < 0.001). CM at baseline correlated inversely with brain elasticity (R = -0.358; p = 0.038). Neither CrCP nor WT correlated with CSF compensatory parameters. Overall, CrCP increases and WT decreases during infusion tests, whereas CM at baseline pressure may act as a characterizing indicator of the cerebrospinal compensatory reserve. PMID:27165909

  19. Infusing Engineering Concepts: Teaching Engineering Design

    Daugherty, Jenny L.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering has gained considerable traction in many K-12 schools. However, there are several obstacles or challenges to an effective approach that leads to student learning. Questions such as where engineering best fits in the curriculum; how to include it authentically and appropriately; toward what educational end; and how best to prepare teachers need to be answered. Integration or infusion appears to be the most viable approach; instead of stand-alone engineering courses squeezing into t...

  20. Superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy

    Superselective arterial infusion for patients with advanced head and neck cancer has been increasingly applied in Japan. We analyzed our experiences and evaluated the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Through October 1999 to March 2002, 29 patients, ranging in age between 33 and 71 years (median 52 years), received superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy of cisplatin (100-120 mg/m2/week) with simultaneous intravenous infusion of thiosulfate for neutralizing cisplatin toxicity, and conventional concomitant extrabeam radiotherapy (65 Gy/26 f/6.5 weeks). Four patients were diagnosed with stage III and 25 with stage IV. Thirteen patients were considered contraindicated for surgery, and the other 16 patients rejected radical surgery. Primary tumor sites included paranasal sinus (11 patients), hypopharynx (7), oropharynx (6), oral cavity (4), and parotid gland (1). During the median follow-up period of 20 months, there was no apparent recurrence in 14 (48.3%) of 29 patients. Eleven (37.9%) patients died of disease, and three (10.3%) were alive with disease. In twenty-one patients (72.4%) the primary lesions were well-controlled. Acute toxic effects were moderate, and severe toxic events occurred in four cases, namely, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia, sepsis, tetraplasia, and osteoradionecrosis. We confirmed the effectiveness and safety of superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must establish the optimal procedures and schedule, as well as the indications for this treatment. This treatment protocol may improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable disease and patients rejecting surgical treatment. Further study in this particular area is needed. (author)

  1. Superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy

    Homma, Akihiro; Suzuki, Fumiyuki; Inuyama, Yukio; Fukuda, Satoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-05-01

    Superselective arterial infusion for patients with advanced head and neck cancer has been increasingly applied in Japan. We analyzed our experiences and evaluated the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Through October 1999 to March 2002, 29 patients, ranging in age between 33 and 71 years (median 52 years), received superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy of cisplatin (100-120 mg/m{sup 2}/week) with simultaneous intravenous infusion of thiosulfate for neutralizing cisplatin toxicity, and conventional concomitant extrabeam radiotherapy (65 Gy/26 f/6.5 weeks). Four patients were diagnosed with stage III and 25 with stage IV. Thirteen patients were considered contraindicated for surgery, and the other 16 patients rejected radical surgery. Primary tumor sites included paranasal sinus (11 patients), hypopharynx (7), oropharynx (6), oral cavity (4), and parotid gland (1). During the median follow-up period of 20 months, there was no apparent recurrence in 14 (48.3%) of 29 patients. Eleven (37.9%) patients died of disease, and three (10.3%) were alive with disease. In twenty-one patients (72.4%) the primary lesions were well-controlled. Acute toxic effects were moderate, and severe toxic events occurred in four cases, namely, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia, sepsis, tetraplasia, and osteoradionecrosis. We confirmed the effectiveness and safety of superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must establish the optimal procedures and schedule, as well as the indications for this treatment. This treatment protocol may improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable disease and patients rejecting surgical treatment. Further study in this particular area is needed. (author)

  2. Scavenged body heat powered infusion pump

    An infusion pump powered by body heat is investigated in this paper, with the goal of addressing the needs of dermal wound healing. The infusion pump incorporates a Knudsen gas pump, a type of thermally driven pump, to pneumatic push the pharmaceutical agent from a reservoir. Two designs are considered: an integrated pump and reservoir, and a design with cascaded pump and reservoir. Thermal models are developed for both pumps, and the simulations agree well with the experimental results. The integrated pump and reservoir design uses hydrophobic materials to prevent a flow from occurring unless the infusion pump is placed on a human body. Flow rates in the µL min−1 range for the integrated pump and reservoir, and approximately 70 µL min−1 for the cascaded pump were obtained. The dynamic behavior of the cascaded pump is described based on the thermal models. Multiple copies of the cascaded pump are easily made in series or parallel, to increase either the pressure or the flow rate. The flow rate of multiple pumps in series does not change, and the pressure of multiple pumps in parallel does not change. (paper)

  3. Mechanism by which hyperglycemia inhibits hepatic glucose production in conscious rats. Implications for the pathophysiology of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes.

    Rossetti, L.; Giaccari, A; Barzilai, N; Howard, K; Sebel, G; Hu, M.

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between the plasma glucose concentration (PG) and the pathways of hepatic glucose production (HGP), five groups of conscious rats were studied after a 6-h fast: (a) control rats (PG = 8.0 +/- 0.2 mM); (b) control rats (PG = 7.9 +/- 0.2 mM) with somatostatin and insulin replaced at the basal level; (c) control rats (PG = 18.1 +/- 0.2 mM) with somatostatin, insulin replaced at the basal level, and glucose infused to acutely raise plasma glucose by 10 mM; (d) control ...

  4. Evaluation of an automated FDG dose infuser to PET-CT patients

    An experience with an automated infuser device at a university hospital is presented in this paper. Occupational doses at operators' fingertips were measured using optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters for two different scenarios: (i) using a semi-automatic system to prepare the fluoro-desoxi-glucose (FDG) injections that were delivered to the patient manually and (ii) using an automated infusion device that prepares and delivers the FDG dose. The accuracy of the activity prepared by the automatic system was also verified. Reductions in fingertip doses of 60 % using the fully automatic system have been measured. The difference between the programmed and the delivered activity was 2 %. The use of the automatic infuser in the authors' institution has led to a substantial reduction in hand radiation doses. But contamination risks, even though reduced, still exist; therefore, radioisotope manipulation should follow strict radiation protection rules to avoid incidents. Improved accuracy in dose delivery reduces chances of dose mis-administration. (authors)

  5. Propionate supplementation did not increase whole body glucose turnover in growing lambs fed rye grass

    Majdoub, Linda; Beylot, Michel; Vermorel, Michel; Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    International audience The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of propionate supplementation on whole body glucose turnover in growing lambs fed frozen rye-grass at 1.5 $\\times$ maintenance using [ 1-$^{13}$C] -glucose. Intraruminal infusion of propionate (0.55 and 0.91 mol$\\cdot$d$^{-1}$) increased the ruminal molar proportions of propionate from 25% with the control to 40% with the highest propionate treatment. It did not however modify glucose turnover (26 mmol...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ...

  8. Infusion MR arteriography during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. Evaluation of clinical usefulness

    We developed a new method of infusion MR arteriography (IMRA) via an implantable port system using an infusion pump for the evaluation of drug distribution during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. The purposes of this study were to optimize the method and evaluate its clinical usefulness. We used 3D-T1 turbo field echo (TFE) as the most suitable sequence for IMRA according to the results of a phantom model experiment. We examined 33 cases of liver cancer that had been treated by arterial infusion chemotherapy via the port system. The following investigations were performed: degree of tumor enhancement, intra- and extra- hepatic perfusion abnormality, and related toxicity. The evaluation of images was performed separately by two radiologists. IMRA provided good images of contrast enhancement, to reveal the perfusion patterns. The treatment response rate in the tumor group with well enhancement was higher than that of the group with poor enhancement (p<0.0001). Extrahepatic perfusion was well visualized and was correlated with toxicity (p<0.0001). IMRA is a useful method to evaluate drug perfusion for the optimization of arterial infusion chemotherapy. (author)

  9. Fatores de risco, achados clínicos, laboratoriais e avaliação terapêutica em 36 bovinos com deslocamento de abomaso Risk factors, clinical and laboratorial findings and therapeutic evaluation in 36 cattle with abomasal displacement

    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A contínua seleção genética para maior produção de leite em conjunto com o aumento da capacidade digestiva e profundidade corporal aumentou a susceptibilidade à ocorrência de abomasopatias, incluindo o deslocamento do abomaso. Este trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre o deslocamento de abomaso em 36 bovinos atendidos na Clínica de Bovinos, Campus Garanhuns da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, durante o período de janeiro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2009. Foram diagnosticados 27 casos de deslocamento do abomaso à direita, seis casos de deslocamento do abomaso à esquerda e três casos de vólvulo abomasal. Onze casos considerados moderados, sem grave distensão abdominal, apetite presente para a forragem e delimitação de som metálico até o 8º espaço intercostal, foram tratados clinicamente; enquanto 20 casos com distensão abdominal moderada a severa, associada a distúrbios sistêmicos, foram considerados graves e tratados cirurgicamente. Duas vacas foram eutanasiadas devido peritonite difusa ou alterações graves na serosa do abomaso, totalizando 18 animais submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico. Dois animais foram encaminhados para abate e três vacas chegaram prostradas e morreram sem receber nenhum tratamento. A análise dos fatores de risco identificou a estação chuvosa como estatisticamente significativa. O maior número de deslocamento do abomaso ocorreu em vacas mestiças com 24 casos (66,6%, seguida por bovinos da raça Holandesa com 11 (30,5% e Gir com um (2,9% caso. A composição da alimentação oferecida variou bastante e caracterizou-se por conter excesso de carboidratos e, na maioria dos casos, fibra de baixa qualidade. Os sinais clínicos mais frequentes foram comportamento apático, desidratação, timpanismo ruminal leve a severo com motilidade ausente ou diminuída, som de líquido ao balotamento do flanco direito, som de chapinhar metálico e/ou observação de uma estrutura similar a

  10. Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla is required for glucose-induced sympathoexcitation.

    Bardgett, Megan E; Sharpe, Amanda L; Toney, Glenn M

    2014-11-15

    Energy expenditure is determined by metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Normally, energy expenditure increases due to neural mechanisms that sense plasma levels of ingested nutrients/hormones and reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Here, we investigated neural mechanisms of glucose-driven sympathetic activation by determining contributions of neuronal activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Glucose was infused intravenously (150 mg/kg, 10 min) in male rats to raise plasma glucose concentration to a physiological postprandial level. In conscious rats, glucose infusion activated CRF-containing PVN neurons and TH-containing RVLM neurons, as indexed by c-Fos immunofluorescence. In α-chloralose/urethane-anesthetized rats, glucose infusion increased lumbar and splanchnic SNA, which was nearly prevented by prior RVLM injection of the CRF receptor antagonist astressin (10 pmol/50 nl). This cannot be attributed to a nonspecific effect, as sciatic afferent stimulation increased SNA and ABP equivalently in astressin- and aCSF-injected rats. Glucose-stimulated sympathoexcitation was largely reversed during inhibition of PVN neuronal activity with the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (100 pmol/50 nl). The effects of astressin to prevent glucose-stimulated sympathetic activation appear to be specific to interruption of PVN drive to RVLM because RVLM injection of astressin prior to glucose infusion effectively prevented SNA from rising and prevented any fall of SNA in response to acute PVN inhibition with muscimol. These findings suggest that activation of SNA, and thus energy expenditure, by glucose is initiated by activation of CRF receptors in RVLM by descending inputs from PVN. PMID:25269482

  11. Tetrahydrobiopterin restores endothelial dysfunction induced by an oral glucose challenge in healthy subjects

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Rask-Madsen, Christian; Perner, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    cofactor of eNOS. Therefore, we examined whether an acute supplement of BH4 could restore endothelial dysfunction induced by an oral glucose challenge. Healthy subjects were examined in 53 experiments. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Dose-response studies were obtained......An oral glucose challenge causes transient impairment of endothelial function, probably because of increased oxidative stress. During oxidative stress, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) becomes uncoupled because of decreased bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential...... during intra-arterial infusion of serotonin to elicit endothelium-dependent, NO-specific vasodilation and during sodium nitroprusside (SNP) infusion to elicit endothelium-independent vasodilation. Subjects were examined before (fasting) and 1 and 2 h after an oral glucose challenge (75 g) with serotonin...

  12. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  13. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  14. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  15. Glucose monitoring during Ramadan.

    Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In patients with diabetes who intend to fast during Ramadan, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important tool. During this month, a long established treatment regimen, including medications, physical activity and diet plan, is changed to achieve concordance with the rules of fasting. Without proper glucose monitoring, it is not possible to achieve good glycaemic control. PMID:26013788

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  17. Comparative efficacy of different schedules of administration of medicinal plants infusion on hematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks

    Sajid ur Rehman,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different schedules of administration of medicinal plants infusion of aloe vera gel, barbery, garlic and ginger on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers chicks. For this purpose 240, day old broilers chick (A purchased were from a local dealer, divided in to four groups A, B, C and D and reared in separate pens for 35 days in an open sided house. These groups were divided into two vaccinated and non-vaccinated sub-groups for the different treatments. Each sub group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate. Group A was kept as control, while B, C and D were given infusion @ 10 ml/lit of water. The schedule was designated as the group B received infusion at alternate day, group C received infusion on alternate three days in a week and group D received infusion at alternate week. Relevant data was recorded throughout the experiment till the termination of experiment. Significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, PCV and total leukocyte count (TLC was observed in group C. Significant reduction was recorded in ALT and ALP in group B, while AST and serum glucose in group C and increased in serum protein was found in group B. Decreased (p<0.05 total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, and increased HDL (p<0.05 were experienced in group B. Comparing the values of risk ratio of, VLDL to HDL, Total cholesterol to HDL and LDL to HDL were found significantly lower in group B, while total cholesterol to VLDL was found significantly lower in group C. It is concluded that schedule on the basis receiving infusion three days in a week is more potent than other schedule of research study.

  18. Tolerance to continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion can be reversed by pulsatile bolus infusion

    Heetla, H. W.; Staal, M. J.; van Laar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Study design: Pilot study. Objective: To study the effect of pulsatile bolus infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) on daily ITB dose, in patients showing dose increases, probably due to tolerance. Setting: Department of neurology and neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherland

  19. Continuous-infusion ampicillin therapy of enterococcal endocarditis in rats.

    Thauvin, C; Eliopoulos, G M; Willey, S; Wennersten, C; Moellering, R C

    1987-01-01

    Intermittent administration of ampicillin alone has resulted in high failure rates in previously described animal models of enterococcal endocarditis. We developed a rat model of enterococcal endocarditis which permits comparison of continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin with intramuscular therapy. Continuous low-dose ampicillin infusion (450 mg/kg [body weight] per day) was compared with the same dose given intramuscularly in three divided doses and with high-dose infusion (4.5 g/kg p...

  20. Tibial osteomyelitis following intraosseous infusion: a case report

    Dogan, Ali; Irmak, Hasan; Harman, Mustafa; Ceylan, Abdullah; Akpinar, Fuat; Tosun, Nihat

    2004-01-01

    Fluids, medications, and blood products can be rapidly administered via intraosseous infusion under emergency conditions, particularly to pediatric patients aged from 0 to 2 years. A five-month-old infant who had been hospitalized with a diagnosis of sepsis developed swelling and hyperemia at the infusion site 10 days after an intraosseous infusion in the right proximal tibia. Physical examination showed a serous discharge from a fistula on the anteromedial side of the right proximal cruris. ...

  1. Supercritical Fluid Infusion of Iron Additives in Polymeric Matrices

    Nazem, Negin; Taylor, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project was the experimentation to measure preparation of iron nanophases within polymeric matrices via supercritical fluid infusion of iron precursors followed by thermal reduction. Another objective was to determine if supercritical CO2 could infuse into the polymer. The experiment is described along with the materials, and the supercritical fluid infusion and cure procedures. X-ray photoelectron spectra and transmission electron micrographs were obtained. The results are summarized in charts, and tables.

  2. A moderate elevation of blood glucose level increases the effectiveness of thermoradiotherapy in a rat tumor model I. relative contributions of glucose and heating to tumor acidification

    Purpose: To establish dose-effect relationships for tumor acidification induced by heat and glucose as a basis for testing the value of adding glucose administration to combined heat and x-ray treatment at clinically achievable glucose and temperature levels. Methods and Materials: Rhabdomyosarcoma BA1112 was grown s.c. in the upper leg of 16-20-week-old Wag/Rij rats. Animals were given 2 consecutive 100-min periods of saline (S) or glucose (G) infusion, while keeping tumor temperature at 37 deg., 42 deg., or 43 deg. C for 1 or 2 periods, in various combinations, each involving 6 animals. Glucose was infused i.v. as a 20% solution at 2.4-3 g/kg/h. Tumors were heated using 2,450-MHz electromagnetic radiation, and tumor pH was measured using a 0.7 mm fiberoptic probe. Results: Mean overall baseline pH was 7.00 (SD 0.10). The change induced by G37G43 (i.e., glucose infusion for a full 200 min, first 100 min at 37 deg. C, final 100 min at 43 deg. C) was -0.48±0.03 (SEM) pH units, and -0.17 ± 0.03 for S37S43. The effect of G37G42 was -0.37±0.03 pH units, compared with -0.08±0.02 for S37S42 and -0.28±0.04 for glucose alone (G37G37). Glucose was less effective when given after or fully parallel to heating: -0.21±0.02 pH units for S43G37 and -0.37±0.02 for G43G43. Conclusion: The glucose-induced tumor pH drop is much more pronounced than that induced by heat, both of which are dose dependent. The effects of glucose and heat seem additive if heating is started when glucose-induced acidification has reached its plateau level, but the overall effect is diminished if administration is fully simultaneous or in reversed order. Schedule G37G43 is optimal with respect to tumor acidification. Its predicted superiority in thermoradiotherapy as compared with S37S42, S37S43, and G37G42 treatment regimens was confirmed in a subsequent experimental tumor control study

  3. Drag reduction using slippery liquid infused surfaces

    Hultmark, Marcus; Stone, Howard; Smits, Alexander; Jacobi, Ian; Samaha, Mohamed; Wexler, Jason; Shang, Jessica; Rosenberg, Brian; Hellström, Leo; Fan, Yuyang

    2013-11-01

    A new method for passive drag reduction is introduced. A surface treatment inspired by the Nepenthes pitcher plant, previously developed by Wong et al. (2011), is utilized and its design parameters are studied for increased drag reduction and durability. Nano- and micro-structured surfaces infused with a lubricant allow for mobility within the lubricant itself when the surface is exposed to flow. The mobility causes slip at the fluid-fluid interface, which drastically reduces the viscous friction. These new surfaces are fundamentally different from the more conventional superhydrophobic surfaces previously used in drag reduction studies, which rely on a gas-liquid interface. The main advantage of the liquid infused surfaces over the conventional surfaces is that the lubricant adheres more strongly to the surface, decreasing the risk of failure when exposed to turbulence and other high-shear flows. We have shown that these surfaces can reduce viscous drag up to 20% in both Taylor-Couette flow and in a parallel plate rheometer. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).

  4. Theophylline: constant-rate infusion predictions.

    Mesquita, C A; Sahebjami, H; Imhoff, T; Thomas, J P; Myre, S A

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate a method of prospectively estimating appropriate aminophylline infusion rates in acutely ill, hospitalized patients with bronchospasm. Steady-state serum theophylline concentrations (Css), clearances (Cl), and half-lives (t1/2) were estimated by the Chiou method using serum concetrantions obtained 1 and 6 h after the start of a constant-rate intravenous aminophylline infusion in 10 male patients averaging 57 years of age. Using an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (EMIT) system for theophylline analysis, pharmacokinetic estimations were excellent for Css (r = 0.9103, p less than 0.01) and Cl (r = 0.9750, p less than 0.01). The mean estimation errors were 9.4% (range 0.8-21.5) for Css and 12.3% (range 1.3-28.0) for Cl. There was no correlation between patient age and Cl. This method is useful for rapidly individualizing aminophylline therapy in patients with acute bronchospasm. PMID:6740734

  5. Clinical applications of continuous infusion chemotherapy ahd concomitant radiation therapy

    This book presents information on the following topics: theoretical basis and clinical applications of 5-FU as a radiosensitizer; treatment of hepatic metastases from gastro intestingal primaries with split course radiation therapy; combined modality therapy with 5-FU, Mitomycin-C and radiation therapy for sqamous cell cancers; treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation; a treatment of invasiv bladder cancer by the XRT/5FU protocol; concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous infusion in advanced malignancies; cis platin by continuous infusion with concurrent radiation therapy in malignant tumors; combination of radiation with concomitant continuous adriamycin infusion in a patient with partially excised pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremeity; treatment of recurrent carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses using concomitant infusion cis-platinum and radiation therapy; hepatic artery infusion for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation; study of simultaneous radiation therapy, continuous infusion, 5FU and bolus mitomycin-C; cancer of the esophagus; continuous infusion VP-16, bolus cis-platinum and simultaneous radiation therapy as salvage therapy in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma; and concomitant radiation, mitomycin-C and 5-FU infusion in gastro intestinal cancer

  6. D-[U-11C]glucose uptake and metabolism in the brain of insulin-dependent diabetic subjects

    We used D-[U-11C]glucose to evaluate transport and metabolism of glucose in the brain in eight nondiabetic and six insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects. IDDM subjects were treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Blood glucose was regulated by a Biostator-controlled glucose infusion during a constant insulin infusion. D-[U-11C]-glucose was injected for positron emission tomography studies during normoglycemia as well as during moderate hypoglycemia [arterial plasma glucose 2.74 +/- 0.14 in nondiabetic and 2.80 +/- 0.26 mmol/l (means +/- SE) in IDDM subjects]. Levels of free insulin were constant and similar in both groups. The tracer data were analyzed using a three-compartment model with a fixed correction for 11CO2 egression. During normoglycemia the influx rate constant (k1) and blood-brain glucose flux did not differ between the two groups. During hypoglycemia k1 increased significantly and similarly in both groups (from 0.061 +/- 0.007 to 0.090 +/- 0.006 in nondiabetic and from 0.061 +/- 0.006 to 0.093 +/- 0.013 ml.g-1.min-1 in IDDM subjects). During normoglycemia the tracer-calculated metabolism of glucose was higher in the whole brain in the nondiabetic than in the diabetic subjects (22.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 15.6 +/- 1.1 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01). During hypoglycemia tracer-calculated metabolism was decreased by 40% in nondiabetic subjects and by 28% in diabetic subjects. The results indicate that uptake of glucose is normal, but some aspect of glucose metabolism is abnormal in a group of well-controlled IDDM subjects

  7. D-(U-11C)glucose uptake and metabolism in the brain of insulin-dependent diabetic subjects

    Gutniak, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Widen, L.; Stone-Elander, S.; Hamberger, B.; Grill, V. (Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-05-01

    We used D-(U-11C)glucose to evaluate transport and metabolism of glucose in the brain in eight nondiabetic and six insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects. IDDM subjects were treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Blood glucose was regulated by a Biostator-controlled glucose infusion during a constant insulin infusion. D-(U-11C)-glucose was injected for positron emission tomography studies during normoglycemia as well as during moderate hypoglycemia (arterial plasma glucose 2.74 +/- 0.14 in nondiabetic and 2.80 +/- 0.26 mmol/l (means +/- SE) in IDDM subjects). Levels of free insulin were constant and similar in both groups. The tracer data were analyzed using a three-compartment model with a fixed correction for 11CO2 egression. During normoglycemia the influx rate constant (k1) and blood-brain glucose flux did not differ between the two groups. During hypoglycemia k1 increased significantly and similarly in both groups (from 0.061 +/- 0.007 to 0.090 +/- 0.006 in nondiabetic and from 0.061 +/- 0.006 to 0.093 +/- 0.013 ml.g-1.min-1 in IDDM subjects). During normoglycemia the tracer-calculated metabolism of glucose was higher in the whole brain in the nondiabetic than in the diabetic subjects (22.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 15.6 +/- 1.1 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01). During hypoglycemia tracer-calculated metabolism was decreased by 40% in nondiabetic subjects and by 28% in diabetic subjects. The results indicate that uptake of glucose is normal, but some aspect of glucose metabolism is abnormal in a group of well-controlled IDDM subjects.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of ... enough insulin. Without insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Drive ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $ ... glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... events, such as eating breakfast, take on exaggerated importance. It's a world where a person needs a ...

  8. Dissociation of the effects of epinephrine and insulin on glucose and protein metabolism

    The separate and combined effects of insulin and epinephrine on leucine metabolism were examined in healthy young volunteers. Subjects participated in four experimental protocols: (1) euglycemic insulin clamp (+80 microU/ml), (2) epinephrine infusion (50 ng.kg-1.min-1) plus somatostatin with basal replacement of insulin and glucagon, (3) combined epinephrine (50 ng.kg-1.min-1) plus insulin (+80 microU/ml) infusion, and (4) epinephrine and somatostatin as in study 2 plus basal amino acid replacement. Studies were performed with a prime-continuous infusion of [1-14C]leucine and indirect calorimetry. Our results indicate that (1) hyperinsulinemia causes a generalized decrease in plasma amino acid concentrations, including leucine; (2) the reduction in plasma leucine concentration is primarily due to an inhibition of endogenous leucine flux; nonoxidative leucine disposal decreases after insulin infusion; (3) epinephrine, without change in plasma insulin concentration, reduces plasma amino acid levels; (4) combined epinephrine-insulin infusion causes a greater decrease in plasma amino levels than observed with either hormone alone; this is because of a greater inhibition of endogenous leucine flux; and (5) when basal amino acid concentrations are maintained constant with a balanced amino acid infusion, epinephrine inhibits the endogenous leucine flux. In conclusion, the present results do not provide support for the concept that epinephrine is a catabolic hormone with respect to amino acid-protein metabolism. In contrast, epinephrine markedly inhibits insulin-mediated glucose metabolism

  9. Glucose Monitoring During Pregnancy

    HAWKINS, J. SETH

    2010-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose in women with mild gestational diabetes has recently been proven to be useful in reducing the rates of fetal overgrowth and gestational weight gain. However, uncertainty remains with respect to the optimal frequency and timing of self-monitoring. A continuous glucose monitoring system may have utility in pregnant women with insulin-treated diabetes, especially for those women with blood sugars that are difficult to control or who experience nocturnal hypoglyce...

  10. Human blood glucose dynamics

    Rahaghi, Farbod N.

    2007-01-01

    The control of blood glucose concentration has become central to the prevention of morbidity in diabetes. Currently sensors are becoming available to make available near continuous measurements of tissue glucose concentrations. Frequently measured values provide an opportunity to analyze the dynamics of these measurements in addition to statistical analysis. The dynamics can be used to verify sensor validity, to provide a physiologic control target, and serve as a tool to diagnose and monitor...

  11. Central effects of beta-endorphins on glucose homeostasis in the conscious dog

    The effects of centrally administered beta-endorphins on glucose homeostasis in the conscious dog were studied. Intracerebroventricular administration of beta-endorphin (0.2 mg/h) caused a 70% increase in plasma glucose. The mechanism of the hyperglycemia was twofold: there was an early increase in glucose production and a late inhibition of glucose clearance. These changes are explained by marked increases in plasma epinephrine (30-fold) and norepinephrine (6-fold) that occurred during infusion of beta-endorphin. Central administration of beta-endorphin also resulted in increased levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol. In addition there was an increase in plasma insulin but no increase in plasma glucagon. Intravenous administration of beta-endorphin did not alter glucose homeostasis. Intracerebroventricular administration of acetylated beta-endorphin did not perturb glucose kinetics or any of the hormones that changed during infusion of the unacetylated peptide. We conclude that beta-endorphin acts centrally to cause hyperglycemia by stimulating sympathetic outflow and the pituitary-adrenal axis. Acetylation of beta-endorphin abolishes the in vivo activity of the peptide

  12. Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes After Initiation of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Treatment

    Storgaard, Heidi; Bagger, Jonatan I; Knop, Filip K;

    2016-01-01

    . On admission, the primary symptoms were nausea and dizziness, and he was hypertensive (170/103) and tachycardic (119 bpm) and had mild hyperglycaemia (15.3 mmol/l), severe ketonuria and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.08). He responded well to infusions of insulin, glucose and saline and was discharged after...

  13. KATP channel closure ameliorates the impaired insulinotropic effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Aaboe, Kasper; Knop, Filip Krag; Vilsboll, Tina; Vølund, Aage; Simonsen, Ulf; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens Juul; Krarup, Thure

    2008-01-01

    using a 2-h (15 mM) hyperglycemic clamp on 4 separate days with concomitant infusion of one of the following: GIP; GIP + 10 mg sulfonylurea (SU, glipizide) taken orally 1 h before the clamp; saline + 10 mg SU; or saline alone. Blood was sampled to measure plasma concentrations of glucose, intact GIP...

  14. Infused polymers for cell sheet release

    Juthani, Nidhi; Howell, Caitlin; Ledoux, Haylea; Sotiri, Irini; Kelso, Susan; Kovalenko, Yevgen; Tajik, Amanda; Vu, Thy L.; Lin, Jennifer J.; Sutton, Amy; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering using whole, intact cell sheets has shown promise in many cell-based therapies. However, current systems for the growth and release of these sheets can be expensive to purchase or difficult to fabricate, hindering their widespread use. Here, we describe a new approach to cell sheet release surfaces based on silicone oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane. By coating the surfaces with a layer of fibronectin (FN), we were able to grow mesenchymal stem cells to densities comparable to those of tissue culture polystyrene controls (TCPS). Simple introduction of oil underneath an edge of the sheet caused it to separate from the substrate. Characterization of sheets post-transfer showed that they retain their FN layer and morphology, remain highly viable, and are able to grow and proliferate normally after transfer. We expect that this method of cell sheet growth and detachment may be useful for low-cost, flexible, and customizable production of cellular layers for tissue engineering.

  15. In vivo glucose utilization in rat tissues during the three phases of starvation

    Three phases of starvation have been described from changes in protein and lipid utilization in birds and mammals. In the present study, tissue glucose utilization was measured in vivo during these three phases, using a 2-deoxy-[1-3H]glucose technique in the anesthetized rat. According to this technique, the term glucose utilization therefore refers to transport and phosphorylation of glucose in tissues, ie, whatever is the fate of glucose. Whole-body glucose turnover rate, which was determined by a continuous infusion of [3-3H]glucose, decreased by 40% during the first two days of starvation (phase 1); it did not change thereafter, neither in the protein-sparing phase 2 nor in phase 3, which is marked by an increase in net protein breakdown. Two days of starvation caused a marked decrease in the glucose utilization in skeletal muscles; this decrease was higher in oxidative muscles (65% in diaphragm, 66% in soleus) than in glycolytic muscles (31% in extensor digitorum longus, 34% in epitrochlearis). Glucose utilization also decreased in heart atria (75%), heart ventricles (93%), and white adipose tissue (54%); by contrast, there was a two-fold increase in glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue and no change in brain and skin. No variations were observed in glucose utilization in any of the tissues from phase 1 to phase 2. However, phase 3 was marked by a decrease in glucose utilization in extensor digitorum longus (45%), brown adipose tissue (76%), brain (29%), and skin (40%), whereas there was a 2.3- and 3.4-fold increase in glucose utilization in diaphragm and heart ventricles, respectively

  16. Glucose turnover, oxidation, and indices of recycling in severely traumatized patients

    Hyperglycemia is often seen in trauma patients and its etiology is not clearly understood. We have determined parameters of glucose metabolism by using simultaneous primed-constant intravenous infusion of both [6-3H] glucose and [U-14C] glucose in ten severely traumatized hypermetabolic subjects during the early flow phase of injury and in six post-absorptive normal volunteers. The mean rate of glucose production (determined by means of [6-3H] glucose) was 3.96 +/- 0.40 mg/kg/min in trauma patients, which was significantly (p = 0.025) higher than the value of 2.75 +/- 0.13 observed in normal volunteers. Glucose turnover rates determined with [U-14C] glucose as tracer were lower in all subjects. The difference between the turnover rates determined by the two tracers represents an index of recycling of glucose through three-carbon fragments. This recycling index was similar in both groups of subjects in amount (0.24 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.08 mg glucose/kg/min) but different when expressed as percentage of total glucose turnover (5.6 +/- 1.4% vs. 9.8 +/- 1.7%; p = 0.05). The absolute rates of glucose clearance, oxidation, and recycling were similar in stressed trauma patients and unstressed controls although the rate of production was increased by 44% due to injury. Post-trauma hyperglycemia was mainly due to an increased hepatic output of glucose and not due to a decreased ability of the tissue to extract glucose from the plasma. Hyperglycemia may be the driving force in the metabolic effects of injury

  17. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  18. Current and future applications of target-controlled infusions

    Absalom, A; Kenny, GNC

    1999-01-01

    Target-controlled infusions (TCI) aim to provide constant, user-defined blood concentrations of a drug. The infusion device of such a system is controlled by a microprocessor that uses population pharmacokinetic data and the individual patient's weight and age to continuously calculate required drug

  19. ArtsIN: Arts Integration and Infusion Framework

    Hartle, Lynn C.; Pinciotti, Patricia; Gorton, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching to meet the diverse learning needs of twenty-first century, global learners can be challenging, yet a growing body of research points to the proved successes of arts-infused and integrated curricula, especially for building capacity for learning and motivation. This article presents the ArtsIN: Arts Integration and Infusion framework, a…

  20. Effect of perioperative insulin infusion on surgical morbidity and mortality

    Gandhi, Gunjan Y; Murad, M Hassan; Flynn, Errol David;

    2008-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients.......To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients....

  1. Perisciatic infusion of ropivacaine and analgesia after hallux valgus repair

    Zaric, D; Jørgensen, B G; Laigaard, F;

    2010-01-01

    Moderate to severe pain after hallux valgus repair can be successfully treated with a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block in ambulatory patients. Different anesthesiologists use various infusion rates for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of two infusion...

  2. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise;

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  3. Pre-operative dextrose infusion to diminish Post-operative stress and recovery in elective canine ovariohysterectomy - Evaluation of a novel approach

    Laiju Philip; M; Devanand; C B; John Martin; K. D. and Sarada Amma; T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect preoperative dextrose infusion in promoting post operative recovery. The bitches presented for panhysterectomy were divided into two groups consisting of six each. Physiological and Haematological Parameters were estimated before and after surgery. Cortisol concentration and glucose concentration were also estimated. Sedation score and pain score were recorded from immediately after surgery up to 3rd postoperative day. A significant reduc...

  4. Accelerated infliximab infusions for inflammatory bowel disease improve effectiveness

    John; McConnell; Simona; Parvulescu-Codrea; Brian; Behm; Beth; Hill; Elizabeth; Dunkle; Karen; Finke; Kathryn; Snyder; Anne; Tuskey; Debbie; Cox; Beth; Woodward

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the safety and effectiveness associated with accelerated infliximab infusion protocols in patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD).METHODS:Original protocols and infusion rates were developed for the administration of infliximab over 90-min and 60-min.Then the IBD patients on stable maintenance infliximab therapy were offered accelerated infusions.To be eligible for the study,patients needed a minimum of four prior infusions.An initial infusion of 90-min was given to each patient;those tolerating the accelerated infusion were transitioned to a 60-min infusion protocol at their next and all subsequent visits.Any patient having significant infusion reactions would be reverted to the standard 120-min protocol.A change in a patient’s dose mandated a single 120-min infusion before accelerated infusions could be administered again.RESULTS:The University of Virginia Medical Center’s Institutional Review Board approved this study.Fifty IBD patients treated with infliximab 5mg/kg,7.5mg/kg and 10mg/kg were offered accelerated infusions.Forty-six patients consented to participate in the study.Nineteen(41.3%) were female,five(10.9%) were African American and nine(19.6%) had ulcerative colitis.The mean age was 42.6 years old.Patients under age 18 were excluded.Ten patients used immunosuppressive drugs concurrently out of which six were taking azathioprine,three were taking 6-mercaptopurine and one was taking methotrexate.One of the 46 study patients used corticosteroid therapy for his IBD.Seventeen of the patients used prophylactic medications prior to receiving infusions;six patients received corticosteroids as pre-medication.Four patients had a history of distant transfusion reactions to infliximab.These reactions included shortness of breath,chest tightness,flushing,pruritus and urticaria.These patients all took prophylactic medications before receiving infusions.46 patients(27 males and 19 females) received a total of fifty 90-min infusions and ninety

  5. The effects of hypocalcaemia due to a 4-hour infusion of Na2EDTA solution on various blood and urine analytes in dairy cows and a comparison of these effects between cows with high and low erythrocyte potassium concentrations.

    Fenwick, D C; Daniel, R C

    1992-01-01

    Six HK (high erythrocyte potassium) and 7 LK (low erythrocyte potassium) dairy cows were subjected to a 4-h intravenous infusion of 4.7% Na2EDTA solution to induce and maintain hypocalcaemia. Blood samples taken immediately before infusion, hourly for 7 h, and at 24 h after commencement of infusion were subjected to determination of concentration (or count) of 16 analytes. The mean changes in concentrations (or counts) of the various blood analytes were calculated for the periods 0-4, 4-7, 7-24, and 0-24 h after commencement of the infusion for all cows combined, and then separately for the HK and LK groups of cows. Plasma Ca(PCa), plasma inorganic phosphorus (PiP) and plasma potassium (PK) showed significant decreases during the 4-h infusion period and were still below pretreatment levels 24 h later. AST, CPK, PCVs and white cell-counts (WCCs) showed significant early increases which were still significantly elevated 24 h later. Plasma magnesium (PMg) and erythrocyte Na(ENa) and K(EK) all showed delayed changes which still persisted 24 h later. Significant between-group differences were present for PCVs which increased significantly more in the LK than the HK group during the infusion period, for PCa which showed a greater increase in the HK cows than the LK cows during the 4-7 h early clinical recovery period, and for plasma bilirubin (PBil) which showed a greater increase from 0 to 24 h in the HK group than in the LK group. Urine samples, collected before infusion, 4-7 h and 24 h after commencement of the infusion, were subjected to analysis for glucose, protein, pH, 'blood' and ketones. Most cows showed increases in urinary glucose, protein and 'blood'. PMID:1498642

  6. Breath acetone concentration decreases with blood glucose concentration in type I diabetes mellitus patients during hypoglycaemic clamps

    Turner, Claire; Walton, Christopher; Hoashi, Shu; Evans, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Conventional wisdom is that breath acetone may be markedly elevated in type 1 diabetes, but that this only occurs during poor blood glucose control and/or intercurrent illness. In contrast, little is known about breath acetone at more representative everyday blood glucose levels in diabetes. We used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to monitor the breath of 8 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus during “insulin clamp” studies in which insulin and glucose were infused into p...

  7. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions.

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  8. Transcatheter arterial infusing chemotherapy for advanced malignant pancreatic islet cell tumors: four cases report

    Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of transcatheter arterial infusion (TAI) chemotherapy for advanced malignant pancreatic islet cell tumors. Methods: Four patients (3 malignant insulin tumors, 1 non-functional malignant pancreatic islet cell tumor) with unresectable advanced malignant tumors were carried out TAI via celiac artery. The three malignant insulin tumors with multiple hepatic metastases were further performed with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The therapeutic cycles were repeated with intervals of 1-2 months. Results: Eleven therapeutic cycles (mean 2.8)were accomplished in 4 cases. Follow-up for 2-8 months, the clinical PR were achieved in three cases, furthermore with SD in one case. The clinical uprising blood glucose became normal in all three cases, and the abdominal distention and bellyache were relieved in the patient with non-functional malignant pancreatic islet cell tumor. No serious adverse effects occurred. Conclusions: TAI for unresectable advanced malignant pancreatic islet cell tumors is safe and effective. (authors)

  9. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T;

    2014-01-01

    development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release. METHODS: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance...... test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined. RESULTS: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ≤ .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs......AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness in the...

  10. How to monitor blood glucose.

    Dunning, Trisha

    2016-01-27

    Rationale and key points Capillary blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of diabetes care. Blood glucose tests provide important information about how the body is controlling blood glucose metabolism, and the effect of glucose-lowering medicines, illness and stress. ▶ The nurse should consider the rationale for testing blood glucose each time they perform a test, and reflect on the result, taking into consideration the patient's blood glucose target range and recommended care guidelines. ▶ Blood glucose testing times and testing frequency should be planned to suit the glucose-lowering medicine regimen and the clinical situation. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What you have gained from this article. 2. How this article will influence your practice when monitoring blood glucose. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26967884

  11. Evidence for dual control mechanism regulating hepatic glucose output in nondiabetic men

    The authors previously reported a fall in hepatic glucose output (HGO) during sleep accompanied by reductions in glucose utilization (Rd) and free fatty acids (FFAs). This study was undertaken to determine the potential role of changes in Rd and FFA on HGO in nondiabetic men. To determine if the fall in HGO during sleep could be reversed by FFA elevation, seven nondiabetic men underwent [3-3H]glucose infusions from 2200 to 0800, with heparin (90 mU.kg-1.min-1) added at 0200. Glucose appearance (Ra) fell from 11.7 ± 1.1 at 2430 to 8.9 ± 0.8 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (P less than 0.05) at 0200. The fall in Ra was associated with decreases in FFA (0.57 ± 0.10 to 0.48 ± 0.07 mM) and glycerol (0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.06 ± 0.01 mM). Infusion of heparin significantly increased FFA and glycerol (1.09 ± 0.21 and 0.11 ± 0.01 mM, respectively, P less than 0.01) and resulted in a significant fall in plasma alanine, suggesting that gluconeogenesis had been increased. However, rates of glucose turnover were indistinguishable from overnight studies without heparin. In additional studies (n = 6), intralipid and heparin-induced FFA elevation (from 0.61 ± 0.07 to 0.95 ± 0.05 mM, P less than 0.01) stimulated gluconeogenesis ([U-14C]alanine to glucose) twofold (188 ± 22% increase compared to 114 ± 6% in saline control studies, P less than 0.01). However, despite increasing gluconeogenesis, overall HGO did not change (10.6 ± 0.5 vs. 10.7 ± 0.6 mumol.kg-1.min-1) during lipid infusion

  12. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...... from 23:00 to 07:00 h for plasma glucose (PG) measurements (gold standard). Results: Valid data were obtained in 217 nights. The sensitivity of CGM was 65% (95% confidence interval, 53-77%) below 4 mmol/L, 40% (24-56%) below 3 mmol/L, and 17% (0-47%) below 2.2 mmol/L. PG and CGM readings correlated in...

  13. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects. PMID:22100836

  14. Effects of cholic acid infusion in fetal lambs.

    Campos, G A; Guerra, F A; Israel, E J

    1986-01-01

    The effects of prolonged intravenous infusions of cholic acid into fetal lambs are described in this study. The ewes (n = 10, 11 fetuses) were operated on at 114 days of gestation (term = 150 days) by placing plastic catheters in maternal and fetal vessels and in the amniotic cavity. Gestational ages were confirmed after delivery by radiographic examination of the ossification centers of the fetal legs. Infusions of cholic acid (1.6 mumoles/min-1) started 8 to 10 days after surgery in 5 fetuses (including one twin). The remaining 6 fetuses (also including one twin) were infused with 5% dextrose in water. Total plasma bile acids at the beginning of the experiment were similar in both groups (23.8 +/- 6.6 vs. 24.3 +/- 5.7 microM). No significant changes in fetal heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases or pH were detected during the infusion. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was observed during the third day of infusion in all the fetuses infused with cholic acid and in one control fetus. Fetuses infused with cholic acid were delivered alive 19-26 days before term. The concentration of plasma bile acids in the experimental group at delivery was 829 +/- 305 microM, i.e. significantly higher than that of the control group (24.4 +/- 5.7 microM). Control fetuses (except one twin) were delivered at term. We concluded that cholic acid, even at the high dose infused, is neither lethal nor severely harmful for the fetus. Meconium passage of the fetuses infused with cholic acid, in our experiment, appeared to be related to the stimulatory effect of cholic acid on fetal colonic motility rather than to fetal hypoxia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3716776

  15. Altered glucose kinetics in diabetic rats during Gram-negative infection

    The present study examined the purported exacerbating effect of sepsis on glucose metabolism in diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats by an intravenous injection of 70 or 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. The higher dose produced severe diabetes, whereas the lower dose of streptozotocin produced a miler, latent diabetes. After a chronic diabetic state had developed for 4 wk, rats had catheters implanted and sepsis induced by intraperitoneal injections of live Escherichia coli. After 24 h of sepsis the blood glucose concentration was unchanged in nondiabetics and latent diabetics, but glucose decreased from 15 to 8 mM in the septic severe diabetic group. This decrease in blood glucose was not accompanied by alterations in the plasma insulin concentration. Glucose turnover, assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of [6-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose, was elevated in the severe diabetic group, compared with either latent diabetics or nondiabetics. Sepsis increased the rate of glucose disappearance in nondiabetic rats but had no effect in either group of diabetic animals. Sepsis also failed to alter the insulinogenic index, used to estimate the insulin secretory capacity, in diabetic rats. Thus the present study suggests that the imposition of nonlethal Gram-negative sepsis on severe diabetic animals does not further impair glucose homeostasis and that the milder latent diabetes was not converted to a more severe diabetic state by the septic challenge

  16. Effect of ketone bodies on glucose production and utilization in the miniature pig.

    Müller, M J; Paschen, U; Seitz, H J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ketone bodies on glucose production (Ra) and utilization (Rd) was investigated in the 24-h starved, conscious unrestrained miniature pig. Infusing Na-DL-beta-OH-butyrate (Na-DL-beta-OHB) and thus shifting the blood pH from 7.40 to 7.56 resulted in a decrease of Ra by 52% and of Rd by 45%, as determined by the isotope dilution technique. Simultaneously, the concentrations of arterial insulin and glucagon were slightly enhanced, whereas the plasma levels of glucose, lactate, pyruv...

  17. The influence of GLP-1 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    Kjems, Lise L; Holst, Jens Juul; Vølund, Aage;

    2003-01-01

    . However, the dose-response relationship between GLP-1 and basal and glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is currently not known. Seven patients with type 2 diabetes and seven matched nondiabetic control subjects were studied. ISR was determined during a graded glucose infusion of 2...... diabetes and from 711 +/- 123 to 2,415 +/- 243 pmol/kg in the control subjects. The beta-cell responsiveness to glucose, expressed as the slope of the linear relation between ISR and the glucose concentration, increased in proportion to the GLP-1 dose to 6 times relative to saline at the highest GLP-1 dose...... in the patients and 11 times in the control subjects, but it was 3 to 5 times lower in the patients with type 2 diabetes compared with healthy subjects at the same GLP-1 dose. During infusion of GLP-1 at 0.5 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) in the patients, the slope of ISR versus glucose became...

  18. Patient self-monitoring of blood glucose and refinements of conventional insulin treatment.

    Tattersall, R; Gale, E

    1981-01-01

    The compelling evidence that blood glucose control will slow or prevent microvascular complications has stimulated research to find better ways of managing insulin-dependent diabetes. The excellent results obtained with "open loop" insulin infusion systems suggest that the relative failure of conventional treatment is the result of (1) a lack of appropriate feedback to the patient and (2) the use of insulin regimens which do not mimic physiologic insulinemia, particularly in the basal state. Doctors regard blood glucose measurements as an essential part of diabetic management and extension of this technology to patients has added a new dimension, particularly in the assessment of control. Nevertheless, home blood-glucose monitoring will not necessarily improve diabetic control; the best results have been obtained when it has been offered as part of a package deal which includes more investment of time and interest by patients and doctor together with joint discussions of problems and changes in treatment. The biggest problem with conventional twice daily insulin regimens is to sustain constant basal insulin levels during the night. Attempts to obtain fasting normoglycemia with an injection before supper often result in nocturnal hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia. This can usually be resolved by changing to a three times daily regimen with an extra injection of NPH insulin at bedtime. Three times daily insulin injections with feedback from home blood-glucose monitoring give as good blood glucose control as infusion systems and are cheaper and more acceptable to patients. PMID:7006390

  19. Randomised controlled trial of colloid infusions in hypotensive preterm infants.

    Emery, E F; Greenough, A; Gamsu, H R

    1992-01-01

    Colloid infusions are often given to treat hypotension in preterm infants. The aim of this work was to assess whether it was the amount of protein or the volume of the colloid infused which accounted for the observed increase in blood pressure. Sixty preterm infants were randomised (20 in each group) to receive 5 ml/kg 20% albumin, 15 ml/kg fresh frozen plasma, or 15 ml/kg 4.5% albumin. All infusions were given at a rate of 5 ml/kg/hour in addition to maintenance fluids. The infants were rand...

  20. Comparison of a nurse initiated insulin infusion protocol for intensive insulin therapy between adult surgical trauma, medical and coronary care intensive care patients

    Kuper Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained hyperglycemia is a known risk factor for adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The specific aim was to determine if a nurse initiated insulin infusion protocol (IIP was effective in maintaining blood glucose values (BG within a target goal of 100–150 mg/dL across different intensive care units (ICUs and to describe glycemic control during the 48 hours after protocol discontinuation. Methods A descriptive, retrospective review of 366 patients having 28,192 blood glucose values in three intensive care units, Surgical Trauma Intensive Care Unit (STICU, Medical (MICU and Coronary Care Unit (CCU in a quaternary care hospital was conducted. Patients were > 15 years of age, admitted to STICU (n = 162, MICU (n = 110 or CCU (n = 94 over 8 months; October 2003-June 2004 and who had an initial blood glucose level > 150 mg/dL. We summarized the effectiveness and safety of a nurse initiated IIP, and compared these endpoints among STICU, MICU and CCU patients. Results The median blood glucose values (mg/dL at initiation of insulin infusion protocol were lower in STICU (188; IQR, 162–217 than in MICU, (201; IQR, 170–268 and CCU (227; IQR, 178–313; p p = 0.27. Hypoglycemia (BG p = 0.85. Protocol violations were uncommon in all three ICUs. Mean blood glucose 48 hours following IIP discontinuation was significantly different for each population: 142 mg/dL in STICU, 167 mg/dL in MICU, and 160 mg/dL in CCU (p Conclusion The safety and effectiveness of nurse initiated IIP was similar across different ICUs in our hospital. Marked variability in glucose control after the protocol discontinuation suggests the need for further research regarding glucose control in patients transitioning out of the ICU.

  1. Postoral Glucose Sensing, Not Caloric Content, Determines Sugar Reward in C57BL/6J Mice

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that because of their energy value, sugars are more rewarding than non-caloric sweeteners. However, intragastric infusion data indicate that sugars differ in their postoral appetite-stimulating effects. We therefore compared the preference for isocaloric 8% sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions with that of a non-caloric sweetener solution (0.8% sucralose) in C57BL/6J mice. Brief 2-bottle tests indicated that sucralose was isopreferred to sucrose but more preferred t...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... produces daily around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... html Learn More Join Ryan Reed & Drive Your Health Access tools to help actively manage your diabetes. ... .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == 'false') { $('.survey-form'). ...

  5. Blood glucose monitoring.

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Full Text Available ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for ... diabetes. Learn More: Stories of Courage, Love and Resilience - 2016-08-blog.html Learn More Stories of ...

  7. Both GLP-1 and GIP are insulinotropic at basal and postprandial glucose levels and contribute nearly equally to the incretin effect of a meal in healthy subjects

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Krarup, Thure; Madsbad, Sten;

    2003-01-01

    . Total and intact incretin hormone concentrations during the clamp studies were higher compared to the meal test, but within physiological limits. Glucose infusion alone significantly inhibited glucagon secretion, which was further inhibited by GLP-1 but not by GIP infusion. We conclude that during......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are both incretin hormones regulating postprandial insulin secretion. Their relative importance in this respect under normal physiological conditions is unclear, however, and the aim of the present investigation...... was to evaluate this. Eight healthy male volunteers (mean age: 23 (range 20-25) years; mean body mass index: 22.2 (range 19.3-25.4) kg/m2) participated in studies involving stepwise glucose clamping at fasting plasma glucose levels and at 6 and 7 mmol/l. Physiological amounts of either GIP (1.5 pmol...

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  9. Erroneous glucose recordings while using mutant variant of quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase glucometer in a child with galactosemia

    Vivek Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 2-month-old child with galactosemia and falsely high glucose readings with a glucometer using mutant variant of quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (MutQ-GDH chemistry. Potentially fatal hypoglycemia could have been induced in the child if insulin infusion had been initiated as per glycemic management protocol. Even though, the product information with the glucometer carries warning regarding interference by high galactose levels, the awareness regarding this interaction is generally poor in many practice settings. Although, false readings have been reported with glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinoline quinone (GDH-PQQ glucometers, to our knowledge this is the first case report of a falsely high glucose reading due to high galactose in a proven case of galactosemia with a glucometer using the MutQ-GDH chemistry (a modified GDH-PQQ chemistry. Our experience has prompted us to write this case report and we suggest avoiding these glucometers in neonates and infants when a metabolic disease is suspected.

  10. Effects of sitagliptin and metformin treatment on incretin hormone and insulin secretory responses to oral and "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose

    Vardarli, Irfan; Arndt, Elisabeth; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2014-01-01

    ,000 mg/day), sitagliptin (100 mg/day), or their combination, on GLP-1 responses and on the incretin effect in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes, comparing an oral glucose challenge (75 g, day 5) and an "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose infusion (day 6). Fasting total GLP-1 was significantly increased by...... metformin and not changed by sitagliptin. After oral glucose, metformin increased and sitagliptin significantly decreased (by 53%) total GLP-1. Fasting and postload intact GLP-1 increased with sitagliptin but not with metformin. After oral glucose, only sitagliptin, but not metformin, significantly...... the numerical contribution of the incretin effect. Insulin secretion with sitagliptin treatment was similarly stimulated with oral and "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose. This points to an important contribution of small changes in incretin concentrations within the basal range or to additional...

  11. Effect of exercise training on in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D;

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in...... conclusion, differences between ATs in insulin sensitivity with respect to glucose uptake do not explain that insulin resistance is associated with intra-abdominal rather than subcutaneous obesity. Furthermore, training may be beneficial by enhancing insulin sensitivity in intra-abdominal fat depots.......]glucose and microdialysis techniques. Blood flow was measured by microspheres. Upon insulin stimulation, blood flow generally decreased in AT. Flow was higher in mesenteric tissue than in other ATs, whereas insulin-mediated glucose uptake did not differ between ATs. Training doubled the glucose infusion rate...

  12. Infusing Social Responsibility into the Curriculum and Cocurriculum: Campus Examples

    Reason, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter highlights good practices and lessons learned for infusing social responsibility--contributing to the larger community and taking seriously the perspectives of others--as outcomes of college.

  13. Randomized Trial of Infusion Set Function: Steel Versus Teflon

    Patel, Parul J.; Benasi, Kari; Ferrari, Gina; Evans, Mark G.; Shanmugham, Satya; Wilson, Darrell M.; Buckingham, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study compared infusion set function for up to 1 week using either a Teflon® (Dupont™, Wilmington, DE) catheter or a steel catheter for insulin pump therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  15. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing resin infusion to rigidize an inflatable structure and form fiber-reinforced composites on-orbit is a novel concept that builds on current NASA technology...

  16. Metabolic and antioxidant profiles of herbal infusions and decoctions.

    Fotakis, Charalambos; Tsigrimani, Diamantina; Tsiaka, Thalia; Lantzouraki, Dimitra Z; Strati, Irini F; Makris, Constantinos; Tagkouli, Dimitra; Proestos, Charalampos; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis

    2016-11-15

    This study implements NMR metabolomics and spectrophotometric studies (Folin-Ciocalteu, FRAP, ABTS) to infusions and decoctions of ten plant species in order to assess and compare the metabolic and antioxidant profiles for each botanical family. Multivariate and univariate data analyses highlighted the differences among the samples and pinpointed specific classes of compounds for each plant species as well as infusions and decoctions. The identified phenolic compounds by NMR, as well as the antioxidant profile, framed a trend of increased values in infusions compared to the decoctions. Moreover, the infusion procedure positively affected the extractability of the phenolic compounds compared to decoctions. The highest total phenolic content was found in Mentha spicata, while the lowest in Matricaria chamomilla preparations, irrespective of the preparation method. The preparation time for the decoctions was examined showing that the 15min preparations were generally found richer in phenolics and of higher antioxidant capacity. PMID:27283718

  17. Euglycemic Infusion of Insulin Detemir Compared With Human Insulin Appears to Increase Direct Current Brain Potential Response and Reduces Food Intake While Inducing Similar Systemic Effects

    Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Korn, Oliver; Mölle, Matthias; Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd; Kern, Werner

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the treatment of diabetic patients, the long-acting insulin analog insulin detemir is less prone to induce weight gain than other insulin formulations. Assuming that because of its pharmacologic properties, detemir displays stronger central nervous anorexigenic efficacy than human insulin, we compared acute effects of human insulin and detemir on electroencephalography (EEG) measures and food intake. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Frontocortical EEG direct current (DC) potentials were recorded in 15 healthy men during two hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps that included an insulin bolus injection (human insulin, 17.75 mU/kg body wt; detemir, 90 mU/kg body wt) followed by a steady 90-min infusion (1.0 vs. 2.0 mU · kg−1 · min−1). A higher dosage was chosen for detemir to compensate for its delay in impact relative to human insulin and to elicit similar systemic effects. At 20 min after infusion, subjects were allowed to eat ad libitum from a test buffet. RESULTS Mean glucose infusions to maintain euglycemia (P > 0.93) and blood glucose concentrations (P > 0.34) did not differ between conditions. Detemir infusion induced a negative DC-potential shift, averaging −372.2 μV from 21 to 90 min that was not observed during human insulin infusion (146.5 μV, P = 0.02). Detemir, in comparison with human insulin, reduced subsequent food intake by 303 kcal (1,257 vs. 1,560, P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS While inducing comparable peripheral effects, detemir exerts stronger acute effects on brain functions than human insulin and triggers a relative decrease in food consumption, suggesting an enhanced anorexigenic impact of detemir compared with human insulin on central nervous networks that control nutrient uptake. PMID:20068139

  18. Infusion cholecystography in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    The use of infusion cholecystography as an aid in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was investigated in 21 patients. Seventeen of 18 patients (94%) with positive cholecyst-tomograms who underwent laparotomy had confirmation of acutely inflamed gallbladders both macroscopically and histologically. These findings suggest that infusion cholecystography can make a significant contribution in reducing the incidence of misdiagnosis in acute cholecystitis, and that the investigation should be part of the management of patients in whom early surgery is planned. (author)

  19. Pros, cons, and costs of INFUSE in spinal surgery

    Nancy E Epstein

    2011-01-01

    Background: INFUSE (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 [rh-BMP-2]; Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA) is approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) only for use with the lumbar tapered fusion device (LT Cage; Medtronic) to perform single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIF: L2-S1 levels). INFUSE, however, is widely utilized in an “off-label” capacity for anterior and/or posterior cervical, thoracic, and lumbar surgery. Nevertheless, Medicare and other insurance companie...

  20. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine infusion in normal volunteers.

    Walley, T J; Heagerty, A M; Woods, K. L.; Bing, R F; Pohl, J E; Barnett, D B

    1987-01-01

    Two studies of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous nifedipine infusion were performed: the first, a randomised double-blind crossover study of nifedipine and its vehicle in eight subjects, the second a dose ranging study in nine subjects. Nifedipine pharmacokinetics did not vary with dose or duration of infusion up to 8 h, and are similar to those reported for other nifedipine preparations. Nifedipine increased heart rate and forearm blood flow and decreased blood pressur...

  1. Numerical Simulation Study on the Coal Seam Pulse Water Infusion

    Meng Junqing; Zhao Bi; Ma Yechao

    2014-01-01

    In the process of coal seam pulse water infusion, liquid-solid coupling effect exists in coal seam between the stress field and seepage field. Based on the basic principle of liquid-solid coupling, the dynamic liquid-solid coupling effect of stress and seepage field during coal seam pulse water infusion is simulated through secondary development of ABAQUS software, during this process the mathematical model of the strain accumulation model due to the periodic ...

  2. Infusing Software Engineering Technology into Practice at NASA

    Pressburger, Thomas; Feather, Martin S.; Hinchey, Michael; Markosia, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    We present an ongoing effort of the NASA Software Engineering Initiative to encourage the use of advanced software engineering technology on NASA projects. Technology infusion is in general a difficult process yet this effort seems to have found a modest approach that is successful for some types of technologies. We outline the process and describe the experience of the technology infusions that occurred over a two year period. We also present some lessons from the experiences.

  3. Role of saline infusion sonography in abnormal uterine bleeding

    Megha Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: We found Saline Infusion Sonography to be an easy and safe procedure, though being less sensitive, it cannot replace hysteroscopy as a whole. Though hysteroscopy is a gold standard, saline infusion sonography is an easy, safe procedure for diagnosing intracavitary pathologies in low resource setting and despite being less sensitive, it can still reduce the number of hysteroscopies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 533-538

  4. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. PMID:12807304

  5. Drop impact dynamics on liquid-infused superhydrophobic surfaces

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    In this talk, we present a series of experiments investigating the drop impact dynamics on hydrophobic, air-infused and lubricant-infused superhydrophobic surfaces. To create the superhydrophobic surfaces, smooth Teflon (PTFE) surfaces were roughened by a 240-grit sandpaper. The immiscible and incompressible silicone oils with different viscosities were infused into features of the superhydrophobic surfaces by a skim coating technique. The spreading and retraction dynamics on a series of the tested surfaces will be presented. We will show that the maximal deformation of the drops on lubricant-infused surfaces grows with increasing viscosity ratio between a water drop and the infused oil. We will show that this increase in the maximal deformation with the viscosity ratio is consistent with increasing the velocity and the viscosity of the drops but the rims of the drops destabilize with increasing the drop velocity. Finally, we will demonstrate that increasing the viscosity of the infused oil induces higher viscous force at the contact line, resulting in reduction in the movement of the drops during retraction and corresponding increase in the final drop size.

  6. Female Patients Require a Higher Propofol Infusion Rate for Sedation.

    Maeda, Shigeru; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Honda, Yuka; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Sedation may minimize physiologic and behavioral stress responses. In our facility, the infusion rate of propofol is adjusted according to the bispectral index (BIS) in all cases of implant-related surgery; multivariate analysis of retrospective data enabled us to extract independent factors that affect the dose of propofol in sedation that are considered useful indicators for achieving adequate sedation. The study population comprised all patients undergoing implant-related surgery under intravenous sedation in Okayama University Hospital from April 2009 to March 2013. The infusion rate of propofol was adjusted to maintain the BIS value at 70-80. The outcome was the average infusion rate of propofol, and potential predictor variables were age, sex, body weight, treatment time, and amount of midazolam. Independent variables that affected the average infusion rate of propofol were extracted with multiple regression analysis. One hundred twenty-five subjects were enrolled. In the multiple regression analysis, female sex was shown to be significantly associated with a higher average infusion rate of propofol. Females may require a higher infusion rate of propofol than males to achieve adequate sedation while undergoing implant-related surgery. PMID:27269663

  7. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  8. Glucose and Aging

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  9. Intravenous lidocaine infusion--a new treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy?

    Kastrup, J; Petersen, P; Dejgård, A; Angelo, H R; Hilsted, J

    1987-01-01

    after lidocaine infusion compared to after saline infusion (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.02, respectively). The duration of the individual effect ranged from 3 to 21 days. Lidocaine infusion had no effect on the objective measurements of neuropathy. Intravenous lidocaine infusion seems to be a new...

  10. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  11. Anestesi Infus Gravimetrik Ketamin dan Propofol pada Anjing (THE GRAVIMETRIC INFUSION ANAESTHESIA WITH KETAMINE AND PROPOFOL IN DOGS)

    I Gusti Ngurah Sudisma; Setyo Widodo; Dondin Sajuthi; Harry Soehartono

    2014-01-01

    This study aim was to evaluate quality of anaesthesia by using gravimetric infusion anaesthesia withketamine and propofol in dogs. The quality of anaesthesia, duration of actions, and the physiological responsseof anaesthesia were evaluated in twenty domestic dogs. Anaesthesia was induced intramuscularly withatropine (0.03 mg/kg)-xylazine (2 mg/kg) (AX), intravenously ketamine-propofol (KP) (4 mg/kg), andmaintained with continuous intravenous infusion with pre-mixed propofol (P) and normal sa...

  12. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  13. Continuous intravenous infusions of bromodeoxyuridine as a clinical radiosensitizer

    Twelve patients were treated with continuous intravenous (24-hour) infusions of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) at 650 or 1000 mg/m2/d for up to two weeks. Myelosuppression, especially thrombocytopenia, was the major systemic toxicity and limited the infusion period to nine to 14 days. However, bone marrow recovery occurred within seven to ten days, allowing for a second infusion in most patients. Local toxicity (within the radiation field) was minimal, with the exception of one of four patients, who underwent abdominal irradiation. Pharmacology studies revealed a steady-state arterial plasma level of 6 x 10(-7) mol/L and 1 x 10(-6) mol/L during infusion of 650 and 1000 mg/m2/d, respectively. In vivo BUdR uptake into normal bone marrow was evaluated in two patients by comparison of preinfusion and postinfusion in vitro radiation survival curves of marrow CFUc with enhancement ratios (D0-pre/D0-post) of 1.8 (with 650 mg/m2/d) and 2.5 (with 1000 mg/m2/d). In vivo BUdR incorporation into normal skin and tumor cells using an anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry was demonstrated in biopsies from three patients revealing substantially less cellular incorporation into normal skin (less than 10%) compared with tumor (up to 50% to 70%). The authors conclude that local and systemic toxicity of continuous infusion of BUdR at 1000 mg/m2/d for approximately two weeks is tolerable. The observed normal tissue toxicity is comparable with previous clinical experience with intermittent (12 hours every day for two weeks) infusions of BUdR. Theoretically, a constant infusion should allow for greater incorporation of BUdR into cycling tumor cells and thus, for further enhancement of radiosensitization

  14. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  15. Rac1 signaling is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is dysregulated in insulin-resistant murine and human skeletal muscle

    Sylow, Lykke; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Kleinert, Maximilian;

    2013-01-01

    fed mice. In humans, insulin-stimulated PAK-activation was decreased in both acute insulin resistant (intralipid infusion) and in chronic insulin resistant states (obesity and diabetes). These findings show that Rac1 is a regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and a novel candidate involved in...

  16. K-ATP Channel Closure Ameliorates the Impaired Insulinotropic Effect of Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Aaboe, K.; Knop, K.; Vilsboll, T.; Volund, A.; Simonsen, U.; Deacon, C.F.; Madsbad, S.; Holst, J.J.; Krarup, T.

    2009-01-01

    using a 2-h (15 mM) hyperglycemic clamp on 4 separate days with concomitant infusion of one of the following: GIP; GIP + 10 mg sulfonylurea (SU, glipizide) taken orally 1 h before the clamp; saline + 10 mg SU; or saline alone. Blood was sampled to measure plasma concentrations of glucose, intact GIP...

  17. Resin infusion of large composite structures modeling and manufacturing process

    Loos, A.C. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The resin infusion processes resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are cost effective techniques for the fabrication of complex shaped composite structures. The dry fibrous preform is placed in the mold, consolidated, resin impregnated and cured in a single step process. The fibrous performs are often constructed near net shape using highly automated textile processes such as knitting, weaving and braiding. In this paper, the infusion processes RTM, RFI and VARTM are discussed along with the advantages of each technique compared with traditional composite fabrication methods such as prepreg tape lay up and autoclave cure. The large number of processing variables and the complex material behavior during infiltration and cure make experimental optimization of the infusion processes costly and inefficient. Numerical models have been developed which can be used to simulate the resin infusion processes. The model formulation and solution procedures for the VARTM process are presented. A VARTM process simulation of a carbon fiber preform was presented to demonstrate the type of information that can be generated by the model and to compare the model predictions with experimental measurements. Overall, the predicted flow front positions, resin pressures and preform thicknesses agree well with the measured values. The results of the simulation show the potential cost and performance benefits that can be realized by using a simulation model as part of the development process. (au)

  18. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, [3H]NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine

  19. Analog experiment of transarterial catheter hyperthermic infusion in vitro

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to the heating effect by transarterial catheter hyperthermic infusion with the evaluation of the feasibility in controlling the tumor temperature. Methods: Infusing 55-68 degree C liquid at the speed of 10-40 ml/min through 6F, 5F or 3F catheter with different length respectively under the similar clinical condition. The liquid temperature at the terminal exit of the catheter was measured with a digital thermometer. The factors related to the liquid temperature at the exit of the catheter were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results: The infusion temperature , rate and the catheter length were the main related factors to the liquid temperature at the exit of the catheter as the condition similar in clinical use. When 60-65 degree C liquid was infused at the rate of 20-40 ml/min through 5F catheter with length of 80 cm, the mean and 95% confident interval of the liquid temperature at the catheter exit were (47.55±0.44) degree C and 44.61-48.49 degree C respectively. Conclusions: The liquid temperature at the exit of infusion catheter can be regulated and controlled through adjusting the liquid perfusion temperature and speed. (authors)

  20. Platelet functional and transcriptional changes induced by intralipid infusion.

    Beaulieu, Lea M; Vitseva, Olga; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Kucukural, Alper; Mick, Eric; Hamburg, Naomi; Vita, Joseph; Freedman, Jane E

    2016-06-01

    Multiple studies have shown the effects of long-term exposure to high-fat or western diets on the vascular system. There is limited knowledge on the acute effects of high circulating fat levels, specifically on platelets, which have a role in many processes, including thrombosis and inflammation. This study investigated the effects of acute, high-fat exposure on platelet function and transcript profile. Twenty healthy participants were given an intravenous infusion of 20% Intralipid emulsion and heparin over 6 hours. Blood samples were taken prior to and the day after infusion to measure platelet function and transcript expression levels. Platelet aggregation was not significantly affected by Intralipid infusion, but, when mitochondria function was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or oligomycin, platelet aggregation was higher in the post-infusion state compared to baseline. Through RNA sequencing, and verified by RT-qPCR, 902 miRNAs and 617 mRNAs were affected by Intralipid infusion. MicroRNAs increased include miR-4259 and miR-346, while miR-517b and miR-517c are both decreased. Pathway analysis identified two clusters significantly enriched, including cell motility. In conclusion, acute exposure to high fat affects mitochondrial-dependent platelet function, as well as the transcript profile. PMID:26940969

  1. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and...... gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression...... on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression....

  2. A moderate elevation of blood glucose level increases the effectiveness of thermoradiotherapy in a rat tumor model II. improved tumor control at clinically achievable temperatures

    Purpose: To assess the therapeutic gain (at the TCD50 level) that can be obtained by boosting thermoradiotherapy with intravenous glucose infusion at different temperatures. This completes our series of studies to determine the optimal conditions and the effectiveness of glucose administration at clinically achievable glucose levels and treatment temperatures. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous rat rhabdomyosarcoma BA1112 was irradiated with graded single doses of 300-kV X-rays (dose range 0-60 Gy). Fifteen minutes after irradiation, a 100-min intravenous infusion was started, consisting of either glucose (20% solution, 2.4-3 g/kg/h) or saline as a control. Then heat was applied to the tumors at 42 deg. C or 43 deg. C (water bath) during a subsequent 100-min period of infusion. Tumor control was scored as the absence of palpable growth at 100 days after treatment. Results: Glucose infusion enhanced tumor control independent of temperature in the range 42-43 deg. C. At 42 deg. C, the TCD50 for X-irradiation decreased by 5.9 Gy (SEM 1.8 Gy), from 41.6 (1.6) to 35.7 (1.5) Gy, and at 43 deg. C from 33.3 (1.6) to 27.3 (1.5) Gy, representing a glucose enhancement ratio of approximately 1.2. At doses corresponding to the TCD50 at either 42 or 43 deg. C, the addition of glucose increased tumor control from 50% to 70%. An enhancement ratio of 2.1 was found for the combination of irradiation, glucose infusion, and heating at 43 deg. C, with respect to irradiation alone (TCD50 56.3 Gy, reanalyzed earlier data). The contribution of combined heat and glucose to tumor control represented an additive effect, probably on the hypoxic cell population. Conclusion: Moderate glucose administration (blood concentration 300 mg/100 mL) sizably improves experimental tumor control after combined X-irradiation and hyperthermia under clinically feasible conditions. Clinical treatment should benefit from this additional modality, in particular if unsatisfactory local control rates are due to

  3. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    Stallknecht, B; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Galbo, H

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men...... [insulin infusion rates: 10,000 (step I), 20,000 (step II), and 150,000 (step III) microU x min(-1) x m(-2)]. Glucose and glycerol concentrations were measured in arterial blood and also by microdialysis in interstitial fluid in periumbilical, subcutaneous adipose tissue and in quadriceps femoris muscle...... (glucose only). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. In the basal state, adipose tissue blood flow tended to be higher in T compared with S subjects, and in both groups blood flow was constant during the clamp. The change from basal in arterial-interstitial glucose concentration...

  4. The efficacy of karkadeh tea in controlling post-prandial blood glucose levels

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Cooper, Ross Gordon; Suliman, Moustafa Ahmed;

    2009-01-01

    obesity. Approach: In order to investigate the efficacy of "karkadeh" Roselle-Hibiscus sabdariffa tea as a means of reducing post-prandial blood glucose levels in human subjects, 10g of dried karkadeh was brewed in 500ml of water, allowed to infuse for 60 min and imbibed along with a high glycemic index...... food. Results: Data show that in one individual, karkadeh tea taken in connection with a carbohydrate based breakfast meal resulted in a significant increase (17%; p<0.01) in blood glucose level cf. an ordinary breakfast tea 60 min after ingestion. Moreover, in a study involving eight individuals, a...... slower rise to maximum levels and a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC) in terms of blood glucose was noted for the karkadeh tea plus a high glycemic index food cf. that of water imbibition with an identical high glycemic food. Conclusions/Recommendations: Karkadeh tea appears to have an efffect in terms...

  5. Overnight Control of Blood Glucose in People with Type 1 Diabetes

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and test a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for overnight stabilization of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The controller uses glucose measurements from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and its decisions are implemented by a continuous subcutaneous insulin...... infusion (CSII) pump. Based on a priori patient information, we propose a systematic method for computation of the model parameters in the MPC. Safety layers improve the controller robustness and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. The controller is evaluated in silico on a cohort of 100 randomly generated...... patients with a representative intersubject variability. This cohort is simulated overnight with realistic variations in the insulin sensitivities and needs. Finally, we provide results for the first tests of this controller in a real clinic....

  6. Glucose turnover and hormonal changes during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in trained humans

    Kjær, Michael; Mikines, K J; Christensen, N J;

    1984-01-01

    .9 mmol X l-1. Glucose turnover was determined by primed constant rate infusion of 3-[3H]glucose. Basal C-peptide (0.46 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.73 +/- 0.06 pmol X ml-1) and glucagon (4 +/- 0.4 vs. 10 +/- 2 pmol X l-1) were lower (P less than 0.05) and epinephrine higher (0.30 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.09 +/- 0.03 nmol X l-1...... of heart rate, free fatty acid, and glycerol was faster. Responses of norepinephrine, cortisol, C-peptide, and lactate were similar in the two groups. Training radically changes hormonal responses but not glucose kinetics in insulin hypoglycemia....

  7. On the role of glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide in postprandial metabolism in humans

    Asmar, Meena; Tangaa, Winnie; Madsbad, Sten; Hare, Kristine; Astrup, Arne; Flint, Anne; Bülow, Jens; Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) in the regulation of gastric emptying (GE), appetite, energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), plasma levels of triglycerides (TAG), and free fatty acids (FFA) in humans. First, 20 healthy males received intravenous...... received intravenous infusions of Intralipid, glucose, or Intralipid plus glucose, with and without GIP (1.5 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1)) for 300 min (protocol 2). In protocol 1, GIP did not have any effect on GE, EI, EE, removal of TAG, or FFA and did not influence the subjective feeling of hunger, satiety....../saline days and on Intralipid + GIP day (P <0.004) compared with Intralipid + saline day. Insulin increased on all GIP days compared with saline days (P <0.05). In conclusion, while confirming its insulinotropic effects, these data suggest that GIP does not affect GE, appetite, energy intake, EE, or the...

  8. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

    2007-08-01

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  9. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  10. Assessing patient preference for two types of elastomeric infusion device.

    Dodd, Susan

    Home administration of antibiotic therapy to cystic fibrosis patients is one of many applications for the use of elastomeric infusion devices. Patient acceptability can significantly affect adherence to complex drug regimens with concordance being a concern in this patient population. While patient acceptance is often cited as a factor in pump selection, patient preference has not been assessed within a particular class of infusion device. The objective of this study was to assess patient preference for one type of elastomeric infusion device (Baxter Intermate--hard-shelled design) or another (Fresenius Kabi Eclipse--soft-shelled design). Twenty-four patients entered the study. 20/24 (83%) patients expressed a preference for the Eclipse, while 4/24 (17%) stated no preference for either device. The Eclipse device was found to be much more favourable in terms of comfort and discreetness. Patient preference should therefore be given significant consideration in order to maximize concordance with drug regimens. PMID:18026019

  11. Intracranial hemodynamics during intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Holm, Søren; Friberg, L;

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced headache are not fully elucidated. In this study we administered GTN 0.5 microg/kg/min i.v. for 20 min in six healthy volunteers. Before, during and 60 min after the infusion, we investigated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood...... volume (CBV), both estimated with SPECT, and blood flow velocity (BFV) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), measured with transcranial Doppler. Headache was scored on a numerical verbal rating (0-10) scale. rCBF was unchanged, CBV was slightly increased (13%) during GTN infusion, whereas BFV decreased...... both during (20%) and 60 min (15%) after GTN. Headache was short-lived and maximal during infusion. This discrepancy of time-effect curves for the effect of GTN on headache and dilatation of MCA indicates that MCA is most likely not the primary source of pain in GTN-induced headache. The time...

  12. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  13. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    Christensen, Mikkel; Vedtofte, Louise; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 5.5 ± 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Saline or physiological doses...... contrast, GIP increases glucagon levels during fasting and hypoglycemic conditions, where it has little or no effect on insulin secretion. Thus, GIP seems to be a physiological bifunctional blood glucose stabilizer with diverging glucose-dependent effects on the two main pancreatic glucoregulatory hormones....

  14. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.; Miller, A.

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a...

  15. Effects of methacholine infusion on desflurane pharmacokinetics in piglets

    Alf Kozian

    2015-12-01

    We measured airway pressures, pulmonary resistance, and mean paO2 as well as hemodynamic variables in all pigs before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during methacholine administration by infusion. By MIGET, fractional alveolar ventilation and pulmonary perfusion in relation to the V.A/Q. compartments, data of logSDQ̇ and logSDV̇ (the second moments describing global dispersion, i.e. heterogeneity of distribution were estimated prior to and after MCh infusion. The uptake and elimination of desflurane was determined by MMIMS.

  16. Extraction Efficiency of Elements in Chinese Tea Infusions

    Minami, Takeshi; KURUMANO, Kosuke; KAMEYAMA, Shuhei; YOSHIDA, Mai

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] The concentrations of elements in Chinese tea infusions after both one-minute and overnight extractions were measured and the contents were compared with those of tea leaves. Leaves from 13 Chinese tea plants in ten provinces in China were collected; seven were green tea, four were oolong tea, and two were black tea. When seven major elements, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, S, and Zn, were measured, the contents in tea leaves did not differ, except for Zn. Ca content in one-minute infusion of g...

  17. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.;

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  18. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these two monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial trig...

  19. Branched chain enriched amino acid versus glucose treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A double-blind study of 65 patients with cirrhosis

    Vilstrup, Hendrik; Gluud, C; Hardt, F;

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of infusion of a branched chain enriched amino acid mixture versus glucose on acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-five patients were randomly treated with 1 g/kg per day of an amino acid mixture with 40% branched chain contents (32 patients), or i...... the amino acid group, but not in the glucose group. Thus, the branched chain enriched amino acid supplement did not change the prognosis for wake-up, but had other effects on the cerebral state and on nitrogen homeostasis.......We studied the effects of infusion of a branched chain enriched amino acid mixture versus glucose on acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-five patients were randomly treated with 1 g/kg per day of an amino acid mixture with 40% branched chain contents (32 patients), or...... isocaloric glucose (33 patients) for a maximum of 16 days. The regimens further included glucose infusion to a total of 26.5 kcal/kg per day and lactulose. The patients took part in the study for 5-6 days. In each group 17 patients woke up. In the amino acid group eleven died and four developed renal failure...

  20. Long-term administration of theophylline and glucose recovery after hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Hvidberg, A; Rosenfalck, A; Christensen, N J; Hilsted, Jannik

    1998-01-01

    The methylxanthine theophylline increases intrahepatic c-AMP and c-AMP mediates the hepatic glucose response to adrenaline and glucagon. Intravenous theophylline increases glucose recovery during acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and caffeine increases hypoglycaemia awareness and glucoregulatory...... hormone secretion. In this study we tested the hypothesis that long-term administration of theophylline might augment glucose recovery after insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Eleven healthy subjects and 8 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were made hypoglycaemic by 60 min insulin infusion (40 mU m(-2......)) after 2 weeks' oral therapy with Euphyllin Retard (theophylline) or placebo. Plasma glucose nadir was 2.54 (2.31-2.77) mmol l(-1) after Euphyllin Retard and 2.27 (2.05-2.48) mmol l(-1) after placebo (mean difference 0.26 (0.05-0.58) mmol l(-1), p = 0.09) for healthy control subjects and 2.56 (2...

  1. Fever is not responsible for the elevated glucose kinetics in sepsis

    Previous studies have suggested that alterations in the classical neuroendocrine system may not be responsible for the increased glucose metabolism observed during hypermetabolic sepsis. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway with indomethacin, which prevents the production of arachidonic acid metabolites by this pathway and the sepsis-induced increase in body temperature, would abolish the increases in glucose appearance (Ra), recycling, and hyperlactacidemia. Sepsis was induced in chronically catheterized conscious rats by multiple injections of live Escherichia coli via a subcutaneous catheter. Septic animals received iv injections of indomethacin every 6-8 hr to block the cyclooxygenase pathway. Glucose kinetics were assessed in 24-hr fasted rats using a constant iv infusion of [6-3H]- and [U-14C] glucose. Treatment with indomethacin prevented the 1-20C increase in body temperature observed in septic animals. Septic rats exhibited an elevated plasma lactate concentration and increased rates of glucose appearance and recycling. The sepsis-induced alterations in these variables were not attenuated by indomethacin. These results suggest that neither elevated body temperature nor the generation of arachidonic acid metabolites of the cyclooxygenase pathway is responsible for increasing glucose production in hypermetabolic septic rats

  2. Proximity to Delivery Alters Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Metabolism in Pregnant Mice.

    Musial, Barbara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Vaughan, Owen R; Ozanne, Susan E; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Fowden, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth, but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy at day 16 (D16) and near term at D19. Nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by DEXA, tissue insulin signaling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and utilization, and insulin sensitivity using acute insulin administration and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [(3)H]glucose infusion. Whole-body insulin resistance occurred in D16 pregnant dams in association with basal hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistant endogenous glucose production, and downregulation of several proteins in hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling pathways relative to NP and D19 values. Insulin resistance was less pronounced at D19, with restoration of NP insulin concentrations, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, and increased abundance of hepatic insulin signaling proteins. At D16, insulin resistance at whole-body, tissue, and molecular levels will favor fetal glucose acquisition, while improved D19 hepatic insulin sensitivity will conserve glucose for maternal use in anticipation of lactation. Tissue sensitivity to insulin, therefore, alters differentially with proximity to delivery in pregnant mice, with implications for human and other species. PMID:26740602

  3. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in Ra was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (Rd), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on Ra is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of Rd; (2) basal Ra and Rd are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance

  4. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition

    Isabel Arrieta-Cruz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH. In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine or valine in rats and assessed whole body glucose kinetics under basal conditions and during euglycemic pancreatic clamps. Furthermore, because high fat diet (HFD consumption is known to interfere with central glucoregulation, we also asked whether the action of BCAAs was affected by HFD. We fed rats a lard-rich diet for a short interval and examined their response to central leucine. The results showed that both isoleucine and valine individually lowered blood glucose by decreasing liver glucose production. Furthermore, the action of the BCAA leucine was markedly attenuated by HFD feeding. We conclude that all three BCAAs centrally modulate glucose metabolism in the liver and that their action is disrupted by HFD-induced insulin resistance.

  5. Fever is not responsible for the elevated glucose kinetics in sepsis

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Blakesley, H.L.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1987-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that alterations in the classical neuroendocrine system may not be responsible for the increased glucose metabolism observed during hypermetabolic sepsis. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway with indomethacin, which prevents the production of arachidonic acid metabolites by this pathway and the sepsis-induced increase in body temperature, would abolish the increases in glucose appearance (Ra), recycling, and hyperlactacidemia. Sepsis was induced in chronically catheterized conscious rats by multiple injections of live Escherichia coli via a subcutaneous catheter. Septic animals received iv injections of indomethacin every 6-8 hr to block the cyclooxygenase pathway. Glucose kinetics were assessed in 24-hr fasted rats using a constant iv infusion of (6-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C) glucose. Treatment with indomethacin prevented the 1-2/sup 0/C increase in body temperature observed in septic animals. Septic rats exhibited an elevated plasma lactate concentration and increased rates of glucose appearance and recycling. The sepsis-induced alterations in these variables were not attenuated by indomethacin. These results suggest that neither elevated body temperature nor the generation of arachidonic acid metabolites of the cyclooxygenase pathway is responsible for increasing glucose production in hypermetabolic septic rats.

  6. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition.

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Su, Ya; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine or valine in rats and assessed whole body glucose kinetics under basal conditions and during euglycemic pancreatic clamps. Furthermore, because high fat diet (HFD) consumption is known to interfere with central glucoregulation, we also asked whether the action of BCAAs was affected by HFD. We fed rats a lard-rich diet for a short interval and examined their response to central leucine. The results showed that both isoleucine and valine individually lowered blood glucose by decreasing liver glucose production. Furthermore, the action of the BCAA leucine was markedly attenuated by HFD feeding. We conclude that all three BCAAs centrally modulate glucose metabolism in the liver and that their action is disrupted by HFD-induced insulin resistance. PMID:26891318

  7. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.; Taskinen, M.R. (Helsinki Univ. and Research Labs. of the Finnish State Alcohol Co. (Finland))

    1988-02-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R{sub a} was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R{sub d}), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R{sub a} is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R{sub d}; (2) basal R{sub a} and R{sub d} are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance.

  8. Variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects

    The aim of this study was to assess regional and global variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects and to evaluate potentially responsible factors. Twenty men with a mean age of 64 years, no history of cardiovascular disease, and normal blood pressure, bicycle exercise test, electrocardiogram and echocardiography were studied [P(coronary artery disease) <5%]. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake were measured during hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose, and myocardial rest and hyperaemic blood flow during dipyridamole infusion were measured with nitrogen-13 ammonia and positron emission tomography in 16 left ventricular myocardial segments. Intra-individual and inter-individual variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake [relative dispersion = (standard deviation/mean)] was 13% and 29% respectively. Although inter-individual variability of glucose uptake and blood flow at rest was of the same magnitude, no correlation was found between these measures. Regional and global insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake correlated linearly with whole-body insulin sensitivity (r=0.51, P<0.05 and r=0.56, P<0.01). The strongest independent association by multivariate linear regression analysis was found between myocardial glucose uptake and hyperaemic blood flow (r=0.63, P<0.005). We conclude that in healthy elderly subjects, insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake is homogeneous throughout the left ventricle, but has moderate inter-individual variability. Inter-individual variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake is primarily explained by variability in coronary vascular reactivity and tissue insulin sensitivity. (orig.)

  9. The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on incretin effect, glucose tolerance, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal in healthy subjects

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Østoft, Signe Harring; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    effect, glucose tolerance, gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) and gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Design Randomised, controlled, open-label. Methods Ten healthy subjects (6 women) (age: 40±5 years (mean±SEM); BMI: 24±3 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose: 5.1±0.2 mmol/l; HbA1c: 34±1 mmol......Objective Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), is thought to intensify the physiological effects of the incretin hormones. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibition on plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), the incretin....../mol [5.3±0.1%]) were randomised to two paired study days comprising a 4h 50 g-OGTT with paracetamol (A) and an isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (IIGI) (B), with (A1+B1) and without (A2+B2) preceding administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. Results Isoglycaemia was obtained in all subjects on...

  10. Sex differences in glucose levels

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A;

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what...

  11. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  12. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    Christos; V; Rizos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro-and macrovascular disease.Moreover,increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance.As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical.However,the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism.Indeed,angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.Calcium channel blockers(CCBs)have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism.However,some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis.On the other hand,diuretics andβ-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism.Of note,carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of theβ-blockers class,being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis.The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may,to an extent,compromise their cardiovascular protective role.As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment,especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.

  13. Kawasaki disease with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency, case report.

    Obeidat, Hesham Radi; Al-Dossary, Sahar; Asseri, Abdulsalam

    2015-09-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs predominantly in infants and children younger than 5 years of age. Coronary artery abnormalities are the most serious complication. Based on the literatures infusion of Intravenous Immunoglobulin of 2 g/kg and a high dose of oral aspirin up to 100 mg/kg/day are the standard treatment for Kawasaki disease in the acute stage, and should be followed by antiplatelet dose of aspirin for thrombocytosis. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited X-linked hereditary disorder, and aspirin can induce hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency. We report a case of a 5 year and 8 month old male with KD and G6PD deficiency. PMID:27134550

  14. Glucose transport in malignant glioma

    Using the dynamic PET mode with 18FDG and H215O, glucose transport in patients with glioma was investigated. The values of the rate constants (k1*, k2*), the CBF, the distribution volume, the glucose extraction, and the permeability-surface (PS) products were obtained. The values of k1*, k2, the blood flow, and the PS products were higher in the high-grade glioma and the contralateral cortex, and lower in the low-grade glioma, while the value of glucose extraction was the reverse. The only statistically significant difference between high-grade glioma and the contra-lateral cortex was noted in the distribution volume, which was lower in the high-grade glioma. The present study revealed no increase in the glucose transport in high-grade glioma. Further study is necessary in order to determine the functional significance of the distribution volume and the relevance to glucose transporters in gliomas. (author)

  15. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation of...... infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating to the...... risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  16. Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion for advanced gastric cancer

    Zhi-yu CAO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of chemotherapy via arterial infusion in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods Forty-seven patients with advanced gastric cancer were given chemotherapy via arterial infusion.Chemotherapy plan was as follows: 5-Fluorouracil(Fu 500mg/m2,cyclophosphamide(MMX 10mg/m2,Hydroxycamptothecin(HPT 20mg/m2,once per week,2 weeks as a course,a total of 2-3 courses.Results After chemotherapy via arterial infusion,complete remission(CR was achieved in 1 case,partial remission(PR in 28 cases,stabilization of disease(SD in 16 cases,progression of disease(PD was found in 2 cases,and rate with response(CR+PR was 61.7%.Four of 28 PR patients underwent tumorectomy,the pathology revealed the presence of cancer cells around the vascular vessels,manifesting karyopyknosis,karyorrhexis,coagulation and necrosis of cytoplasm,intercellular edema,hyperplasia of fibroblasts,inflammatory cell infiltration,thickening of endothelium,and thrombosis.One,two and three-year survival rates were 70.2%,14.9% and 2.1%,respectively.The average survival period was 17.2 months.Conclusion Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion,as a part of the combined treatment,is beneficial to the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer.

  17. Antioxidant and Astroprotective Effects of a Pulicaria incisa Infusion

    Anat Elmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, an infusion prepared from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa (Pi was tested for its protective and antioxidant effects on astrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. The Pi infusion attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS following treatment with hydrogen peroxide and zinc and prevented the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. The Pi infusion also exhibited an antioxidant effect in vitro and induced GDNF transcription in astrocytes. It is proposed that this Pi infusion be further evaluated for use as a functional beverage for the prevention and/or treatment of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress plays a role.

  18. Curriculum Infusion as College Student Mental Health Promotion Strategy

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Darrow, Sherri A.; Haggerty, Melinda; Neill, Thomas; Carvalho, Amana; Uschold, Carissa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes efforts to increase faculty involvement in suicide prevention and mental health promotion via curriculum infusion. The participants were faculty, staff, and 659 students enrolled in classes of a large eastern university from Fall 2007-Spring 2011. Counselors, health educators, and medical providers recruited faculty from a…

  19. Evaluation of Service-Learning-Infused Courses with Refugee Families

    Midgett, Aida; Doumas, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of service-learning-infused courses on multicultural competence and social justice advocacy skills among counseling students. The project, in which students acted as job coaches for refugee families, was integrated into 1st- and 2nd-year counseling courses. Results indicated an increase in multicultural knowledge…

  20. Infusing Social Emotional Learning into the Teacher Education Curriculum

    Waajid, Badiyyah; Garner, Pamela W.; Owen, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    Research supports the importance of policies and interventions to infuse social emotional curricula in schools. The role of teachers in supporting young children's social and emotional readiness for classroom learning has been recognized, but instruction in children's well-being and social emotional competence is a low priority in teacher…

  1. 75 FR 21641 - Infusion Pumps; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    2010-04-26

    ... will be held at the Hilton Silver Spring hotel, 8727 Colesville Rd., Silver Spring, MD 20910. Seating..., patient advocates, industry, consumer groups, health care professionals, researchers, and other interested..., patients, and industry work together to improve the safety and efficacy of infusion pumps? What factors...

  2. Infusing Quantitative Approaches throughout the Biological Sciences Curriculum

    Thompson, Katerina V.; Cooke, Todd J.; Fagan, William F.; Gulick, Denny; Levy, Doron; Nelson, Kären C.; Redish, Edward F.; Smith, Robert F.; Presson, Joelle

    2013-01-01

    A major curriculum redesign effort at the University of Maryland is infusing all levels of our undergraduate biological sciences curriculum with increased emphasis on interdisciplinary connections and quantitative approaches. The curriculum development efforts have largely been guided by recommendations in the National Research Council's…

  3. Doing Business with China: Curriculum Internationalisation through an Infusion Method

    Jin, Byoungho; Swinney, Jane; Cao, Huantian; Muske, Glenn; Nam, Jinhee; Kang, Ji Hye

    2011-01-01

    The US apparel and textiles industry operates within an interdependent global system, necessitating workforces competent for day-to-day operations. The US workforce lacks preparedness in working globally; this study tests an infusion method of curriculum internationalisation to enhance students' global understanding. Four cognitive and…

  4. Technology Infusion Challenges from a Decision Support Perspective

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    In a restricted science budget environment and increasingly numerous required technology developments, the technology investment decisions within NASA are objectively more and more difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Under these conditions it is rationally desirable to build an investment portfolio, which has the highest possible technology infusion rate. Arguably the path to infusion is subject to many influencing factors, but here only the challenges associated with the very initial stages are addressed: defining the needs and the subsequent investment decision-support process. It is conceivable that decision consistency and possibly its quality suffer when the decision-making process has limited or no traceability. This paper presents a structured decision-support framework aiming to provide traceable, auditable, infusion- driven recommendations towards a selection process in which these recommendations are used as reference points in further discussions among stakeholders. In this framework addressing well-defined requirements, different measures of success can be defined based on traceability to specific selection criteria. As a direct result, even by using simplified decision models the likelihood of infusion can be probed and consequently improved.

  5. Assessing Infusion of Social Justice in Rehabilitation Counselor Education Curriculum

    Dong, Shengli; Ethridge, Glacia; Rodgers-Bonaccorsy, Roe; Oire, Spalatin N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which rehabilitation counselor educators understand and are committed to infusing social justice in the rehabilitation counseling curricula. Method: The authors used a quantitative descriptive research design to examine the level and extent of integrating social justice into rehabilitation counseling curricular.…

  6. Continuous infusion of vancomycin : Effective, efficient and safe

    Van Maarseveen, E.; Touw, D.; Bouma, A.; Van Zanten, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Vancomycin is an antibiotic which is used in (suspected or proven) bacteriaemia, peritonitis or osteomyelitis with grampositive micro-organisms. Currently in most Dutch hospitals vancomycin is administered as an intermittent infusion. As the killing of vancomycin is dependent of the AUC/MIC ra

  7. Prostacyclin infusion may prevent secondary damage in pericontusional brain tissue

    Reinstrup, Peter; Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator, inhibitor of leukocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation, and has been suggested as therapy for cerebral ischemia. A case of focal traumatic brain lesion that was monitored using intracerebral microdialysis, and bedside analysis and display is reported here........ When biochemical signs of cerebral ischemia progressed, i.v. infusion of prostacyclin was started....

  8. Enzymuria in neonates receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin

    Colding, H; Brygge, K; Brendstrup, L;

    1992-01-01

    with non-treatment periods in the same newborn infant (33 infants). The same tendency applied to AAP. Newborn infants receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin were not found to be at greater risk of nephrotoxicity than those receiving intermittent gentamicin treatment, using NAG and AAP...

  9. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald;

    2013-01-01

    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  10. A naturalistic glyceryl trinitrate infusion migraine model in the rat

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Bhatt, Deepak Kumar; Ploug, Kenneth Beri;

    2012-01-01

    Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) infusion is a reliable method to provoke migraine-like headaches in humans. Previous studies have simulated this human model in anaesthetized or in awake rodents using GTN doses 10,000 times higher than used in humans. The relevance of such toxicological doses to migraine...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup;

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  12. Current use of intraosseous infusion in Danish emergency departments

    Molin, Rune; Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraosseous infusion (IOI) is recommended when intravenous access cannot be readily established in both pediatric and adult resuscitation. We evaluated the current use of IOI in Danish emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: An online questionnaire was e-mailed to the Heads of Department...

  13. The T allele of rs7903146 TCF7L2 is associated with impaired insulinotropic action of incretin hormones, reduced 24 h profiles of plasma insulin and glucagon, and increased hepatic glucose production in young healthy men

    Pilgaard, K; Jensen, C B; Schou, J H;

    2009-01-01

    h glucose, insulin and glucagon profiles; OGTT; mixed meal test; IVGTT; hyperglycaemic clamp with co-infusion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp combined with glucose tracer infusion to study hepatic and......-phase insulinotropic action of GLP-1 (p = 0.03) and GIP (p = 0.07) during a 7 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp. Secretion of GLP-1 and GIP during the mixed meal test was normal. Despite elevated hepatic glucose production, carriers of the T allele had significantly reduced 24 h glucagon concentrations (p < 0.02) suggesting......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We studied the physiological, metabolic and hormonal mechanisms underlying the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in carriers of TCF7L2 gene. METHODS: We undertook genotyping of 81 healthy young Danish men for rs7903146 of TCF7L2 and carried out various beta cell tests including: 24...

  14. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-04-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  15. Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A Review of Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Rodbard, David

    2016-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides information unattainable by intermittent capillary blood glucose, including instantaneous real-time display of glucose level and rate of change of glucose, alerts and alarms for actual or impending hypo- and hyperglycemia, "24/7" coverage, and the ability to characterize glycemic variability. Progressively more accurate and precise, reasonably unobtrusive, small, comfortable, user-friendly devices connect to the Internet to share information and are sine qua non for a closed-loop artificial pancreas. CGM can inform, educate, motivate, and alert people with diabetes. CGM is medically indicated for patients with frequent, severe, or nocturnal hypoglycemia, especially in the presence of hypoglycemia unawareness. Surprisingly, despite tremendous advances, utilization of CGM has remained fairly limited to date. Barriers to use have included the following: (1) lack of Food and Drug Administration approval, to date, for insulin dosing ("nonadjuvant use") in the United States and for use in hospital and intensive care unit settings; (2) cost and variable reimbursement; (3) need for recalibrations; (4) periodic replacement of sensors; (5) day-to-day variability in glycemic patterns, which can limit the predictability of findings based on retrospective, masked "professional" use; (6) time, implicit costs, and inconvenience for uploading of data for retrospective analysis; (7) lack of fair and reasonable reimbursement for physician time; (8) inexperience and lack of training of physicians and other healthcare professionals regarding interpretation of CGM results; (9) lack of standardization of software methods for analysis of CGM data; and (10) need for professional medical organizations to develop and disseminate additional clinical practice guidelines regarding the role of CGM. Ongoing advances in technology and clinical research have addressed several of these barriers. Use of CGM in conjunction with an insulin pump with

  16. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea < red tea < green tea < white tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively. PMID:21365858

  17. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse. PMID:25883986

  18. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... to diagnose diabetes in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed ...

  19. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune;

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  20. Study of Cisatracurium and Sufentanil Consumption Using a Closed Loop Computer Control Infusion System

    2013-02-06

    The Intraoperative Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Cisatracurium Infusion Consumption and Its Recovery Index.; Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Sufentanil Consumption.; Quantitative Analysis of Cisatracurium Infusion Requirements, Sufentanil Consumption and Recovery Index in Different Age Groups.

  1. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor

    Xian HUANG; Li, SiQi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concent...

  2. Effects of Cooling and Supplemental Bovine Somatotropin on Milk Production relating to Body Glucose Metabolism and Utilization of Glucose by the Mammary Gland in Crossbred Holstein Cattle

    Siravit Sitprija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low milk yield and shorter persistency of lactation of dairy cattle is the major problem for the dairy practices in the tropics. High environmental temperatures and rapid decline of plasma growth hormone level can influence milk production. Regulation of the milk yield of animals is mainly based on the mechanisms governing the quantity of glucose extracted by the mammary gland for lactose biosynthetic pathways. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of cooling and supplemental bovine somatotropin on milk production relating to body glucose metabolism and intracellular metabolism of glucose in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein cattle in the tropics have not been investigated to date. Approach: Ten crossbred 87.5% Holstein cows were divided into two groups of five animals each. Animals were housed in Normal Shade barn (NS as non-cooled cows and cows in the second group were housed in barn which was equipped with a two Misty-Fan cooling system (MF as cooled cows. Supplementation of recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST (POSILAC, 500 mg per cow were performed in both groups to study body glucose metabolism and the utilization of glucose in the mammary gland using a continuous infusion of [3-3H] glucose and [U- 14C] glucose as markers in early, mid and late stages of lactation. Results: Milk yield significantly increased in both groups during supplemental rbST with a high level of mammary blood flow. Body glucose turnover rates were not significant different between cooled and non-cooled cows whether supplemental rbST or not. The glucose taken up by the mammary gland of both non-cooled and cooled cows increased flux through the lactose synthesis and the pentose cycle pathway with significant increases in NADPH formation for fatty acid synthesis during rbST supplementation. The utilization of glucose carbon incorporation into milk appeared to increase in milk lactose and milk triacylglycerol but not for

  3. Impact of infusion speed on the safety and effectiveness of prothrombin complex concentrate

    Pabinger, Ingrid; Tiede, Andreas; Kalina, Uwe; Knaub, Sigurd; Germann, Reinhard; Ostermann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) infusion is preferred for emergency reversal of coumarin therapy. Rapid infusion can potentially save crucial time; however, the possible impact of high infusion speed on PCC safety and effectiveness has not been delineated. In a prospective multinational clinical trial with 43 patients receiving PCC (Beriplex? P/N) for emergency reversal of coumarin therapy, infusion speeds were selected by the investigators. In a two-phase statistica...

  4. Mineral Analysis the Infusion of Black Tea Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Lahiji N.; Tadayon F.; Tamiji F.; Lahiji A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Tea infusion is one of the most popular drinks around the world. Since tea infusion is known to contain several essential nutrients, it is considered a healthy beverage. In this study eight different Iranian brands of tea infusion and eleven brands imported tea infusion samples from another country for Cu, Zn, Mn and Al were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion. The results of analysis showed that the extraction rates of minerals from dry black tea to infusio...

  5. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes.

    Guess, Nicola; Perreault, Leigh; Kerege, Anna; Strauss, Allison; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15), athletes (n = 14), and obese (n = 23), as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10) and type 2 diabetes (n = 11), were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2) % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3) 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD)). The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA) was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018) and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, P<0.001), and negatively related to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049), clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001) and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001). The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008) and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008). In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001), and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007) and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008). Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state. PMID:26999667

  6. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes

    Guess, Nicola; Perreault, Leigh; Kerege, Anna; Strauss, Allison; Bergman, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15), athletes (n = 14), and obese (n = 23), as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10) and type 2 diabetes (n = 11), were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2) % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3) 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD)). The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA) was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018) and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, P<0.001), and negatively related to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049), clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001) and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001). The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008) and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008). In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001), and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007) and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008). Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state. PMID:26999667

  7. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25oC which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ≥ 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U-14C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  8. A Review of Insulin-Dosing Formulas for Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes.

    King, Allen B; Kuroda, Akio; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Hobbs, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Dosing guidelines for patients with type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), which are historically based on clinical experience and retrospective studies of patients consuming an American diet, recommend that basal insulin should represent approximately 50 % of the total daily dose (TDD). Recent prospective studies in the USA and Japan conclude that the more appropriate proportion is closer to 30-40 % of TDD. In addition, currently used formulas for calculating the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) and correction factor (CF) may lead to underdosing of bolus insulin by as much as 12.8-50 % for a hypothetical patient. The discrepancies between traditional formulas and data from newer studies can be accounted for by the more rigorous design of the newer studies (e.g., prospective design, controlled diets, meal omission, and frequent glucose monitoring). International differences in diet composition may also be important to consider when developing dosing recommendations for CSII. PMID:27457238

  9. The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health

    Hildreth DeWall J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome, or Syndrome X, is characterized by a set of metabolic and lipid imbalances that greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide, and treatments are in high demand. ProAlgaZyme, a novel and proprietary freshwater algae infusion in purified water, has been the subject of several animal studies and has demonstrated low toxicity even with chronic administration at elevated doses. The infusion has been used historically for the treatment of several inflammatory and immune disorders in humans and is considered well-tolerated. Here, the infusion is evaluated for its effects on the cardiovascular risk factors present in metabolic syndrome in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 60 overweight and obese persons, ages 25–60. All participants received four daily oral doses (1 fl oz of ProAlgaZyme (N = 22 or water placebo (N = 30 for a total of 10 weeks, and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements were taken at the beginning of the study period and after 4, 8 and 10 weeks of treatment. Eight participants did not complete the study. Results ProAlgaZyme brought about statistically significant (p Conclusion ProAlgaZyme (4 fl oz daily consumption resulted in significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while significantly improving serum lipid profiles and reducing markers of inflammation, thus improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects over a course of 10 weeks with an absence of adverse side effects. Trial Registration US ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00489333

  10. Optimisation of drilling equipment for drilling long infusion holes. Optimierung der Bohrausruestung zum Bohren langer Traenkloecher

    Betting, K.; Stockmann, H.W.; Henke, B.

    1992-05-14

    Concentration of the operating points requires compensation for the operating processes to an increasing extent. In coal face infusion intensification of the longwall fusion is a suitable measure. The mechanical engineering had to be optimised for the planned drilling of long infusion holes, which enable longwall infusion ahead of the face from only one gate road without additional measures on the face. (orig.).

  11. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  12. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M;

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC...

  13. Clinical research of impulse GnRH infusion treatment to a patient with central secondary amenorrhea

    孙首悦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply continuous subcutaneous pulse infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH)to treat patients with central secondary amenorrhea,and to observe the induction of spontaneous ovulation and natural fertilization.Methods Using micro-pulse infusion pumps with each 90-minute infusion of LHRH 10μg daily,the serum LH,FSH,estrogen,and progesterone lev-

  14. LPS-Enhanced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Normalized by Resveratrol

    Nøhr, Mark K.; Dudele, Anete; Poulsen, Morten M.; Ebbesen, Lene H.; Radko, Yulia; Christensen, Lars P.; Jessen, Niels; Richelsen, Bjørn; Lund, Sten; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is seen with obesity and is suggested to be a mediator of insulin resistance. The eliciting factor of low-grade inflammation is unknown but increased permeability of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulting in endotoxemia could be a candidate. Here we test the effect of LPS and the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels and inflammation. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic mini pumps infusing either low-dose LPS or saline for 28 days. Half of the mice were treated with resveratrol delivered through the diet. LPS caused increased inflammation of the liver and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous) together with enlarged spleens and increased number of leukocytes in the blood. Resveratrol specifically reduced the inflammatory status in epididymal fat (reduced expression of TNFa and Il1b, whereas the increased macrophage infiltration was unaltered) without affecting the other tissues investigated. By LC-MS, we were able to quantitate resveratrol metabolites in epididymal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. LPS induced insulin resistance as the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test was increased despite similar plasma glucose level resulting in an increase in the insulinogenic index (IGI; delta0-15insulin / delta0-15glucose) from 13.73 to 22.40 pmol/mmol (P < 0.001). This aberration in insulin and glucose homeostasis was normalized by resveratrol. In conclusion: Low-dose LPS enhanced the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without affecting the blood glucose suggesting increased insulin resistance. Resveratrol restored LPS-induced alteration of the insulin secretion and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects specifically in epididymal adipose tissue possibly due to preferential accumulation of resveratrol metabolites pointing towards a possible important involvement of this tissue for the effects on insulin resistance and insulin

  15. Conversion of glucose to sorbose

    Davis, Mark E.; Gounder, Rajamani

    2016-02-09

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing sorbose from glucose, said method comprising: (a) contacting the glucose with a silica-containing structure comprising a zeolite having a topology of a 12 membered-ring or larger, an ordered mesoporous silica material, or an amorphous silica, said structure containing Lewis acidic Ti.sup.4+ or Zr.sup.4+ or both Ti.sup.4+ and Zr.sup.4+ framework centers, said contacting conducted under reaction conditions sufficient to isomerize the glucose to sorbose. The sorbose may be (b) separated or isolated; or (c) converted to ascorbic acid.

  16. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydrophilic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  17. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    唐芳琼; 孟宪伟; 陈东; 冉均国; 郑昌琼

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydro-philic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  18. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  19. Postoral glucose sensing, not caloric content, determines sugar reward in C57BL/6J mice.

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that because of their energy value, sugars are more rewarding than non-caloric sweeteners. However, intragastric infusion data indicate that sugars differ in their postoral appetite-stimulating effects. We therefore compared the preference for isocaloric 8% sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions with that of a non-caloric sweetener solution (0.8% sucralose) in C57BL/6J mice. Brief 2-bottle tests indicated that sucralose was isopreferred to sucrose but more preferred than glucose or fructose. Yet, in long-term tests, the mice preferred sucrose and glucose, but not fructose to sucralose. Additional experiments were conducted with a non-caloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin mixture (S + S), which does not have the postoral inhibitory effects of 0.8% sucralose. The S + S was preferred to fructose in brief and long-term choice tests. S + S was also preferred to glucose and sucrose in brief tests, but the sugars were preferred in long-term tests. In progressive ratio tests, non-deprived and food-deprived mice licked more for glucose but not fructose than for S + S. These findings demonstrate that the nutrient-specific postoral actions, not calories per se, determine the avidity for sugar versus non-caloric sweeteners. Furthermore, sweet taste intensity and potential postoral inhibitory actions must be considered in comparing non-caloric and caloric sweeteners. PMID:25715333

  20. MCH receptor deletion does not impair glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice.

    Sclafani, Anthony; Adamantidis, Antoine; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The post-oral actions of glucose stimulate intake and condition flavor preferences in rodents. Hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons are implicated in sugar reward, and this study investigated their involvement in glucose preference conditioning in mice. In Exp. 1 MCH receptor 1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice learned to prefer 8% glucose over an initially more-preferred non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose+saccharin (S+S) solution. In contrast, the KO and WT mice preferred S+S to 8% fructose, which is consistent with this sugar's weak post-oral reinforcing action. In Exp. 2 KO and WT mice were trained to drink a flavored solution (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) infusion of 16% glucose and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water. Both groups drank more CS+ than CS- in training and preferred the CS+ to CS- in a 2-bottle test. These results indicate that MCH receptor signaling is not required for flavor preferences conditioned by the post-oral actions of glucose. This contrasts with other findings implicating MCH signaling in other types of sugar reward processing. PMID:27195455

  1. Glucose and amino acid metabolism in rat brain during sustained hypoglycemia

    The metabolism of glucose in brains during sustained hypoglycemia was studied. [U-14C]Glucose (20 microCi) was injected into control rats, and into rats at 2.5 hr after a bolus injection of 2 units of insulin followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 units/100 g rat/hr. This regimen of insulin injection was found to result in steady-state plasma glucose levels between 2.5 and 3.5 mumol per ml. In the brains of control rats carbon was transferred rapidly from glucose to glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and aspartate and this carbon was retained in the amino acids for at least 60 min. In the brains of hypoglycemic rats, the conversion of carbon from glucose to amino acids was increased in the first 15 min after injection. After 15 min, the specific activity of the amino acids decreased in insulin-treated rats but not in the controls. The concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid decreased, and the concentration of aspartate increased, in the brains of the hypoglycemic rats. The concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a cofactor in many of the reactions whereby these amino acids are formed from tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, was less in the insulin-treated rats than in the controls. These data provide evidence that glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and GABA can serve as energy sources in brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia

  2. Sleeping, Waking, ... and Glucose Homeostasis

    Rudic R. Daniel; McNamara Peter; Curtis Anne-Maria; Boston Raymond C; Panda Satchidananda; Hogenesch John B; FitzGerald Garret A

    2004-01-01

    Circadian timing is generated through a unique series of autoregulatory interactions termed the molecular clock. Behavioral rhythms subject to the molecular clock are well characterized. We demonstrate a role for Bmal1 and Clock in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Inactivation of the known clock components Bmal1 (Mop3) and Clock suppress the diurnal variation in glucose and triglycerides. Gluconeogenesis is abolished by deletion of Bmal1 and is depressed in Clock mutants, but the counte...

  3. Chronic Anemia and the Role of the Infusion Therapy Nurse.

    Betcher, Jeffrey; Van Ryan, Velvet; Mikhael, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Chronic anemia develops over a course of weeks to months and is usually mild to moderate in nature. It is important to understand the etiology of the reduced number of circulating red blood cells to treat the anemia appropriately. Diagnosis is dependent on patient history and laboratory findings, such as complete blood counts, iron studies, a peripheral smear, and occasionally, a bone marrow biopsy. Treatment modalities frequently administered by infusion therapy nurses include treatment of the underlying chronic disease, replacement of deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folate, or erythropoietin), or transfusion of red blood cells. Infusion therapy nurses play a vital role in the assessment and delivery of medication therapy to patients with chronic anemia. PMID:26339940

  4. A Review of the Security of Insulin Pump Infusion Systems

    Paul, Nathanael; Kohno, Tadayoshi; Klonoff, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin therapy has enabled patients with diabetes to maintain blood glucose control to lead healthier lives. Today, rather than injecting insulin manually using syringes, a patient can use a device such as an insulin pump to deliver insulin programmatically. This allows for more granular insulin delivery while attaining blood glucose control. Insulin pump system features have increasingly benefited patients, but the complexity of the resulting system has grown in parallel. As a result, secur...

  5. Use of propofol infusion in alcohol withdrawal-induced refractory delirium tremens

    Lorentzen, Kristian; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Bendtsen, Asger Ole

    2014-01-01

    in case reports. We aimed to evaluate the treatment of delirium tremens with propofol infusion for 48 h. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a single-centre retrospective cohort analysis of 15 patient journals covering the period from May 2012 to September 2013. RESULTS: Five women and ten men were...... and mechanically ventilated in the intensive care unit. The mean propofol infusion rate was 4.22 mg/kg/h. Thirteen patients received supplemental infusion of opioids, whereas seven required concomitant vasopressor infusion. Once propofol infusion was discontinued after 48 h, 12 patients had a long awakening...

  6. Metabolic intervention in surgical patients. An assessment of the effect of somatostatin, ranitidine, naloxone, diclophenac, dipyridamole, or salbutamol infusion on energy and protein kinetics in surgical patients using stable and radioisotopes

    Shaw, J.H.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    We have assessed the effect of a variety of forms of metabolic intervention on both energy and protein metabolism in 44 severely ill surgical patients. The patients were studied either in the basal state or while receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and the metabolic effects were assessed using the primed-constant infusion of a combination of stable isotopes and radioisotopes. Somatostatin infusion, either in the basal state or in the TPN, did not change glucose kinetics, but there was a significant decrease in the rate of net protein catabolism (NPC). In the basal studies the rate of NPC decreased from 3.4 +/- 0.7 g/kg/d to 2.9 +/- 0.7 g/kg/d (p less than 0.002), while in the TPN patients the corresponding values were 1.48 +/- 0.61 g/kg/d and 1.10 +/- 0.50 g/kg/d, respectively (p less than 0.005). Histamine type 2 blockade with ranitidine did not significantly alter glucose kinetics, but in both the TPN patients and in the basal state ranitidine was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of NPC. In the basal state rate of NPC was 2.44 +/- 0.53 g/kg/d and during ranitidine infusion the value was 2.08 +/- 0.42 g/kg/d (p less than 0.04). Naloxone infusion did not alter glucose kinetics, but there was a significant decrease in the rate of NPC from a basal value of 2.6 +/- 0.6 g/kg/d to 2.3 +/- 0.5 g/kg/d (p less than 0.04). The infusion of the prostaglandin antagonists diclofenac or dipyridamole resulted in increases in the plasma insulin level, and as a result glucose turnover decreased in both groups. In the diclofenac group the rate of glucose turnover decreased from 14.4 +/- 1.7 mumol/kg/min to 12.6 +/- 1.3 mumol/kg/min (p less than 0.02). Neither prostaglandin antagonist resulted in any significant change in the rate of NPC.

  7. Metabolic intervention in surgical patients. An assessment of the effect of somatostatin, ranitidine, naloxone, diclophenac, dipyridamole, or salbutamol infusion on energy and protein kinetics in surgical patients using stable and radioisotopes

    We have assessed the effect of a variety of forms of metabolic intervention on both energy and protein metabolism in 44 severely ill surgical patients. The patients were studied either in the basal state or while receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and the metabolic effects were assessed using the primed-constant infusion of a combination of stable isotopes and radioisotopes. Somatostatin infusion, either in the basal state or in the TPN, did not change glucose kinetics, but there was a significant decrease in the rate of net protein catabolism (NPC). In the basal studies the rate of NPC decreased from 3.4 +/- 0.7 g/kg/d to 2.9 +/- 0.7 g/kg/d (p less than 0.002), while in the TPN patients the corresponding values were 1.48 +/- 0.61 g/kg/d and 1.10 +/- 0.50 g/kg/d, respectively (p less than 0.005). Histamine type 2 blockade with ranitidine did not significantly alter glucose kinetics, but in both the TPN patients and in the basal state ranitidine was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of NPC. In the basal state rate of NPC was 2.44 +/- 0.53 g/kg/d and during ranitidine infusion the value was 2.08 +/- 0.42 g/kg/d (p less than 0.04). Naloxone infusion did not alter glucose kinetics, but there was a significant decrease in the rate of NPC from a basal value of 2.6 +/- 0.6 g/kg/d to 2.3 +/- 0.5 g/kg/d (p less than 0.04). The infusion of the prostaglandin antagonists diclofenac or dipyridamole resulted in increases in the plasma insulin level, and as a result glucose turnover decreased in both groups. In the diclofenac group the rate of glucose turnover decreased from 14.4 +/- 1.7 mumol/kg/min to 12.6 +/- 1.3 mumol/kg/min (p less than 0.02). Neither prostaglandin antagonist resulted in any significant change in the rate of NPC

  8. Combined infusion cholecystography in patients with the postgastroresection syndromes

    Using a combined infusion cholecystography in patients with postgastroresection syndromes, the concentration, motor-evacuator function of the biliary bladder and changes in biliary tracts are studied. 71 patients (63 men and 8 women) in the age of 31-65 have been investigated. It is shown that in patients who have suffered resection, the interaction of motor-evacuator function of the gastrointestinal tract.and biliary tracts is upset which can further lead to profound pathologic changes in these organs

  9. Hospital selection of home infusion therapy companies as preferred providers.

    Rich, D S; Ayers, N

    1992-07-01

    The process by which a hospital selected home infusion therapy providers is described. Administrators at a 379-bed teaching hospital decided to attempt to reduce the high mean length of stay by expanding the use of home infusion therapy. Direct diversification into this field by the hospital was not feasible, so it was decided to establish contractual agreements with providers. A task force was appointed to evaluate and choose vendors in the area and to increase the number of patient referrals. The task force examined reports on past experience with providers, price lists, the range and level of services offered, and the amount of free care given and visited the companies' facilities. The group designated three providers as preferred and two as unacceptable. The number of patients referred increased from 21 during the 12 months before the task force was convened to 46 in the first 9 months afterward, for a saving of 2198 patients days. After one year the task force met again to consider company requests for evaluation or reevaluation, establish a plan for publicizing the benefits of home infusion therapy, and replace the site visits with a requirement for accreditation by the Joint Commission. After two years, the task force developed provider-evaluation criteria to streamline the process and reflect the experience gained. The responsibility for reviewing providers was transferred to the P&T committee. When a direct venture into home infusion therapy is not fiscally desirable, contracting for services can still offer the advantages of reduced length of stay and decreased drug expenses. PMID:1621728

  10. Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    Dobutamine as a predominant beta-1 agonist increases heart rate and myocardial contractility and at sufficient high doses, it also increases systolic blood pressure. This study was undertaken to describe instances of paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT study and the relationship between scintigraphic findings and hypotension occurred during dobutamine infusion. Methods: In 201 consecutive patients unable to perform adequate exercise, dobutamine Tl-201 myocardial SPECT was performed. Dobutamine was infused starting from 10 μg/kg/min increasing to 40 μ/kg/min. Paradoxical hypotension was defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20 mmHg compared with baseline study. Paradoxical hypotension was observed in 40 patients (Group A) out of 201 (19.9%) while no significant change in systolic blood pressure was detected in the remaining 161 patients (Group B). Mean maximum fall in systolic blood pressure was 39±18 mmHg (range: 20-90). In 33 of 40 patients (83%) with paradoxical hypotension, scintigraphy was normal compared to 131 (81%) of the remaining 161 patients. In patients of Group A, angiography, echocardiography and tilt table tests were performed in 13, 11 and 6 patients respectively. Nine of 13 angiographic evaluations (69%), 10 of 11 echocardiographic evaluations (91%), all of the tilt table tests were normal. Additionally, all of the patients of Group A were clinically followed up at least 6 months after the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. None of the patients had a cardiac event except one patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial scintigraphy is not an uncommon finding and up to 19.9% patients may develop such hypotension. To maximize test safety, precautions should be taken during dobutamine myocardial stress test, since remarkable decrease in systolic blood pressure may occur. Unlike hypotension occurring with exercise

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC INFUSION DRUGS BASED ON PARACETAMOL

    Almakaeva L.G.; Naumenok L.G.; Begunova N.V.; Dolya V.G.; Almakaev M.S

    2016-01-01

    The intravenous form of paracetamol compared with oral more reliably supports effective drug concentration in blood plasma that promotes a higher therapeutic effect. Recent studies have confirmed that the use of the intravenous form of paracetamol to deal with postoperative pain multimodal analgesia modes results in reducing the frequency and quantity of opioids administered , and, as a consequence, its associated side effects. The drug Paracetamol , infusion solution 10 mg / ml to 100 ml gl...

  12. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral thiamine has a very high safety profile. The most common adverse effect is local irritation; however, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions may occur, mostly related to intravenous administration. We describe a 44-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, who was admitted with alcohol intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations....

  13. Liquid infused porous surfaces for mineral fouling mitigation.

    Charpentier, Thibaut V J; Neville, Anne; Baudin, Sophie; Smith, Margaret J; Euvrard, Myriam; Bell, Ashley; Wang, Chun; Barker, Richard

    2015-04-15

    Prevention of mineral fouling, known as scale, is a long-standing problem in a wide variety of industrial applications, such as oil production, water treatment, and many others. The build-up of inorganic scale such as calcium carbonate on surfaces and facilities is undesirable as it can result in safety risks and associated flow assurance issues. To date the overwhelming amount of research has mainly focused on chemical inhibition of scale bulk precipitation and little attention has been paid to deposition onto surfaces. The development of novel more environmentally-friendly strategies to control mineral fouling will most probably necessitate a multifunctional approach including surface engineering. In this study, we demonstrate that liquid infused porous surfaces provide an appealing strategy for surface modification to reduce mineral scale deposition. Microporous polypyrrole (PPy) coatings were fabricated onto stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition in potentiostatic mode. Subsequent infusion of low surface energy lubricants (fluorinated oil Fluorinert FC-70 and ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMIm)) into the porous coatings results in liquid-repellent slippery surfaces. To assess their ability to reduce surface scaling the coatings were subjected to a calcium carbonate scaling environment and the scale on the surface was quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PPy surfaces infused with BMIm (and Fluorinert to a lesser extent) exhibit remarkable antifouling properties with the calcium carbonate deposition reduced by 18 times in comparison to untreated stainless steel. These scaling tests suggest a correlation between the stability of the liquid infused surfaces in artificial brines and fouling reduction efficiency. The current work shows the great potential of such novel coatings for the management of mineral scale fouling. PMID:25585291

  14. Disruption of Iron Regulation after Radiation and Donor Cell Infusion.

    Karoopongse, Ekapun; Marcondes, A Mario; Yeung, Cecilia; Holman, Zaneta; Kowdley, Kris V; Campbell, Jean S; Deeg, H Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Iron overload is common in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Peritransplant events, such as total body irradiation (TBI), and the effects of donor cell infusion may contribute to iron overload, in addition to disease-associated anemia and RBC transfusions. Using murine models we show complex time- and dose-dependent interactions of TBI and transplanted donor cells with expression patterns of iron regulatory genes in the liver. Infusion of allogeneic or syngeneic donor T lymphocytes increased serum iron, transiently up-regulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin (Hamp), and down-regulated ferroportin1 (Fpn1). After 7 to 14 days, however, changes were significant only with allogeneic cells. TBI (200 to 400 Gy) also induced IL-6 and Hamp expression but had little effect on Fpn1. TBI combined with allogeneic donor cell infusion resulted in modest early up-regulation of IL-6, followed by a decline in IL-6 levels and Hamp as well as Fpn1, and was accompanied by increased liver iron content. Injection of Fas ligand-deficient T lymphocytes from gld mice resulted in substantially lower alterations of gene expression than infusion of wild-type T cells. The agonistic anti-Fas antibody, JO2, triggered early up-regulation of Stat3 and IL-6, followed by an increase in Hamp and decreased expression of Fpn1 by 7 to 14 days, implicating Fas as a key modulator of gene expression in HCT. Minimal histologic changes were observed in mouse liver and duodenum. These data show profound and interacting effects of TBI and cell transplantation on the expression of iron regulatory genes in murine recipients. Alterations are largely related to induction of cytokines and Fas-dependent signals. PMID:27060441

  15. Infusing Technical Communication and Teamwork within the ECE Curriculum

    KEDROWICZ, By April; WATANABE, Sundy

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights a unique approach to infusing formal training and practice in oral and written communication and teamwork development in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at the University of Utah. Faculty and graduate (Ph.D.) students from the College of Humanities have teamed up with faculty from engineering to develop communication and teamwork instruction that is integrated into the existing engineering curriculum. These skills are used as a vehicle ...

  16. An overview of infusing service-learning in medical education

    Stewart, Trae; Wubbena, Zane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and review existing empirical research about service-learning and medical education and then to develop a framework for infusing service-learning in Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine curricula. Methods We selected literature on service-learning and medical education. Articles were screened with a protocol for inclusion or exclusion at two separate stages. At stage one, articles were screened according to their titles, abstracts, and keywords. The seco...

  17. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan

    Ryuichi Kita; Toru Kimura; Hiroki Nishikawa; Yukio Osaki

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter methods such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) have an important role in the treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, sorafenib, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, has been found to obtain survival benefits in patients with HCC, leading to major advances in the treatment of advanced HCC. However, it is associated with a low tumor response rate, minimal survival advantage, and high rates of ...

  18. Pulse-plethysmographic variables in hemodynamic assessment during mannitol infusion.

    Radhakrishnan, M; Mohanvelu, K; Veena, S; Sripathy, G; Umamaheswara Rao, G S

    2012-04-01

    Plethysmographic signal using pulse oximetry may be used to assess fluid status of patients during surgery as it resembles arterial pressure waveform. This will avoid placement of invasive arterial lines. This study was designed to find out whether intravascular volume changes induced by mannitol bolus in neurosurgical patients are detected by variations in arterial pressure and plethysmographic waveforms and also to assess the strength of correlation between different variables derived from these two waveforms. The time difference between the onset of arterial and plethysmographic waveforms as means of significant hemodynamic changes was also evaluated. Forty one adult ASA I and II neurosurgical patients requiring mannitol infusion were recruited. Arterial line and plethysmographic probe were placed in the same limb. Digitized waveforms were collected before, at the end, and 15, 30 and 60 min after mannitol infusion. Using MATLAB, the following parameters were collected for three consecutive respiratory cycles,-systolic pressure variation (SPV), pulse pressure variation (PPV), plethysmographic peak variation (Pl-PV), plethysmographic amplitude variation (Pl-AV) and blood pressure-plethysmographic time lag (BP-Pleth time lag). Changes in above parameters over the study period were studied using repeated measure analysis of variance. Correlation between the parameters was analysed. SPV and Pl-PV showed significant increase at 15, 30 and 60 min compared to end of mannitol infusion (P SPV; P SPV-∆Pl-PV, ∆PPV-∆Pl-AV and ∆SPV-∆BP-Pleth time lag were significant (r = 0.3; P SPV and time lag had no significant interaction. Pl-PV correlates well with SPV following mannitol infusion and can be used as an alternative to SPV. (BP-Pleth) time-lag promises to be an important parameter in assessing the state of peripheral vascular resistance and deserves further investigation. PMID:22318409

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Different Herbal Infusions

    Anca C. Fărcaş; Sonia A. Socaci; Maria Tofană; Crina Mureșan; Ana Cuceu; Liana Salanţă; Anamaria Pop

    2015-01-01

    Tea is the most important non-alcoholic beverage in the world being appreciated for its stimulant properties and health benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in caffeine, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of five different herbal infusion samples in oder to compare the amount of these bioactive compounds from traditional Romanian medicinal plants and Chinese tea plants. Green tea, black tea, linden (lime tea), mint, and St. John's...

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Different Herbal Infusions

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most important non-alcoholic beverage in the world being appreciated for its stimulant properties and health benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in caffeine, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of five different herbal infusion samples in oder to compare the amount of these bioactive compounds from traditional Romanian medicinal plants and Chinese tea plants. Green tea, black tea, linden (lime tea, mint, and St. John's wort were chosen as materials for the preparation of infusion and laboratory analyses. The caffeine was extracted with dichloromethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoid content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2-(Al(NO33-NaOH based on spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging  activity on DPPH radical. The largest content in antioxidant compounds was found in green, but also in the mint infusion sample, while black tea has registered the highest caffeine content. Following the results obtained it can be stated that all the analysed samples contain remarkable amounts of biologically active compounds essential for the human body healt.

  1. A Successful Infusion Process for Enabling Lunar Exploration Technologies

    Over, Ann P.; Klem, Mark K.; Motil, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration begins with a more reliable flight capability to the International Space Station and ends with sending humans to Mars. An important stepping stone on the path to Mars encompasses human missions to the Moon. There is little doubt throughout the stakeholder community that new technologies will be required to enable this Vision. However, there are many factors that influence the ability to successfully infuse any technology including the technical risk, requirement and development schedule maturity, and, funds available. This paper focuses on effective infusion processes that have been used recently for the technologies in development for the lunar exploration flight program, Constellation. Recent successes with Constellation customers are highlighted for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Projects managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Following an overview of the technical context of both the flight program and the technology capability mapping, the process is described for how to effectively build an integrated technology infusion plan. The process starts with a sound risk development plan and is completed with an integrated project plan, including content, schedule and cost. In reality, the available resources for this development are going to change over time, necessitating some level of iteration in the planning. However, the driving process is based on the initial risk assessment, which changes only when the overall architecture changes, enabling some level of stability in the process.

  2. Review of pharmacokinetic models for target controlled infusions in anesthesia

    Subash Kennedy Sivasubramaniam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous injection of anesthetic drugs dates back to the 17th Century when opium and chloral hydrate have been injected intravenously. It was not until the 1930s intravenous anesthesia became popular with the invention of barbiturates.Early intravenous anesthetic agents such as barbiturates were ideal for induction of anesthesia, but not suitable for maintenance of anesthesia. Most of these drugs accumulated significantly with increasing durations of infusion and also resulted in cardiorespiratory depression. The invention of propofol and shorter acting opioid analgesics such as remifentanil and alfentanil have revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The rapid onset and offset of these drugs lends itself to being suitable agents for maintenance of anesthesia over prolonged periods of time. Detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics of propofol and remifentanil, combined with technological advances in intravenous pumps capable of accurate delivery of drugs have resulted in great development of the field of total intravenous anesthesia and target controlled infusions. I would like to discuss, in this article, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic models behind these intravenous infusion pumps. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 417-423

  3. Subcutaneous infusion: non-metal cannulae vs metal butterfly needles.

    Torre, Maria Carrion

    2002-07-01

    This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of non-metal cannulae compared to metal butterfly needles in maintaining subcutaneous infusion sites in patients receiving palliative care. The Cochrane Library, Medline, Pre-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Amed and Cancerlit were searched for relevant studies. Controlled trials comparing non-metal cannulae with metal butterfly needles for giving subcutaneous infusion to palliative care patients were included. The outcome considered was site duration in terms of hours of patency or until change was required. Four trials met the inclusion criteria although overall quality was poor due to low follow-up. Studies examined either Teflon or Vialon-coated catheters. All studies showed non-metal cannulae to be superior to metal. In individual studies estimates in mean increase in duration of the site range from 21 to 159 hours. It seems that non-metal cannulae are more effective in maintaining the duration of subcutaneous infusion sites than butterfly needles. Both types of non-metal catheter showed clear benefits. This review has not examined other outcomes but in general adverse effects lead to the removal of the catheter and so would be reflected in the outcome of considered. Although historically non-metal cannulae have been considerably more expensive there is now little difference between metal and Teflon-coated catheters. This review recommends the use of non-metal cannulae in preference to butterfly needles. PMID:12131852

  4. Fat overload syndrome after the rapid infusion of SMOFlipid emulsion.

    Hojsak, Iva; Kolaček, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Fat overload syndrome is a well-known complication of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy. It is characterized by headaches, fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, respiratory distress, and spontaneous hemorrhage. Other symptoms include anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen levels, and coagulopathy. Several reports in the literature describe fat overload syndrome caused by rapid infusion of lipid emulsions, all with soybean-based lipid emulsions. We report fat overload syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with short bowel syndrome on home parenteral nutrition. Fat overload syndrome occurred as a result of accidental, very rapid infusion of a 20% soy oil, medium-chain triglyceride, olive and fish oil-based lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid) that showed the same complications seen with an earlier lipid emulsion (Intralipid). The patient was successfully treated with supportive care combining fluid infusion, transfusion of platelets, and substitution of serum albumin (0.5 g/kg/d) and fresh-frozen plasma (10 mL/kg). In the next couple of days, she received extra platelets, erythrocyte transfusion, and filgrastim (Neupogen; 5 µg/kg/d) due to a very low leukocyte count. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of fat overload syndrome caused by SMOFlipid emulsion described in the literature. PMID:23520135

  5. Local Anaesthetic Infusion with Elastomeric Pump After Arthroscopic Subacromial Decompression

    Little, Kevin; Pillai, Anand; Fazzi, Umberto; Storey, Neil

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of extended local anaesthesia for postoperative pain has previously been reported, and has several advantages over other methods, including ease of placement, safety, reliability, lower cost and effective analgesia. We present our experience with a portable elastomeric infusion device in patients undergoing arthroscopic subacromial decompression, and make a case for its potential to allow same-day discharge. PATIENTS AND METHODS Forty patients undergoing arthroscopic subacromial decompression were followed-up. At the end of the procedure, an epidural catheter connected to a portable elastomeric local anaesthetic infusion system was inserted into the subacromial space. All patients were electively admitted for overnight stay postoperatively and assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) to evaluate their level of pain. RESULTS No patient reported severe pain at any stage. None of the patients required any parenteral opiate analgesia with the pump in situ. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that the use of this elastomeric infusion device following shoulder surgery allows safe and early discharge of patients with decreased need for parenteral opiate analgesia. PMID:17535622

  6. [Husk of Venezuelan cocoa as raw material of infusions].

    Sangronis, Elba; José Soto, María; Valero, Yolmar; Buscema, Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    In the cocoa bean industry, some by-products go underutilized. Some of these components could provide other innovative products, and such is the case with the husk of the cocoa bean. Previous studies have attributed the husk with a high antioxidant capacity, which added to its relative low cost, makes it an attractive ingredient for the production of infusions. However, prior to promoting it as such, its quality needs to be guaranteed. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the husk of cocoa, its microbiologic quality and other parameters in order to be considered raw material in the preparation of infusions. The cocoa was cultivated in two different states in Venezuela. Moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, microbiologic quality and ochratoxin A as well antioxidant properties, content of foreign matter, insoluble ash in HCL and aqueous extract were evaluated in the husk of cocoa seeds. Applied methods were in compliance with national and international norms. Significant differences were determined between the samples through the ANOVA application. A low level in moisture content, but high in ash, along with a microbiologic quality that met the norm, and an absence of ochratoxin A were observed in the totality of the analyzed samples. Low levels of foreign matter, the high value of its aqueous extract and high phenolic compounds content with antioxidant activity allow for the recommendation of the husk of cocoa as raw material for the preparation of infusions. PMID:25799689

  7. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    ... Diabetes Sign Up forJoslin Newsletters Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous? Low blood glucose or hypoglycemia is one of the most common ... In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose ...

  8. Infusion thrombophlebitis: a prospective comparison of 645 Vialon and Teflon cannulae in anaesthetic and postoperative use.

    Gaukroger, P B; Roberts, J G; Manners, T A

    1988-08-01

    A prospective study of the incidence and severity of infusion thrombophlebitis in peripheral intravenous infusions used for anaesthetic and postoperative purposes in 645 patients was conducted over a four-month period. Conditions of insertion were carefully controlled while ward management was according to standard practice. A total of 330 polyurethane Vialon and 315 FEP-A Teflon cannulae were used. The results show that the nature of the cannula was the single most important factor in the incidence and severity of infusion thrombophlebitis, Vialon cannulae being associated with a 46% lower incidence than the Teflon type. Less important but significant factors included intravenous antibiotics, duration of infusion, cannula tip damage and caesarean section. Factors not associated with infusion thrombophlebitis included potassium therapy, blood transfusion or site of insertion in the upper limb. Heparinisation increased duration of infusion without affecting the incidence of infusion thrombophlebitis. PMID:3189736

  9. The analgesic and sedative properties of dexmedetomidine infusion after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

    W.Abd El Megid ¹* and Ahmed M. Nassar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha2 - adrenergic agonist with sedative and analgesic properties. This study aimed to investigate if the use of continuous dexmedetomidine infusion with i.v. morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA could improve postoperative analgesia while reducing opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects. Materials & methods: In this prospective randomized, double-blinded, controlled study, 24 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty were assigned to two groups. Group D received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1µg kg¯¹ i.v., 30 min before the anticipated end of surgery, followed by a continuous infusion at a rate of 0.6 µg kg¯¹ hr¯¹ for 24 hr. Group P received a volume-matched bolus and infusion of placebo. In both groups, postoperative pain was initially controlled by i.v. morphine titration and then PCA with morphine. Cumulative PCA morphine consumption, pain intensities, sedation scores, cardiovascular and respiratory variables and narcotic-related adverse effects were recorded for 48 h after operation. Results: Extubation time was significantly prolonged in dexmedetomidine group (16±7 vs. 11±6 min p=0.074 in the placebo group. Visual analogue scale scores were significantly greater during the first 2h after tracheal extubation in the placebo group than in the dexmedetomidine group. The time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in the dexmedetomidine group than in the placebo group (21±11 vs. 9±4min; p=0.002. Compared with group P, patients in group D required 52.7% less morphine by PCA during the first 24h postoperative period, whereas levels of sedation were similar between the 2 groups at each observational time point. Fewer patients in group D experienced nausea and vomiting than those in group P (P< 0.05. There was no bradycardia, hypotension, or respiratory depression. Continuous dexmedetomidine infusion may be a useful anesthetic

  10. Angiotensin II infusion induces marked diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Bashir M Rezk

    Full Text Available Advanced congestive heart failure (CHF and chronic kidney disease (CKD are characterized by increased angiotensin II (Ang II levels and are often accompanied by significant skeletal muscle wasting that negatively impacts mortality and morbidity. Both CHF and CKD patients have respiratory muscle dysfunction, however the potential effects of Ang II on respiratory muscles are unknown. We investigated the effects of Ang II on diaphragm muscle in FVB mice. Ang II induced significant diaphragm muscle wasting (18.7±1.6% decrease in weight at one week and reduction in fiber cross-sectional area. Expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1 and of the pro-apoptotic factor BAX was increased after 24 h of Ang II infusion (4.4±0.3 fold, 3.1±0.5 fold and 1.6±0.2 fold, respectively, compared to sham infused control suggesting increased muscle protein degradation and apoptosis. In Ang II infused animals, there was significant regeneration of injured diaphragm muscles at 7 days as indicated by an increase in the number of myofibers with centralized nuclei and high expression of embryonic myosin heavy chain (E-MyHC, 11.2±3.3 fold increase and of the satellite cell marker M-cadherin (59.2±22.2% increase. Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, 1.8±0.3 fold increase in Ang II infused diaphragm, suggesting the involvement of IGF-1 in diaphragm muscle regeneration. Bone-marrow transplantation experiments indicated that although there was recruitment of bone-marrow derived cells to the injured diaphragm in Ang II infused mice (267.0±74.6% increase, those cells did not express markers of muscle stem cells or regenerating myofibers. In conclusion, Ang II causes marked diaphragm muscle wasting, which may be important for the pathophysiology of respiratory muscle dysfunction and cachexia in conditions such as CHF and CKD.

  11. Effects of methacholine infusion on desflurane pharmacokinetics in piglets.

    Kozian, Alf; Kretzschmar, Moritz; Baumgardner, James E; Schreiber, Jens; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders; Hachenberg, Thomas; Schilling, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The data of a corresponding animal experiment demonstrates that nebulized methacholine (MCh) induced severe bronchoconstriction and significant inhomogeneous ventilation and pulmonary perfusion (V̇A/Q̇) distribution in pigs, which is similar to findings in human asthma. The inhalation of MCh induced bronchoconstriction and delayed both uptake and elimination of desflurane (Kretzschmar et al., 2015) [1]. The objective of the present data is to determine V̇A/Q̇ matching by Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET) in piglets before and during methacholine- (MCh-) induced bronchoconstriction, induced by MCh infusion, and to assess the blood concentration profiles for desflurane (DES) by Micropore Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MMIMS). Healthy piglets (n=4) under general anesthesia were instrumented with arterial, central venous, and pulmonary artery lines. The airway was secured via median tracheostomy with an endotracheal tube, and animals were mechanically ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with a FiO2 of 0.4, tidal volume (V T)=10 ml/kg and PEEP of 5cmH2O using an open system. The determination of V.A/Q. was done by MIGET: before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during MCh infusion. Arterial blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min during wash-in and washout, respectively. Bronchoconstriction was established by MCH infusion aiming at doubling the peak airway pressure, after which wash-in and washout of the anesthetic gas was repeated. Anesthesia gas concentrations were measured by MMIMS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, paired t-test, and by nonparametric Friedman׳s test and Wilcoxon׳s matched pairs test. We measured airway pressures, pulmonary resistance, and mean paO2 as well as hemodynamic variables in all pigs before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during methacholine administration by infusion. By MIGET, fractional alveolar ventilation and

  12. RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion?

    Cruz Ignacio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA of tumors by means of internally cooled electrodes (ICE combined with interstitial infusion of saline may improve clinical results. To date, infusion has been conducted through outlets placed on the surface of the cooled electrode. However, the effect of infusion at a distance from the electrode surface is unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of perfusion distance (PD on the coagulation geometry and deposited power during RFA using ICE. Methods Experiments were performed on excised bovine livers. Perfusion distance (PD was defined as the shortest distance between the infusion outlet and the surface of the ICE. We considered three values of PD: 0, 2 and 4 mm. Two sets of experiments were considered: 1 15 ablations of 10 minutes (n ≥ 4 for each PD, in order to evaluate the effect of PD on volume and diameters of coagulation; and 2 20 additional ablations of 20 minutes. The effect of PD on deposited power and relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises (roll-off was evaluated using the results from the two sets of experiments (n ≥ 7 for each PD. Comparisons between PD were performed by analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test. Additionally, non-linear regression models were performed to elucidate the best PD in terms of coagulation volume and diameter, and the occurrence of uncontrolled impedance rises. Results The best-fit least square functions were always obtained with quadratic curves where volume and diameters of coagulation were maximum for a PD of 2 mm. A thirty per cent increase in volume coagulation was observed for this PD value compared to other values (P Conclusion Saline perfusion at around 2 mm from the electrode surface while using an ICE in RFA improves deposition of energy and enlarges coagulation volume.

  13. Glucose metabolism in non-diabetic and insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with end-stage renal failure.

    Schmitz, O

    1991-02-01

    Chronic uremia is frequently associated with an impaired carbohydrate tolerance. During the past decade considerable progress have been made in characterizing and quantifying this biochemical abnormality in end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Primarily, this has been possible by means of the glucose clamp technique which basically makes it possible to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Combined with the use of tracer dilution technique, hepatic vein catheterization technique, infusion of somatostatin, forearm or leg techniques and indirect calorimetry, insight into several other major parameters of glucose kinetics has been achieved; i.e. insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU), glucose-induced glucose uptake (GIGU), hepatic glucose production (HGP) splanchnic glucose uptake and oxidative and nonoxidative glucose disposal. Of course, these extra facets make the clamp procedure less feasible to accomplish for technical reasons and demand an extensive knowledge of the limitations of these methods. One major factor behind the reduced glucose tolerance in uremia is an impaired sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance) in peripheral tissues, mainly in skeletal muscle. In non-dialysed uremic patients the insulin dose-response curve is characterized by a decreased maximal response and by a rightward shift. In general, the insulin resistance is pronounced, but a few weeks on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are enough to improve insulin action significantly. Occasionally, IMGU has been found normal in patients on long-term HD. In contrast to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, basal glucose turnover is normal in patients with ESRF. The ability of glucose to enhance its own uptake is difficult to measure in human studies, because even small amounts of insulin is able to modulate GIGU profoundly. At basal insulinemia, however, GIGU is markedly impaired in uremia. Recently, it has been suggested

  14. Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    X. W.Sun; J.X. Wang; A. Wei

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs were fabricated by vapor phase transport, and nanorods and hierarchical nanodisk structures by aqueous thermal decomposition. Glucose biosensors were constructed using these ZnO nanostructures as supporting materials for glucose oxidase (GOx) loading. These ZnO glucose biosensors showed a high sensitivity for glucose detection and high affinity of GOx to glucose as well as the low detection limit. The results demonstrate that ZnO nanostructures have potential applications in biosensors.

  15. Twelve weeks treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, prevents degradation of peptide YY and improves glucose- and non-glucose-induced insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Aaboe, Kasper; Knop, Filip Krag; Vilsbøll, Tina; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Holst, Jens Juul; Madsbad, Sten; Krarup, Thure

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on gastrointestinal hormone responses to a standardized mixed meal and beta cell secretory capacity, measured as glucose and non-glucose induced insulin secretion during a hyperglycaemic clamp, in patients...... with type 2 diabetes. METHOD: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over 12 weeks in which 24 patients with T2DM were randomized to receive either sitagliptin (Januvia) 100 mg qd or placebo as an add-on therapy to metformin. In week 0, 1 and 12 patients underwent a meal test and a 90-min 20 m......M hyperglycaemic clamp with 5 g of l-arginine infusion. Main outcome measure was postprandial total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentration. Additional measures were insulin and C-peptide, glycaemic control, intact and total peptide YY (PYY) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and intact...

  16. Bihormonal model predictive control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    Batora, Vladimir; Tarnik, Marian; Murgas, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a bihormonal control system that controls blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We use insulin together with glucagon to mitigate the negative effects of hyper- and hypoglycemia. The system consists of a Kalman filter, a micro-bolus insulin and glucagon...... with an identical insulin MPC, but a glucagon PD controller. The key contribution of the bihormonal MPC is the efficiency of glucagon use. We consider scenarios where the meals are estimated correctly or overestimated and where the insulin sensitivity increases. Both solutions provide tight glucose...... infusion MPC, a mealtime bolus calculator and a CGM providing feedback to the controller. The controller employs a patient data-based prediction model with ARMAX structure. We test the controller using a bihormonal model with time-varying parameters for 3 subjects and compare its performance to a system...

  17. Stimulation of splanchnic glucose production during exercise in humans contains a glucagon-independent component

    Coker, R H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J;

    2001-01-01

    To determine the importance of basal glucagon to the stimulation of net splanchnic glucose output (NSGO) during exercise, seven healthy males performed cycle exercise during a pancreatic islet cell clamp. In one group (BG), glucagon was replaced at basal levels and insulin was adjusted to achieve...... euglycemia. In another group (GD), only insulin was replaced at the identical rate used in BG, and basal glucagon was not replaced. Exogenous glucose infusion was necessary to maintain euglycemia during exercise in BG and during rest and exercise in GD. Arterial glucagon was at least twofold greater in BG...... than in GD throughout the pancreatic islet cell clamp. Although basal NSGO remained stable in BG (2.5 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), basal NSGO dropped by 70% in GD (0.7 +/- 0.3 mg. kg(-1) x min(-1)). NSGO was also greater in BG than in GD at 10 min of moderate exercise, most likely due...

  18. Preliminary evaluation of intravenous infusion and intrapancreatic injection of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of diabetic mice

    Ngoc Kim Phan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells, which leads to insulin insufficiency, hyperglycemia, and reduced metabolic glucose level. Insulin replacement is the current standard therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus but has several limitations. Pancreatic islet transplantation can result in the production of exogenous insulin, but its use is limited by immune-rejection and donor availability. Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs, which could be utilized for diabetes mellitus treatment. Previously published reports have demonstrated that MSC or IPC transplantation could produce significant improvement in mouse models of diabetes mellitus. This study was aimed at determining the effects of two different methods of MSC transplantation on the efficacy of diabetes mellitus treatment in mouse models. The MSCs were isolated from umbilical cord blood and were proliferated following a previously published procedure. Diabetes mellitus was induced in mice by streptozotocin (STZ injection. Thirty days after transplantation, the weight of the mice treated by intra-venous infusion and intra-pancreatic injection was found to be 22% and 14% higher than that of the un-treated mice. The blood glucose concentrations in both intra-venous infusion and intra-pancreatic injection groups decreased and remained more stable than those in the control group. Moreover, insulin was detected in the serum of the treated mice, and the pancreas also showed gradual recovery. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation, intra-venous infusion seems more suitable than intra-pancreatic injection for MSC transplantation for diabetes mellitus treatment. [Biomed Res Ther 2014; 1(3.000: 98-105

  19. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose. PMID:9537627

  20. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose.

    Goossens, Gijs H; Moors, Chantalle C M; Jocken, Johan W E; van der Zijl, Nynke J; Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Diamant, Michaela; Blaak, Ellen E

    2016-03-01

    Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [²H₂]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids (FFA), whereas [U-(13)C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018) and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064) in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043), higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025), higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004), lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017) and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073) and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059) versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects. PMID:26985905

  1. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose

    Gijs H. Goossens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG and free fatty acids (FFA, whereas [U-13C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG, FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018 and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064 in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043, higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025, higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004, lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017 and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073 and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059 versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects.

  2. A simplified intravenous glucose loading protocol for fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose cardiac single-photon emission tomography

    In a population of 209 patients undergoing dual-isotope single acquisition (DISA) FDG/sestamibi (MIBI) SPET, we describe the improvements in both image quality and time efficiency using a new short, simple glucose/insulin/potassium (GIK) infusion protocol prior to FDG injection as compared to a conventional oral glucose loading protocol. DISA FDG/MIBI SPET scans were performed in 111 nondiabetic patients after oral loading with 50 g of glucose (group 1). Ninety-eight consecutive nondiabetic patients were subsequently scanned following preparation with a fixed-concentration GIK infusion administered at a standardized rate (group 2). A three-point grading scale was used to assess image quality. The time to FDG injection following glucose administration was significantly shorter for the group 2 patients (39.9±15.6 min; range 20-105 min) than for the group 1 patients (99.5±30.3 min; range 56-270 min) (P<0.0001), representing a 1-h decrease in patient preparation time. More of the group 1 patients (n=30; 27%) required supplemental intravenous boluses of regular insulin than did the group 2 patients (n=13; 13%) (P<0.02). There were more excellent and good quality graded images using the GIK method (group 2) than the more traditional oral loading protocol (group 1) (P<0.02). Nine of 111 scans (8%) in group 1 were uninterpretable, whereas only one of 98 scans (1%) in group 2 was uninterpretable. Standardized infusion of a fixed concentration of GIK prior to FDG administration and continued during myocardial FDG uptake is an effective yet simple method of obtaining consistently good to excellent quality FDG SPET cardiac scans. It is preferable to conventional oral glucose loading due to decreased patient preparation time and improved image quality. The technique is safe and should improve both the clinical use and the cost-effectiveness of FDG SPET imaging for the identification of injured but viable myocardium. (orig.)

  3. Normal insulin-stimulated endothelial function and impaired insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake in young adults with low birth weight

    Hermann, T S; Rask-Madsen, C; Ihlemann, N; Domínguez, H; Jensen, C B; Storgaard, H; Vaag, A A; Kober, L; Torp-Pedersen, C

    2003-01-01

    of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in the forearm of fourteen 21-yr-old men with low birth weight and 16 controls of normal birth weight. Glucose uptake was measured during intraarterial insulin infusion. Dose-response studies were repeated during insulin infusion. The maximal blood flow...... during acetylcholine infusion was 14.1 +/- 2.7 and 14.4 +/- 2.1 [ml x (100 ml forearm)(-1) x min(-1)] in low and normal birth weight subjects, respectively. Insulin coinfusion increased acetylcholine-stimulated flow in both groups: 18.0 +/- 3.1 vs. 17.9 +/- 3.1 [ml x (100 ml forearm)(-1) x min(-1)], NS...

  4. Corticosterone, but not Glucose, Treatment Enables Fasted Adrenalectomized Rats to Survive Moderate Hemorrhage

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Chew, Gordon; Ha, Taryn; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Fed adrenalectomized rats survive the stress of hemorrhage and hypovolemia, whereas fasted adrenalectomized rats become hypotensive and hypoglycemic after the first 90 min and die within 4 hours (h). We have studied the effects of glucose and corticosterone (B) infusions after hemorrhage as well as treatment with B at the time of adrenalectomy on the capacity of chronically prepared, conscious, fasted, adrenalectomized rats to survive hemorrhage. We have also measured the magnitudes of vasoactive hormone responses to hemorrhage. Maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations did not sustain life; however, treatment of rats at the time of adrenalectomy with B allowed 100 percent survival, and acute treatment of adrenalectomized rats at the time of hemorrhage allowed about 50 percent survival during the 5-h posthemorrhage observation period. Rats in the acute B infusion group that died exhibited significantly increased plasma B and significantly decreased plasma glucose concentrations by 2 h compared to the rats that lived. Plasma vasopressin, renin, and norepinephrine responses to hemorrhage were markedly augmented in the adrenalectomized rats not treated with B, and plasma vasopressin concentrations were significantly elevated at 1 and 2 h in all of the rats that subsequently died compared to values in those that lived. We conclude that: 1) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats is not a result of lack of glucose; 2) chronic and, to an extent, acute treatment of fasted adrenalectomized rats with B enables survival; 3) fasted adrenalectomized rats exhibit strong evidence of hepatic insufficiency which is not apparent in either fed adrenalectomized rats or B-treated fasted adrenalectomized rats; 4) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats may result from hepatic failure as a consequence of marked splanchnic vasoconstriction mediated bv the actions of extraordinarily high levels of vasoactive hormones after hemorrhage; and 5) B appears to

  5. Glucose Sensing Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus

    Vanessa H. Routh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurons whose activity is regulated by glucose are found in a number of brain regions. Glucose-excited (GE neurons increase while glucose-inhibited (GI neurons decrease their action potential frequency as interstitial brain glucose levels increase. We hypothesize that these neurons evolved to sense and respond to severe energy deficit (e.g., fasting that threatens the brains glucose supply. During modern times, they are also important for the restoration of blood glucose levels following insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Our data suggest that impaired glucose sensing by hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons may contribute to the syndrome known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in which the mechanisms which restore euglycemia following hypoglycemia become impaired. On the other hand, increased responses of glucose sensing neurons to glucose deficit may play a role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and obesity. This review will discuss the mechanisms by which glucose sensing neurons sense changes in interstitial glucose and explore the roles of these specialized glucose sensors in glucose and energy homeostasis.

  6. High glucose concentrations partially release hexokinase from inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate.

    Fujii, S; Beutler, E

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of glucose by human erythrocyte hexokinase follows classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; hexokinase manifests maximum activity at 5 mM glucose, and no further increase in activity can be measured at higher glucose concentrations. However, the erythrocytes of diabetics and normal erythrocytes incubated with high concentrations of glucose contain increased concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate. To elucidate the mechanism of accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate when erythrocyte...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC INFUSION DRUGS BASED ON PARACETAMOL

    Almakaeva L.G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous form of paracetamol compared with oral more reliably supports effective drug concentration in blood plasma that promotes a higher therapeutic effect. Recent studies have confirmed that the use of the intravenous form of paracetamol to deal with postoperative pain multimodal analgesia modes results in reducing the frequency and quantity of opioids administered , and, as a consequence, its associated side effects. The drug Paracetamol , infusion solution 10 mg / ml to 100 ml glass bottles is a drug - generic . His qualitative and quantitative composition is developed from the study of literature data about the drug - similar to " Perfalhan , 10 mg / ml solution for infusion in 100 mL " company Bristol - Myers Squibb, France and experimental work. The aim of our study is development and support of the national composition of the infusion of the drug on the basis of paracetamol, selection of excipients that provide stability of the active substances. Materials and methods. The object of the study was the substance of paracetamol manufactured by Zhejiang Kangle Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd, China. During the work conducted qualitative and quantitative monitoring sample preparation for indicators of stability: pH content of the active ingredient , transparency, color, impurities , contamination by the methods described in the SFU [and nor- ral documentation to the drug . One potential factor of instability is the effect of paracetamol oxygen, due to the presence in the molecule of paracetamol and -NH possibility of oxidation. Results and Discussion. Paracetamol is derived atsetamina . Substance acetylation are p - aminophenol with acetic anhydride . Saturated aqueous solution has a pH of paracetamol - ment about 6 . Paracetamol is a crystalline white powder , sparingly soluble in water, soluble in 96% alcohol, very slightly soluble in metilenhloride . . Active substance enters in comparison drug in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. Stable

  8. Reusable glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum

    Cheng-Chih Hsu; Yi-Cheng Chen; Ju-Yi Lee; Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum. High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry. The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14mg/dL and 1.3 s, respectively. The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation. Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.%We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum.High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry.The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14 mg/dL and 1.3 s,respectively.The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation.Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.Fiber sensors have attracted considerable attention over the past two decades.Various kinds of fiber sensors have been proposed for measnring specific chemical concentrations[1-8].Most previously reported methods[1-5] involved measuring the variations in fluorescence intensity[2-4] or transmitted light[3,4].Hence,avoiding the inflnence of snrrounding light and the use of expensive photon detection equipment are important requirements.Furthermore,procedures for manufacturing optical biosensors are complicated[3] and qualitv is difficult to control[4]..

  9. Delayed lubricant depletion on liquid-infused randomly rough surfaces

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, pressure drops on liquid-infused superhydrophobic surfaces were measured through a microchannel. A number of different superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared and tested. These surfaces included several PDMS surfaces containing precisely patterned microposts and microridges as well as a number of PTFE surfaces with random surface roughness created by sanding the PTFE with different sandpapers. Silicone oil was selected as the lubricant fluid and infused into the microstructures of the superhydrophobic surfaces. Several aqueous glycerin solutions with different viscosities were used as working fluids so that the viscosity ratio between the lubricant and the working fluid could be varied. The lubricant layer trapped within the precisely patterned superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces was found to be easily depleted over a short period of time even in limit of low flow rates and capillary numbers. On the other hand, the randomly rough superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces tested were found to maintain the layer of lubricant oil even at moderately high capillary numbers resulting in drag reduction that was found to increase with increasing viscosity ratio. The pressure drops on the liquid-infused PTFE surfaces were measured over time to determine the longevity of the lubricant layer. The pressure drops for the randomly rough PTFE surfaces were found to initially diminish with time before reaching a short-time plateau which is equivalent to maximum drag reduction. This minimum pressure drop was maintained for at least three hours in all cases regardless of feature size. However, as the depletion of the oil from the lubricant layer was initiated, the pressure drop was observed to grow slowly before reaching a second long-time asymptote which was equivalent to a Wenzel state.

  10. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the

  11. The Case for Infusing Quantitative Literacy into Introductory Geoscience Courses

    Jennifer M. Wenner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case for introductory geoscience courses as model venues for increasing the quantitative literacy (QL of large numbers of the college-educated population. The geosciences provide meaningful context for a number of fundamental mathematical concepts that are revisited several times in a single course. Using some best practices from the mathematics education community surrounding problem solving, calculus reform, pre-college mathematics and five geoscience/math workshops, geoscience and mathematics faculty have identified five pedagogical ideas to increase the QL of the students who populate introductory geoscience courses. These five ideas include techniques such as: place mathematical concepts in context, use multiple representations, use technology appropriately, work in groups, and do multiple-day, in-depth problems that place quantitative skills in multiple contexts. We discuss the pedagogical underpinnings of these five ideas and illustrate some ways that the geosciences represent ideal places to use these techniques. However, the inclusion of QL in introductory courses is often met with resistance at all levels. Faculty who wish to include quantitative content must use creative means to break down barriers of public perception of geoscience as qualitative, administrative worry that enrollments will drop and faculty resistance to change. Novel ways to infuse QL into geoscience classrooms include use of web-based resources, shadow courses, setting clear expectations, and promoting quantitative geoscience to the general public. In order to help faculty increase the QL of geoscience students, a community-built faculty-centered web resource (Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences houses multiple examples that implement the five best practices of QL throughout the geoscience curriculum. We direct faculty to three portions of the web resource: Teaching Quantitative Literacy, QL activities, and the 2006 workshop website

  12. Balanced anesthesia and constant-rate infusions in horses.

    Valverde, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Balanced anesthetic techniques are commonly used in equine patients, and include the combination of a volatile anesthetic with at least one injectable anesthetic throughout the maintenance period. Injectable anesthetics used in balanced anesthesia include the α2-agonists, lidocaine, ketamine, and opioids, and those with muscle-relaxant properties such as benzodiazepines and guaifenesin. Administration of these injectable anesthetics is best using constant-rate infusions based on the pharmacokinetics of the drug, which allows steady-state concentrations and predictable pharmacodynamic actions. This review summarizes the different drug combinations used in horses, and provides calculated recommended doses based on the pharmacokinetics of individual drugs. PMID:23498047

  13. Propofol infusion rate does not affect local pain on injection.

    Grauers, A; Liljeroth, Elisabeth; Åkeson, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local pain at the site of an i.v. injection of propofol is a well-known problem, particularly in infants. This randomised investigator-blinded crossover study was designed to assess the effect of the i.v. bolus infusion rate on propofol-induced pain at the site of injection. METHODS: Thirty unpremedicated patients scheduled for ear-nose-throat or plastic surgery at Malmö University Hospital, Sweden, were given two consecutive 2.0 ml injections of propofol 10 mg/ml (Diprivan, Astra...

  14. Social and Personal Factors in Semantic Infusion Projects

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    As part of our semantic data framework activities across multiple, diverse disciplines we required the involvement of domain scientists, computer scientists, software engineers, data managers, and often, social scientists. This involvement from a cross-section of disciplines turns out to be a social exercise as much as it is a technical and methodical activity. Each member of the team is used to different modes of working, expectations, vocabularies, levels of participation, and incentive and reward systems. We will examine how both roles and personal responsibilities play in the development of semantic infusion projects, and how an iterative development cycle can contribute to the successful completion of such a project.

  15. Ames Infusion Stories for NASA Annual Technology Report

    Smith, Brandon; Jan, Darrell Leslie; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    These are short (2-page) high-level summaries of technologies that have been infused - i.e., taken the next level. For example, 3DMAT started off as a Center Innovation Fund (CIF) project and graduated to the Game-changing Program (GCD), where it is being prepared for use in Orion. The Nano Entry System similarly started as CIF and graduated to GCD. The High Tortuosity Carbon Dioxide Conversion Device also started off as CIF and then received an award for further development from the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts program (NIAC).

  16. A penetrative addictive for water infusion in coal seams

    2003-01-01

    The manufacturing process, characteristics, and application results of a rod-like penetrative additive (the penetrative rod)were discussed. The components and functions of the penetrative rod were studied carefully. A large number of orthogonal combinedtests were carried out and over 100 sample molds were made. Ultimately the components were decided after careful selection amongthese molds, mainly including hygroscopic major components and auxiliary material. The results of on-site practical applicationshow that such an addictive can increase the water penetrative ability effectively and has a remarkable effect on preventing dust pro-duction during coal seam excavation. The penetrating radius, the infusing velocity and the dust-preventive effect were systematicallystudied.

  17. Therapeutic plasma exchange as treatment for propofol infusion syndrome.

    Levin, Phillip D; Levin, Valentin; Weissman, Charles; Sprung, Charles L; Rund, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS), a rare complication of propofol sedation, is associated with high mortality. There is no specific therapy. A 16-year-old with head injury and status epilepticus is described. Three days after seizure resolution, whilst receiving propofol, he developed severe lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, and hemodynamic instability. Suspected PRIS was treated with a single session of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). This was associated with immediate improvement in hemodynamic status, resolution of lactic acidosis within 24 h, normalization of CPK over 10 days, and a subsequent full recovery. TPE is suggested as a novel therapy for PRIS. PMID:25619501

  18. Wave motions in unbounded poroelastic solids infused with compressible fluids

    Quiligotti, S; dell'Isola, F

    2010-01-01

    Looking at rational solid-fluid mixture theories in the context of their biomechanical perspectives, this work aims at proposing a two-scale constitutive theory of a poroelastic solid infused with an inviscid compressible fluid. The propagation of steady-state harmonic plane waves in unbounded media is investigated in both cases of unconstrained solid-fluid mixtures and fluid-saturated poroelastic solids. Relevant effects on the resulting characteristic speed of longitudinal and transverse elastic waves, due to the constitutive parameters introduced, are finally highlighted and discussed.

  19. Adverse events with continuous doxapram infusion against late postoperative hypoxaemia

    Rosenberg, J; Kristensen, P A; Pedersen, M H;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized double-blind controlled trial of doxapram versus placebo against late postoperative hypoxaemia was planned to include 40 patients (2 x 20). RESULTS: After inclusion of 18 patients a serious adverse event was encountered with development of a brain stem infarction in a 90-y...... promising, further studies on the effect of continuous nocturnal postoperative doxapram infusion on levels of arterial oxygen saturation should be postponed until more knowledge about the pharmacokinetics of doxapram in this particular clinical situation has been gathered....

  20. Silicon-based nanochannel glucose sensor

    Wang, Xihua; Gibney, Katherine A; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanochannel biological field effect transistors have been developed for glucose detection. The device is nanofabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a top-down approach and surface functionalized with glucose oxidase. The differential conductance of silicon nanowires, tuned with source-drain bias voltage, is demonstrated to be sensitive to the biocatalyzed oxidation of glucose. The glucose biosensor response is linear in the 0.5-8 mM concentration range with 3-5 min response time. This silicon nanochannel-based glucose biosensor technology offers the possibility of high density, high quality glucose biosensor integration with silicon-based circuitry.